Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 3.681
Filter
1.
Femina ; 49(6): 373-378, 20210630. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290582

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana do patógeno mais comum causador da infecção do trato urinário (ITU) de gestantes que foram internadas em um hospital de ensino do município de São Paulo em determinado período. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado avaliando as uroculturas positivas e o perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana dos agentes mais comuns encontrados em ITUs das gestantes de hospital e maternidade-escola do município de São Paulo de janeiro de 2019 até janeiro de 2020. Resultados: A partir da análise de uroculturas positivas e antibiograma de 149 gestantes admitidas com quadro de infecção urinária no referido hospital no intervalo de tempo analisado, constatou-se que 83,89% dos casos apresentaram como patógeno a bactéria Escherichia coli. No âmbito da resistência bacteriana, percebeu-se que o maior índice foi encontrado no que tange a cefalotina (65%), ampicilina (58%) e ampicilina/sulbactam (45%). Ademais, a partir das análises individuais, 20 pacientes, ou seja, aproximadamente 13,42% apresentaram cepas sensíveis a todas as medicações apontadas, e as demais apresentaram resistência a, pelo menos, uma delas. Conclusão: A partir da premissa de eficácia desempenhada pelo protocolo de medicação empírica estabelecido pela instituição no tocante ao tratamento de infecção do trato urinário em gestantes, a cefalotina certamente não deveria compor o rol de drogas ofertadas às pacientes. Isso se dá, pois a sensibilidade apresentada pela Escherichia coli, patógeno que mais comumente está associado aos quadros de ITU do serviço, a essa droga é muito baixa. Já a nitrofurantoína apresentou um satisfatório espectro de cobertura, sendo a resistência à droga inferior a 10%. Com isso, conclui-se que ela deve permanecer como droga inicial para as ITUs das gestantes que chegam a essa instituição.(AU)


Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity profile of the most common pathogen that causes urinary tract infection (ITU) in pregnant women who were admitted to a Teaching Hospital in the city of São Paulo in a specific period. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional, quantitative study carried out evaluating positive urine cultures and the antimicrobial sensitivity profile of the most common agents found in ITU of pregnant women at Teaching Maternity hospital in the city of São Paulo from January 2019 to January 2020. Results: From the of positive urine culture and antibiogram of 149 pregnant women admitted with a urinary tract infection in the referred hospital in the analyzed period of time, it was found that 83.89% of the cases presented the bacterium Escherichia coli as a pathogen. In the scope of bacterial resistance, it was noticed that the highest index was found with respect to Cephalothin (65%), ampicillin (58%) and ampicillin/sulbactam (45%). Furthermore, from the individual analyzes, 20 patients, that is, approximately 13.42% had strains sensitive to all the medications indicated, with the others showing resistance to at least one of them. Conclusion: Based on the premise of efficacy performed by the empirical medication protocol established by the institution regarding the treatment of urinary tract infection in pregnant women, Cephalothin should certainly not be included in the list of drugs offered to patients. This happens because the sensitivity presented by Escherichia coli, the most commonly pathogen associated with the UTI pathogen of the service, to this drug is very low. Nitrofurantoin, on the other hand, presented a satisfactory coverage spectrum, with drug resistance below 10%. Thus, it is concluded that this should remain as an initial drug for ITUs of pregnant women who arrive at this institution.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Pregnancy Complications/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 10-14, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292684

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Las infecciones del tracto urinario son causa de mayor morbilidad en la población adulta y afectan con frecuencia a la mujer. Al ser un problema prevalente, fue fundamental realizar estudios sobre perfiles de susceptibilidad locales para establecer medidas de vigilancia y control de uso de antibióticos. OBJETIVO. Determinar el perfil de farmacorresistencia microbiana en adultos con infección del tracto urinario. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio descriptivo, transversal. La población fue de 437 urocultivos y una muestra de 176 positivos con su antibiograma, realizados en el laboratorio del Hospital Básico de Sangolquí entre enero de 2017 hasta abril de 2018. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: pacientes mayores de 15 años de edad de ambos sexos, ambulatorios y hospitalizados, que presentaron urocultivos positivos definidos por una cuenta mayor a 100 000 Unidades Formadoras de Colonia. RESULTADOS. Del 40,27% (176; 437) de urocultivos positivos, la bacteria aislada con frecuencia fue Escherichia coli. 69,31% (122; 176), con resistencia a ampicilina 77,97% (92; 118), trimetropim-sulfametoxazole 62,26% (66; 106), norfloxacino 37,50% (42; 112), ciprofloxacino 35,65 % (41; 115), ampicilina/sulbactam 32,20% (38; 118) y con susceptibilidad a: fosfomicina, ceftriaxona, amikacina y nitrofurantoina. CONCLUSIÓN. Se determinó el perfil de farmacorresistencia microbiana en adultos con infección del tracto urinario; donde Escherichia coli. fue aislada con frecuencia, con susceptibilidad favorable para nitrofurantoína y fosfomicina.


INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infections are the cause of greater morbidity in the adult population and it often affects women. As it is a prevalent problem, it was essential to carry out studies on local susceptibility profiles to establish surveillance measures and control of antibiotic use. OBJECTIVE. To determine the microbial drug resistance profile in adults with urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population was 437 urine cultures and a sample of 176 positive with their antibiogram, carried out in the laboratory of the Hospital Básico de Sangolquí between january 2017 and april 2018. Inclusion criteria were: patients older than 15 years of age of both sexes, ambulatory and hospitalized, who presented positive urine cultures defined by a count greater than 100 000 Colony Forming Units. RESULTS. Of the 40,27% (176; 437) of positive urine cultures, the bacterium frequently isolated was Escherichia coli. 69,31% (122; 176), with resistance to ampicillin 77,97% (92; 118), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 62,26% (66; 106), norfloxacin 37,50% (42; 112), ciprofloxacin 35,65% (41; 115), ampicillin / sulbactam 32,20% (38; 118) and with susceptibility to: fosfomycin, ceftriaxone, amikacin and nitrofurantoin. CONCLUSION. The microbial drug resistance profile was determined in adults with urinary tract infection; where Escherichia coli. was frequently isolated, with favorable susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Staphylococcus , Bacteriuria , Ampicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli
3.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(1): 1-9, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222376

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección del tracto urinario es una afectación frecuente en niños, y su recurrencia predispone a patologías crónicas que disminuyen la sobrevida de pacientes hospitalizados. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de infección del tracto urinario y factores asociados en niños hospitalizados de 0 a 5 años. Métodos: El presente estudio es transversal analítico, el universo lo constituyó los niños hospitalizados en pediatría de 0 -5 años del Hospital ¨José Carrasco Arteaga¨ de Cuenca-Ecuador, la muestra fue probabilística 147 casos, el muestreo fue aleatorio simple. Las variables fueron presencia de ITU, edad, sexo, nivel socio-económico, balanitis, estreñimiento, antecedentes de ITU. En el análisis bivariado se determinó asociación mediante chi cuadrado y se midió la intensidad de asociación por Razón de prevalencia (RP) con un Intervalo de confianza del 95% y un valor significativo de P< 0.05. Resultados: Fueron 147 casos. La prevalencia de ITU fue 10.6%, se presentaron como factores protectores: edad < 1 año RP 0.21 (IC 95% 0.16-0.42, P<0.001) y el sexo masculino RP 0.28 (IC 0.18-0.471, P<0.001). Los factores de riesgo fueron: el nivel socioeconómico medio-bajo RP 1.70 (IC 1.01-2.86, P=0.04), balanitis RP 3.23 (IC 2.48-4.21, P=0.012), fimosis RP 29.37 (IC 6.34-136.3., P<0.001), sinequias RP 1.43 (IC 1.14-1.79, P=0.02), el antecedente de infección del tracto urinario RP 78.91 (IC 10.72-580.7, P<0.001) y estreñimiento RP 4.51 (IC 2.16-9.50, P<0.001). La hidronefrosis fue el hallazgo ecográfico más frecuente RP 78.9 (IC 10.7-580.7, P<0.001). Conclusiones: El sexo masculino fue un factor protector, y alteraciones anatómicas del tracto urinario fueron los mayores factores de riesgo.


Introduction: Urinary tract infection is a frequent affliction in children, and its recurrence predisposes the patient to chronic pathologies that decrease the survival of hospitalized patients. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection and associated factors in hospitalized children aged 0 to 5 years. Methods: The present study is cross-sectional analytical. The universe was made up of children hospitalized in pediatrics, aged 0-5 years, at "José Carrasco Arteaga" Hospital in Cuenca-Ecuador. The sample was probabilistic, with 147 cases, while the sampling was simple random. The variables were the presence of UTI, age, sex, socioeconomic status, balanitis, constipation, and history of UTI. In the bivariate analysis, the association was determined using chi-square, and the intensity of the association was measured by prevalence ratio (PR) with a 95% confidence interval and a significant value of P <0.05. Results: There were 147 cases. The prevalence of UTI was 10.6%. The following were presented as protective factors: age <1 year PR 0.21 (95% CI 0.16-0.42, P <0.001) and male sex PR 0.28 (CI 0.18-0.471, P <0.001). The risk factors were: low-middle socioeconomic level PR 1.70 (CI 1.01-2.86, P = 0.04), balanitis PR 3.23 (CI 2.48-4.21, P = 0.012), phimosis PR 29.37 (CI 6.34-136.3., P <0.001), synechiae PR 1.43 (CI 1.14-1.79, P= 0.02), history of urinary tract infection PR 78.91 (CI 10.72-580.7, P <0.001), and constipation PR 4.51 (CI 2.16-9.50, P <0.001 ). Hydronephrosis was the most frequent ultrasound finding PR 78.9 (CI 10.7-580.7, P <0.001). Conclusions: Male sex was a protective factor, and anatomical alterations of the urinary tract were the major risk factors.


Subject(s)
Pediatrics , Urinary Tract Infections , Urologic Diseases , Risk Factors
4.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 37(1): e3800, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341389

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección de vías urinarias es recurrente en el embarazo y generadora de complicaciones. Objetivo: Presentar un plan de cuidados enfermero a una mujer con diagnóstico infección de vías urinarias y amenaza de aborto Métodos: Caso clínico de paciente admitida en unidad de Ginecología y Obstetricia del Hospital General de Teziutlán, Puebla, México, durante 2019. Siguiendo la lógica del proceso de enfermería, la valoración se fundamentó en los patrones funcionales de salud de Marjory Gordon. Fueron utilizadas las terminologías normalizadas de enfermería: Diagnósticos (NANDA.int). Resultados (NOC) e Intervenciones (NIC). Resultados: Se identificaron cuatro diagnósticos de enfermería: deterioro de la eliminación urinaria, gestión ineficaz de la propia salud, disposición para mejorar la nutrición y riesgo de alteración de la díada materno/fetal, este último diagnóstico principal. Además, un Resultado NOC (Conocimiento: Control de Infección), cuatro indicadores y la escala de nunca a siempre demostrado; cuatro Intervenciones NIC, con 19 actividades. La evaluación transitó desde 12 (puntuación inicial) a 19 (puntuación final), de 20 como puntuación diana. Conclusión: La integración de las taxonomías NANDA, NIC, NOC y los patrones funcionales de salud de Marjory Gordon permitió diseñar el plan de cuidado de la embarazada, fueron articulados diagnósticos, resultados e intervenciones de enfermería que favorecieron la relación enfermera-paciente-contexto sociocultural, para llevar el cuidado hasta una concepción sistémica que permita el seguimiento y control de la embarazada(AU)


Introduction: Urinary tract infection is recurrent in pregnancy and causes complications. Objective: To present a nursing care plan provided to a woman with a diagnosis of urinary tract infection and threatened miscarriage. Methods: Clinical case of a patient admitted to the gynecology and obstetrics unit of General Hospital of Teziutlán (Puebla, Mexico) during 2019. Following the logic of the nursing process, the assessment was based on Marjory Gordon's functional health patterns. The standard nursing terminologies were used: diagnostics (NANDA-I), outcomes (NOC) and interventions (NIC). Results: Four nursing diagnoses were identified: deterioration of urinary elimination, ineffective self-health management, willingness to improve nutrition, and risk for alterations in maternal-fetal dyad, the latter being the main diagnosis. In addition, a NOC outcome (knowledge: infection control), four indicators and the never-to-always scale upon demonstration, as well as four NIC interventions, with nineteen activities, were obtained. Evaluation ranged from twelve (initial score) to nineteen (final score), with twenty as target score. Conclusion: The integration of the NANDA, NIC and NOC taxonomies together with the Marjory Gordon's functional health patterns allowed the design of the pregnant woman's care plan, with an articulation between nursing diagnoses, outcomes and interventions, which favored the nurse-patient-sociocultural context relationship, up to considering care based on a systemic conception that allows monitoring and control of the pregnant woman(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Abortion, Threatened/diagnosis , Reproductive Tract Infections/etiology , Nursing Process
5.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(1): 2748-2758, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156772

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la infección urinaria en el embarazo constituye uno de los principales problemas de salud, que influyen de forma directa en el desarrollo del embarazo y el parto. Objetivo: caracterizar las gestantes con infección urinaria, pertenecientes al área de salud del Policlínico Universitario "Ángel Machaco Ameijeiras" de Guanabacoa, La Habana, Cuba, de enero 2019 a enero 2020. Materiales y Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y de corte transversal en 129 gestantes del área de salud y periodo de tiempo antes definidos. La información se obtuvo de las historias clínicas individuales. Las principales variables a medir fueron: edad materna, germen causal, modificaciones cervicales, y complicaciones prenatales y post natales más frecuentes. Resultados: predominó la infección urinaria en 52 pacientes (40,31 %), el grupo de edades de 26-30 años fue el más representado, con 47 casos (36,43 %), las modificaciones cervicales estuvieron presentes en 35 pacientes (67,30 %) y el germen causal más frecuente fue el staphylococcus ssp en 22 pacientes (42,30 %) y valor P=0,01. La presencia de bajo peso/ crecimiento intrauterino retardado se representó en 18 pacientes (34,61%). Conclusiones: se caracterizó las gestantes incluidas en el estudio, predominó la existencia de infección urinaria y el bajo peso fue la complicación más representada (AU).


SUMMARY Introduction: the urinary infection in pregnancy is one of the main health problems, influencing in a straight way in pregnancy development and childbirth. Objective: to characterize pregnant women with urinary infection belonging to the health are of the University Polyclinic "Ángel Machaco Ameijeiras" of Guanabacoa, La Habana, Cuba, from January 2019 to January 2020. Materials and methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in 129 pregnant women of the aforementioned health area during the period herein declared. The information was gathered from the individual medical records. The main variables measured were: maternal age, causal germ, cervical modifications and more frequent prenatal and postnatal complications. Results: urinary infection predominated in 52 patients (40.31 %); the 26-30 age group was the most represented one, with 47 cases (36.43 %); cervical modifications were present in 35 patients (67.30 %); and the most frequent causal germ was the Staphylococcus ssp., in 22 patients (42.30 %), P value=0.01. Low weight/IUGR was present in 18 patients (34.61 %). Conclusions: pregnant women included in the study were characterized, predominating the existence of urinary infection. Low weight was the most represented complication (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Vaginal Diseases , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Pregnant Women , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Escherichia coli
6.
Arch. med ; 21(1): 57-66, 2021/01/03.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148363

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: caracterizar el perfil clínico y epidemiológico de las mujeres embarazadas con diagnóstico de infección de vías urinarias. La infección del tracto urinario es una de las patologías infecciosas más frecuentes, que afecta en especial a las mujeres gestantes por las complicaciones inherentes a los cambios fisiológicos durante el embarazo. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectiva, empleando historias clínicas de pacientes gestantes entre los años 2017-2020, definiendo criterios para incluirlas en el presente estudio; la información se registró en una base de datos para facilitar su análisis. Resultados: 112 historias clínicas cumplieron con los criterios de elegibilidad. El microorganismo más frecuente en el urocultivo fue la Escherichia coli en el 34.8%. La mediana de días de manejo intrahospitalario fue de 3 días, por el tiempo que toma obtener el resultado del urocultivo para definir la sensibilidad al antibiótico. De las pacientes manejadas con aztreonam, solo una requirió escalar tratamiento antibiótico. Conclusiones: el aztreonam podría considerarse primera línea de elección empírica para manejo intrahospitalario, no obstante, se requieren estudios controlados al respecto; así mismo se requieren estudios de casos y controles que permitan detectar que condiciones predisponen a algunas gestantes frente a otras al desarrollo de estas infecciones..Au


Objective: to characterize the clinical and epidemiological profile of pregnant women diagnosed with urinary tract infection. The urinary tract infection is one of the most frequent infectious diseases, it has great implications in pregnant women because have a higher risk of secondary complications due to the physiological changes inherent in pregnancy. Materials and methods: a retrospective cohort study was carried out, using medical records of pregnant patients between the years 2017-2020, criteria were defined to include the patients; the information was registered in a data base to facilitate the analysis. Results: 112 medical records that met the eligibility criteria were included. The most common microorganism in the culture was Escherichia coli in 34.8%. The median days of in-hospital management in this study was 3 days, explained by the time it takes to obtain the urine culture result to define antibiotic sensitivity. Of the patients managed with aztreonam, only one required scaling antibiotic treatment. Conclusions: aztreonam may be used as first empiric line of treatment in hospitalized patients, nonetheless it requires controlled studies. Likewise, case and control studies are required to detect which conditions predispose some pregnant women to develop urinary tract infections..Au


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Urinary Tract Infections , Pregnant Women
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with neurogenic bladder (NB), and to provide a reference for its early diagnosis and treatment.@*METHODS@#Clinical data were collected from 26 children with NB and urinary tract infection who were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Nephrology from January 2014 to December 2019. According to the presence or absence of VUR, the children were divided into a VUR group with 11 children and a non-VUR group with 15 children. Clinical features were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the non-VUR group, the VUR group had a significantly higher proportion of children with non-@*CONCLUSIONS@#When NB children have the clinical manifestations of non-


Subject(s)
Child , Creatinine , Humans , Infant , Radionuclide Imaging , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/etiology , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/diagnostic imaging
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020200, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142404

ABSTRACT

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare variant of chronic pyelonephritis. It is characterized by progressive parenchymal destruction caused by chronic renal obstruction due to calculus, stricture, or rarely tumor, resulting in kidney function loss. Herein, we describe the case of a 36-year-old female who presented with left loin pain, left lower limb pain, and dysuria. On contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT), multiple abscesses and an obstructive staghorn calculus were depicted in the left kidney with the classical appearance of "Bear Paw Sign." An abscess with calculi was also present within the left psoas muscle. Though psoas muscle abscess in association with XGP was described, a ureteric fistula and calculi within the psoas muscle have not yet been reported in the literature. Left nephrostomy was performed, which came out to be positive for E. coli on culture. The patient underwent left nephrectomy, and the histopathological report of the surgical specimen confirmed XGP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Urinary Tract Infections , Pyelonephritis, Xanthogranulomatous/pathology , Psoas Muscles/abnormalities , Escherichia coli , Staghorn Calculi
9.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(spe): e20210125, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1337759

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o perfil clínico-epidemiológico de crianças e adolescentes hospitalizadas na clínica médica de um hospital pediátrico, referente aos períodos não pandêmico e pandêmico por COVID-19. Método: Trata-se de estudo comparativo de natureza quantitativa, com delineamento transversal. A coleta de dados foi realizada em 219 prontuários do Serviço de Arquivo Médico e Estatística de um complexo pediátrico, no município de João Pessoa-PB. Quanto à análise dos dados, utilizou-se a estatística descritiva e testes estatísticos para comparar os grupos. Resultados: O perfil das crianças e dos adolescentes hospitalizados teve predominância do sexo masculino, e de lactentes para o período não pandêmico e pandêmico, igualmente. A mãe foi a principal responsável e acompanhante da criança. As variáveis, natureza do benefício social, diagnóstico segundo especialidade médica e tempo de internação apresentaram diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os períodos não pandêmico e pandêmico por COVID-19. Conclusão: Os dados encontrados apontam que não ocorreram mudanças expressivas no perfil sociodemográfico de crianças internadas. A pandemia por COVID-19 resultou em maior mudança no perfil clínico das internações. Implicações para a prática: Conhecer o perfil das crianças e adolescentes em processo de hospitalização, em um período pandêmico por COVID-19, auxiliará na elaboração de fluxos assistenciais e estratégias que atendam às reais demandas com propriedade


Objective: Analyze the epidemiological clinical profile of children and adolescents hospitalized in the medical clinic of a pediatric hospital in a non-pandemic and pandemic period by COVID-19. Method: This is a comparative study of quantitative nature, with cross-sectional design. Data collection was performed in 219 medical records of the Medical Archives and Statistics Service of a pediatric complex in the municipality of João Pessoa-PB. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and statistical tests were used to compare the groups. Results: The profile of hospitalized children and adolescents was predominantly male and infant for the nonpandemic and pandemic period, equally. The mother was the main caregiver and companion of the child. The variables, nature of the social benefit, diagnosis according to medical specialty and length of stay, showed a statistically significant difference between the non-pandemic and pandemic periods by COVID-19. Conclusion: The data found indicate that there were no significant changes in the sociodemographic profile of hospitalized children. The pandemic due to COVID-19, resulted in greater change in the clinical profile of hospitalizations. Implications for the practice: Knowing the profile of children and adolescents in the hospitalization process in a pandemic period for COVID-19 can help in the development of care flows and strategies that can meet the real demands properly


Objetivo: Analizar el perfil clínico epidemiológico de niños y adolescentes hospitalizados en la clínica médica de un hospital pediátrico en un período no pandémico y pandémico por COVID-19. Método: Se trata de un estudio comparativo de naturaleza cuantitativa, con delineamento transversal. La colecta de datos fue realizada a través de 219 historias clínicas del Servicio de Archivo Médico y Estadística de un complejo pediátrico en el municipio de João Pessoa-PB. Para análisis de los datos, se utilizó la estadística descriptiva y tests estadísticos para comparar los grupos. Resultados: El perfil de los niños y de los adolescentes hospitalizados tuvo predominancia, de igual forma, del sexo masculino y de lactantes para el período no pandémico y pandémico. La madre fue la principal responsable y acompañante del niño. Las variables, naturaleza del beneficio social, diagnóstico según especialidad médica y tiempo de internación, presentaron diferencia estadística significativa entre el período no pandémico y pandémico por COVID-19. Conclusión: Los datos encontrados apuntan que no ocurrieron cambios significativos en el perfil sociodemográfico de niños internados. La pandemia por COVID-19 resultó en un mayor cambio en el perfil clínico de las internaciones. Implicaciones para la práctica: conocer el perfil de los niños y adolescentes en proceso de hospitalización en un período pandémico por COVID-19 podrá ayudar en la elaboración de flujos asistenciales y estrategias que puedan atender las reales demandas con propiedad


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Health Profile , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Socioeconomic Factors , Urinary Tract Infections , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dengue , Diagnosis , Medical Chaperones , Financing, Government , Hand Hygiene , Social Programs , Physical Distancing , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Mothers
10.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 480-488, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342263

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorder characterized by relative or absolute lack of insulin. When this condition is not properly managed, it can lead to complications that make diabetic patients vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI). The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of microbiologically confirmed UTI and the spectrum of uropathogens in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with clinical features of UTI attending the two tertiary hospitals in Enugu State, Nigeria. Methodology: Clean catch specimen of single mid-stream urine sample was collected from each of 60 (22 males, 38 females) diabetic and 60 (22 males, 38 females) non-diabetic patients enrolled using stratified random sampling method. The samples were cultured on standard microbiological culture media (MacConkey and Blood agar plates) and incubated aerobically at 37◦C for 24 hours. Plates with significant bacteria growth (>105 CFU/ml) were processed further for bacterial identification using conventional biochemical test scheme. Antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) of each isolate to 17 selected antibiotics was performed by the modified disc diffusion method. Results: Of the total 120 patients enrolled, 101 had bacterial pathogens isolated from their voided urine samples; 51 of 60 (85.0%) diabetics and 50 of 60 (83.3%) non-diabetics (p=0.802). Bacteria were isolated in 59.1% (13/22) of diabetic and 54.5% (12/22) of non-diabetic male patients compared to 100% (38/38) isolation rate in diabetic and non-diabetic female patients. The most frequently isolated bacteria in the diabetic patients were Proteus spp (18.6%), Klebsiella spp (16.9%) and Escherichia coli (15.5%) while the most frequently isolated bacteria among the non-diabetic patients were E. coli (30.0%), Proteus spp (26.3%) and Enterobacter spp (14.0%). Apart from Klebsiella spp which was more frequently isolated from the diabetic (16.9%) than non-diabetic patients (6%) (p=0.039), the frequency other bacterial pathogen isolation such as Proteus spp, E. coli, Enterobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp was not significantly different between the two population groups (p>0.05). The Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were highly sensitive to imipenem in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients, but the isolates from both study groups exhibited low susceptibility to amoxicillin, nitrofuran- toin, cefixime and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Although the overall frequency of bacterial pathogen isolation in the diabetic and non-diabetic patients was not significantly different, females had a higher pathogen isolation rate than the males, and diabetic females had a higher frequency of polymicrobial infections compared to non-diabetic females and the male population. The high antimicrobial resistance of the isolated bacteria pathogens underscores the need for clinical microbiology laboratory testings to optimize the management of UTI in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Diabetes Mellitus , Nigeria
11.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 489-497, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342264

ABSTRACT

Background: Significant bacteriuria is commonly reported in pregnancy which greatly predisposes pregnant women to urinary tract infection (UTI), one of the commonest health challenges in pregnancy worldwide especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with significant bacteriuria among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) of Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Yemetu, Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as determine the bacterial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Methodology: This is a laboratory-based cross-sectional study of 206 pregnant women between the ages of 15 and 47 years attending the ANC of the hospital, selected by simple random sampling method. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the subjects using a structured questionnaire. Clean-catch specimen of mid-stream voided urine was collected from each subject participant. Urine samples were processed for culture and isolation of significant bacterial pathogens using standard bacteriological methods, and isolates identified to species level by the combination of colony morphology, Gram reaction, conventional biochemical tests and Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E test kits. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates to selected antibiotics was performed using the disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of significant bacteriuria in the study population was 8.7% (18/206), with 27.8% (5/18) symptomatic and 72.2% (13/18) asymptomatic. All isolated bacteria were Gram-negative with the most frequent being Escherichia coli 9 (50.0%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 6 (33.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 (5.6%), Acinetobacter haemolyticus 1 (5.6%) and Enterobacter aerogenes 1 (5.6%). The isolates were most sensitive to gentamicin (100%) and nitrofurantoin (94.4%), while they demonstrated highest resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (33.3%). Significant bacteriuria was associated with pyuria (p=0.01) and past history of UTI (p=0.004). Conclusions: The high prevalence of asymptomatic significant bacteriuria in this study necessitates the need for screening and treatment of pregnant women for this entity to prevent the subsequent development of UTI that may have grave consequences on pregnancy outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Bacteriuria , Urinary Tract Infections , Pregnant Women , Nigeria
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878718

ABSTRACT

Objective To verify the relationship between catheter-related urinary tract infection(CAUTI)and stress hyperglycemia during catheter retention in stroke patients. Methods We used nosocomial infection monitoring system to track the status of CAUTI in stroke patients in a hospital.The study cohort was all the patients who received retention catheterization from January 2016 to March 2020.According to the nested case-control design,multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship between stress hyperglycemia and CAUTI in stroke patients with indwelling catheter. Results A total of 322 cases of CAUTI and 644 cases of non-CAUTI were enrolled in this study.The length of stay in the case group was(20.68 ± 3.73)d,significantly longer than that[(13.00 ± 4.01)d]in the control group(t=29.473,P <0.001).Compared with non-stress hyperglycemia,stress hyperglycemia posed a higher risk of CAUTI in the stroke patients with indwelling catheter(OR=2.020,95% CI=1.447-2.821,P=0.000)and led to the higher incidence of CAUTI in one thousand days(P<0.001). Conclusion Stress hyperglycemia in the stroke patients with indwelling catheter can significantly increase the risk of CAUTI.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Stroke/complications , Urinary Catheterization , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 611-621, dic. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250283

ABSTRACT

Abstract Infections are frequent complications of kidney transplants. We aimed at determining the frequency and type of infections that occur in renal transplant recipients during the early (0-1 month), intermediate (1-6 months) and late (6-12 months) post-transplant period and analyzing the risk factors for infection. To this aim, we conducted a retrospective cohort study on 1-year post-transplant follow-up in two third-level university hospitals in Cordoba city. All consecutive recipients of renal transplants performed between 2009 and 2015 were included, except those with multiple solid organ transplantation and pediatric patients. We included 375 recipients, of which 235 (62.7%) had at least one episode of infection during follow-up. There were 504 episodes of infection, of which 131 (26%) occurred in the early, 272 (53.9%) in the intermediate, and 101 (20.1%) in the late post-transplant period. The most frequent infections in all periods were caused by bacteria (mainly urinary tract infections), and the most frequent viral infection was caused by Cytomegalovirus (mainly in the second and third period). In the multivariate analysis, infection risk factors were: age > 60 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.05-3.49), organ transplantation from deceased donor (aOR = 8.19; 95% CI = 2.32-28.9), use of pigtail catheter for urinary tract drainage (aOR = 4.06; 95% CI = 1.27-12.9), and number of days in hospital after transplant (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01-1.11). In conclusion, infections in renal transplant recipients represent a very frequent health problem in our hospitals. Understanding the local epidemiology of infection and the potential risk factors for infection acquires utmost importance.


Resumen Las infecciones son complicaciones frecuentes de los trasplantes renales. Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar la frecuencia y el tipo de infecciones que ocurren en el período post-trasplante temprano (0-1 mes), intermedio (1-6 meses) y tardío (6-12 meses) en nuestro medio y analizar los factores de riesgo de infección. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo que incluyó todos los pacientes con trasplantes renales realizados entre 2009 y 2015 en dos hospitales universitarios de tercer nivel de la ciudad de Córdoba, excluidos los receptores de trasplante simultáneo de múltiples órganos sólidos y los menores de 18 años. Fueron incluidos 375 pacientes, de los cuales 235 (62.7%) tuvieron al menos un episodio de infección. Hubo 504 episodios de infección: 131 (26%) ocurrieron en el período temprano, 272 (53.9%) en el intermedio y 101 (20.1%) en el tardío. La mayoría de las infecciones fueron de origen bacteriano (principalmente del tracto urinario). La mayoría de las infecciones virales ocurrieron en el segundo y el tercer período y Citomegalovirus fue el responsable más frecuente. En el análisis multivariado, los factores de riesgo de infección post-transplante renal fueron: edad > 60 años (odds ratio ajustado [aOR] 1.92; IC95% 1.05-3.49), donante cadavérico (aOR 8.19; IC95% 2.32-28.9), uso de catéter pigtail (aOR 4.06; IC95% 1.27-12.9) y número de días internado postrasplante (aOR 1.05; IC95% 1.01-1.11). En conclusión, confirmamos que las infecciones en pacientes con trasplante renal son muy frecuentes en nuestro medio, por lo cual es importante conocer la epidemiología local y los factores de riesgo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Urinary Tract Infections , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Tissue Donors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 7(2): 78-84, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251567

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). Una opción de tratamiento cuando estas infecciones son recurrentes es la vacunación bacteriana sublingual. Objetivo: determinar la respuesta a la vacunación bacteriana sublingual en pacientes nefrológicos con ITU recurrente. Materiales y métodos: estudio cuasi experimental en el que se evaluó la evolución en 15 meses de los pacientes con ITU recurrente que asistieron a consulta externa de nefrología. Tras recibir tratamiento antibiótico según antibiograma para cada ITU, los participantes tomaron un ciclo de la vacuna sublingual bacteriana Uromune® durante tres meses. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos y sobre factores de riesgo asociados, análisis de sangre y orina, episodios de ITU en los seis meses previos y posteriores, microorganismos causantes, tratamiento antibiótico concomitante, respuesta al tratamiento y resolución de la ITU. Resultados: se incluyeron 26 pacientes (80,8 % mujeres) con una media de edad de 61,9±18,4 años, de los cuales el 46,2 % tenía diabetes y el 47,7 %, afectación de la función renal. La media de ITU fue 3,62±1,77 (rango: 1 -7) antes de la vacuna y de 1,69±1,77 (rango: 0-5) después. Se recogieron 184 urocultivos: 74,9 % positivos, 16,9 % negativos y 8,2 % contaminados. Las bacterias más frecuentes fueron Escherichia coli (55,4 %), Enterococcus faecalis (6 %) y Enterobacter cloacae (2,7 %). El 50 % de los participan- tes presentó síndrome miccional, que se asoció inversamente con la edad (p<0,05). El 26,9 % no volvió a tener ITU y el 73,1 % tuvo menos episodios. Los pacientes con ERC avanzada (estadios IV-V) respondieron peor a la vacuna (92,9 % vs 50 %, p=0,025). Conclusiones: la vacunación bacteriana sublingual es una buena opción de tratamiento para la ITU recurrente de pacientes con ERC, siendo más eficaz en los que presentan mejor función renal.


Abstract Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. A treatment option in recurrent UTI is sublingual bacterial vaccination. The objective of this study was to determine the response to vaccination in nephrologic patients with recurrent UTI. Method: Quasi-experimental study before-after (15 months) in patients with recurrent UTI from the outpatient nephrology consultation. After receiving antibiotic treatment for each UTI, patients took one cycle of the sublingual bacterial vaccine Uromune? for three months. Sociodemographic data, associated risk factors, analysis, UTI in the previous and subsequent six months, microorganisms, concomitant antibiotic treatment, response to treatment and resolution of UTI were collected. Results: Twenty-six patients (80.8% female) of 61.9 ±18.4 years, 46.2% with diabetes and 47.7% with impaired renal function were included. The episodes of UTI were 3.62 ±1.77 (1-7) before and 1.69 ± 1.77 (0-5) after vaccination. In total, 184 urine cultures were collected: 74.9% positive, 16.9% negative and 8.2% contaminated. The most frequent bacteria were Escherichia coli (55.4%), Enterococcus faecalis (6%) and Enterobacter cloacae (2.7%). Fifty percent had voiding syndrome, which was inversely associated with age (p < 0.05); 26.9% did not have a UTI again and 73.1% had fewer episodes. Patients with advanced chronic disease (stages 4-5) reponded worse to the vaccine (92.9% vs 50%, p =0.025). Conclusions: Sublingual bacterial vaccination is a good treatment option in recurrent UTI of nephrologic patients, being more effective in those with better renal function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacterial Vaccines , Patients , Spain , Urinary Tract Infections , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Nephrology
15.
Infectio ; 24(4): 217-223, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114872

ABSTRACT

Resumen Candida spp. es un agente etiológico importante en infecciones del tracto urinario, principalmente en población con terapia antimicótica de amplio espectro y con catéteres urinarios. Candida albicans es la especie más frecuente, pero otras especies han surgido como patógenos emergentes. En este trabajo se recolectaron aislamientos de Candida spp. de urocultivos de pacientes que consultaron en Dinamica IPS entre enero 2016 y noviembre 2017. Para estimar la frecuencia de las especies y observar los patrones de sensibilidad, se realizó la identificación fenotípica y su perfil de sensibilidad con el sistema comercial Vitek 2® (BioMérieux, Inc.), adicionalmente se evaluaron mediante análisis de las secuencia y filogenética ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. En el estudio se incluyeron 78 aislamientos de Candida spp. Las frecuencias de especies de Candida identificadas empleando las herramientas moleculares fueron: C. albicans (38,5%), C. tropicalis (23,1%), C. glabrata (21,8%), C. parapsilosis (10,3%), C. metapsilosis y C. krusei (2,5%) y C. guillermondi (1,3%). La identificación por métodos moleculares y por el sistema Vitek 2 fue: C. albicans (93,3%), C. glabrata (94,1%), C. tropicalis (83,3%), C. parapsilosis (75%) C. guilliermondii y C. krusei (100%). La sensibilidad de todos los aislamientos al fluconazol fue 93,6%.


Abstract Candida spp is an important etiologic agent in urinary tract infections, mainly in patients in broad-spectrum antifungal therapy, with urinary catheters. Candida albicans is the most frequent specie; but other species have arised as emerging pathogens. In this study, isolates of Candida spp. of urine cultures from patients who consulted in Dinamica IPS between January 2016 and November 2017 were evaluated. To estimate the frequency of the species and to observe the sensitivity patterns, the phenotypic identification and its sensitivity profile was performed employed the Vitek 2® commercial system. (BioMérieux, Inc) In addition the isolates were evaluated by sequence analysis and phylogenetics ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. This study included 78 isolates of Candida spp. The frequencies of Candida species identified using the molecular tools were: C. albicans (38.5%), C. tropicalis (23.1%), C. glabrata (21.8%), C. parapsilosis (10.3%), C. guillermondi (1.3%) and C. metapsilosis and C. krusei (2.5%). The identification by molecular methods and by Vitek 2 system were: C. albicans (93.3%), for C. glabrata (94.1%), C. tropicalis (83.3%), C. parapsilosis (75%) and 100% for C. guilliermondii and C. krusei.. fluconazole sensitivity of all isolates was 93.6%


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Candida , Diagnostic Techniques, Urological , Candida parapsilosis , Laboratories , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Sequence Analysis , Urinary Catheters , Infections
16.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 59-62, dic.2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117902

ABSTRACT

La hidronefrosis gigante se considera una entidad rara, caracterizada por la presencia de al menos 1 litro de líquido dentro del sistema pielocalicial, más frecuente en pacientes masculinos, generalmente asintomático. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 85 años de edad quien refiere desde hace 6 años dolor lumbar izquierdo y aumento de la circunferencia abdominal; en la TAC abdomino-pélvica contrastada se evidencia bolsa hidronefrótica izquierda gigante con corteza renal adelgazada que no concentra ni elimina el contraste. Se presenta el caso de paciente masculino de 85 años de edad quien refiere desde hace 5 años aumento de la circunferencia abdominal y la TAC abdomino-pélvica contrastada muestra importante dilatación del riñón y sistema colector derecho secundario a litiasis ureteral. A ambos pacientes se les practicó nefrectomía simple. Con respecto a la hidronefrosis gigante, la etiología más frecuente es la estenosis de la unión ureteropélvica seguido por la patología litiásica y tumoral; es importante considerar esta entidad como diagnóstico diferencial en caso de masas quísticas abdominales(AU)


Giant hydronephrosis is considered a rare entity, characterized by the presence of at least 1 liter of fluid within the pielocalicial system; is more frequent in males and often asymptomatic. We present an 85-year-old female patient who has a 6-year complain of left lumbar pain associated with increase in abdominal circumference. On CT scan, a giant left hydronephrotic pouch is evidenced, with a thinned renal wall that does not concentrate or eliminate contrast. We present a 61 year-old male who refers a 5-year asymptomatic increase in abdominal circumference. The CT scan reveals significant dilatation of the kidney and right collecting system secondary to ureteral lithiasis. Both patients undergo simple nephrectomy. The most frequent etiology of giant hydronephrosis is ureteropelvic junction stenosis followed by lithiasic and tumor pathology. It is important to consider this entity as a differential diagnosis in the case of abdominal cystic masses(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Pyelocystitis/physiopathology , Hydronephrosis/etiology , Urologic Diseases , Nephrectomy
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 509-514, nov. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144244

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección del tracto urinario asociada al catéter urinario permanente (ITU/CUP) es un problema relevante en los centros de salud por su alta frecuencia. Objetivo: Identificar factores de riesgo de ITU en pacientes adultos con CUP. Material y Método: Estudio caso control efectuado entre los años 2010-2016 en el Hospital Militar de Santiago. Se realizó un análisis estadístico univariado y multivariado por medio del modelo de regresión logística binaria, con variables como edad, duración e indicación del dispositivo, algunas comorbilidades y la instalación del dispositivo luego de 15 días hospitalización. Resultado: Se obtuvo un total de 63 casos y 123 controles. Fueron variables predictoras de ITU/CUP la duración del CUP desde el séptimo día en adelante (OR 2,6 IC 1,4-4,9, p = 0,004) y la instalación del CUP con una estadía de hospitalización previa de 15 días y más (OR 7,8 IC 2,920,9 p = 0,000). No se encontró asociación con la edad mayor de 80 años, comorbilidades como diabetes y vejiga neurogénica e indicación de instalación. Conclusiones: Los resultados permiten focalizar las intervenciones, evaluando la necesidad real de indicación de CUP en pacientes con estadía hospitalaria previa de dos semanas y fomentar el retiro de CUP antes del séptimo día de uso.


Abstract Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a relevant problem in health centers because of its high frequency. Objective: To identify UTI risk factors in adult patients with urinary catheter. Material and Method: Control case study carried out between the years 2010-2016 at the Military Hospital of Santiago, Chile. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis were performed using the binary logistic regression model, variables such as age, duration and indication of the device, some comorbidities and the installation of the device after 15 days of hospitalization. Result: A total of 63 cases and 123 controls were obtained. Predictive variables of CAUTI for the duration of the urinary catheter from the 7th day onwards (OR 2.6 IC 1.4-4.9, p = 0.004) and the installation of the urinary catheter with a previous hospital stay of 15 days and more (OR 7.8 CI 2.9-20.9 p = 0.000). No association was found in age over 80 years, comorbidities such as diabetes and neurogenic bladder and indication. Conclusions: The results permitted to focus the interventions, evaluating the real need for indication of CUP in patients with previous hospital statistics of 2 weeks and encouraging the withdrawal of CUP before the 7th day of use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Catheters/adverse effects , Urinary Catheterization/adverse effects , Chile/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Risk Factors
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 523-530, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144246

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) presentan una elevada prevalencia en el ámbito comunitario. Un rápido diagnóstico microbiológico es esencial para asegurar una terapia adecuada y efectiva. Objetivo: Evaluar un kit de antibiograma rápido (KAR®) en formato point-of-care para la detección rápida de ITU y sensibilidad antimicrobiana. Material y Métodos: El dispositivo KAR® se diseñó y desarrolló en colaboración con ingenieros técnicos y microbiólogos clínicos. Su evaluación se realizó a través de un estudio multicéntrico en el que participaron tres hospitales españoles. Para ello, se realizaron distintos ensayos in vivo con el fin de determinar la correlación del dispositivo con las técnicas microbiológicas de referencia. Resultados: Se ensayó un total de 400 muestras de orinas procedentes de pacientes con sospecha de ITU. El dispositivo KAR® proporcionó rápidos resultados (tiempo medio de positividad de 7,8 ± 1,5 h) con 97% de sensibilidad, 89% de especificidad y 87% de concordancia para la detección de bacteriuria significativa. Los porcentajes de especificidad para los antimicrobianos testados fueron: ciprofloxacina (97%), fosfomicina (94%), cotrimoxazol (84%), ampicilina (80%) y amoxicilina/ácido clavulánico (55%). Conclusión: El dispositivo KAR® puede ser una herramienta útil para el diagnóstico de ITU en pacientes ambulatorios, especialmente en áreas de bajo nivel socio-económico.


Abstract Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) presents a high prevalence in the community setting. Rapid and accurate microbiological diagnosis is essential to ensure adequate and effective therapy. Aim: To evaluate a rapid antibiogram kit (KAR®) in point-of-care format for rapid detection of UTI and antibiotic susceptibility. Methods: The KAR® device has been designed and developed in collaboration with technical engineers and clinical microbiologists. Its evaluation has been carried out through a multicenter study in which three Spanish hospitals have participated. Thus, different in vivo tests have been implemented in order to determine device correlation with the reference microbiological techniques. Results: During the study period, a total of 400 urine samples from patients with suspected ITU were tested. The KAR® device provided fast results (mean positivity time of 7,8 ± 1,5 hours) with 97% sensitivity, 89% specificity and 87% agreement for the detection of significant bacteriuria. The percentages of specificity for the antibiotics tested were: ciprofloxacin (97%), fosfomycin (94%),cotrimoxazole (84%), ampicillin (80%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (55%). Conclusion: The KAR® device could be a useful tool for diagnosing UTI in outpatients, especially in areas of low socio-economic level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Point-of-Care Systems , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Infectio ; 24(3): 155-161, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114859

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: La linfopenia se ha propuesto como un potencial factor asociado al riesgo de infecciones bacterianas nosocomiales (infección urinaria y neumonía), pero la magnitud y relevancia de este factor no ha sido evaluada formalmente. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar si existe asociación entre linfopenia e infecciones nosocomiales en ancianos hospitalizados en una institución de salud en Bogotá, Colombia. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles, incluyendo personas mayores de 65 años hospitalizadas en el Hospital Universitario San Ignacio entre junio de 2016 y diciembre de 2017. Se consideraron casos aquellos con diagnóstico de infección nosocomial (neumonía, infección de vías urinarias, bacteriemia, infección de tejidos blandos) y se compararon con controles sin infección emparejados por edad y sexo. Se evaluó la asociación entre linfopenia e infección nosocomial mediante análisis bivariado y multivariado controlando por las variables de confusión. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 198 pacientes (99 casos y 99 controles). La prevalencia de linfopenia fue de 34.8%, sin encontrarse diferencia entre los dos grupos (p=0.88). La infección nosocomial se asoció a mayor incidencia de mortalidad (29.3 vs 10.1%, p>0.001) y mayor duración de estancia hospitalaria (Mediana 18 vs 9 días, p<0.01). Se encontró asociación entre infección nosocomial con enfermedad cardiovascular (OR = 2.87; IC 95% 1.37-6.00) y antecedente de cáncer (OR = 6.00; IC 95% 1.28-29.78), sin embargo, no hubo asociación con linfopenia (OR = 1.27; IC 95% 0.61-2.65). Conclusiones: Este estudio sugiere que no existe asociación entre linfopenia y el desarrollo de infecciones nosocomiales en pacientes ancianos.


Abstract Objective: Lymphopenia has been proposed as a potential factor associated with the risk of nosocomial bacterial infections (urinary tract infection and pneumonia), but the magnitude and relevance of this factor has not been formally evaluated. Objective is to determine the association between lymphopenia and nosocomial infections in elderly hospitalized in a health institution in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: Case-control study, including people over 65 hospitalized in the University Hospital San Ignacio - Bogotá, during the period between June 2016 and December 2017. Cases with a diagnosis of nosocomial infection (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bacteraemia, soft tissue infection) were considered and compared with controls without infection matched by age and sex. The association between lymphopenia and nosocomial infection was evaluated by bivariate and multivariate analysis, controlling for confounding variables. Results: A total of 198 patients (99 cases and 99 controls) were included. The prevalence of lymphopenia was 34.8%, with no difference between the two groups (p = 0.88). Nosocomial infection was associated with a higher incidence of mortality (29.3 vs. 10.1%, p> 0.001) and a longer duration of hospital stay (Median 18 vs. 9 days, p< 0.001). An association was found between nosocomial infection with cardiovascular disease (OR = 2.87; 95% CI 1.37-6.00) and a history of cancer (OR = 6.19; 95% CI 1.28-29.78), however, there was no association with lymphopenia (OR = 1.27 ; 95% CI 0.61-2.65). Conclusions: This study suggests that there is no association between lymphopenia and the development of nosocomial infections in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Bacterial Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Infections , Lymphopenia , Cardiovascular Diseases , Risk , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , Multivariate Analysis , Bacteremia , Colombia
20.
Infectio ; 24(3): 149-154, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114858

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: los servicios de urgencias requieren de la toma de medidas eficaces y oportunas en el manejo de los pacientes, esto incluye el uso adecuado de antibióticos. La resistencia antimicrobiana dificulta la instauración de terapias empíricas adecuadas, por lo que su vigilancia toma un papel fundamental en los programas de optimización de uso de antimicrobianos. Objetivo: describir el perfil microbiológico y la resistencia antibiótica de los aislamientos urinarios obtenidos de pacientes adultos de los servicios de urgencias de 7 instituciones de tercer nivel de la ciudad de Manizales, durante el año 2018. Resultados: se recolectaron 1991 aislamientos urinarios, el microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado fue Escherichia coli con un 62%. Se encontraron altas tasas de resistencia a cefazolina, trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol, ciprofloxacina y ampicilina/sulbactam. La resistencia a nitrofurantoína y fosfomicina al igual que a carbapenémicos es baja para Escherichia coli. Los aislamientos urinarios de Pseudomonas aeruginosa muestran niveles de resistencia superiores al promedio nacional. Conclusiones: es importante individualizar el manejo antibiótico empírico, teniendo en cuenta la estratificación por severidad, la presencia de factores de riesgo para bacterias multidrogorresistentes, y la epidemiología local; los análisis de cada institución y los resultados de este trabajo, pueden ser utilizados para establecer conductas terapéuticas más precisas en los casos de infecciones del tracto urinario, mejorando los desenlaces de estos pacientes y los costos derivados de la atención en salud.


Abstract Introduction: patient management in emergency rooms require swift and effective clinical decisions; this includes choosing antibiotics correctly. Antimicrobial resistance impairs the adequate choice of empirical therapy, making the surveillance of utmost importance for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Objective: we aimed to describe the microbiological and antimicrobial resistance profile of urinary isolates obtained from adult patients of the emergency services of seven tertiary institutions in the city of Manizales, during the year 2018. Results: from a total of 1991 urinary tract isolates, 62% corresponded to Escherichia coli, the most common bacteria cultured from the emergency room. Susceptibility analysis revealed high resistance levels to cefazolin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin. Resistance to nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and carbapenems was low for Escherichia coli isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed antimicrobial resistance levels above national averages. Conclusions: empirical antibiotic therapy must be tailored on a patient by patient basis, taking into account the severity of the disease, risk factors for multi-drug resistance bacteria, the institutional and local epidemiology depicted in this work. By using these results, the adjustment of empirical antimicrobial regimens for urinary tract infections could improve clinical outcomes and reduce health care costs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Therapeutics , Therapeutic Approaches , Risk Factors , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Anti-Bacterial Agents
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL