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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929235

ABSTRACT

Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary system. Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) is a Chinese medicinal preparation that has been widely used in the treatment of various types of cancers in the past two decades. However, the pharmacological effect of CKI on bladder cancer is not still completely understood. In the current study, network pharmacology combined with bioinformatics was used to elucidate the therapeutic mechanism and potential targets of CKI in bladder cancer. The mechanism by which CKI was effective against bladder cancer was further verified in vitro using human bladder cancer cell line T24. Network pharmacology analysis identified 35 active compounds and 268 target genes of CKI. Bioinformatics data indicated 5500 differentially expressed genes associated with bladder cancer. Common genes of CKI and bladder cancer suggested that CKI exerted anti-bladder cancer effects by regulating genes such as MMP-9, JUN, EGFR, and ERK1. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that CKI exerted therapeutic effects on bladder cancer by regulating certain biological processes, including cell proliferation, cell migration, and cell apoptosis. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis implicated pathways related to cancer, bladder cancer, and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Consistently, cell experiments indicated that CKI inhibited the proliferation and migration of T24 cells, and induced their apoptosis. Moreover, RT-qPCR and Western blot results demonstrated that CKI was likely to treat bladder cancer by down-regulating the gene and protein expression of MMP-9, JUN, EGFR, and ERK1. CKI inhibited the proliferation and migration, and induced the apoptosis of T24 bladder cancer cells through multiple biological pathways and targets. CKI also exhibited significant effects on the regulation of key genes and proteins associated with bladder cancer. Overall, our findings provide solid evidence and deepen current understanding of the therapeutic effects of CKI for bladder cancer, and further support its clinical use.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Network Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Bladder cancer is one of the most common urothelial tumors with high incidence and mortality rates. Although it has been reported that microRNA (miR)-133b can regulate tumorigenesis of bladder cancer, the mechanism remains unclear. Sex-determining region Y-box transcription factor 4 (SOX4) exhibits an important role in tumorigenesis, but it is unclear whether SOX4 and miR-133b are associated with regulation of pathogenesis of bladder cancer. This study aims to determine the expressions of SOX4 and miR-133b in bladder cancer tissues and cells, investigate their effects on the proliferation, colony formation, and invasion of bladder cancer cells, and to explore the association between miR-133b and SOX4 in regulating biological featurss of bladder cancer cells.@*METHODS@#The bladder cancer and adjacent tissue samples of 10 patients who underwent surgical resection in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South Universty from Januray to June 2015 were obtained. The levels of miR-133b were tested by real-time PCR, and the protein levels of SOX4 were evaluated using Western blotting in bladder cancer tissues, matched adjacent tissues, and cell lines. The correlation between miR-133b expression and SOX4 expression in bladder cancer tissues was analyzed. Using the online database TargetScan, the relationship between SOX4 and miR-133b was predicted. MiR-133b mimics, miR-133b inhibitor, and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-SOX4 were transfected into T24 cells by Lipofectamine 2000. The relationship between miR-133b and SOX4 was also verified by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The proliferation of T24 cells cultured for 0, 12, 48, 72, and 96 h was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The colony formation capacity of bladder cancer cells was tested after 14-day culture, and cell invasion capacity was evaluated with Transwell invasion assay.@*RESULTS@#Bladder cancer tissue and bladder cancer cells had low level of miR-133b but high level of SOX4, compared with matched adjacent tissues and normal bladder epithelial cells. A negative correlation between miR-133b mRNA and SOX4 protein levels in bladder cancer tissues was also found (r=-0.84). The results of online database TargetScan showed that miR-133b targets at SOX4, and overexpression of miR-133b significantly attenuated the expression of SOX4 in T24 cells. Both overexpression of miR-133b and knockdown of SOX4 significantly inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, and invasion capacity of bladder cancer cells in vitro. SOX4 down-regulation restored the effects of miR-133b inhibitor on the proliferation, colony formation, and invasion capacity of T24 cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The up-regulation of SOX4 contributes to the progression of bladder cancer, and miR-133b can regulate the proliferation, colony formation, and invasion of bladder cancer cells via inhibiting SOX4.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , SOXC Transcription Factors/genetics , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6450, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364794

