Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 219
Filter
1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 89-98, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356281

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Contrast-enhanced CT scan is the standard staging modality for patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy (RC). Involvement of lymph nodes (LN) determines prognosis of patients with bladder cancer. The detection of LN metastasis by CT scan is still insufficient. Therefore, we investigated various CT scan characteristics to predict lymph node ratio (LNR) and its impact on survival. Also, pre-operative CT scan characteristics might hold potential to risk stratify cN+ patients. Materials and Methods: We analyzed preoperative CT scans of patients undergoing RC in a tertiary high volume center. Retrospectively, local tumor stage and LN characteristics such as size, morphology (MLN) and number of loco-regional LN (NLN) were investigated and correlation to LNR and survival was analyzed. CT scan characteristics were used to develop a risk stratification using Kaplan-Maier and multivariate analysis. Results: 764 cN0 and 166 cN+ patients with complete follow-up and imaging data were included in the study. Accuracy to detect LN metastasis and locally advanced tumor stage in CT scan was 72% and 62%. LN larger than 15mm in diameter were significantly associated with higher LNR (p=0.002). Increased NLN correlated with decreased CSS and OS (p=0.001: p=0.002). Furthermore, CT scan based scoring system precisely differentiates low-risk and high-risk profiles to predict oncological outcome (p <0.001). Conclusion: In our study, solely LN size >15mm significantly correlated with higher LNR. Identification of increased loco-regional LN was associated with worse survival. For the first time, precise risk stratification based on computed-tomography findings was developed to predict oncological outcome for clinical lymph node-positive patients undergoing RC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cystectomy , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Staging
2.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021264, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249023

ABSTRACT

Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare tumor. The overall incidence is approximately 0.12-0.6% of all urinary bladder malignancies. The majority of the patients present in an advanced stage with a uniformly grim prognosis. As signet-ring cell carcinomas are more common in the gastrointestinal tract, a possibility of metastasis needs to be considered. Here we report, a 42-year-old patient who presented with hematuria and was diagnosed with a urinary bladder tumor. The patient was managed with partial cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. The histopathological examination confirmed primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell/pathology , Cystectomy
3.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021256, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153179

ABSTRACT

Introduction Acute liver failure (ALF) due to diffuse infiltrating solid malignancy without any focal lesions on radiographic imaging is rare. Case report A 70-year-old man was admitted due to mental confusion, abdominal pain, and ALF. Three years before, he had undergone a left nephrectomy for urothelial carcinoma followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed hepatomegaly and ascites. Ascitic fluid had transudate characteristics, with no malignant cells. Percutaneous liver biopsy (LB) showed diffuse liver infiltration of metastatic urothelial carcinoma. The patient rapidly deteriorated and died in a week due to ALF. Discussion History of solid cancer and hepatomegaly and/or liver failure without other obvious explanation should encourage to perform LB. Conclusion LB is warranted to avoid misdiagnosis, prolonged hospital stays, and delay in palliative care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma , Liver Failure, Acute/pathology , Ascites , Autopsy , Biopsy , Fatal Outcome , Diagnostic Errors , Hepatomegaly
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(2): 169-184, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090578

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Standard management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer involves radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection. However, patients may be ineligible for surgery or may wish to avoid the morbidity of cystectomy due to quality of life concerns. Bladder preservation therapies have emerged as alternatives treatment options that can provide comparable oncologic outcomes while maintaining patients' quality of life. Objective To review bladder preservation therapies, patient selection criteria, and functional and oncologic outcomes for BPT in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review of bladder preservation therapies in Pubmed and Embase. Discussion The ideal patient for BPT has low-volume T2 disease, absence of CIS, absence of hydronephrosis, and a maximal TURBT with regular surveillance. Technological advancements involving cancer staging, TURBT technique, and chemotherapy and radiation therapy regimens have improved BPT outcomes, with oncologic outcomes now comparable to those of radical cystectomy. Advancements in BPT also includes a heightened focus on improving quality of life for patients undergoing bladder preservation. Preservation strategies with most evidence for use include trimodality therapy and partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection. Conclusions This review highlights the breadth of strategies that aim to preserve a patient's bladder while still optimizing local tumor control and overall survival. Future areas for innovation include the use of predictive biomarkers and implementation of immunotherapy, moving the field towards patient-tailored care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Cystectomy/methods , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Organ Sparing Treatments , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging
5.
Clinics ; 75: e1639, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101083

