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2.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e4025, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1515338

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: medir el volumen urinario por medio de la ecografía vesical, realizado por una enfermera en pacientes críticos, después de la retirada de la sonda urinaria permanente y verificar los factores relacionados en la retención urinaria. Método: estudio cuantitativo, observacional y transversal, realizado con 37 pacientes críticos de ambos sexos, mayores de 18 años, con retiro de catéter vesical permanente en las últimas 48 horas. Se utilizó un cuestionario con variables sociodemográficas y clínicas y el examen ecográfico. Se utilizó un cuestionario con variables sociodemográficas y clínicas y el examen ecográfico. Los datos fueron presentados a través de distribución de frecuencias, medidas de centralidad y variabilidad, asociación mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher y, para el análisis, regresión logística binomial múltiple. Resultados: de los 37 pacientes, en su mayoría fue de sexo masculino, con una edad média de 54,9 años. La medición del volumen urinario por ecografía osciló entre 332,3 y 950 ml, y el 40,54% de los pacientes presentó retención urinaria. La retención urinaria se asoció significativamente a la aparición de infección urinaria, estreñimiento intestinal y diuresis por rebosamiento espontáneo. Los pacientes con infección del tracto urinario tenían 7,4 veces más probabilidades de tener retención urinaria. Conclusión: la ecografía vesical fue eficaz para medir el volumen urinario después de retirar el catéter urinario permanente y puede contribuir a la detección de retención urinaria.


Objective: to measure urinary volume through bladder ultrasound, performed by a nurse in critically ill patients, after removal of the indwelling urinary catheter and to verify the related factors on urinary retention. Method: quantitative, observational and cross-sectional study, carried out with 37 critically ill patients of both sexes, over 18 years of age, with removal of indwelling urinary catheter in the last 48 hours. A questionnaire containing sociodemographic and clinical variables and an ultrasound examination were used. Data were presented through frequency distribution, centrality and variability measures, association using Fisher`s exact test and, for analysis multiple binomial logistic regression analysis. Results: the 37 patients were mostly male, with a mean age of 54.9 years. The measurement of urinary volume by ultrasound ranged from 332.3 to 950 ml, and 40.54% of patients had urinary retention. Urinary retention was significantly associated with the occurrence of urinary tract infection, intestinal constipation and spontaneous overflow diuresis. Patients with urinary tract infection were 7.4 times more likely to have urinary retention. Conclusion: bladder ultrasonography was effective in measuring urinary volume after removal of the indwelling urinary catheter and and may contribute to the detection of urinary retention.


Objetivo: mensurar o volume urinário por meio da ultrassonografia de bexiga, realizada por enfermeiro em pacientes críticos, após a remoção do cateter vesical de demora, e verificar os fatores relacionados na retenção urinária. Método: estudo quantitativo, observacional e transversal, realizado com 37 pacientes críticos de ambos os sexos, idade superior a 18 anos, com retirada de cateter vesical de demora nas últimas 48 horas. Foram utilizados um questionário contendo as variáveis sociodemográficas e clinicas e o exame de ultrassonografia. Os dados foram apresentados por meio da distribuição de frequência, medidas de centralidade e de variabilidade, associação pelo teste exato de Fisher e, para análise a regressão logística binomial múltipla. Resultados: dos 37 pacientes, a maioria era do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 54,9 anos. A mensuração do volume urinário pela ultrassonografia variou de 332,3 a 950 ml, sendo que 40,54% dos pacientes apresentaram retenção urinária. A retenção urinaria apresentou associação significativa para a ocorrência de infecção do trato urinário, constipação intestinal e diurese espontânea por transbordamento. Pacientes com infecção urinária tiveram 7,4 vezes mais chance de apresentar retenção urinária. Conclusão: ultrassonografia de bexiga foi eficaz para mensurar o volume urinário após a remoção do cateter vesical de demora e poderá contribuir na detecção da retenção urinária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Catheterization , Catheters, Indwelling , Cross-Sectional Studies , Urinary Retention/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Critical Illness
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 455-460, oct. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521866

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Fosfomicina es un antimicrobiano de amplio espectro utilizado para el tratamiento de las infecciones urinarias bajas; tiene actividad sobre bacilos gramnegativos y cocos grampositivos, así también sobre microorganismos multirresistentes, además de ofrecer una alternativa terapéutica de administración vía oral en dosis única, alcanzando una efectividad de 90%. OBJETIVO: Conocer la sensibilidad in vitro de Escherichia coli frente a fosfomicina, en infecciones urinarias provenientes de personas con discapacidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, prospectivo, en el que se incluyó un total de 273 muestras de urocultivo, de pacientes de ambos sexos que acudieron a SENADIS, y que en el momento de la consulta presentaban síntomas de infección del tracto urinario, por lo que se les solicitó el análisis de orina simple y cultivo. De las muestras procesadas en el laboratorio de microbiología, que fueron positivas con crecimiento bacteriano significativo, se procedió a la identificación bacteriana y a la realización del antibiograma según las recomendaciones de CLSI. RESULTADOS: De estas 273 muestras, 91 fueron positivas para diferentes uropatógenos, 62/91 (68%) resultaron ser E. coli. De estas cepas de E. coli, 59/62 (95%) mostraron sensibilidad in vitro a fosfomicina. Comentario: Aunque el número de muestra obtenido es pequeño y no extrapolable ampliamente, pretendemos extender el trabajo por un tiempo más para compararlo más adelante. CONCLUSIONES: Se observa que fosfomicina presenta buena actividad in vitro frente a cepas de E. coli aisladas de urocultivo, pudiendo representar una buena alternativa terapéutica a ser utilizada en la población en estudio.


BACKGROUND: Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections, it is active against gramnegative bacilli and grampositive cocci, as well as against multi-resistant microorganism, in addition to offering a therapeutic alternative for oral administration in a single dose, reaching an effectiveness of 90%. AIM: To study the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to fosfomycin in urinary tract infections, of isolated strains obtained from patients with disabilities. METHODS: It is an observational, descriptive, prospective study in which a total of 273 urine culture samples of patients of both sexes who attended the SENADIS were included, and who at the time of the consultation presented symptoms of urinary tract infection. The urine positive cultures with significant bacterial growth were performed to determine its bacterial identification and the antibiogram according to CLSI recommendations. RESULTS: Of these 273 samples, 91 samples were positive for different uropathogens, with 62/91 (68%) being positive for E. coli. Of these E. coli strains, 59/62 (95%) showed in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin. Comment: Although the number of samples obtained is small and it cannot be extrapolated, we pretend to extend the work for a while longer to be able to compare it later. CONCLUSION: Fosfomycin has good activity in vitro against E. coli isolated from urine culture in our institution, representing a good alternative to be used in our study population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Fosfomycin/therapeutic use , Fosfomycin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Disabled Persons
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 559-563, oct. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521868

ABSTRACT

Los recién nacidos tienen un alto riesgo de morbimortalidad asociada a infecciones durante su estancia en unidades de cuidado intensivo neonatal, a lo que se asocia un aumento progresivo de infecciones por microorganismos multi-resistentes que requiere el uso de nuevos antimicrobianos. Presentamos el caso de una recién nacida de pretérmino de 36 semanas que cursó con una infección del tracto urinario bacteriémica por Klebsiella pneumoniae productora de carbapenemasa tratada de forma efectiva con 14 días de cefazi- dima-avibactam, sin efectos adversos observados. Según nuestro conocimiento, este es el primer caso reportado en nuestro país del uso de este antimicrobiano en población neonatal. Se necesita más información sobre la eficacia y seguridad de ceftazidima-avibactam en este grupo de pacientes.


Neonates are high risk patients regarding morbimortality secondary to infections during their neonatal intensive care unit stay, which is associated to a progressive increase in the report of multidrug resistant organism infections, that require the use of new antimicrobial. We report the case of a 36-week preterm with an urinary tract infection with bacteriemia caused by carbapenemase- producing Klebsiella pneumoniae treated effectively with 14 day of ceftazidime-avibactam, without observed adverse effects. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in our country of the use of this antibiotic in neonatal population. More information is needed regarding efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Azabicyclo Compounds/therapeutic use , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Drug Combinations , beta-Lactamase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1536343

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hemangioma cavernoso es una de las neoplasias benignas más frecuentes en la infancia. Objetivo: Describir el caso de un hemangioma cavernoso en edad pediátrica. Caso clínico: Lactante femenina de 6 meses de edad, de procedencia urbana, cuyo nacimiento tuvo lugar en el Hospital Materno Fe del Valle Ramos, del municipio Manzanillo. Al nacer se observa una lesión en forma placa eritematosa violácea infiltrada de ± 10 cm, de borde definido, de superficie liza, con aumento de temperatura al tacto, que se extendía desde la parte medial anterior y posterior hasta la superior de la pierna del miembro inferior izquierdo. Se decidió interconsultar con el Servicio de Angiología, el cual diagnostica la lesión como hemangioma cavernoso. Conclusiones: Se corroboró que el hemangioma cavernoso es una entidad frecuente en la infancia, su diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos son altamente beneficiosos para la mejoría y la cura, por lo que se impone la realización de un correcto y exhaustivo examen físico, de lo que se deriva también la prevención de complicaciones a corto, mediano y largo plazo(AU)


Introduction: Cavernous hemangioma is one of the most frequent benign neoplasms in childhood. Objective: To describe the case of a cavernous hemangioma at pediatric age. Clinical case: A 6-month-old female infant of urban origin was born at Hospital Materno Fe del Valle Ramos, Manzanillo Municipality, Granma Province. At birth, a violaceous erythematous plaque-like infiltrated lesion was observed, of approximately 10 cm, with a defined border, smooth surface, increased temperature at hand contact, extending from the anterior and posterior medial part to the upper leg of the left lower limb. It was decided to do an interconsultation with the angiology service, which diagnosed the lesion as a cavernous hemangioma. Conclusions: Cavernous hemangioma was corroborated to be a frequent entity in childhood, whose timely diagnosis and treatment are highly beneficial for improvement and cure, so it extremely necessary to carry out a correct and exhaustive physical examination, also deriving the prevention of complications in the short, medium and long terms(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Hemangioma, Cavernous/epidemiology , Neoplasms/diagnosis
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1536329

ABSTRACT

Por medio de la presente y motivados por la lectura y análisis del artículo Características clínicas y microbiológicas de la infección de vías urinarias bajas en población ambulatoria,1 quisiéramos llamar la atención sobre un tema que últimamente tiene poca visibilidad en las publicaciones. Se trata de los factores de riesgo presentes en la edad reproductiva y que inciden negativamente en futuros embarazos, lo que se conoce como factores de riesgo preconcepcional. Al revisar lo publicado en los últimos cinco años apenas se aborda directamente el tema, que por demás mantiene vigencia capital cuando de salud materno infantil se trata. En el trabajo que motiva el análisis, se expresa la frecuencia de aparición de las infecciones urinarias bajas en ambos sexos, más frecuentes en mujeres...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Reproductive Behavior/physiology , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(4): 402-406, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521838

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El absceso renal es infrecuente en pediatría, con clínica y laboratorio inespecíficos. Ante su sospecha, es necesario realizar imágenes para establecer diagnóstico. Objetivo: Describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas, microbiológicas, diagnósticas y terapéuticas de abscesos renales en pediatría. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, de pacientes internados con absceso renal, en seguimiento por Infectología del Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, durante 9 años. RESULTADOS: 15 pacientes (67% varones), mediana de edad 9 años (rango [r] 0,7-17). Cuatro pacientes con comorbilidades. El síntoma más frecuente fue fiebre seguido por dolor lumbar. El recuento medio de leucocitos en sangre fue de 15.700/mm3 (r: 7.100-45.000) y la PCR de 193 mg/L (r: 1-362). Cuatro pacientes presentaron urocultivo positivo: dos Escherichia coli, uno Klebsiella pneumoniae y E. coli y otro Candida albicans y K. pneumoniae. Ningún paciente presentó bacteriemia. El diagnóstico se confirmó por ecografía. Se realizó drenaje en siete pacientes, con aislamiento de Staphylococcus aureus en dos y Pseudomonas aeruginosa en uno. El tratamiento incluyó terapia combinada en 67%. Mediana de antibioterapia intravenosa fue 16 días (r: 7-49), total de 28 (r: 14-91). Un paciente requirió terapia intensiva y dos, nefrectomía. CONCLUSIÓN: Los abscesos renales son infrecuentes, con gran morbimortalidad. Sospechar en paciente con infección del tracto urinario (ITU) de evolución tórpida que persiste febril. En nuestro estudio, la alta sensibilidad de la ecografía renal permitió su diagnóstico precoz.


BACKGROUND: Renal abscesses are infrequent in pediatrics, with nonspecific clinical and laboratory findings. When suspected, imaging is essential to establish the diagnosis. Aim: To describe the clinical-epidemiological, microbiological, diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of renal abscesses in pediatrics. METHODS: Retrospective and descriptive study of hospitalized patients with renal abscess, followed by Infectious Diseases Department of Ricardo Gutiérrez Children's Hospital during 9 years. Statistical analysis: Epi Info 7.2.2.6. RESULTS: 15 patients (67% male), median age 9 years (range [r] 0.7-17) were included. Four patients had underlying disease. The most frequent symptom was fever, with a median duration of 10 days (r:1-36), followed by lumbar pain. The median white blood cell count was 15,700/mm3 (r: 7,100-45,000) and CRP 193mg/L (r: 1-362). Four patients presented positive urine culture: 2 Escherichia coli, 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli and 1 Candida albicans and K. pneumoniae. No patient had bacteremia. The diagnosis of abscess was confirmed by ultrasound. Surgical drainage was performed in 7 patients, with isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in 2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 1. Empirical treatment included 3rd generation cephalosporin, combined in 67% of cases. The median of intravenous antibiotic therapy was 16 days (r: 7-49) with a total of 28 days (r:14-91). One patient required transfer to intensive care unit and 2 nephrectomy. CONCLUSION: Renal abscesses are infrecuent in pediatrics, but they present significant morbidity and mortality. It should be suspected in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI)with torpid evolution that persists with fever without antibiotic response. In our study, the high sensitivity of renal ultrasound allowed early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Abscess/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Urinary Tract Infections , Urine/microbiology , Drainage , Retrospective Studies , Abscess/diagnosis , Abscess/microbiology , Abscess/therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/microbiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202752, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1437250

ABSTRACT

Una niña de 11 años de edad con antecedentes de ano imperforado, infección urinaria y episodios de constipación intermitentes se presentó a la consulta con cólicos abdominales y náuseas de una semana de evolución. Estudios radiológicos revelaron hidrometrocolpos y fusión renal pélvica con uréter único hidronefrótico. El examen vaginal evidenció un tabique transverso no permeable. Se evacuó temporalmente la colección con resolución de los síntomas. La paciente fue programada para cirugía vaginal reconstructiva definitiva. Se destaca en este caso no solo la asociación de malformaciones infrecuentes, sino una sintomatología muy común en la práctica pediátrica a causa de una patología rara vez considerada en el diagnóstico diferencial, y la importancia de una evaluación precoz y completa de este tipo de malformaciones para un tratamiento oportuno.


An 11-year-old girl with a history of imperforate anus, urinary tract infection, and intermittent episodes of constipation presented with abdominal pain and nausea for 1 week. The x-rays revealed hydrometrocolpos and fused pelvic kidney with a single hydronephrotic ureter. The vaginal examination revealed a non-permeable transverse vaginal septum. The collection was temporarily drained and symptoms resolved. The patient was scheduled for definitive vaginal reconstructive surgery. In this case, it is worth noting the association of infrequent malformations and also the signs and symptoms very common in pediatric practice due to a pathology rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, and the importance of an early and complete assessment of this type of malformations for a timely treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Anus, Imperforate/surgery , Anus, Imperforate/diagnosis , Ureter , Urinary Tract Infections , Vagina/abnormalities , Kidney
9.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 35jan. 31, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526862

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Maternal and child health are essential to public health, especially during pregnancy, where urogenital infections can affect mothers and fetuses. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase obstetric risks and have complex connections with the human immunodeficiency virus ­ HIV. In Brazil, pregnant women with HIV are a growing concern, requiring focus and appropriate interventions. Objective: This study aimed to examine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of urogenital infections in pregnant women with and without HIV and to assess whether there are notable differences between these groups. Methods: A scoping review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses ­ Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) and Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Databases such as Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) were explored using relevant terms. Inclusion/exclusion criteria selected nine studies for analysis. A Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Study Design (PICOS) approach directed the search. Results: Pregnant women with HIV had a high prevalence of STIs, including Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and bacterial vaginosis. HIV infection appears to influence the risk and severity of urogenital infections. Pregnancy increases the risk of STIs, regardless of HIV status. Male partners may also influence the presence of STIs in pregnant women, especially those with HIV. Conclusion: This study highlights the association between HIV status and urogenital infections in pregnant women, indicating the need for appropriate screening and care. Prevention and treatment of STIs in pregnant women are essential for maternal and child health, regardless of HIV status. An in-depth understanding of these issues can improve public policies, clinical practices, and preventive interventions that target the overall health of these vulnerable populations.Keywords: HIV. Signs and symptoms. Female urogenital diseases and pregnancy complications. Pregnant women. Sexually transmitted infections


Introdução: A saúde materna e infantil é essencial na saúde pública, especialmente durante a gravidez, quando infecções urogenitais podem afetar mães e fetos. Infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) aumentam riscos obstétricos e têm conexões complexas com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). No Brasil, gestantes com HIV são uma preocupação crescente, requerendo foco e intervenções adequadas. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo examinar as características clínicas e epidemiológicas das infecções urogenitais em mulheres grávidas com e sem HIV, avaliando se há diferenças notáveis entre esses grupos. Métodos: Uma revisão de escopo foi conduzida, seguindo as diretrizes Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses - Extension for Scoping Reviews(PRISMA-ScR) e Joanna Briggs Institute. Bases de dados como Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) foram exploradas com termos relevantes. Os critérios de inclusão/exclusão selecionaram nove estudos para análise. Uma abordagem do tipo População, Intervenção, Comparação, Desfecho e Desenho do Estudo (PICOS) direcionou a pesquisa. Resultados: Mulheres grávidas com HIV apresentaram alta prevalência de IST, incluindo Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis e vaginose bacteriana. A infecção por HIV parece influenciar o risco e a gravidade das infecções urogenitais. A gravidez aumentou o risco de IST, independentemente do status de HIV. Os parceiros masculinos também podem influenciar a presença de IST em mulheres grávidas, especialmente aquelas com HIV. Conclusão: A associação entre o status de HIV e as infecções urogenitais em mulheres grávidas indica a necessidade de rastreamento e cuidado adequado. A prevenção e o tratamento de IST em gestantes são essenciais para a saúde materno-infantil, independentemente do status de HIV


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Urinary Tract Infections , HIV Infections/complications , Reproductive Tract Infections , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 636-646, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007779

ABSTRACT

The objective of present study was to develop a simple and reliable voiding spot assay (VSA) system to evaluate the lower urinary tract function of mice, and to establish it as a standardized protocol. Ultraviolet (UV) light was used to screen out the filter paper without autofluorescence and with optimal urine diffusion properties. Next, the appropriate wavelength of UV was determined based on the quality of the photographic image of urine spots on the filter paper. To confirm that the urine stain area on the filter paper was correlated with the amount of urine, a volume-area standard curve was constructed. The utility of this VSA system was validated using female wild-type C57BL/6J mice aged 12-13 weeks, and the data generated under identical procedural settings were compared among laboratories. Furthermore, this VSA system was employed to analyze the changes in voiding patterns in mice with urinary tract infections or transportation stress. No. 4 filter paper with a thickness of 0.7 mm was identified as the most suitable material for VSA, exhibiting no autofluorescence and facilitating optimal urine diffusion. The filter paper retained its integrity during the assay, and there was a linear correlation between urine volume and stained area under 365 nm UV light. Utilizing this VSA system, we determined that female wild-type C57BL/6J mice produced approximately 695.8 μL total urine and 5.5 primary voiding spots (PVS) with an average size of 126.4 μL/spot within 4-h period. Over 84% of PVS volumes ranged from 20 to 200 μL. Notably, PVS volumes of mice were similar across different laboratories. Mice with urinary tract infections or transportation stress exhibited significant changes in VSA parameters, including increased voiding frequency, PVS number, and decreased PVS volume. Therefore, this VSA system can be used to evaluate the urinary function of normal mice, as well as those with urinary tract infection or transportation stress.


Subject(s)
Mice , Female , Animals , Urodynamics , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Urination , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Tract Infections
12.
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 14(11): 1-13, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1530611

ABSTRACT

Healthcare-associated infections (HAI), also referred to as nosocomial infections, is defined as an infection acquired in a hospital setting. This infection is considered a HAI if it was not present or incubating at the time of admission. This includes infections acquired in the hospital but appearing after discharge, and also occupational infections among staff of the facility. HAI are a major patient safety measure to be considered in hospitals.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Surgical Wound Infection , Urinary Tract Infections , Delivery of Health Care , Cross Infection , Prevalence , Meta-Analysis , Systematic Review , Morocco
13.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(1): 102-109, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1414488

ABSTRACT

Background: Fragmented service provision and a lack of efficient cooperation between health and welfare sectors serving children and families remain ongoing challenges in South Africa. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic escalated this fragmentation. A community of practice (CoP) was established by the Centre for Social Development in Africa to promote collaboration between the sectors and to assist communities in their environments. Aim: To explore and describe collaboration on child health promotion between professional nurses and social workers, who formed part of the CoP during the COVID-19 pandemic. Setting: The study was conducted in five public schools from four of the seven district regions of the City of Johannesburg, Gauteng province. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive research design was employed to conduct psychosocial and health screenings of children and their families. Focus group interviews were conducted, and field notes were used to collect and confirm data from the team. Results: Four themes emerged. Participants shared their positive and negative experiences faced during the fieldwork, their realisation of the value of collaboration between various sectors and their desire and capacity to do more. Conclusion: Participants indicated that collaboration between the health and welfare sectors is vital to support and promote the health of children and their families. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for collaboration between these sectors in the children and their families' ongoing struggles. Contribution: The importance of these sectors being engaged as a team highlighted the multisectoral influence shaping child development outcomes, supporting children's human rights and advancing social and economic justice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Bacteria , Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Anti-Bacterial Agents
14.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(3): 105-109, 20221115.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401560

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones de las vías urinarias constituyen una de las patologías infecciosas más frecuentes tanto en la comunidad como en el ámbito hospitalario En el medio hospitalario se ha observado una alta frecuencia de infecciones asociadas a hongos oportunistas, en su mayoría corresponden a especies de Candida spp. Sin embargo, se aíslan otras especies como Trichosporon, donde predomina la especie asahii, en casos de pacientes inmunodeprimidos o con tratamiento previo de antibioticoterapia. Presentación de Casos Clínicos: Se presentan 2 casos donde se aisló en urocultivos Trichosporon asahii. En ambos casos los pacientes presentaron factores de riesgo y síntomas inespecíficos. Conclusión: La presencia de hongos de forma persistente en el tracto urinario es considerada clínicamente significativa. El tratamiento de la funguria debe basarse en el análisis del paciente, de su estado general y de sus factores de riesgo. Para el tratamiento, se observó que el efecto de los triazoles, fueron los más efectivos en el tratamiento de la infección por T. asahii.


Introduction: Urinary tract infections are one of the most frequent infectious pathologies both in the community and in the hospital setting. In the hospital environment, a high frequency of infections associated with opportunistic fungi has been observed, most of which correspond to species of Candida spp. However, other species such as Trichosporon are isolated, where the asahii species predominates (6,7). Presentation of Clinical Cases: Two cases are presented where Trichosporon asahii was isolated in urine cultures. In both cases, the patients presented risk factors and nonspecific symptoms. Conclusion: The persistent presence of fungi in the urinary tract is considered clinically significant (9,10). The treatment of funguria should be based on the analysis of the patient, his general condition and his risk factors (10). For treatment, it was observed that the effect of triazoles was the most effective in the treatment of T. asahii infection (8)


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections , Trichosporon , Infections
15.
Rev. cient. Esc. Univ. Cienc. Salud ; 9(2): 57-63, jul. - dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1552127

ABSTRACT

La infección del tracto urinario es especialmente frecuente en mujeres, las bacterias aerobias gram negativas son las responsables del mayor número de casos. Pantoea agglomerans denominado previamente Enterobacter agglomerans es un bacilo anaerobio Gram negativo que pocas veces se ha descrito como patógeno en el ser humano; se han reportado casos de infecciones cutáneas, osteomielitis y sinovitis posterior a trauma con plantas; e infecciones nosocomiales especialmente en pacientes inmunodeprimidos que se han asociado a material médico contaminado, siendo la mayor parte de los casos resistentes a betalactámicos. Se presenta un insólito caso clínico de cistitis por Pantoea agglomerans en una mujer de 30 años, inmunocompetente, sin antecedentes de hospitalización ni instrumentación o sondaje de vía urinaria; fue manejada con esquema alargado de betalactámicos, con respuesta favorable a la antibiótico terapia. El diagnóstico de infección urinaria por P. agglomerans en pacientes inmunocompetentes es inusual, su escaso aislamiento podría relacionarse a la dificultad de identificar esta bacteria en muestras biológicas y la resistencia a antibioticoterapia podría asociarse en los pacientes hospitalizados a la amplia y prolongada administración de antibióticos en su estancia hospitalaria. Por ello se recomienda solicitar urocultivo y su respectivo antibiograma en pacientes con infección sintomática del tracto urinario para disponer de información del patógeno aislado y dar un adecuado manejo antimicrobiano contemplando el esquema más adecuado...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Tract Infections , Cystitis
16.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411691

ABSTRACT

Objective: This review determined and reports the prevalence of urinary tract infections and aetiological agents common in most sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: A literature search involved Springer, Hindawi, PubMed, Medcrave, Google Scholar, BioMed, and Elsevier databases to identify the urinary tract infection articles published between 2000 and 2021. Results: Of 111 articles obtained from databases, 22 met the qualities to be included in the study. Overall, the prevalence of UTI was 32.12% with Escherichia coli being the most commonly isolated bacteria accounting for 86.4%. Escherichia coli is found in the GIT thus, the proximity between the anus and urinary system makes the contamination easier. Conclusion: The findings of this study provide useful information for the effective intervention of urinary tract infections. Further, it is advised women wipe from front to back whenever they attend the call of nature and or during bathing.


Objetivo: Relatamos a prevalência de infecções do trato urinário e agentes etiológicos comuns na maioria dos países da África Subsaariana. Metodos: Uma pesquisa bibliográfica envolveu as bases de dados Springer, Hindawi, PubMed, Medcrave, Google Scholar, BioMed e Elsevier para identificar os artigos que abordavam infecção do trato urinário nos países da África Subsaariana, publicados entre 2000 e 2021. Resultados: Dos 111 artigos obtidos nas bases de dados, 22 atenderam aos criterios de inclusao e foram incluídos no estudo . No geral, a prevalência de UTI foi de 32,12%, sendo a Escherichia coli a bactéria mais comumente isolada, representando 86,4%. A Escherichia coli é encontrada no TGI, portanto, a proximidade entre o ânus e o sistema urinário facilita a contaminação. Conclusao: Os achados deste estudo fornecem informações úteis para a intervenção efetiva das infecções do trato urinário. Além disso, é aconselhável que as mulheres busquem fazer sua higiene intima sempre da parte da frente para trás.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract , Prevalence , Africa South of the Sahara , PubMed , Infections
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1360-1375, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402290

ABSTRACT

A ocorrência das infecções do trato urinário (ITU) causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida estão aumentando consideravelmente nas últimas décadas, sendo a Candida albicans a mais comumente diagnosticada como causadora deste tipo de infecções. Contudo, outras espécies, como exemplo da Candida tropicalis, estão emergindo como preocupantes causadores da doença. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho é revisar os aspectos relacionados com as ITU causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida. Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados PubMed, buscando artigos sobre a epidemiologia, patogenia e tratamento das ITU causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida. As espécies de Candida são os fungos patogênicos oportunistas mais relevantes causadores de infecções nosocomiais e podem causar infecção no trato urinário, tanto inferior (ureteres, bexiga e uretra) quanto superior (rins), principalmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Existem alguns fatores predisponentes, como gênero feminino, idade avançada, diabetes mellitus, hospitalização prolongada, imunossupressão, gravidez, hipertensão, neutropenia, cálculos renais, infecções nosocomiais, terapia antibiótica e procedimentos, como a cateterização, que atuam como facilitadores das ITU por Candida spp. A doença pode ocorrer de forma assintomática, porém, pode evoluir para casos mais graves com comprometimento sistêmico em situações de candidemia que pode causar a morte do paciente, principalmente se tratando de indivíduos imunocomprometidos. Sendo assim, devido ao risco existente, a doença não pode ser negligenciada e um diagnóstico preciso e um tratamento adequado devem ser estabelecidos.


The occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by yeasts of the genus Candida has increased considerably in recent decades, with Candida albicans being the most commonly diagnosed as causing this type of infections. However, other species, such as Candida tropicalis, are emerging as worrisome causes of the disease. In this sense, the objective of the present paper is to review the aspects related to the UTI caused by yeasts of the genus Candida. A search was carried out in the PubMed database, searching for articles on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of UTI caused by yeasts of the genus Candida. Candida species are the most relevant opportunistic pathogenic fungi that cause nosocomial infections and can cause both lower (ureters, bladder and urethra) and upper (kidneys) urinary tract infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There are some predisposing factors, such as female gender, advanced age, diabetes mellitus, prolonged hospitalization, immunosuppression, pregnancy, hypertension, neutropenia, kidney stones, nosocomial infections, antibiotic therapy and procedures, such as catheterization, that act as facilitators of UTI by Candida spp. The disease can occur asymptomatically, however, it can progress to more severe cases with systemic involvement in situations of candidemia that can cause the death of the patient, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, due to the existing risk, the disease cannot be neglected and an accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment must be established.


La aparición de infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) causadas por levaduras del género Candida ha aumentado considerablemente en las últimas décadas. Candida albicans es la infección por levaduras más comúnmente diagnosticada. Sin embargo, otras especies, como la Candida tropicalis, están surgiendo como causa preocupante de la enfermedad. En este sentido, el objetivo del presente trabajo es revisar los aspectos relacionados con la ITU causada por levaduras del género Candida. Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos PubMed, buscando artículos sobre la epidemiología, la patogénesis y el tratamiento de la ITU causada por levaduras del género Candida. Las especies de Candida son los hongos patógenos oportunistas más relevantes que causan infecciones nosocomiales y pueden provocar infecciones del tracto urinario inferior (uréteres, vejiga y uretra) y superior (riñones), especialmente en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Existen algunos factores predisponentes, como el sexo femenino, la edad avanzada, la diabetes mellitus, la hospitalización prolongada, la inmunosupresión, el embarazo, la hipertensión, la neutropenia, los cálculos renales, las infecciones nosocomiales, la terapia con antibióticos y los procedimientos como el cateterismo, que actúan como facilitadores de la ITU por Candida spp. La enfermedad puede presentarse de forma asintomática, pero puede evolucionar a casos más graves con afectación sistémica en situaciones de candidemia que pueden causar la muerte del paciente, especialmente en individuos inmunodeprimidos. Por lo tanto, debido al riesgo existente, no se puede descuidar la enfermedad y se debe establecer un diagnóstico preciso y un tratamiento adecuado.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Candida tropicalis/pathogenicity , Pyelonephritis/complications , Urinary Tract/injuries , Cross Infection/complications , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Biofilms , Cystitis/complications , Candidemia/complications , Hospitalization
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): S69-S87, oct. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1395657

ABSTRACT

En 2015 se publicaron en Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría las "Nuevas recomendaciones frente a las actuales controversias en infección urinaria". Dado que en estos años surgieron evidencias con respecto al diagnóstico, la forma de estudio y el tratamiento de la infección urinaria, el Comité de Nefrología Pediátrica de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría decidió actualizar dichas recomendaciones. El objetivo principal es brindar al pediatra las herramientas para realizar un correcto diagnóstico, definir el tratamiento más adecuado, seleccionar a los pacientes que se beneficiarán con la profilaxis antibiótica y decidir cuáles serán los estudios de imágenes necesarios, para evitar intervenciones costosas e invasivas. En estas guías se incluyen, además, los lineamientos para el manejo de niños con infecciones urinarias asociadas a situaciones especiales como la disfunción vesicointestinal, el recién nacido, los portadores de vejiga neurogénica, los receptores de trasplante renal y las infecciones urinarias micóticas.


In 2015, the "New recommendations regarding the current controversies in urinary infection" were published in the Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría. Given the fact that in these past years, new evidence has emerged regarding the diagnosis and treatment of urinary infection, the Pediatric Nephrology Committee of Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría has decided to update these recommendations. The main goal is to provide the pediatrician with the necessary tools to make a correct diagnosis, define the most appropriate treatment, select the patients who will benefit from antibiotic prophylaxis, and decide which imaging studies will be necessary, avoiding costly and invasive interventions. These guidelines also include the management of children with urinary tract infections associated with special situations such as: bladder bowel dysfunction, the newborn, children with neurogenic bladder, kidney transplant patients and fungal urinary tract infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/therapy , Argentina
19.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1325-1342, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402281

ABSTRACT

A infecção do trato urinário (ITU) nada mais é do que o acometimento das vias urinárias por microrganismo. Entre as infecções hospitalares de maior incidência está a infecção do trato urinário, acometendo mais mulheres do que homens. Uma das possíveis causas dessa infecção, em pacientes na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), é o uso de cateter vesical. Seu tratamento inadequado pode ocasionar uma pielonefrite, podendo adentrar à circulação sanguínea, gerando uma infecção sistêmica e levar o paciente a óbito. A resistência antimicrobiana é uma das principais dificuldades encontrada em UTI sendo considerado um problema de saúde pública. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um breve relato, baseado na literatura, sobre a resistência antimicrobiana na infecção urinária em unidade de terapia intensiva adulta. Em ambientes hospitalares o principal microrganismo causador de ITU é Escherichia coli, sendo 55,5% das culturas positivas estão associadas a procedimentos invasivos, como as sondas vesicais de demora, como consequência este é o microrganismo que mais apresenta resistência aos antimicrobianos utilizados como a ampicilina, trimetoprima e ciprofloxacino. O uso indiscriminado de antibióticos deixa em evidência a necessidade de análise criteriosa da real necessidade de qual antimicrobianos usar, tempo de uso e forma correta de administração. Portanto é necessária a ação dos profissionais de saúde frente a atenção ao paciente, desde a higiene das mãos, uso do cateter, quando necessário observar a real necessidade do uso do antimicrobianos e que esse seja feito após cultura e antibiograma.


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is nothing more than the involvement of the urinary tract by a microorganism. Among the hospital infections with the highest incidence is urinary tract infections, affecting more women than men. One of the possible causes of this infection in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is the use of a bladder catheter. Its inadequate treatment can cause pyelonephritis, which can enter the bloodstream, generating a systemic infection and leading the patient to death. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the main difficulties encountered in ICUs and is considered a public health problem. The objective of this study was to present a brief report, based on the literature, on antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract infections in an adult intensive care unit. In hospital environments, the main microorganism that causes UTI is Escherichia coli, and 55.5% of positive cultures are associated with invasive procedures, such as indwelling urinary catheters, as a consequence, this is the microorganism that is most resistant to antimicrobials used, such as ampicillin, trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics highlights the need for a careful analysis of the real need for which antimicrobials to use, time of use, and correct form of administration. Therefore, it is necessary for the action of health professionals in the care of the patient, from the hygiene of the professional to, the use of the catheter, when necessary to observe the real need for the use of antimicrobials and that this is done after culture and antibiogram.


La infección del tracto urinario (ITU) no es más que la afectación de las vías urinarias por un microorganismo. Entre las infecciones hospitalarias con mayor incidencia se encuentra la infección del tracto urinario, que afecta más a mujeres que a hombres. Una de las posibles causas de esta infección en pacientes en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) es el uso de una sonda vesical. Su tratamiento inadecuado puede causar pielonefritis, la cual puede ingresar al torrente sanguíneo, generando una infección sistémica y llevando al paciente a la muerte. La resistencia a los antimicrobianos es una de las principales dificultades encontradas en las UCI y se considera un problema de salud pública. El objetivo de este estudio fue presentar un breve informe, basado en la literatura, sobre la resistencia antimicrobiana en infecciones del tracto urinario en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de adultos. En ambientes hospitalarios, el principal microorganismo causante de ITU es Escherichia coli, y el 55,5% de los cultivos positivos están asociados a procedimientos invasivos, como sondas vesicales permanentes, por lo que este es el microorganismo más resistente a los antimicrobianos utilizados, como la ampicilina. ., trimetoprima y ciprofloxacino. El uso indiscriminado de antibióticos pone de relieve la necesidad de un análisis cuidadoso de la necesidad real de qué antimicrobianos utilizar, el momento de uso y la forma correcta de administración. Por lo tanto, es necesaria la actuación de los profesionales de la salud en el cuidado del paciente, desde la higiene del profesional, uso del catéter, cuando sea necesario observar la necesidad real del uso de antimicrobianos y que este se realice previo cultivo y antibiograma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Urinary Tract Infections/mortality , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Urinary Tract , Women , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/complications , Cross Infection/transmission , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Catheters/microbiology , Hand Hygiene , Ampicillin/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
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