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To understand the feasibility of FGFR3 tests in the Brazilian public health context, and to sample the mutational burden of this receptor in high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods A total of 31 patients with high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer were included in the present study. Either transurethral resection of bladder tumor or radical cystectomy specimens were analyzed. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were sectioned, hematoxylin and eosin stained, and histologic sections were reviewed. Total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy DSP formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded kit. Qualitative results were displayed in Rotor-Gene AssayManager software. Results Six patients were excluded. From the samples analyzed, four (16.7%) were considered inadequate and could not have their RNA extracted. Two patients presented FGFR3 mutations, accounting for 9.5% of material available for adequate analysis. The two mutations detected included a Y373C mutation in a male patient and a S249C mutation in a female patient. Conclusion FGFR3 mutations could be analyzed in 84% of our cohort and occurred in 9.5% of patients with high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer in this Brazilian population. FGFR3 gene mutations are targets for therapeutic drugs in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. For this reason, know the frequency of these mutations can have a significant impact on public health policies and costs provisioning.


Subject(s)
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/genetics , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3/genetics , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3/metabolism , Brazil , RNA , Prevalence , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Muscles/metabolism , Muscles/pathology , Mutation
4.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 1001-1006, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920981

ABSTRACT

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) plays an important role in carcinogenesis and development of urothelial carcinoma. Overexpression of HER-2 is associated with poor prognosis of urothelial carcinoma. Although there is no significant benefit from anti-HER-2 targeted therapies of monoclonal antibody and tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Anti-HER-2 antibody-drug conjugate (HER-2-ADC) has shown a promising efficacy in urothelial carcinoma patients with HER-2 overexpression. Therefore, effectively screening the potential beneficiaries of HER-2-ADC drugs has become a new challenge. However, standardized HER-2 scoring system for urothelial carcinoma has yet to be developed. Thus, the Committees organized experts to reach this expert consensus based on the clinical practice of HER-2 expression, gene amplification and mutation testing in urothelial carcinoma, combined with the current research progress and internal discussion of committee members, in order to construct HER-2 testing standard of urothelial carcinoma and improve the accuracy of interpretation, to guide the clinical application.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/genetics , Consensus , Humans , Receptor, ErbB-2/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): 10222-0, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153529

ABSTRACT

Platycodin D (PD) is a major constituent of Platycodon grandiflorum and has multiple functions in disease control. This study focused on the function of PD in bladder cancer cell behaviors and the molecules involved. First, we administered PD to the bladder cancer cell lines T24 and 5637 and the human uroepithelial cell line SV-HUC-1. Cell viability and growth were evaluated using MTT, EdU, and colony formation assays, and cell apoptosis was determined using Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry. The microRNAs (miRNAs) showing differential expression in cells before and after PD treatment were screened. Moreover, we altered the expression of miR-129-5p and PABPC1 to identify their functions in bladder cancer progression. We found that PD specifically inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of bladder cancer cells; miR-129-5p was found to be partially responsible for the cancer-inhibiting properties of PD. PABPC1, a direct target of miR-129-5p, was abundantly expressed in T24 and 5637 cell lines and promoted cell proliferation and suppressed cell apoptosis. In addition, PABPC1 promoted the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT in bladder cancer cells. Altogether, PD had a concentration-dependent suppressive effect on bladder cancer cell growth and was involved in the upregulation of miR-129-5p and the subsequent inhibition of PABPC1 and inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy , Saponins , Triterpenes , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Apoptosis , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , MicroRNAs , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 549-559, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012314

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To study the expression patterns of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) colon cancer-associated transcript 1 (CCAT1) and the changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion induced by silencing CCAT1 in bladder cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The expression levels of CCAT1 were determined using realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction in cancerous tissues and paired normal tissues from 34 patients with bladder cancer. The relationship between clinical characteristics and CCAT1 expression was analyzed. And then we conducted cell experiments. Bladder urothelial carcinoma cell lines T24 and 5637 cells were transfected with CCAT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or scramble siRNA. Cell proliferation and apoptosis changes were determined using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and a flow cytometry assay. Migration and invasion changes were measured using a wound healing assay and a trans-well assay. microRNAs (miRNAs) were predicted by Starbase 2.0, and their differential expression levels were studied. Results: CCAT1 was significantly upregulated in bladder cancer (P < 0.05). CCAT1 upregulation was positively related to tumor stage (P = 0.004), tumor grade (P = 0.001) and tumor size (P = 0.042). Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were promoted by abnormally expressed CCAT1. miRNAs miR-181b-5p, miR-152-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-148a-3p and miR-490-3p were potentially related to the aforementioned functions of CCAT1. Conclusion: CCAT1 plays an oncogenic role in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. In addition, CCAT1 may be a potential therapeutic target in this cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Long Noncoding/analysis , Sincalide/analysis , Time Factors , Wound Healing/genetics , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Up-Regulation , Cell Movement/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 224-229, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840826

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Recently, expression of the UHRF1 gene was found to be up-regulated in numerous neoplasms, including the urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Objective The aim of our study was to determine if the expression levels of UHRF1 gene correlates with the major pathological characteristics of the tumor and patients’ clinical outcome. Materials and Methods In our study, we have analyzed the tissue samples derived from group of 70 patients with histologically confirmed TCC of the urinary bladder, while normal urinary bladder mucosa obtained from 40 patients with nonmalignant diseases was used as a negative control group. Expression of UHRF1 gene in each patient sample was determined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results UHRF1 gene expression was found to be app. 2.5 times higher in samples from patients with TCC in comparison with normal epithelium derived from control group patients. Analysis show that gene expression correlates with the malignancy of the tumor. A highly significant differences were found between the expression values of samples from low and high grade TCC, as well as between the high grade and control group. UHRF1 expression was higher in patients with non-muscle invasive disease than in those with muscle invasive disease. Conclusions The result of this study indicates that UHRF1 gene expression levels correlates with the major pathological characteristics of TCC samples and with the clinical outcome of those patients. Determination of UHRF1 gene expression could have a potential to be used as a sensitive molecular marker in patients with urinary bladder cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/genetics , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/analysis , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/genetics , Reference Values , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Genetic Markers , Statistics, Nonparametric , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Tumor Burden , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 865-871, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63339

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Our previous high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry study identified bladder cancer (BCA)-specific urine metabolites, including carnitine, acylcarnitines, and melatonin. The objective of the current study was to determine which metabolic pathways are perturbed in BCA, based on our previously identified urinary metabolome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 135 primary BCA samples and 26 control tissue samples from healthy volunteers were analyzed. The association between specific urinary metabolites and their related encoding genes was analyzed. RESULTS: Significant alterations in the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways were detected in urine specimens from BCA patients compared to those of healthy controls. The expression of eight genes involved in the carnitine-acylcarnitine metabolic pathway (CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2, SLC25A20, and CRAT) or tryptophan metabolism (TPH1 and IDO1) was assessed by RT-PCR in our BCA cohort (n=135). CPT1B, CPT1C, SLC25A20, CRAT, TPH1, and IOD1 were significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared to normal bladder tissues (p<0.05 all) of patients with non-muscle invasive BCA, whereas CPT1B, CPT1C, CRAT, and TPH1 were downregulated in those with muscle invasive BCA (p<0.05), with no changes in IDO1 expression. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the expression of genes associated with the carnitine-acylcarnitine and tryptophan metabolic pathways, which were the most perturbed pathways in BCA, were determined.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/genetics , Carnitine/analogs & derivatives , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/physiology , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
9.
Clinics ; 70(10): 686-690, Oct. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:The cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22), which is produced by T cells and natural killer cells, is associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression in cancers. However, the role of IL-22 in bladder cancer has not been investigated.MATERIALS AND METHODS:A prospective hospital-based case-control study comprising 210 patients with pathologically proven bladder cancer and 210 age- and gender-matched healthy controls was conducted. The genotypes of 3 common polymorphisms (-429 C/T, +1046 T/A and +1995 A/C) of the IL-22 gene were determined with fluorogenic 5' exonuclease assays.RESULTS:Patients with bladder cancer had a significantly higher frequency of the IL-22 -429 TT genotype [odds ratio (OR)=2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.19, 3.49; p=0.009] and -429 T allele (OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.08, 1.87; p=0.01) than the healthy controls. These findings were still significant after a Bonferroni correction. When stratifying according to the stage of bladder cancer, we found that patients with superficial bladder cancer had a significantly lower frequency of the IL-22 -429 TT genotype (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.23, 0.98; p=0.04). When stratifying according to the grade and histological type of bladder cancer, we found no statistical association. The IL-22 +1046 T/A and IL-22 +1995 A/C gene polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of bladder cancer.CONCLUSION:To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report documenting that the IL-22 -429 C/T gene polymorphism is associated with bladder cancer risk. Additional studies are required to confirm this finding.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Papillary/genetics , Interleukins/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Gene Frequency , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Interleukins/classification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148912