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol recommends prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, the beneficial effect of maintaining normothermia after radical cystectomy has not been evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of fluid warming nursing in elderly patients undergoing Da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy. METHODS: A total of 108 patients with bladder cancer scheduled to undergo DaVinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy were recruited and randomly divided into the control group (n=55), which received a warming blanket (43°C) during the intraoperative period and the warming group (n=53), in which all intraoperative fluids were administered via a fluid warmer (41°C). The surgical data, body temperature, coagulation function indexes, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the warming group had significantly less intraoperative transfusion (p=0.028) and shorter hospitalization days (p<0.05). During the entire intraoperative period (from 1 to 6h), body temperature was significantly higher in the warming group than in the control group. There were significant differences in preoperative fibrinogen level, white blood cell count, total bilirubin level, intraoperative lactose level, postoperative thrombin time (TT), and platelet count between the control and warming groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that TT was the only significant factor, suggesting that the warming group had a lower TT than the control group. CONCLUSION: Fluid warming nursing can effectively reduce transfusion requirement and hospitalization days, maintain intraoperative normothermia, and promote postoperative coagulation function in elderly patients undergoing Da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Body Temperature/physiology , Cystectomy/methods , Laparoscopy , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Intraoperative Care/methods , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Shivering/physiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Intraoperative Period
6.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(4): e2020205, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131853

ABSTRACT

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare central nervous system (CNS) tumor diagnosed primarily in infants and usually portends a poor prognosis. Despite being the most common embryonal tumor in children less than 1 year old, diagnosis is difficult to make based on clinical findings or imaging alone. A complete diagnosis of AT/RT requires identification of loss of integrase interactor 1 (INI1) protein or the SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1 (SMARCB1) gene, in its most common presentation. Moreover, their presentation with other primary rhabdoid tumors in the body raises significant suspicion for rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS). We report a case of a one-month-old infant admitted for worsening emesis and failure to thrive, who was later found to have brain and bladder masses on radiologic imaging. Autopsy with subsequent immunoprofile and molecular testing were crucial in establishing the absence of INI1 nuclear expression and possible homozygous deletion of SMARCB1 in the urinary bladder tumor tissue. Sequencing of the peripheral blood demonstrated probable single copy loss at the SMARCB1 locus. The constellation of findings in tumor and peripheral blood sequencing suggested the possibility of germline single copy SMARCB1 loss, followed by somatic loss of the remaining SMARCB1 allele due to copy neutral loss-of-heterozygosity. Such a sequence of genetic events has been described in malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT). Dedicated germline testing of this patient's family members could yield answers as to whether rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome will continue to have implications for the patient's family.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Rhabdoid Tumor/pathology , Autopsy , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Fatal Outcome
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1270-1274, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056328

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bladder cancer is a common cancer that may present as superficial, invasive, or metastatic disease. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents the majority of bladder cancer diagnoses, but represents a spectrum of disease with a variable clinical course, notably for significant risk of recurrence and potential for progression. NMIBC metastasis to distant organs without local invasion or regional metastasis is a very rare occurrence, so there are limited case reports about early metastasis in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/secondary , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Fatal Outcome , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging
8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(5): 910-915, Sept.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040086

