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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(3): 113-119, 20220000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1372907

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones urinarias complicadas, dentro de las cuales se encuentran las asociadas a catéteres, son un hallazgo frecuente de la práctica clínica. Las complicaciones infecciosas después de los procedimientos urológicos son una fuente importante de morbimortalidad y consumen múltiples recursos sanitarios. La colonización bacteriana en el catéter ureteral juega un papel esencial en la patogénesis de la infección, y el uso de profilaxis antimicrobiana en urología es controvertido. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue evaluar la utilidad de la profilaxis antibiótica en la extracción del catéter doble J


Complicated urinary infections, among which are those associated with catheters, are a frequent finding in clinical practice. Infectious complications after urological procedures are an important source of morbidity and mortality and consume multiple healthcare resources. Bacterial colonization in the ureteral catheter plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of infection, and the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis in urology is controversial. Te objective of our work was to evaluate the usefulness of antibiotic prophylaxis in the extraction of the double J catheter


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Urinary Tract Infections/therapy , Chi-Square Distribution , Stents , Prospective Studies , Aftercare , Ureteroscopy , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Cystoscopes , Nephrolithiasis/surgery , Urinary Catheters
2.
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto, Online) ; 55(2)abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402068

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common health-care-associated infections (HCAIs) and one of the top-ranking microbial infections. In the community, about 80% of UTIs are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), but there is a high variability of etiological agents involved in hospital-acquired UTIs. With this context in mind, the current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the main etiological agents responsible for UTIs and their susceptibility profile at the Hospital das Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto, a high complexity reference hospital in the Southeast region of Brazil. This retrospective and descriptive study analyzed all positive inpatient cultures [100,000 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL] from November 2016 to April 2017. The most prevalent microorganism was Kleb-siella pneumoniae (23 isolates), equivalent to 37.7% of positive urocultures. The second most prevalent agent was UPEC, with 19 isolates (31.1%). The risk factors evaluated in these inpatients showed that 17.5% underwent a uro-logical procedure on admission, 31.6% were using a urinary catheter; 26.2% were using immunosuppressive drugs during the period in which the clinical diagnosis was made. Our results demonstrate the prevalence of UTI causes in the hospital context and the main risk factors for them and will be pretty helpful in guiding empirical treatment in severe UTIs inside the hospital as well as reflect on the actual need and time duration of invasive procedures in the hospital environmen (AU)


As infecções do trato urinário (IU) são a terceira causa principal de infecções associadas ao ambiente hospitalar, logo após as infecções pulmonares e da corrente sanguínea. Na comunidade, cerca de 80% das IU são causadas por E. coli, mas há uma alta variabilidade de agentes etiológicos envolvidos nas IU hospitalares. Este estudo visa avaliar a prevalência dos principais agentes etiológicos e perfil de suscetibilidade envolvidos em IU em um am-biente hospitalar de referência de alta complexidade no sul do Brasil. Este é um estudo retrospectivo e descritivo que analisou todas as culturas positivas (100.000 ufc/ml) de pacientes nas enfermarias de um hospital terciário no período entre novembro de 2016 a abril de 2017. O microorganismo mais prevalente foi Klebsiella pneumoniae (23 isolados), o que equivale a 37,7% das uroculturas. O segundo agente mais prevalente foi Escherichia coli, com 19 isolados (31,1%). Os fatores de risco avaliados nestes pacientes mostraram que 17,5% foram submetidos a um procedimento urológico na admissão, 31,6% estavam usando um cateter urinário; 26,2% estavam usando drogas imunossupressoras no período em que o diagnóstico clínico foi feito. Nossos resultados demonstram uma mudança importante na prevalência das causas de IU no contexto hospitalar e os principais fatores de risco para elas e serão bastante úteis para orientar o tratamento empírico em IU grave dentro do hospital, bem como refletir sobre a real necessidade e a duração dos procedimentos invasivos no ambiente hospitalar (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections , Escherichia coli , Urinary Catheters , Immunosuppressive Agents , Klebsiella pneumoniae
3.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 56: e20210552, 2022. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1365410

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the microbiological and microstructural part of indwelling urinary catheters and their association with urinary tract infection prevention. Method: This is a cross-sectional study, from June to December 2020, in which 42 indwelling urinary catheter tips and sterile urine samples were collected for analysis of crystals in optical microscopy and biofilms in scanning electron microscopy. Culture analysis and specification of the type of bacteria were performed. Results: It was found that 35.71% of the samples had mature biofilm adhered to the catheter tip. Biofilms of Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium and Enterobacter cloacae stood out. The presence of magnesium-ammonium-phosphate crystal was associated with the presence of urinary tract infection and with Proteus mirabilis. There was a significant association (p = 0.001) between the use of prophylactic antibiotics versus urine culture >105 CFU/mL. Conclusion: The analyzes contributed to clinical practice, as it reinforces the development of effective and monitored strategies on cultures and urinary tract infection prevention associated with indwelling urinary catheters.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la parte microbiológica y microestructural de los catéteres urinarios permanentes y su asociación con la prevención de la infección del tracto urinario. Método: Transversal, de junio a diciembre de 2020, en el que se recolectaron 42 puntas de sonda urinaria permanente y muestras de orina estéril para análisis de cristales en microscopía óptica y biopelículas en microscopía electrónica de barrido. Se realizaron análisis de cultivo y especificación del tipo de bacteria. Resultados: Se encontró que el 35,71% de las muestras presentaban biopelícula madura adherida a la punta del catéter. Se destacaron las biopelículas de Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium y Enterobacter cloacae. La presencia de cristales de fosfato de magnesio-amonio se asoció con la presencia de infección del tracto urinario y con Proteus mirabilis. Hubo una asociación significativa (p = 0,001) entre el uso de antibióticos profilácticos versus urocultivo >105 UFC/mL. Conclusión: Los análisis contribuyeron a la práctica clínica, ya que refuerzan el desarrollo de estrategias efectivas y monitoreadas sobre cultivos y prevención de la infección del tracto urinario asociada a los catéteres urinarios permanentes.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a parte microbiológica e microestrutural dos cateteres vesicais de demora e sua associação com a prevenção de infecção do trato urinário. Método: Transversal, entre junho e dezembro de 2020, em que foram coletadas 42 pontas cateteres vesicais de demora e amostras de urina estéril para análise de cristais em microscopia óptica e de biofilmes em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Fez-se analise de cultura e especificação do tipo de bactérias. Resultados: Verificou-se que 35,71% das amostras apresentaram o biofilme maduro aderido à ponta do cateter. Destacaram-se biofilmes de Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecium e Enterobacter cloacae. A presença do cristal magnésio-amônio-fosfato foi associada à presença de infecção do trato urinário e ao Proteus mirabilis. Verificou-se associação significativa (p = 0,001) entre o uso de antibiótico profilático versus a urocultura >105 UFC/mL. Conclusão: As análises contribuíram para a prática clínica, pois reforçam a elaboração de estratégias efetivas e monitoradas sobre culturas e prevenção de infecção do trato urinário associada ao cateter vesical de demora.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Catheters , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Public Health , Public Health Surveillance
4.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(4): 300-303, 15/12/2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369059

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in children has becomemore widely used due to its high efficacy and safety and to the development of miniaturized instruments. A supine approach is promising due to advantages such as better ventilation, reproducibility, and ergonomics. The purpose of the present study is to describe our surgical technique with special considerations in the pediatric population. We used an oblique supine position supported by one silicone gel positioning pad under the hip and another under the ipsilateral flank. The anatomical landmarks used to guide the puncture were the 11th and 12th ribs, the posterior axillary line, and the iliac crest. Initially, a ureteral catheter was introduced endoscopically. A retrograde pyelography was performed to guide the puncture, which was performed using a biplanar technique. A hydrophilic guide wire was then advanced through the needle. Dilation was performed with Alken telescopic dilators until 14 Ch. Fragmentation was performed either with a 13 Ch semirigid cystoscope or a flexible ureteroscope using a holmium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:Yag) laser.We left a double J catheter. Supine PCNL in the pediatric population has comparable efficacy in terms of stone free rate to that of the prone approach as well as less complications. Certain considerations in children are careful padding and placement of the patient close to the edge of the table. Puncture should be guided by ultrasound to reduce radiation exposure. Miniaturized equipment is not widely available, so adaptation of adult equipment for the pediatric population is sometimes necessary.


La nefrolitotomía percutánea en niños se ha vuelto ampliamente utilizada por su alta efectividad, seguridad, y por la miniaturización de los instrumentos endoscópicos. El abordaje en supino es prometedor por sus ventajas, como mejor ventilación, reproducibilidad, y ergonomía. El propósito es describir nuestra técnica quirúrgica con las consideraciones especiales a tener en cuenta en la población pediátrica. Todos nuestros pacientes han sido intervenidos bajo la siguiente técnica quirúrgica: en una posición oblicua en supino, utilizando soportes de silicona ubicados debajo de la cadera y del flanco ipsilateral, se marcan los reparos anatómicos: las costillas once y doce, la línea axilar posterior y la cresta ilíaca. Inicialmente se introduce un cateter ureteral por vía endoscópica, con el cual se realiza una pielografía retrógrada para guiar la punción con una técnica biplanar. Se avanza una guía hidrofílica y, sobre esta, los dilatadores telescopados de Alken hasta un tracto de 14 Ch. Se realiza la fragmentación con un cistoscopio semirígido de 13 Ch o con un ureteroscopio flexible utilizando el láser Ho:Yag. Se deja un cateter JJ. La nefrolitotomía percutánea en la población pediátrica es comparable en términos de tasa libre de cálculos al abordaje en prono, con menos complicaciones. Una consideración importante en niños es una adecuada posición, cerca al eje de la mesa. La punción debe ser guiada por ultrasonido para disminuir la exposición a radiación. La disponibilidad de equipos miniaturizados es limitada, por lo cual usualmente es necesario adaptar los equipos de adultos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous , Urography , Cystoscopes , Ureteroscopes , Urinary Catheters , Miniaturization
5.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 29(3): 150-159, 04-oct-2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1357925

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las infecciones de las vías urinarias relacionadas con la instalación de catéter vesical son de las infecciones asociadas a la atención sanitaria más comunes en México y el mundo. Representan un riesgo latente para el desarrollo de complicaciones y pueden ocasionar la muerte. Objetivo: analizar los factores de riesgo que se asocian directamente a la infección del tracto urinario en la instalación del catéter vesical. Metodología: estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, con muestra de 90 pacientes de un hospital de segundo nivel de atención en el que se identificaron los factores de riesgo de infección de vías urinarias asociadas a la instalación de sonda vesical. Resultados: se observó un tipo de cumplimiento de los indicadores de calidad durante la instalación de sonda vesical con frecuencia en el 52.22% de los participantes. Un tipo de cumplimiento con frecuencia en el 48.90% de los participantes durante el mantenimiento de la sonda vesical, y un tipo de cumplimiento con frecuencia del 47.78% al momento del retiro de la sonda. Los principales factores de riesgo identificados asociados a la infección del tracto urinario fueron: a) que la sonda sea instalada por un médico interno, b) una estancia mayor a 3 días en urgencias y c) que la sonda sea instalada por una enfermera general. Conclusiones: se encontraron indicadores de cumplimiento cercano al 50%, lo que se considera muy bajo en la medición de los indicadores de calidad durante la instalación, mantenimiento y retiro de la sonda vesical, incluso estos están por debajo del porcentaje nacional.


Introduction: Urinary tract infections related to the installation of a bladder catheter are the most common infections associated with health care in Mexico and the world. They represent a latent risk for the development of complications and can cause death. Objective: To analyze the risk factors that are directly associated with urinary tract infection in the installation of the bladder catheter. Methods: Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study; with a sample of 90 patients from a second-level care hospital in which the risk factors for urinary tract infection associated with the installation of a urinary catheter were identified. Results: A type of compliance with the quality indicators was observed during the urinary catheter installation with a frequency of 52.22% of the participants. A type of compliance with a frequency of 48.90% of the participants during the maintenance of the urinary catheter, and a type of compli- ance with a frequency of 47.78% at the time of catheter removal. The main risk factors identified associated with urinary tract infection were: a) that the catheter is installed by an intern, b) a stay of more than 3 days in the emergency room, and c) that the catheter is installed by a general nurse. Conclusions: Compliance indicators were found close to 50%, which is considered very low in the measurement of quality indicators during the installation, maintenance and removal of the urinary catheter, even these are below the national percentage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Cross-Sectional Studies , Urinary Catheters , Secondary Care , Mexico
6.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(1): 74-76, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1411111

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to develop a narrative review of the available evidence of mirabegron efficacy in three scenarios: as a medical expulsive therapy; as a medical treatment to increase a successful access to stones before ureteroscopy, and management of double-J stent-related symptoms. Only two original studies have evaluated its use as a medical expulsive therapy, with contradictory results in terms of stone expulsion rate; however, both demonstrated a better pain control in the mirabegron group. One randomized controlled trial (RCT) found a higher successful access to ureteral stones when mirabegron was administered 1 week before the ureteroscopy. And two RCTs demonstrated its efficacy in diminishing discomfort related with double-J stent. There is a promising role for the use of mirabegron in the arsenal of urolithiasis treatment, even as a medical expulsive therapy, before ureteroscopy surgery, to increase the successful access to the stones and after the placement of ureteral catheter to reduce the related symptoms. However, larger-scaled prospective double-blinded RCTs are needed before it can be used with these purposes in the clinical scenario.


El propósito de este trabajo fue desarrollar una revisión narrativa de la literatura describiendo la evidencia disponible sobre la eficacia del mirabegrón en tres escenarios: como terapia médica expulsiva, como tratamiento médico antes de la ureteroscopia para incrementar el acceso exitoso al cálculo, y en el manejo de los síntomas asociados con el uso de catéter doble J. Solo dos estudios originales han evaluado su uso como terapia médica expulsiva, con resultados contradictorios en términos de tasa de expulsión del cálculo; sin embargo, ambos demostraron mejor control del dolor en el grupo de mirabegrón. Un estudio aleatorizado multicéntrico encontró un aumento en el acceso exitoso al cálculo durante la ureteroscopia cuando el mirabegrón era administrado una semana antes del procedimiento. Adicionalmente, dos estudios aleatorizados controlados demostraron eficacia del medicamento para disminuir los síntomas relacionados con el catéter doble J. El uso del mirabegrón como parte del arsenal del tratamiento para urolitiasis tiene un rol prometedor, tanto en la terapia médica expulsiva como antes de la ureteroscopia, para aumentar la posibilidad de acceder exitosamente al cálculo, y en pacientes con catéter doble J, para disminuir los síntomas asociados. Sin embargo, se requiere estudios más grandes, prospectivos, doble ciegos y aleatorizados antes de que podamos utilizarlo con estos fines en un escenario clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Ureteroscopy , Urolithiasis , Catheters , Urinary Catheters
7.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology ; : 635-645, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-974010

ABSTRACT

Aims@#Biofilm formation of bacteria inside the surface of urinary catheters triggers severe urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study aims to determine the biofilm forming capacity of bacteria isolated from urinary catheters of patients diagnosed with UTIs as well as comparison of antibiotic sensitivity patterns between biofilm and non-biofilm forming isolates.@*Methodology and results@#A total of 40 urinary catheters were collected from 96 h catheterized patients. The isolated uropathogenic bacteria were identified and examined for biofilm formation using the microtiter plate method. Later, the isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility towards 12 antibiotics that commonly used for treating UTIs using the disk diffusion method. All the catheters were found colonized with two to five different bacterial species individually. Out of the 131 isolates from 40 catheters, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (38/131, 29%) was the predominant isolated bacteria followed by Escherichia coli (31/131, 24%), Proteus vulgaris (24/131, 18%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (21/131, 16%) and Staphylococcus aureus (17/131, 13%). Among these, the highest biofilm forming capacity was observed in P. aeruginosa (26%), followed by P. vulgaris (16%) and K. pneumoniae (13%). Regarding antibiotic resistance, biofilm forming bacteria showed resistance to multiple drugs except for carbapenems. Moreover, biofilm formers exhibited higher resistance than non-biofilm formers against antibiotics such as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (100% vs 82%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (81% vs 55%), cefixime (85% vs 55%), ceftriaxone (81% vs 45%), cefalexin (93% vs 55%), amikacin (70% vs 45%), ampicillin (89% vs 73%), ciprofloxacin (70% vs. 36%) and ceftriaxone (81 vs 45%), (p-value<0.05). @*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#Most of the isolated uropathogenic bacteria from catheters were biofilm formers and multiple antibiotic resistant. Appropriate selection of antibiotics, meticulous hygiene practices in hospital settings and limiting the duration of catheterization can reduce biofilm formation and the emergence of antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Urinary Catheters , Urinary Tract Infections
8.
Infectio ; 24(4): 217-223, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114872

ABSTRACT

Resumen Candida spp. es un agente etiológico importante en infecciones del tracto urinario, principalmente en población con terapia antimicótica de amplio espectro y con catéteres urinarios. Candida albicans es la especie más frecuente, pero otras especies han surgido como patógenos emergentes. En este trabajo se recolectaron aislamientos de Candida spp. de urocultivos de pacientes que consultaron en Dinamica IPS entre enero 2016 y noviembre 2017. Para estimar la frecuencia de las especies y observar los patrones de sensibilidad, se realizó la identificación fenotípica y su perfil de sensibilidad con el sistema comercial Vitek 2® (BioMérieux, Inc.), adicionalmente se evaluaron mediante análisis de las secuencia y filogenética ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. En el estudio se incluyeron 78 aislamientos de Candida spp. Las frecuencias de especies de Candida identificadas empleando las herramientas moleculares fueron: C. albicans (38,5%), C. tropicalis (23,1%), C. glabrata (21,8%), C. parapsilosis (10,3%), C. metapsilosis y C. krusei (2,5%) y C. guillermondi (1,3%). La identificación por métodos moleculares y por el sistema Vitek 2 fue: C. albicans (93,3%), C. glabrata (94,1%), C. tropicalis (83,3%), C. parapsilosis (75%) C. guilliermondii y C. krusei (100%). La sensibilidad de todos los aislamientos al fluconazol fue 93,6%.


Abstract Candida spp is an important etiologic agent in urinary tract infections, mainly in patients in broad-spectrum antifungal therapy, with urinary catheters. Candida albicans is the most frequent specie; but other species have arised as emerging pathogens. In this study, isolates of Candida spp. of urine cultures from patients who consulted in Dinamica IPS between January 2016 and November 2017 were evaluated. To estimate the frequency of the species and to observe the sensitivity patterns, the phenotypic identification and its sensitivity profile was performed employed the Vitek 2® commercial system. (BioMérieux, Inc) In addition the isolates were evaluated by sequence analysis and phylogenetics ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. This study included 78 isolates of Candida spp. The frequencies of Candida species identified using the molecular tools were: C. albicans (38.5%), C. tropicalis (23.1%), C. glabrata (21.8%), C. parapsilosis (10.3%), C. guillermondi (1.3%) and C. metapsilosis and C. krusei (2.5%). The identification by molecular methods and by Vitek 2 system were: C. albicans (93.3%), for C. glabrata (94.1%), C. tropicalis (83.3%), C. parapsilosis (75%) and 100% for C. guilliermondii and C. krusei.. fluconazole sensitivity of all isolates was 93.6%


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Candida , Diagnostic Techniques, Urological , Candida parapsilosis , Laboratories , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Sequence Analysis , Urinary Catheters , Infections
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 509-514, nov. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144244

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección del tracto urinario asociada al catéter urinario permanente (ITU/CUP) es un problema relevante en los centros de salud por su alta frecuencia. Objetivo: Identificar factores de riesgo de ITU en pacientes adultos con CUP. Material y Método: Estudio caso control efectuado entre los años 2010-2016 en el Hospital Militar de Santiago. Se realizó un análisis estadístico univariado y multivariado por medio del modelo de regresión logística binaria, con variables como edad, duración e indicación del dispositivo, algunas comorbilidades y la instalación del dispositivo luego de 15 días hospitalización. Resultado: Se obtuvo un total de 63 casos y 123 controles. Fueron variables predictoras de ITU/CUP la duración del CUP desde el séptimo día en adelante (OR 2,6 IC 1,4-4,9, p = 0,004) y la instalación del CUP con una estadía de hospitalización previa de 15 días y más (OR 7,8 IC 2,920,9 p = 0,000). No se encontró asociación con la edad mayor de 80 años, comorbilidades como diabetes y vejiga neurogénica e indicación de instalación. Conclusiones: Los resultados permiten focalizar las intervenciones, evaluando la necesidad real de indicación de CUP en pacientes con estadía hospitalaria previa de dos semanas y fomentar el retiro de CUP antes del séptimo día de uso.


Abstract Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a relevant problem in health centers because of its high frequency. Objective: To identify UTI risk factors in adult patients with urinary catheter. Material and Method: Control case study carried out between the years 2010-2016 at the Military Hospital of Santiago, Chile. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis were performed using the binary logistic regression model, variables such as age, duration and indication of the device, some comorbidities and the installation of the device after 15 days of hospitalization. Result: A total of 63 cases and 123 controls were obtained. Predictive variables of CAUTI for the duration of the urinary catheter from the 7th day onwards (OR 2.6 IC 1.4-4.9, p = 0.004) and the installation of the urinary catheter with a previous hospital stay of 15 days and more (OR 7.8 CI 2.9-20.9 p = 0.000). No association was found in age over 80 years, comorbidities such as diabetes and neurogenic bladder and indication. Conclusions: The results permitted to focus the interventions, evaluating the real need for indication of CUP in patients with previous hospital statistics of 2 weeks and encouraging the withdrawal of CUP before the 7th day of use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Catheters/adverse effects , Urinary Catheterization/adverse effects , Chile/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Risk Factors
10.
Metro cienc ; 28(4): 16-20, 2020/10/29. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151641

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: determinar el tiempo de sondaje postquirúrgico recomendado para evitar complicaciones en cirugías endourológicas del tracto urinario inferior. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica actualizada sobre el tiempo de sondaje postquirúrgico recomendado para evitar complicaciones en cirugías endourológicas del tracto urinario inferior. Resultados: Se encontró asociación entre un mayor tiempo de sondaje y la ocurrencia de posteriores complicaciones relacionadas cirugías endourológicas del tracto urinario inferior, siendo el período menor a 72h el óptimo para la permanencia de la sonda ve-sical postquirúrgica en este tipo de intervenciones. No se identificaron factores de riesgo asociados a la prolongación del tiempo de sondaje postquirúrgico. Recomendaciones: El tipo de abordaje endoscópico se ha convertido en la actualidad en el tratamiento estándar de oro para la mayoría de las patologías del tracto urinario inferior; sin embargo, se requiere realizar más estudios sobre las complicaciones y factores de riesgo relacionados al tiempo de sondaje postquirúrgico para evitar complicaciones en cirugías endourológicas del tracto urinario inferior


ABSTRACT Objective: to determine the recommended post-surgical probing time to avoid complications in endourological surgeries of the lower urinary tract. Materials and methods: an updated bibliographic review was carried out on the recommended post-surgical catheterization time to avoid complications in endou-rological surgeries of the lower urinary tract. Results: An association was found between a longer catheterization time and the occurrence of subsequent complications related to endourological surgeries of the lower urinary tract, with the period of less than 72h being the optimal period for the permanence of the postsurgical urinary catheter in this type of intervention. No risk factors associated with prolonged postoperative probing time were identified. Recom-mendations: The type of endoscopic approach has now become the gold standard treatment for most lower urinary tract pathologies; However, more studies are required on the complications and risk factors related to the time of postoperative catheterization to avoid complications in endourological surgeries of the lower urinary tract


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pathology , Therapeutics , Urinary Catheters , Time , Risk Factors , Prospecting Probe
12.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 7(1): 70-83, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1144375

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las infecciones en personas con enfermedad renal crónica son una causa importante de morbimortalidad. Los pacientes renales presentan factores de riesgo específicos para la adquisición de infecciones, que además suelen ser más graves, de progresión más rápida y de resolución más lenta que en sujetos sanos. La infección del tracto urinario en esta población es a menudo complicada debido a la presencia de diabetes, microorganismos multirresistentes, anomalías anatómicas o funcionales del tracto urinario, alteraciones metabólicas y el uso frecuente de sonda vesical. Las infecciones urinarias ocasionan una de las tasas más altas de hospitalización en diálisis y son muy prevalentes en el trasplante renal. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar la literatura publicada sobre la etiología, el diagnóstico microbiológico y el tratamiento de las infecciones del tracto urinario en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica.


Abstract Infections in chronic kidney disease patients are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Renal patients have specific risk factors for acquiring infections, which also tend to be more severe and have a more rapid progression and slower resolution than in the healthy individuals. Urinary tract infection in renal patients is often complicated due to the presence of diabetes, multiresistant microorganisms, anatomic or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract, metabolic disturbances and the frequent use of urinary catheters. It causes one of the highest rates of hospitalization among dialysis patients and is highly prevalent in kidney transplantation. The aim of this work is to review the etiology, microbiological diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections in chronic kidney disease patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Tract Infections , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Spain , Urinary Tract , Morbidity , Renal Replacement Therapy , Urinary Catheters , Literature
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 241-247, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125075

ABSTRACT

La segunda parte del Consenso Argentino Intersociedades de Infección Urinaria incluye el análisis de situaciones especiales. En pacientes con sonda vesical se debe solicitar urocultivo solo cuando hay signo-sintomatología de infección del tracto urinario, antes de instrumentaciones de la vía urinaria o como control en pacientes post-trasplante renal. El tratamiento empírico recomendado en pacientes sin factores de riesgo es cefalosporinas de tercera generación o aminoglucósidos. Las infecciones del tracto urinario asociadas a cálculos son siempre consideradas complicadas. En caso de obstrucción con urosepsis, deberá realizarse drenaje de urgencia por vía percutánea o ureteral. En pacientes con stents o prótesis ureterales, como catéteres doble J, el tratamiento empírico deberá basarse en la epidemiología, los antibióticos previos y el estado clínico. Antes del procedimiento de litotricia extracorpórea se recomienda pesquisar la bacteriuria y, si es positiva, administrar profilaxis antibiótica según el antibiograma. Cefalosporinas de primera generación o aminoglúcosidos son opciones válidas. Se recomienda aplicar profilaxis antibiótica con cefalosporinas de primera generación o aminoglúcosidos antes de la nefrolitotomía percutánea. La biopsia prostática trans-rectal puede asociarse a complicaciones infecciosas, como infecciones del tracto urinario o prostatitis aguda, principalmente por Escherichia coli u otras enterobacterias. En pacientes sin factores de riesgo para gérmenes multirresistentes y urocultivo negativo se recomienda realizar profilaxis con amikacina o ceftriaxona endovenosas. En pacientes con urocultivo positivo, se realizará profilaxis según antibiograma, 24 horas previas a 24 horas post-procedimiento. Para el tratamiento dirigido de la prostatitis post-biopsia trans-rectal, los carbapenémicos durante 3-4 semanas son el tratamiento de elección.


The second part of the Inter-Society Argentine Consensus on Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) includes the analysis of special situations. In patients with urinary catheter, urine culture should be requested only in the presence of UTI symptomatology, before instrumentation of the urinary tract, or as a post-transplant control. The antibiotics recommended for empirical treatment in patients without risk factors are third-generation cephalosporins or aminoglycosides. UTIs associated with stones are always considered complicated. In case of obstruction with urosepsis, an emergency drainage should be performed via a percutaneous nefrostomy or ureteral stenting. In patients with stents or ureteral prostheses, such as double J catheters, empirical treatment should be based on epidemiology, prior antibiotics, and clinical status. Before the extracorporeal lithotripsy procedure, bacteriuria should be investigated and antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered in case of positive result, according to the antibiogram. First generation cephalosporins or aminoglycosides are valid alternatives. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis with first-generation cephalosporins or aminoglycosides before percutaneous nephrolithotomy is recommended. Transrectal prostatic biopsy can be associated with infectious complications, such as UTI or acute prostatitis, mainly due to Escherichia coli or other enterobacteria. In patients without risk factors for multiresistant bacteria and negative urine culture, prophylaxis with intravenous amikacin or ceftriaxone is recommended. In patients with positive urine culture, prophylaxis will be performed according to the antibiogram, from 24 hours before to 24 hours post-procedure. For the targeted treatment of post-transrectal biopsy prostatitis, carbapenems for 3-4 weeks are the treatment of choice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Consensus , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary/therapeutic use , Argentina , Prostatitis/etiology , Prostatitis/drug therapy , Lithotripsy/adverse effects , Stents/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Nephrolithiasis/complications , Urinary Catheters/adverse effects , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 1058-1065, 01-05-2020. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147202

ABSTRACT

To map the scientific production about biofilms formation and prevention on urinary catheters. It is a bibliometric, exploratory, and descriptive research performed in Web of Science™, in three stages, and utilizing HistCite™ software. In this regard, descriptors "Biofilm*" AND "Urinary Catheter*" were utilized within the period between 1945 and 2016. A total of 329 articles about biofilm on urinary catheter were found from 1985 to 2016. These articles were written by 1,262 authors from 452 institutions located in 50 countries. The relation among the 15 selected articles, the most impacting ones, evidences the existence of experimental researches; most of them was in vitro. The control of biofilm formation on urinary catheters remains as a major challenge in the health area, because new ways are necessary to improve the prevention and minimization of this phenomenon.


Mapear a produção científica acerca da formação e prevenção de biofilmes em cateteres urinários. Trata-se de uma pesquisa bibliométrica, exploratória e descritiva, realizada no Web of Science™, em três estágios, e utilizando o software HistCite™. Nesse sentido, foram utilizados os descritores "Biofilme*" E "Cateter Urinário*" no período de 1945 a 2016. Foram encontrados 329 artigos sobre biofilme em cateter urinário no período de 1985 a 2016. Estes artigos foram escritos por 1.262 autores de 452 instituições localizadas em 50 países. A relação entre os 15 artigos selecionados, os mais impactantes, evidencia a existência de pesquisas experimentais; a maioria delas foi in vitro. O controle da formação de biofilme nos cateteres urinários permanece como um grande desafio na área da saúde, pois são necessárias novas formas de melhorar a prevenção e a minimização desse fenômeno.


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , Biofilms , Urinary Catheters
15.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(1): e472, ene.-mar. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126691

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ectopia renal cruzada fusionada, es una anomalía congénita infrecuente, que acontece durante la migración fisiológica de dichos órganos en la etapa embrionaria. Objetivo: Describir detalles clínicos e imaginológicos de un nuevo caso de ectopia renal cruzada fusionada. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 48 años de edad, con antecedentes de hiperplasia prostática, con tratamiento de terazosina. Presentó retención completa de orina por lo cual se le colocó sonda uretral. El ultrasonido abdominal reportó que el riñón izquierdo era de ecoestructura, tamaño y posición normales, pero el derecho no estaba en la localización normal y se sospechó que estaba situado en la región del mesogastrio. La vejiga era normal y la próstata tenía un volumen de 87 cm3. La tomografía axial computarizada abdominal contrastada, confirmó que se trataba de una ectopia renal derecha cruzada fusionada, en el polo inferior del riñón ortotópico, en forma de "J". Se intentó retirar la sonda uretral en dos ocasiones y volvía a obstruirse, por lo cual se decidió la terapéutica quirúrgica definitiva. En el chequeo preoperatorio todos los estudios de la analítica sanguínea fueron normales. Al paciente se le realizó la adenomectomía retropúbica. Evolucionó satisfactoriamente. El estudio histopatológico de la pieza quirúrgica informó hiperplasia prostática. Conclusiones: La ectopia renal cruzada fusionada es infrecuente. El diagnóstico de certeza se obtiene mediante la tomografía axial computarizada abdominal contrastada(AU)


Introduction: Crossed-fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly, which occurs during the physiological migration of these organs in the embryonic stage. Objective: To describe clinical and imaginological details of a new case of crossed-fused renal ectopia. Case report: 48-year-old male patient, with a history of prostatic hyperplasia, with terazosin treatment. He had complete retention of urine for which urethral catheter was placed. Abdominal ultrasound reported that the left kidney was of normal structure, size and echo, but the right one was not in the normal location and was suspected of being located in the mesogastrium region. The bladder was normal and the prostate had a volume of 87 cm3. Contrast abdominal computed tomography confirmed that it was a fused right renal ectopia, in the lower pole of the orthotopic kidney, in the form of "J". An attempt was made to remove the urethral catheter twice and it became blocked again, so the definitive surgical therapy was decided. In the preoperative check-up, all blood test studies were normal. The patient underwent retropubic adenomectomy. It evolved satisfactorily. Histopathological study of the surgical specimen reported prostatic hyperplasia. Conclusions: Crossed-fused renal ectopia is uncommon. The diagnosis of certainty is obtained by contrasted abdominal computed tomography(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Congenital Abnormalities , Urinary Bladder , Tomography , Urinary Catheters , Kidney/diagnostic imaging
16.
Brain & Neurorehabilitation ; : 6-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785548

ABSTRACT

Robots are being used to assist the recovery of walking ability for patients with neurologic disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and functional improvement of training with robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) using the Morning Walk®, an end-effector type robot using footplates and saddle seat support. A total of 189 individuals (65.1% men, 34.9% women; mean age, 53.2 years; age range: 5–87 years) with brain lesions, spinal cord injuries, Parkinson's disease, peripheral neuropathies, and pediatric patients were involved in this retrospectively registered clinical trial. Each participant performed 30 minutes of RAGT, five times a week, for a total of 24 sessions. Failure was defined as an inability to complete all 24 sessions, and the reasons for discontinuation were analyzed. Parameters of Medical Research Council scales and Functional Ambulation Categories were analyzed before and after RAGT training. Among the 189 patients, 22 (11.6%) failed to complete the RAGT. The reasons included decreased cooperation, musculoskeletal pain, saddle seat discomfort, excessive body-weight support, joint spasticity or restricted joint motion, urinary incontinence from an indwelling urinary catheter, and fatigue. Comparison between the pre- and post-training motor and ambulatory functions showed significant improvement. The result of the study indicates that the Morning Walk® is feasible and safe and useful for functional improvement in patients with various neurologic disordersTRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0003627


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Brain , Fatigue , Gait , Information Services , Joints , Muscle Spasticity , Musculoskeletal Pain , Nervous System Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Cord Injuries , Urinary Catheters , Urinary Incontinence , Walking , Weights and Measures
17.
Orient Journal of Medicine ; 32(1-2): 46-54, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1268296

ABSTRACT

Background: Urethral stricture is an abnormal narrowing or loss of distensibility of any segment of the urethra surrounded by corpus spongiosum. In the last two decades, there has been a change in the pattern of aetiology of urethral stricture in urban centres in Nigeria with a shift away from post-infective strictures to the emergence of traumatic and iatrogenic causes.Objective: This study aims to present our observation of the occurrence of long-segment urethral strictures in patients after urethral catheter placement for various indications.Methodology: This is a descriptive, cross sectional report of patients who presented to and were managed at the Urology Unit of a tertiary hospital in North-Western Nigeria. Relevant information were retrieved from patients' case notes and the data was entered into a proforma and analysed using the SPSS 20 software.Results: The mean age of the patients was 45.4 ± 19.4 years, with a range of 11-80 years. Indications for urethral catheterization were acute urine retention 11 (43.8%), intra-operative urine output monitoring 9 (28.1%), following road traffic accident 10(31.2%), unconsciousness secondary to meningitis 1 (3.1%) and after urologic surgery 1 (3.1%). Urethral catheterization was carried out in peripheral hospitals in 19 (56.3%) patients; and from the hospitals operating room in 10 (31.2%), accident and emergency room 2 (6.3%) and trauma centre 1 (3.1%). Strictures were panurethral in 22 (68.75%), in the bulbar urethra in 6 (18.75%) and in the penile urethra 4 (12.5%). The length of strictures ranged from 1 cm to 20 cm. Treatments offered included substitution urethroplasty using oral mucosa grafts (OMG) urethroplasty 30 (93.8%), fasciocutaneous penile flap 1 (3.1%) and direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU)1 (3.1%). Satisfactory voiding was recorded in 28 (87.5%), voiding was unsatisfactory in 2 (6.3%), while one patient had stricture recurrence and another one is awaiting second stage repair.Conclusion: Urethral catheterization is an emerging cause of panurethral strictures in our practice and may occur even after relief of acute urine retention but more worrisome following short-term catheterization during surgery. There is need for evaluation of the quality of silicone-coated latex urethral catheters currently available


Subject(s)
Catheterization/complications , Latex Hypersensitivity , Nigeria , Urethral Stricture , Urinary Catheters
19.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(2): 450-454, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1003481

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the patients care in the use of the Male External Catheter in Adults in a clinical-surgical hospitalization unit. Method: a cross-sectional study. Evaluation of 30 patients hospitalized in clinical-surgical units to collect items related to the specific care provided. Results: 100% had no reference to the use of external catheter in the evolution of the nurse; 43.3% of the assistants or technicians recorded; 36.6% presented skin lesions; 100% had a latex device attached with adhesive tape; 90% were not submitted to hair removal; 96.7% had daily genital hygiene; 70% received no guidance at all. Conclusion: no individualized evaluation was observed for the use of the device, nursing records did not include prescription and description of installation and care, latex device and micropore paper adhesive tape were predominant; skin lesions were prevalent, hygiene and exchange were adequate, few patients were advised regarding the use of the device.


RESUMEN Objetivo: describir la asistencia a los pacientes en uso del Cateter Urinario Externo Masculino en una unidad de internación clínico-quirúrgica. Método: estudio transversal. Evaluación de 30 pacientes internados en unidades clínico-quirúrgicas para el levantamiento de ítems relacionados al cuidado específico prestado. Resultados: el 100% no tuvo referencia del uso de catéter externo en la evolución del enfermero; el 43,3% de los auxiliares o técnicos realizaron anotaciones; el 36,6% presentó lesión de la piel; el 100% estaba con dispositivo de látex fijado con cinta adhesiva; el 90% no fue sometido a la remoción de los pelos; el 96,7% realizó higiene genital diariamente; el 70% no recibió ningún tipo de orientación. Conclusión: no se observó una evaluación individualizada para el uso del dispositivo, los registros de Enfermería no contemplaron prescripción y descripción de instalación y cuidados; el dispositivo de látex y la cinta adhesiva microporosa fueron predominantes; las lesiones de la piel fueron prevalentes, la higiene y el cambio fueron adecuados, y pocos pacientes fueron orientados en cuanto al uso del dispositivo.


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever a assistência aos pacientes em uso do Cateter Urinário Externo Masculino em unidade de internação clínico-cirúrgica. Método: estudo transversal. Avaliação de 30 pacientes internados em unidades clínico-cirúrgicas para levantamento de itens relacionados ao cuidado específico prestado. Resultados: 100% não teve referência do uso de cateter externo na evolução do enfermeiro; 43,3% dos auxiliares ou técnicos realizaram anotação; 36,6% apresentaram lesão de pele; 100% estava com dispositivo de látex fixado com fita adesiva; 90% não foram submetidos à remoção dos pelos; 96,7% tiveram higiene genital diariamente; 70% não receberam nenhum tipo de orientação. Conclusão: não se observou avaliação individualizada para uso do dispositivo, os registros de enfermagem não contemplaram prescrição e descrição de instalação e cuidados, dispositivo de látex e fita adesiva microporosa foram predominantes; lesões de pele foram prevalentes, higiene e troca foram adequadas, poucos pacientes foram orientados quanto ao uso do dispositivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Catheters/standards , Nursing Care/methods , Urinary Incontinence/nursing , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Urinary Catheters/trends , Middle Aged
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