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the expression of survivin and its association with clinicopathological criteria in major types of urinary bladder carcinoma, specifically, transitional cell carcinoma with and without squamous differentiation and squamous cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for survivin and Ki67 was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of 104 carcinomas: 52 transitional cell carcinoma, 20 transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation, and 32 squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of survivin in >10% of tumor cells was described as altered survivin status. Ki67 staining in >20% of tumor cells was described as a high proliferation index. RESULTS: Altered survivin expression was detected in 60/104 specimens (58%) and was significantly more frequent in transitional cell carcinoma (78%) than in squamous cell carcinoma (38%) or transitional cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation (40%) (p<0.0001). In transitional cell carcinoma but not in squamous cell carcinoma, altered survivin status was associated with higher tumor grade, higher proliferation index, and recurrence. In the whole specimens, altered survivin expression was significantly associated with advanced stage (p<0.001), recurrence (p=0.005), distant metastasis (p<0.001), and death (p=0.001). In the multivariate analysis, altered survivin was an independent poor prognostic factor for recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike in transitional cell carcinoma, alteration of survivin expression in squamous cell carcinoma occurs less frequently and is not associated with features of tumor aggression or patient outcome. These findings raise a question: are urinary bladder carcinoma patients with squamous cell carcinoma type suitable candidates for survivin vaccine? This is an important question to be answered before approving the vaccine in management.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/genetics , Female , Humans , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins/genetics , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , Biomarkers, Tumor , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138277

ABSTRACT

We investigated how the dual inhibition of the molecular mechanism of the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) downstreams, P70S6 kinase (P70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), can lead to a suppression of the proliferation and progression of urothelial carcinoma (UC) in an orthotopic mouse non-muscle invasive bladder tumor (NMIBT) model. A KU-7-luc cell intravesically instilled orthotopic mouse NMIBC model was monitored using bioluminescence imaging (BLI) in vivo by interfering with different molecular components using rapamycin and siRNA technology. We then analyzed the effects on molecular activation status, cell growth, proliferation, and progression. A high concentration of rapamycin (10 microM) blocked both P70S6K and elF4E phosphorylation and inhibited cell proliferation in the KU-7-luc cells. It also reduced cell viability and proliferation more than the transfection of siRNA against p70S6K or elF4E. The groups with dual p70S6K and elF4E siRNA, and rapamycin reduced tumor volume and lamina propria invasion more than the groups with p70S6K or elF4E siRNA instillation, although all groups reduced photon density compared to the control. These findings suggest that both the mTOR pathway downstream of eIF4E and p70S6K can be successfully inhibited by high dose rapamycin only, and p70S6K and Elf4E dual inhibition is essential to control bladder tumor growth and progression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Disease Progression , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/antagonists & inhibitors , Female , Mice , Mice, Nude , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Phosphorylation/drug effects , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa/antagonists & inhibitors , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sirolimus/pharmacology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Urothelium/pathology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138276

ABSTRACT

We investigated how the dual inhibition of the molecular mechanism of the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) downstreams, P70S6 kinase (P70S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), can lead to a suppression of the proliferation and progression of urothelial carcinoma (UC) in an orthotopic mouse non-muscle invasive bladder tumor (NMIBT) model. A KU-7-luc cell intravesically instilled orthotopic mouse NMIBC model was monitored using bioluminescence imaging (BLI) in vivo by interfering with different molecular components using rapamycin and siRNA technology. We then analyzed the effects on molecular activation status, cell growth, proliferation, and progression. A high concentration of rapamycin (10 microM) blocked both P70S6K and elF4E phosphorylation and inhibited cell proliferation in the KU-7-luc cells. It also reduced cell viability and proliferation more than the transfection of siRNA against p70S6K or elF4E. The groups with dual p70S6K and elF4E siRNA, and rapamycin reduced tumor volume and lamina propria invasion more than the groups with p70S6K or elF4E siRNA instillation, although all groups reduced photon density compared to the control. These findings suggest that both the mTOR pathway downstream of eIF4E and p70S6K can be successfully inhibited by high dose rapamycin only, and p70S6K and Elf4E dual inhibition is essential to control bladder tumor growth and progression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Disease Progression , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/antagonists & inhibitors , Female , Mice , Mice, Nude , Mucous Membrane/pathology , Phosphorylation/drug effects , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa/antagonists & inhibitors , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sirolimus/pharmacology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Urothelium/pathology
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 40(5): 644-649, 12/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731132

ABSTRACT

Purpose To analyze a possible correlation between a miRNA expression profile and important prognostic factors for pTa urothelial carcinomas (UC), including tumor size, multiplicity and episodes of recurrence. Materials and Methods Thirty low-grade non-invasive pTa bladder UC from patients submitted to transurethral resection were studied, in a mean follow-up of 17.7 months. As controls, we used normal bladder tissue from five patients submitted to retropubic prostatectomy to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. Extraction, cDNA and amplification were performed for 14 miRNAs (miR-100, -10a, -21, -205, -let7c, -143, -145, -221, -223, -15a, -16, -199a and -452) using specific kits, and RNU-43 and -48 were used as endogenous controls. Statistical tests were used to compare tumor size, multiplicity and episodes of recurrence with miRNAs expression profiles. Results There was a marginal correlation between multiplicity and miR-let7c over-expression. For all others miRNA no correlation between their expression and prognostic factors was found. Conclusion We did not find differences for miRNAs expression profiles associated with prognostic factors in tumor group studied. The majority of miRNAs are down-regulated, except miR-10a, over-expressed in most of cases, seeming to have increased levels in tumor with more unfavorable prognostic factors. More studies are needed in order to find a miRNA profile able to provide prognosis in pTa UC to be used in clinical practice. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma/genetics , MicroRNAs/analysis , Ureteral Neoplasms/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Analysis of Variance , Case-Control Studies , Carcinoma/pathology , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/genetics , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Prognosis , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tumor Burden/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology
14.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 542-550, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156581

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) inhibits the growth of bladder cancer cells and this effect is prominent and constant in 253J bladder cancer cells. We performed a microarray analysis to search for genes that were altered after TGF-beta1 treatment to understand the growth inhibitory action of TGF-beta1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 253J bladder cancer cells were exposed to TGF-beta1 and total RNA was extracted at 6, 24, and 48 hours after exposure. The RNA was hybridized onto a human 22K oligonucleotide microarray and the data were analyzed by using GeneSpring 7.1. RESULTS: In the microarray analysis, a total of 1,974 genes showing changes of more than 2.0 fold were selected. The selected genes were further subdivided into five highly cohesive clusters with high probability according to the time-dependent expression pattern. A total of 310 genes showing changes of more than 2.0 fold in repeated arrays were identified by use of simple t-tests. Of these genes, those having a known function were listed according to clusters. Microarray analysis showed increased expression of molecules known to be related to Smad-dependent signal transduction, such as SARA and Smad4, and also those known to be related to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, such as MAPKK1 and MAPKK4. CONCLUSIONS: A list of genes showing significantly altered expression profiles after TGF-beta1 treatment was made according to five highly cohesive clusters. The data suggest that the growth inhibitory effect of TGF-beta1 in bladder cancer may occur through the Smad-dependent pathway, possibly via activation of the extracellular signal-related kinase 1 and Jun amino-terminal kinases Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cluster Analysis , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Genes, Neoplasm , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Smad Proteins/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/pharmacology , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
15.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2013 July-Sept ;19 (3): 293-300
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: p73, a novel P53 homolog and plays an important role in modulating cell cycle control, apoptosis and cell growth while P21, functions to negatively control the cell cycle. P53 up regulates p21 expression in response to deoxyribonucleic acid damage leading to cell cycle arrest at G1 checkpoint. In the present study, we are targeting p21 codon 31 and p73 gene variants of G4C14‑to‑A4T14 (Exon 2) polymorphism for bladder cancer (BC) risk in North Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The above gene variants of P21 and P73 were assessed in the case‑control study comprising of 200 BC cases and 200 healthy controls of the same age, gender and similar ethnicity. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism method and PCR‑based confronting two‑pair primers (PCR with CTPP). RESULTS: The variant genotype of p73Exon 2 polymorphism showed significant risk for BC (p = 0.014). While combining with heterozygous genotype, variant genotype of p73Exon2 showed a significant association with BC risk (p = 0.010). While in case of p21 codon31 showed no significant association for BC risk at genotypic level. Significant association between p73Exon2 polymorphism and smoking was observed for BC risk. Furthermore, gene combination analysis revealed that AT/AT‑Ser/Ser is associated with risk for BC. Variant genotype of P73Exon2 was associated with reduced risk of recurrence (p = 0.039) in superficial BC patients receiving Bacillus Calmette‑Guerin treatment thus showing least survival (log rank = 0.029). CONCLUSION: Our study provided evidence that the p73 G4C14 > A4T14 (Exon2) polymorphisms were associated with higher risk of BC in North Indian population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Female , Genotype , Humans , Immunotherapy/therapeutic use , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Survival Analysis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/epidemiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/therapy
16.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Apr; 50(2): 87-92
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147290

ABSTRACT

To investigate the biological function of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) in bladder cancer, the expression of miR-34a was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain (qRT-PCR) reaction in 42 cases of bladder cancer. The relationship between the expression of miR-34a and development of bladder cancer was also studied. The mature mimics of miR-34a were chemically synthesized and transiently transfected into human bladder cancer T24 cells. The effects of miR-34a on apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation in T24 cells were evaluated by flow cytometry and MTT, respectively. The results showed that the low expression rate of miR-34a was correlated with the malignancy and tumor size of bladder cancer. The up-regulation of miR-34a in T24 cells contributed to cell growth and cell cycle arrest, but not caspase-3 pathway. These findings suggest that the relative low expression of miRNA-34a might be involved in the tumorigenesis of bladder cancer.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Apoptosis , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/biosynthesis , MicroRNAs/physiology , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Tetrazolium Salts/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Time Factors , Biomarkers, Tumor , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/metabolism
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 39(1): 95-102, January-February/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670368

ABSTRACT

Purpose Bladder cancer (BC) is the second most common malignancy of the urinary tract, with high mortality. The knowledge of the molecular pathways associated with BC carcinogenesis is crucial to identify new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression by acting directly on mRNAs. miR-145 has been considered as a tumor suppressor, which targets the c-MYC, MUC-1 and FSCN1 genes. Our aim was to evaluate the expression profile of miR-145 in low-grade non-invasive and high-grade invasive bladder urothelial carcinomas. Materials and Methods We studied 30 specimens of low-grade, non-invasive pTa and 30 of pT2/pT3 high-grade invasive UC obtained by transurethral resection or radical cystectomy, followed over a mean time of 16.1 months. Normal controls were represented by five samples of normal bladder biopsy from patients who underwent retropubic prostatectomy to treat BPH. miRNA extraction and cDNA generation were performed using commercial kits. Analysis was performed by qRT-PCR, and miR-145 expression was calculated using the 2-∆∆ct method; we used RNU-43 and RNU-48 as endogenous controls. Results miR-145 was under-expressed in 73.3% and 86.7% of pTa and pT2/pT3, respectively, with expression means of 1.61 for the former and 0.66 for the last. There were no significant differences in miR-145 expression and histological grade, tumor stage, angiolymphatic neoplastic invasion and tumor recurrence. Conclusion miR-145 is under-expressed in low-grade, non-invasive and high-grade invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma and may play an important role in the carcinogenesis pathway, being an interesting candidate diagnostic marker. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/genetics , MicroRNAs/analysis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Analysis of Variance , Carcinogens/metabolism , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/metabolism , Gene Expression , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/metabolism
18.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2012 Jan; 18(1): 47-55
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inherited polymorphisms of XPD and XPC genes may contribute to subtle variations in NER DNA repair capacity and genetic susceptibility to development of urological cancer such as prostate and bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped four Single Nucleotide Polymorphs (SNPs) of the DNA repair gene XPD and XPC in 195 prostate cancer (PCa) and 212 bladder cancer (BC) patients and 250 healthy controls from the same area. XPD Exon 10 (G>A) by amplification refractory mutation system and Exon 23 (A>C), XPC Intron 9 (Ins/Del) and Exon 15 (A>C) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Variant genotype of XPC demonstrated association with PCa as well as in BC (P, 0.013; P, 0.003). Combined genotype (GA+AA) revealed association with PCa and in BC (P, 0.012, P, 0.002). Variant allele also demonstrated risk in both the cancer. Diplotype of XPD and XPC was associated with a significant increase in PCa and BC risk. Variant (+/+) genotype of XPC intron 9 shown increased risk with PCa and in BC (P, 0.012; P, 0.032). CC genotype of XPC exon 15 revealed increase risk (P, 0.047) with PCa not in BC. In clinopathological grade variant allele of XPC intron 9 and 15 demonstrated risk with high grade of tumor and bone metastasis of PCa. In BC variant allele of XPD exon 10 and 15 also shown association with tumor grade. XPC intron 9 influences the risk of BC in former tobacco users in BC. CONCLUSIONS: Our result support that SNPs in XPD and XPC gene may reduce NER repair capacity and play a major role for PCa and BC in North India.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , DNA Repair/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Female , Humans , India , Male , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
19.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2012; 67 (1): 27-34
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-163191

ABSTRACT

P53 is a tumor suppressive gene which frequently mutates in tumors of animals and human. This gene commonly mutates in urinary bladder tumors of human beings. Urinary bladder tumors have occurred in cattle with bovine enzootic hematuria [BEH]. The aim of present study was to evaluate P53 mutations in 15 samples of different bovine urinary bladder tumors by the PCR-SSCP technique. Fifteen paraffin embedded blocks were selected from different kinds of bovine urinary bladder tumors. DNA was extracted from the samples and PCR was done by using specified primers for 5 and 6 exons. After electrophoresis, the PCR products were assessed by the SSCP method, and samples with changes in electrophoresis patterns were selected and sequenced. Results showed that there are intronic alterations of the P53 gene in cattle with urinary bladder tumors. There were no changes in the electrophoretic pattern of exons 5 and 6, but on each side of the designed primers for exon 6, there was a part of introns 5 and 6. The samples, including Hemangioma, Papilloma and Carcinoma in situ with electrophoretic changes, showed nucleotide T deletion with number 9332 in intron 6 after direct sequencing. Intronic mutations can be a predisposition for developing cancers. It is possible that some of urinary tumors are inducted by P53 mutations in intronic zone


Subject(s)
Animals , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Cattle , Mutation/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
20.
Rev. chil. urol ; 77(1): 13-20, 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-783383

ABSTRACT

El hábito tabáquico es el factor de riesgo más conocido para cáncer de vejiga. Ciertas arilaminas presentes en el cigarrillo han sido identificadas como carcinógenos para la vejiga en humanos. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es establecer el riesgo de padecer de cáncer de vejiga en individuos fumadores, acetiladores lentos para NAT2 y genotipos nulos de GSTM1 y GSTT1. Materiales y métodos: Se reunieron en total 150 pacientes, 75 pertenecientes al grupo de carcinoma urotelial de vejiga y 75 del grupo control, en este último no se incluyeron pacientes con enfermedad neoplásica de ninguna índole. El ADN se aisló de la muestra de sangre a partir de linfocitos utilizando un kit disponible comercialmente (QIAmp DNA Blood Mini and Maxi Kit, QIAGen GMBH). Mediante el uso de técnicas de reacción en cadena de polimerasa y de restricción/ fragmentación se determinaron los polimorfismos de las enzimas: NAT2, GSTT1 y GSTM1.Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 150 pacientes, de los cuales 75 pertenecían al grupo controly 75 al grupo de cáncer de vejiga, la media de edad del grupo de cáncer de vejiga fue 60,5 +/-11,4 y del grupo control fue 51,3 +/- 11,4. En cuanto al género en grupo de cáncer de vejiga 64 por ciento pertenecían al sexo masculino. En el grupo control 41 por ciento pertenecían al sexo masculino. Al estudiar el hábito tabáquico se halló que 51 por ciento de los pacientes del grupo de cáncer de vejiga continuaban siendo fumadores, mientras que sólo 21 por ciento fumaba en el grupo control. En el análisis de los genotipos de la enzima NAT2 en el grupo de los pacientes con cáncer de vejiga 52 por ciento resultaron acetiladores lentos, y 4 por ciento acetiladores rápidos. En el grupo control 45 por ciento de los pacientes eran acetiladores lentos y 12 por ciento acetiladores rápidos. En cuanto a la determinación de GSTT1 19 por ciento de los pacientes del grupo de cáncer de vejiga y 24 por ciento del grupo control exhibieron el genotipo nulo...


Introduction: Smoking is the most studied risk factor for bladder cancer. Certain arilamines present in cigarettes have been identified as carcinogenic for the bladder in humans. The purpose of this study is to establish the risk of bladder cancer in smokers, slow acetilators for NAT2 and none active genotypes for GSTM1 and GSTT1. Material and methods: 150 patients were studied, 75 in the group of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and 75 in the control group. The DNA was isolated from lymphocytes of blood samples using commercially available kit (QIAmp DNA Blood Mini and Maxi Kit, QIAG en GMBH). Enzyme polymorphisms of NAT2, GSTT1 and GSTM1 were determined using techniques of polymerase chain reaction and restriction/fragmentation. Results: 150 patients were included, of who 75 belonged to the control group and 75 had bladder cancer, the average of age of the bladder cancer group was 60.5 +/- 11.4 and of the control group 51.3 +/- 11.4. Regarding gender, in the bladder cancer group 64 percent were males. In the control group 41percent were males. 51 percent of the patients in the bladder cancer group continued being smokers, whereas only 21 percent smoked in control group. In NAT2 enzyme genotype analysis the bladder cancer group 52 percent were slow acetilators, and 4 percent fast acetilators. In the control group 45 percent were slow acetilators and 12 percent fast acetilators. Regarding GSTT1 determination, 19 percent of the bladder cancer group and 24 percent of the control group showed the non-active genotype. GSTM1 showed its non-active form in 44 percent of the bladder cancer group and 48 percent of the control group. Discussion: Bladder cancer is clearly related with smoking habit. We observed a very significant relationship when evaluating smoking habit, slow acetilators for NAT2, and none-active genotypes of GSTM1 and bladder cancer...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Smoking/adverse effects , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/enzymology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/chemically induced , Acetylation , Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase/genetics , Carcinogens , Age and Sex Distribution , Genotype , Glutathione Transferase/genetics , Risk Assessment , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/epidemiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics
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