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose As a rare bladder tumor, paraganglioma of the urinary bladder (PUB) is frequently misdiagnosed as bladder cancer, particularly for the non-functional type. To date, transurethral resection remains a controversial treatment for non-functional PUB. This study aimed to identify the clinical features, pathological characteristics, prognosis, and safe/effective treatment of non-functional PUB using transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT). Materials and Methods The clinical records, radiological data, pathological characteristics and follow-up times were retrospectively reviewed in 10 patients with clinically and pathologically proven non-functional PUB in our hospital from January 2008 to November 2016. All patients underwent TURBT treatment. Results The incidence of non-functional PUB in patients with bladder cancer was 0.17%. The mean age at diagnosis was 44.5 ± 13.6 years (range, 29-70 years), and the patient population had a female: male ratio of 3: 2. No patients had excess catecholamine (CA) whilst four patients had painless hematuria. All neoplasms were completely resected via TURBT. The majority of samples were positive for immunohistochemical markers including chromogranin A (CgA) and Synaptophysin (Syn), but were negative for cytokeratins (CKs). Only a single recurrence was observed from the mean follow-up period of 36.4 ± 24.8 months. Conclusion Complete TURBT is a safe and efficient treatment that serves both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry examinations are mandatory for diagnostic confirmation. Long-term follow-up is recommended for patients with non-functional PUB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Paraganglioma/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Paraganglioma/pathology , Urethra/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Synaptophysin/analysis , Cystoscopy/methods , Chromogranin A/analysis , Middle Aged
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 843-846, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019883

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Cancer is one of the most important leading cause of death in man and woman in the world. The occurrence of new cancer has become more frequent in recent years due to strict screening protocols and occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogens. The incidence of secondary malignancies has also increased due to close medical follow-up and advanced age. Herein, we report a case and its management diagnosed as synchronous peritoneal malignant mesothelioma and muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma. Case Description A 71-year-old male presented with macroscopic hematuria and abdominal distension increasing gradually. A contrast enhanced computerized tomography demonstrated bladder mass and diffuse ascites with nodular peritoneal thickening and umbilical mass. He was treated with the multidisciplinary team working including urologist, medical oncologist and general surgeon. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first case of peritoneal malign mesothelioma with synchronous muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma. Because of the rarity of this condition, there is still no consensus on the definitive treatment protocols, yet. Individualized treatment with multidisciplinary close follow-up might improve the survival outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Peritoneal Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mesothelioma/pathology , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/pathology , Peritoneal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Mesothelioma, Malignant , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Mesothelioma/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/diagnostic imaging
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 549-559, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012314

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To study the expression patterns of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) colon cancer-associated transcript 1 (CCAT1) and the changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion induced by silencing CCAT1 in bladder cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The expression levels of CCAT1 were determined using realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction in cancerous tissues and paired normal tissues from 34 patients with bladder cancer. The relationship between clinical characteristics and CCAT1 expression was analyzed. And then we conducted cell experiments. Bladder urothelial carcinoma cell lines T24 and 5637 cells were transfected with CCAT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or scramble siRNA. Cell proliferation and apoptosis changes were determined using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and a flow cytometry assay. Migration and invasion changes were measured using a wound healing assay and a trans-well assay. microRNAs (miRNAs) were predicted by Starbase 2.0, and their differential expression levels were studied. Results: CCAT1 was significantly upregulated in bladder cancer (P < 0.05). CCAT1 upregulation was positively related to tumor stage (P = 0.004), tumor grade (P = 0.001) and tumor size (P = 0.042). Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were promoted by abnormally expressed CCAT1. miRNAs miR-181b-5p, miR-152-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-148a-3p and miR-490-3p were potentially related to the aforementioned functions of CCAT1. Conclusion: CCAT1 plays an oncogenic role in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. In addition, CCAT1 may be a potential therapeutic target in this cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Long Noncoding/analysis , Sincalide/analysis , Time Factors , Wound Healing/genetics , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Up-Regulation , Cell Movement/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 560-571, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012321

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To introduce our experience with intracorporeal ileal conduit and evaluate the safety and feasibility of this endoscopic urinary diversion. Materials and Methods: Between March 2014 and July 2017, thirty-six consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic radical cystectomy with intracorporeal ileal conduit. Patients' demographic data, perioperative data, 90-days postoperative outcomes and complications were collected. This cohort were divided into two groups of 18 patients each by chronological order of the operations to facilitate comparison of clinical data. Data were evaluated using the students' T test, Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's Exact test. Results: All surgeries were completed successfully with no conversion. Median total operating time and median intracorporeal urinary diversion time were 304 and 105 minutes, respectively. Median estimated blood loss was 200 mL, and median lymph node yield was 21. Twenty-six Clavien grade < 3 complications occurred within 30-days and 9 occurred within 30-90 days. Five Clavien grade 3-5 complications occurred within 30 days. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups except for intracorporeal urinary diversion time. At median follow-up of 17.5 (range 3-42) months, 6 patients experienced tumor recurrence/metastasis and 4 of these patients died. Conclusions: Intracorporeal ileal conduit following laparoscopic radical cystectomy is safe, feasible and reproducible. With the accumulation of experience, the operation time can be controlled at a satisfactory level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Urinary Diversion/methods , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Cystectomy/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Time Factors , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Anastomosis, Surgical , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surgical Stomas , Neoplasm Grading , Operative Time , Medical Illustration , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(3): 328-335, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El tumor miofibroblástico inflamatorio (TMI) es una neoplasia benigna infrecuente, de comportamiento clínico impredecible. OBJETIVOS: describir 3 casos de TMI diagnosticados entre marzo 2014 y enero 2018 en Hospital Clinico San Borja Arriaran, y realizar una revisión actualizada de la literatura. CASO 1: Adolescente de género masculino de 14 años de edad, hospitalizado por dolor abdominal, diagnosticado de invaginación yeyunoyeyunal secundaria a un tumor de pared intestinal. La histología fue compatible con un tumor miofibroblástico inflamatorio. CASO 2: Adolescente de género femenino, edad 12 años, hospitalizada por neumonía y dolor lumbar en estudio asociado a pérdida de peso. Se diagnosticó una masa retroperitoneal que comprometía el músculo psoas derecho, músculos paravertebrales, vértebras, riñón derecho y diafragma ipsilateral. Se efectuó biopsia por punción cuyo resultado fue compatible con un tumor miofibroblástico inflamatorio. CASO 3: Preadolescente de género femenino de 11 años de edad, hospitalizada para estudio de infección del tracto urinario a repetición. Se identificó un tumor vesical y la biopsia mostró ser compatible con tumor miofibroblástico inflamatorio. CONCLUSIÓN: Debido al comportamiento variable del tumor miofibroblástico inflamatorio, el manejo de este dependerá de la localización, la expresión del anaplasic like lymphoma (ALK), el comportamiento del tumor y la posibilidad de resección.


INTRODUCTION: The inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an infrequent benign neoplasm with unpredictable cli nical behavior. OBJECTIVES: to describe three clinical cases at the San Borja Arriarán Clinical Hospital between March 2014 and January 2018 and to carry out an updated review of the literature. CASE 1: 14-year-old male adolescent, hospitalized due to abdominal pain, diagnosed with jejunojejunal intus susception secondary to an intestinal wall tumor. The histology was compatible with an inflamma tory myofibroblastic tumor. CASE 2: 12-year-old female adolescent, hospitalized due to pneumonia and low-back pain under study associated with weight loss. A retroperitoneal mass was diagnosed involving the right psoas muscle, paravertebral muscles, vertebrae, right kidney, and ipsilateral dia phragm. A puncture biopsy was performed and the result was compatible with an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. CASE 3: 11-year-old female pre-adolescent, hospitalized to study recurrent urinary tract infection. A bladder tumor was identified, and the biopsy showed compatibility with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. CONCLUSION: Due to the variable behavior of the inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, its management will depend on the location, expression of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), tumor behavior, and the resection possibility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnosis , Intestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Myofibroblasts/pathology , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/pathology , Intestinal Neoplasms/pathology
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 315-324, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002193

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a prognostic factor for response of high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer (HRNMIBC) treated with BCG therapy. Materials and Methods: Between March 2010 and February 2014 in a tertiary center 100 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed HRNMIBC were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided according to NLR value: 46 patients with NLR value less than 3 (NLR < 3 group), and 54 patients with NLR value more than 3 (NLR ≥ 3 group). At the end of follow-up 52 patients were high grade disease free (BCG-responder group) and 48 patients underwent radical cystectomy for high grade recurrence or progression to muscle invasive disease (BCG non-responder group). The average follow-up was 60 months. Intervention: analysis and correlation of preoperative NLR value with response to BCG in terms of recurrence and progression. Results: The optimal cut-off for NLR was ≥ 3 according to the receiver operating characteristics analysis (AUC 0.760, 95% CI, 0.669-0.850). Mean NLR value was 3.65 ± 1.16 in BCG non-responder group and 2.61 ± 0.77 in BCG responder group (p = 0.01). NLR correlated with recurrence (r = 0.55, p = 0.01) and progression risk scores (r = 0.49, p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, NLR (p = 0.02) and EORTC recurrence risk groups (p = 0.01) were associated to the primary endpoint. The log-rank test showed statistically significant difference between NLR < 3 and NLR ≥ 3 curves (p < 0.05). Conclusions: NLR value preoperatively evaluated could be a useful tool to predict BCG response of HRNMIBC. These results could lead to the development of prospective studies to assess the real prognostic value of NLR in HRNMIBC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Lymphocytes/pathology , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/drug therapy , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Cystectomy , Retrospective Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Disease Progression , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Neoplasm Staging
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 306-314, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002215

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Non - muscle - invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) can recur despite transurethral resection (TURBT) and adjuvant intravesical therapy. Tobacco products excreted in the urine are hypothesized to cause tumor - promoting effects on urothelial cells through direct contact. We determined if moderate or severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (defined as International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] ≥ 8) was associated with increased tumor recurrence. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified 70 consecutive men initially diagnosed with NMIBC at our institution from 2010 - 2016. Means were compared with independent T - test and proportions with chi - square analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine independent predictors of recurrence. Results: The majority of patients had Ta disease (58.6%) followed by T1 (28.6%) and Tis (12.9%). Forty - one (58.6%) patients had moderate or severe LUTS upon presentation within 30 days of initial TURBT with mean IPSS of 13.2 vs. 5.2 in the control group (p < 0.01). Biopsy - proven tumor recurrence occurred in 24 (34.3%) patients at mean follow-up of 31.7 months. Mean time to recurrence was 14.6 months. Moderate or severe LUTS was an independent predictor of tumor recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 19.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86 - 127; p = 0.002). Voiding or storage symptoms based on the IPSS did not independently correlate with tumor recurrence (p = 0.08 and p = 0.31, respectively) although total mean IPSS score did (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.07 - 1.47, p = 0.005). Conclusions: The presence of moderate or severe LUTS may be an important prognostic factor in NMIBC. Patients with significant urinary symptoms could be monitored more aggressively due to higher recurrence risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Hyperplasia/complications , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/etiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Quality of Life , Biopsy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Disease Progression , Middle Aged
15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(2): 299-305, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002199

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes in patients with small cell bladder cancer at our institution, including those who received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for the prevention of intracranial recurrence. Materials and Methods: Patients with small cell bladder cancer treated at a single institution between January 1990 and August 2015 were identified and analyzed retrospectively for demographics, tumor stage, treatment, and overall survival. Results: Of 44 patients diagnosed with small cell bladder cancer, 11 (25%) had metastatic disease at the time of presentation. Treatment included systemic chemotherapy (70%), radical surgery (59%), and local radiation (39%). Six patients (14%) received PCI. Median overall survival was 10 months (IQR 4 - 41). Patients with extensive disease had worse overall survival than those with organ confined disease (8 months vs. 36 months, respectively, p = 0.04). Among those who received PCI, 33% achieved 5 - year survival. Conclusion: Outcomes for patients with small cell bladder cancer remain poor. Further research is indicated to determine if PCI increases overall survival in small call bladder cancer patients, especially those with extensive disease who respond to chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Cranial Irradiation/methods , Carcinoma, Small Cell/radiotherapy , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/mortality , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Carcinoma, Small Cell/mortality , Carcinoma, Small Cell/pathology , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/radiotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/radiotherapy
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 68-73, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989958

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: In this study we aimed to review urological soft tissue sarcomas of genitourinary tract that were diagnosed in our institution and their prognostic factors for survival. Materials and Methods: The clinical and pathological records of 31 patients who had diagnosis of soft tissue sarcomas primarily originating from the genitourinary tract between 2005-2011 were reviewed. Results: The most common site was kidney (17 cases, 54.8%), and most common diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma (11 cases, 35.4%). A total of 24 patients (77.4%) had surgical excision. The surgical margins were positive in 7 patients who presented with local recurrence after primary resection. Twelve patients developed metastatic disease. During follow-up (range 9-70 month), 26 of the 31 patients (88.9%) were alive. Significant survival differences were found according to histological type (p: 0.001), with lower survival rates for malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The tumor size, the presence of metastasis at the time of diagnosis and tumor localization were not statistically significant for overall survival. Conclusions: In our series, prostate sarcomas, paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma had poor prognosis, especially in patients presenting with metastatic disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Sarcoma/pathology , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Sarcoma/mortality , Testicular Neoplasms/mortality , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/mortality , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 52 p. ilust, tabelas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1222746

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O carcinoma urotelial da bexiga é uma doença de alta incidência e letalidade. Recentemente, tem sido caracterizado em subtipos moleculares, com diferenças prognósticas e de resposta terapêutica. As tetraspaninas estão implicadas na adesão celular e sinalização intercelular, interferindo diretamente em fenômenos como a morfogênese dos tecidos e migração. Uma vez que os subtipos moleculares luminal e basal correspondem, respectivamente, a fenótipos celulares urotelial bem diferenciado e de reserva basal, é possível que a expressão das tetraspaninas acompanhe esse racional, o que traria possibilidade de integração no cenário clínico. Metodologia: Amostras de 88 pacientes operados (cistectomia radical) por carcinoma urotelial, preservadas em parafina, foram organizadas em TMA ou cortes inteiros, submetidos a imuno-histoquímica. As reações foram analisadas por microscopia ótica convencional e acessadas quanto à intensidade de expressão - negativo, fraco e forte (escore subjetivo) e extensão de expressão ­ negativo, focal e difuso (baseado na porcentagem das células positivas, em cortes de 1-50%; >50%). Os tumores foram classificados em Luminal, Basal e Sem tipo definido, a partir da expressão imuno-histoquímica de GATA3, CK5/6 e CK14. A expressão citoplasmática das tetraspaninas (CD9 e UPIII) foi avaliada em tecidos tumoral e urotelial não neoplásico pareado, e correlacionadas com parâmetros patológicos e clínicos. Resultados: A idade média foi de 66.9 anos, com relação H:M de 2:1 e 72% de tabagistas ou ex-tabagistas. A maior parte (62%) das cirúrgicas foram indicadas por doença músculo-invasiva já ao diagnóstico e o restante por doença não músculo-invasiva extensa/recorrente ou progredida para carcinoma músculo invasor, sendo o estadiamento final na cistectomia 14%

Introduction: Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a disease with high incidences and letality. It has recently been carachterized in molecular subtypes, with differences regarding prognosis and response to treatment. Tetraspanins are implicated in cell adhesion and intercellular signaling, directly interfering in phenomena such as tissue morphogenesis and migration. Considering that luminal and basal molecular subtypes correspond, repectively, to well differentiated urotelial and basal reserve cell phenotypes, it is possible that tetraspanin expression may follow this rationale, which could bare potential to integration into the clinical scenario. Methodology: Paraffin-preserved samples from 88 patients submitted to radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma were organized into TMAs or whole sections, labeled with immunohistochemistry. Reactions were analyzed by conventional optical microscopy and accessed as to expression intensity ­ negative, weak or strong (subjective scoring) and extent ­ negative, focal or diffuse (based on percentage of positive cells in cut-offs of 1-50%; >50%). Tumors were classified into Luminal, Basal and Non-type based on immunoexpression of GATA3, CK14 and CK5/6. Cytoplasmic expression of tetraspanins was evaluated in neoplastic and non-neoplastic urotelial tissue and correlated with clinical and morphological parameters. Results: Mean age was 66.9 years, with M:F ratio of 2:1 and 72% smokers or ex-smokers. The majority (62%) of surgeries was indicated because of muscle-invasive disease at presentation and the rest for extensive/recurrent non muscle-invasive disease or progression to invasive carcinoma (final pathological stage at cystectomy: 14%

Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Survival , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor , Disease Progression , Tetraspanins , Retrospective Studies
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(12): e201901207, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054689

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) standard of care treatment only patients presenting a major pathological tumor response are more likely to show the established modest 5% absolute survival benefit at 5 years after cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). To overcome the drawbacks of a blind NAC (i.e. late cystectomy with unnecessary NAC adverse events) with potential to survival improvements, preclinical models of urothelial carcinoma have arisen in this generation as a way to pre-determine drug resistance even before therapy is targeted. The implantation of tumor specimens in the chorioallantoic membrane (MCA) of the chicken embryo results in a high-efficiency graft, thus allowing large-scale studies of patient-derived "tumor avatar". This article discusses a novel approach that exploits cancer multidrug resistance to provide personalized phenotype-based therapy utilizing the MIBC NAC dilemma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma/drug therapy , Urothelium/pathology , Chorioallantoic Membrane/pathology , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Phenotype , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Medical Illustration , Neoplasm Seeding , Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 717-725, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954064

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: To compare the perioperative outcomes and complications of monopolar and bipolar transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and Methods: A total of 90 CAD patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer who underwent TURBT were randomized into monopolar TURBT (M-TURBT) and bipolar TURBT (B-TURBT) groups. Primary outcome was safety of the procedures including obturator jerk, bladder perforation, clot retention, febrile urinary tract infection and TUR syndrome. The secondary outcome was the efficacy of TURBT procedures, including complete tumor resection, sampling of the deep muscle tissue and sampling of the qualified tissues without any thermal damage. Results: Mean ages of the patients in M-TURBT and B-TURBT groups were 71.36±7.49 and 73.71±8.15 years, respectively (p=0.157). No significant differences were found between M-TURBT and B-TURBT groups regarding complete tumor resection (76.2% vs. 87.5%, p=0.162) and muscle tissue sampling rates (71.4% vs. 64.6%,p=0.252). Obturator jerk was detected in 16.7% of the patients in M-TURBT group and 2.1% in B-TURBT group (p=0.007). No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding intraoperative and postoperative complications. Conclusions: Both monopolar and bipolar systems can be used safely and effectively during TURBT procedure in CAD patients. Due to the more frequently seen obturator jerk in M-TURBT than B-TURBT, careful surgical approach is needed during M-TURBT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Ureteroscopy/adverse effects , Ureteroscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Prognosis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Operative Time , Middle Aged
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(3): 506-511, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954043

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Nephrogenic adenoma (NA) was first described by Davis in 1949 as a "hamartoma" of the bladder. There are many proposed predisposing factors for NA including chronic inflammation, renal transplantation, and bladder cancer. We examined our experience with NA to determine predisposing factors and determine if there was any increased risk for development of subsequent malignancy. Materials and Methods: All patients with a pathologic diagnosis of bladder NA from 2001-2013 were included. Patient history, clinical factors including possible predisposing factors for NA, and follow-up were reviewed. Results: Among 60 patients, 68% were males with an average age of 61, an average BMI of 28.7, and 60% had a smoking history. In evaluating pro-inflammatory factors, 26.7% underwent either Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or mitomycin C, 30% had recurrent urinary tract infections, and 25% had a history of catheterization. Recurrence of NA after initial resection occurred only in 14.7% of patients who underwent follow-up cystoscopy. A history of concurrent bladder cancer was seen in 41.7% of patients, but there were no cases of de novo bladder cancer diagnosed after NA. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest series of patients with NA of the bladder. NA occurs in a heterogeneous population of patients, but most often with underlying inflammation. NA occurred concurrent with bladder cancer; however there were no cases of de novo bladder cancer after NA, reassuring that NA is likely a benign reactive condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/etiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Adenoma/etiology , Adenoma/pathology , Biopsy , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Cystoscopy , Diagnosis, Differential , Hematuria , Middle Aged
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL