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2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(3): 505-511, May.-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840843

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To validate a measurement instrument for clean intermittent self-catheterization for patients and health-caregivers. Material and Methods Methodological study of instrument validation performed at a Rehabilitation Center in a University hospital for patients submitted to clean intermittent self-catheterization and their health-caregivers. Following ethical criteria, data were collected during interview with nurse staff using a Likert question form containing 16 items with 5 points each: “no confidence”=1, “little confidence”=2, “confident”=3, “very confident”=4 and “completely confident”=5. Questionnaire called “Self-Confident Scale for Clean Intermittent Self-catheterization” (SCSCISC) was constructed based on literature and previously validated (appearance and content). Results The instrument was validated by 122 patients and 119 health-caregivers, in a proportion of 15:1. It was observed a good linear association and sample adequacy KMO 0.931 and X2=2881.63, p<0.001. Anti-image matrix showed high values at diagonal suggesting inclusion of all factors. Screen plot analysis showed a suggestion of items maintenance in a single set. It was observed high correlation of all items with the total, alpha-Cronbach 0.944. The same results were obtained in subsamples of patients and health-caregivers. Conclusion The instrument showed good psychometric adequacy corroborating its use for evaluation of self-confidence during clean intermittent self-catheterization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Self Care/instrumentation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Caregivers , Intermittent Urethral Catheterization/methods , Psychometrics , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Urinary Catheterization/methods
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(10): e6638, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888941

ABSTRACT

This study proposed a decision tree model to screen upper urinary tract damage (UUTD) for patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB). Thirty-four NGB patients with UUTD were recruited in the case group, while 78 without UUTD were included in the control group. A decision tree method, classification and regression tree (CART), was then applied to develop the model in which UUTD was used as a dependent variable and history of urinary tract infections, bladder management, conservative treatment, and urodynamic findings were used as independent variables. The urethra function factor was found to be the primary screening information of patients and treated as the root node of the tree; Pabd max (maximum abdominal pressure, >14 cmH2O), Pves max (maximum intravesical pressure, ≤89 cmH2O), and gender (female) were also variables associated with UUTD. The accuracy of the proposed model was 84.8%, and the area under curve was 0.901 (95%CI=0.844-0.958), suggesting that the decision tree model might provide a new and convenient way to screen UUTD for NGB patients in both undeveloped and developing areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Data Mining/methods , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/complications , Urinary Tract/injuries , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/physiopathology , Urinary Tract/physiopathology
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(1): 1-12, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-777385

ABSTRACT

A acidificação urinária com cloreto de amônio (CA) é um método preventivo eficiente em urolitíase obstrutiva em ovinos. Os objetivos deste estudo com ovinos confinados, que receberam dieta concentrada com elevado teor proteico, foram: verificar o efeito da dieta sobre a formação de urólitos e o desenvolvimento da doença; analisar as características macroscópicas e histopatológicas do sistema urinário; relacionar os achados clínicos, laboratoriais e necroscópicos com a presença de urólitos. Utilizaram-se 60 ovinos machos: grupo CA (n=40), 400 mg/kg CA/dia, tratados via oral, por 42 dias consecutivos; grupo-controle (n=20), não tratado. Determinaram-se sete momentos de colheita de amostras com intervalos de sete dias, no total de 56 dias de confinamento. Encontraram-se microcálculos na pelve renal em cinco animais de ambos os grupos. As lesões renais microscópicas mais relevantes foram congestão vascular e necrose tubular. Concluiu-se que a dieta rica em concentrado provocou lesão renal em ambos os grupos, embora sem alterar a função renal, o que foi comprovado em testes pela ureia e creatinina séricas. O cloreto de amônio fornecido ao grupo CA não impediu a calculogênese, mas reduziu sua prevalência em relação ao grupo-controle. Os ovinos do grupo-controle tiveram maior comprometimento renal, pela alta incidência de cristalúria e pela necrose tubular, induzidas pelo consumo da dieta rica em grãos.


The urinary acidification with ammonium chloride (AC) is an efficient preventive method for urolithiasis in sheep. The objectives of this study with feedlot sheep receiving concentrated diet with high protein content were (1) to verify the effect of diet on urolith formation and development of the disease, (2) to analyze the macroscopic and histopathological characteristics of the urinary system, and (3) to relate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings with the presence of uroliths. Sixty male sheep were used: AC group (n=40), 400mg/kg AC/day, orally treated for 42 consecutive days, and control group (n=20), untreated. Seven times were determined for sampling with a seven-day interval, totaling 56 days of feedlot. Small uroliths were found in the renal pelvis of five sheep in both groups. The most relevant microscopic renal lesions were vascular congestion and tubular necrosis. It was concluded that the highly concentrated diet caused renal injury in both groups, without changing the renal function, what was proven by laboratory tests of urea and creatinine. Ammonium chloride provided to the CA group did not prevent urolith formation, but reduced its prevalence in comparison with the control group. Sheep of the control group had increased kidney damage, which resulted in higher incidence of crystalluria and tubular necrosis induced by the consumption of a diet rich in grains.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ammonium Chloride/administration & dosage , Sheep/anatomy & histology , Sheep/physiology , Urinary Tract/anatomy & histology , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Diet/veterinary , Kidney/injuries , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/veterinary , Urinalysis/veterinary , Urolithiasis/veterinary
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 52(3): 180-185, July-Sep. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762870

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe impact on quality of life attributed to treatment for rectal cancer remains high. Deterioration of the urinary function is a relevant complication within that context.ObjectiveTo detect the presence of urinary dysfunction and its risk factors among individuals underwent surgical treatment for rectal cancer.MethodsThe present prospective study analyzed 42 patients from both genders underwent surgical treatment for rectal adenocarcinoma with curative intent. The version of the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire validated for the Portuguese language was applied at two time-points: immediately before and 6 months after surgery. Risk factors for urinary dysfunction were analysed by means of logistic regression and Student’s t-test.ResultsEight (19%) participants exhibited moderate-to-severe urinary dysfunction 6 months after surgery; the average IPSS increased from 1.43 at baseline to 4.62 six months after surgery (P<0.001). None of the variables assessed as potential risk factors exhibited statistical significance, i.e., age, gender, distance from tumour to anal margin, neoadjuvant therapy, adjuvant therapy, type of surgery, surgical approach (laparoscopy or laparotomy), and duration of surgery.ConclusionThis study identified an incidence of 19% of moderate to severe urinary dysfuction after 6 months surveillance. No risk factor for urinary dysfunction was identified in this population.


ContextoA perda de qualidade de vida atribuída ao tratamento do câncer retal continua elevada. Neste contexto, a deterioração da função urinária é complicação relevante.ObjetivoIdentificar disfunção urinária e seus fatores de risco em doentes submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de reto.MétodosRealizou-se estudo prospectivo com 42 doentes de ambos os sexos submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico com intenção curativa para adenocarcinoma de reto. Foi utilizado o questionário International Prostatic Symptom Score, validado na língua portuguesa, em dois períodos: imediatamente antes e após 6 meses do procedimento cirúrgico. Os fatores de risco para disfunção urinária foram analisados por regressão logística e teste t de Student.ResultadosApós 6 meses do procedimento cirúrgico, oito (19%) doentes apresentaram disfunção urinária moderada a grave e aumento na média do escore utilizado de 1,43 pontos no pré-operatório para 4,62 pontos no pós-operatório (P<0,001). A análise de fatores de risco para disfunção urinária não mostrou significância para as variáveis estudadas, idade, gênero, distância tumoral da margem anal, neoadjuvância, adjuvância, procedimento cirúrgico realizado, via de acesso cirúrgico (laparoscópica ou laparotômica) e tempo operatório.ConclusãoNos doentes com carcinoma retal operados com intenção curativa, a incidência de disfunção urinária moderada a grave após 6 meses da operação foi de 19%. Não foram identificados fatores de risco para disfunção urinária nesses doentes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma/complications , Carcinoma/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Rectal Neoplasms/complications , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Urologic Diseases/etiology , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Factors
6.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 266-275, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34602

ABSTRACT

Lower urinary tract dysfunction-such as urinary incontinence (UI), detrusor overactivity, and benign prostatic hyperplasia-is prevalent in elderly persons. These conditions can interfere with daily life and normal functioning and lead to negative effects on health-related quality of life. UI is one of the most common urologic conditions but is poorly understood elderly persons. The overall prevalence of UI increases with age in both men and women. Elderly persons often neglect UI or dismiss it as part of the normal aging process. However, UI can have significant negative effects on self-esteem and has been associated with increased rates of depression. UI also affects quality of life and activities of daily living. Although UI is more common in elderly than in younger persons, it should not be considered a normal part of aging. UI is abnormal at any age. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the cause, classification, evaluation, and management of geriatric lower urinary tract dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aging/physiology , Disease Management , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Urologic Diseases/classification
7.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 85(4): 486-496, oct.-dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-697511

ABSTRACT

Introducción: no se tiene constancia de la frecuencia con que ocurren reinfecciones después de la primera infección del tracto urinario en el período neonatal, ni cuáles son los factores que se asocian a estas. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia y factores asociados con la ocurrencia de reinfecciones en pacientes que sufrieron la primera infección del tracto urinario en el período neonatal. Métodos: estudio observacional, analítico, longitudinal, desde 1992 hasta 2009, de 399 recién nacidos con la primera infección del tracto urinario, y que se le realizaron ultrasonido renal y uretrocistografía miccional. Los pacientes tuvieron seguimiento por consulta externa y se analizaron la frecuencia y factores clínicos, demográficos y de evaluación de radioimagen, asociados con la ocurrencia de reinfecciones...


Introduction: there is not enough proof of either the frequency of re-infections after the first infection of the urinary tract in the neonatal period, or the factors associated to them. Objective: to determine the frequency and the factors associated to occurrence of re-infections in patients who suffered the first infection of the urinay tract in the neonatal period. Methods: a longitudinal, observational and analytic study of 399 newborns with first infection of the urinary tract was conducted from 1992 to 2009. These patients had been performed renal ultrasound and mictional cystourethrography and they were followed-up in the outpatient service. Frequency, clinical and demographic factors and imaging assessment associated to the occurrence of re-infections were analyzed...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Superinfection/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Risk Factors
8.
Infectio ; 17(3): 163-166, jul.-set. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-702963

ABSTRACT

La sífilis congénita es un problema de salud pública mundial, la mayoría de los neonatos infectados no presenta manifestaciones clínicas de la enfermedad y la determinación de Ig M específica utilizada para el diagnóstico es de bajo rendimiento, por lo que el diagnóstico en el recién nacido depende del diagnóstico de sífilis en la gestante. Presentamos la historia clínica de una recién nacida, hija de una madre con sífilis gestacional inadecuadamente tratada. Durante su hospitalización se evidenció compromiso hepático con aumento de la aspartato amino transferasa e hiperbilirrubinemia con aumento de la fracción conjugada. Se descartó compromiso de SNC. Los cultivos para gérmenes comunes de sangre y orina fueron negativos. Las determinaciones de Ig M para CMV, rubeola, toxoplasma , Herpes I y II fueron negativas. Las ecografías transfontanelar, cardiaca, renal y de vías urinarias y hepatobiliar fueron normales. Durante la hospitalización, a los 9 días de vida presentó un episodio de infección bacteriana asociada. Recibió tratamiento con penicilina cristalina durante 14 días con normalización de los niveles de bilirrubina y de aspartato aminotransferasa. El seguimiento clínico y serológico a los 3 meses de edad mostró patrón de crecimiento y desarrollo normal y VDRL no reactiva.


Congenital syphilis is a global public health problem. The majority of infected children have no clinical manifestations of the disease and the specific IgM determination in newborns has low diagnostic performance. The diagnosis depends mostly of the diagnosis in mothers before birth. We report a newborn that was inadequately treated prenatally. At birth, the liver involvement was detected, with increase in aspartate amino transferase and of conjugated fractions of bilirubin. CNS involvement was ruled out and cultures of blood and urine were negative for bacteria. Determinations for IgM of CMV, rubella, toxoplasmosis and herpes I and II, were negative. Transfontanellar, heart, kidney, urinary tract and hepatobiliary ultrasound examinations were normal. Crystalline penicillin treatment for 14 days was undertaken, obtaining normal levels of bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase at the end of treatment. The clinical and serological follow-up after 3 months showed a normal growth and development pattern with non-reactive VDRL tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Syphilis, Congenital , Hepatitis , Hyperbilirubinemia , Penicillins , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Ultrasonography
9.
Radiol. bras ; 45(4): 233-234, jul.-ago. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-647865

ABSTRACT

O rim em bolo é uma rara anormalidade do trato urinário que pode ser diagnosticada em qualquer faixa etária. Durante investigação de infecção urinária recorrente em criança de 12 anos, foi revelada em tomografia computadorizada contrastada a presença de rim direito ectópico, com fusão renal, drenado por dois ureteres. Foi iniciado tratamento profilático com nitrofurantoína e o paciente se encontra assintomático.


Cake kidney, a rare anomaly of the urinary tract, may be diagnosed at any age range. During the investigation of recurrent urinary tract infection in a 12-year-old child, contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated the presence of a right-sided ectopic kidney, with renal fusion, drained by two ureters. Prophylactic treatment with nitrofurantoin was instituted, and the patient currently remains asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Congenital Abnormalities , Infections , Kidney/abnormalities , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Abdomen , Nitrofurantoin/therapeutic use , Pelvis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 38(4): 448-455, July-Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649437

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Dilation of urinary tract occurs without the presence of obstruction. Diagnostic methods that depend on renal function may elicit mistaken diagnosis. Whitaker (1973) proposed the evaluation of urinary tract pressure submitted to constant flow. Other investigators proposed perfusion of renal pelvis under controlled pressure, making the method more physiological and reproducible. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the results of the anterograde pressure measurement (APM) of the urinary tract of children with persistent hydronephrosis after surgery suspected to present persistent obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Along 12 years, 26 renal units with persistent hydronephrosis after surgery (12 PUJ and 14 VUJ) were submitted to evaluation of the renal tract pressure in order to decide the form of treatment. Previous radionuclide scans with DTPA, intravenous pyelographies and ultrasounds were considered undetermined in relation to obstruction in 10 occasions and obstructive in 16. APM was performed under radioscopy through renal pelvis puncture or previous stoma. Saline with methylene blue + iodine contrast was infused under constant pressure of 40 cm H2O to fill the urinary system. The ureteral opening pressure was measured following the opening of the system and stabilization of the water column. RESULTS: Among the 10 cases with undetermined previous diagnosis, APM was considered non-obstructive in two and those were treated clinically and eight were considered obstructive and were submitted to surgery. Among the 16 cases previously classified as obstructive, nine confirmed obstruction and were submitted to surgery. Seven cases were considered non-obstructive, and were treated clinically, with stable DMSA and hydronephrosis. CONCLUSIONS: APM avoided unnecessary surgery in one third of the cases and was important to treatment decision in 100%. We believe that this simple test is an excellent diagnostic tool when selectively applied mainly in the presence of functional deficit.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Hydronephrosis/physiopathology , Urethral Obstruction/physiopathology , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Kidney Pelvis/physiopathology , Postoperative Period , Pressure , Reproducibility of Results , Urodynamics , Urethral Obstruction/diagnosis , Urologic Surgical Procedures/methods
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(3): 247-253, Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-624118

ABSTRACT

Entre janeiro de 1990 e dezembro de 2010 foram necropsiados 4.872 cães no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (LPV-UFSM). Destes, 76 (1,6%) apresentaram urólitos em algum local do sistema urinário. O perfil epidemiológico dos cães afetados demonstrou o predomínio de machos (64,5%), adultos (52,6%) e com raça definida (56,6%). Sinais clínicos indicativos de urolitíase foram reportados em 30,3% dos casos e consistiram principalmente de hematúria, anúria, disúria e incontinência urinária. Os urólitos tiveram localização única ou múltipla e os locais anatômicos mais frequentemente acometimentos, em ordem decrescente de frequência, foram: bexiga, rim e uretra. Urolitíase ureteral não foi observada. Lesões secundárias à urolitíase foram observadas em aproximadamente 40% dos cães afetados; as mais prevalentes, em ordem decrescente de frequência, foram: cistite, obstrução uretral, hidroureter, hidronefrose, ruptura vesical (com uroperitônio) e pielonefrite. Em 25% dos cães afetados ocorreu morte espontânea ou eutanásia decorrente das lesões secundárias à urolitíase. Lesões extra-renais de uremia foram observadas em 11,8% dos casos.


From January 1990 to December 2010, 4,872 dogs were necropsied at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Seventy six dogs (1.6%) had uroliths along the urinary tract. The epidemiological profile of the affected dogs showed predominance of males (64.5%); adults (52.6%); and pure breeds (56.6%). Clinical signs suggestive of urolithiasis were reported in 30.3% of the dogs and consisted mainly of hematuria, anuria, dysuria and urinary incontinency. The uroliths were found in one or more anatomical sites, and the main affected ones (in descending order) were urinary bladder, kidney, and urethra. Ureteral urolithiasis was not observed. Secondary lesions to urolithiasis were found in about 40% of the cases. The most prevalent (in descending order) were cystitis, urethral obstruction, hydroureter, hydronephrosis, urinary bladder rupture (with uroperitoneum), and pyelonephritis. In 25% of the affected dogs, spontaneous death occurred or euthanasia was performed due to the secondary lesions of urolithiasis. Extra-renal lesions of uremia were found in 11.8% of the cases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dogs/urine , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Urolithiasis/veterinary , Anuria/veterinary , Kidney Calculi/veterinary , Dysuria/veterinary , Hematuria/veterinary
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 37(1): 16-28, Jan.-Feb. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-581533

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Urinary bladder and rectum share a common embryological origin. Their autonomic and somatic innervations have close similarities. Moreover, the close proximity of these two organ systems could suggest that dysfunction in one may influence, also mechanically, the function of the other. Therefore, it is not surprising that defecation problems and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) occur together, as reported in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between constipation and LUTS focusing on what is evidence-based. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database in February 2010 to retrieve English language studies (from 1997 to 2009) and the 2005, 2006 and 2007 abstract volumes of the European Association of Urology (EAU), American Urological Association (AUA) and International Continence Society (ICS). EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We present the findings according to the studied population in four groups: (a) children, (b) middle-aged women, (c) elderly and (d) neuropathic patients. Most published studies that correlated rectal and bladder dysfunction were carried out in children or in young women. On the other hand, there are few studies regarding the association between constipation and LUTS in the elderly and in neuropathic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Several studies in children documented that constipation is linked to urinary tract problems, including infections, enuresis, vesicoureteral reflux and upper renal tract dilatation. The underlying pathophysiology of these findings has not yet been clearly defined. Studies in middle-aged women also support a high prevalence of constipation among patients suffering from urinary tract dysfunction. Furthermore, an association between constipation and urinary incontinence, as well as between constipation and pelvic organ prolapse, has been suggested. The only prospective study in constipated elderly with concomitant LUTS demonstrates that the medical relief of constipation also significantly improves LUTS. Finally, the available data on neuropathic patients suggest that stool impaction in the rectum may mechanically impede bladder emptying. However, most of the studies only include a small number of patients, are not prospective and are uncontrolled. Therefore, there is a need for large-scale, controlled studies to further improve evidence and to provide a valid recommendation for all groups, especially for the elderly and neuropathic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Constipation/complications , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/complications , Age Factors , Constipation/therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/therapy , Risk Factors , Urinary Tract/physiopathology
13.
Radiol. bras ; 42(3): 193-197, maio-jun. 2009. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-520279

ABSTRACT

Endometriose é definida como a presença de tecido endometrial funcionante fora da cavidade endometrial e do miométrio. É uma doença comum, de causas multifatoriais, porém o envolvimento do trato urinário baixo é raro. A ressonância magnética tem elevada sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia no diagnóstico da endometriose do trato geniturinário baixo, principalmente por permitir a identificação das lesões de permeio a aderências e a avaliação da extensão das lesões subperitoneais. Neste estudo são ilustrados, sob a forma de ensaio iconográfico, os principais achados à ressonância magnética do envolvimento por endometriose do trato urinário baixo.


Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the endometrial cavity and myometrium. Although this is a frequent disease with multifactorial causes, involvement of the lower urinary tract is rare. Magnetic resonance imaging is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in the diagnosis of endometriosis in the lower urinary tract, especially for allowing the identification of lesions obscured by adhesions or with subperitoneal extension. The present iconographic essay presents the main magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lower urinary tract involvement by endometriosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Female Urogenital Diseases/diagnosis , Endometriosis , Endometriosis , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Diagnostic Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity , Urethra/pathology
14.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 15(supl.1): 45-53, 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-577477

ABSTRACT

Ultrasound and nuclear medicine appear to be the modalities of choice when dealing with the imaging study of the urinary system in infants. In children, a CT sean does not have the impact it has had on adults, since pediatric patients present with different pathologies and also because of the peculiar physiological conditions of childhood. The Uro-resonance has emerged as a powerful and useful diagnostic tool, bringing together in a single study anatomical images and functional information as well without the use of ionizing radiation. We review the technical aspeets, anatomical and physiological concepts of the study, while providing examples of current applications in the infant.


El estudio por imágenes del sistema urinario del niño ha estado a cargo del ultrasonido y la medicina nuclear. En el niño, la tomografía computada no tiene el impacto que ha tenido en adultos, por tratarse de patologías diferentes y por las condiciones fisiológicas propias de la edad pediátrica. La Uro-resonancia se proyecta como una herramienta útil, reuniendo en un solo estudio imágenes anatómicas e información funcional, en ausencia de radiación ionizante. Se revisan aspectos de la técnica, conceptos anatómicos y fisiológicos del estudio, adicionando ejemplos de aplicaciones en el niño.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Urologic Diseases/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Kidney/physiopathology , Urography/methods , Diuretics , Urologic Diseases/physiopathology , Time Factors , Furosemide , Gadolinium , Hydronephrosis/diagnosis , Contrast Media , Radioisotopes , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Glomerular Filtration Rate
15.
J. bras. med ; 92(5): 58-59, maio 2007.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-480226

ABSTRACT

A infecção do trato urinário (ITU) é uma doença de alta prevalência clínica, responsável por mais de 6 milhões de consultas por ano nos EUA. Manifesta-se em qualquer idade, sendo prevalente em várias faixas etárias. Sua prevalência aumenta com o passr da idade, ainda mais quando se encontram co-morbidades ou restrição ao leito. Normalmente, nos indivíduos idosos, a ITU ocorre na faixa etária acima de 60 anos, chegando a atingir 3 por cento a 4 por cento dos homens. A hiperplasia prostática, assim como a demência, são co-morbidades importantes.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Urinary Tract Infections/physiopathology , Emergency Medical Services , Urinary Tract/physiopathology
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 32(3): 336-341, May-June 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-433383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this preliminary study we report the development of the video urodynamic technique using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 6 women with genuine stress urinary incontinence, diagnosed by history and physical examination. Urodynamic examination was performed on multichannel equipment with the patient in the supine position. Coughing and Valsalva maneuvers were performed at volumes of 150, 250 and 350 mL. Simultaneously, MRI was carried out by using 1.5 T GE Signa CV/i high-speed scanner with real time fluoroscopic imaging possibilities. Fluoroscopic imaging was accomplished in the corresponding planes with T2-weighted single shot fast spin echo sequences at a speed of about 1 frame per second. Both studies were recorded and synchronized, resulting in a single video urodynamic examination. RESULTS: Dynamic MRI with cine-loop reconstruction of 1 image per second demonstrated the movement of all compartment of the relaxed pelvis during straining with the concomitant registration of abdominal and intravesical pressures. In 5 patients, urinary leakage was demonstrated during straining and the Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) was determined as the vesical pressure at leak subtracted from baseline bladder pressure. Mean VLPP was 72.6 cm H2O (ranging from 43 to 122 cm H2O). CONCLUSIONS: The concept of MRI video urodynamics is feasible. In a clinical perspective, practical aspects represent a barrier to daily use and it should be recommended for research purposes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/physiopathology , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Urodynamics/physiology , Valsalva Maneuver , Video Recording
17.
GED gastroenterol. endosc. dig ; 24(6): 243-248, nov./dez. 2005. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-435556

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A infecção do trato urinário é uma complicação em pacientes com cirrose. Objetivo: Avaliar a freqüencia de infecção urinária em pacientes cirroticos. Metodologia: Revisão sistemática da literatura utilizando as bases de dados eletronicas (Medline, Embase, Lilacs e Cochrane), abrangendo o período de 1993 a 2004, incluíndo os estudos escritos em inglês, espanhol e português. Resultados: Foram recuperados 135 trabalhos, dos quais 11 estavam de acordo com a metodologia a que se propõe este estudo. A maioria dos casos descritos era de adultos com idade entre 45 e 61 anos, do gênero masculino, tendo o álcool implicado como acusador da cirrose na maioria dos artigos. As classificações de cirrose mais prevalentes segundoo critério Child foram de B e C, e a bactéria mais comum, a Escherichia coli. Conclusão: A maioria dos artigos recebeu classificações baixas quanto à avaliação, sendo demonstrado que não satisfizeram os critérios de sistematização das variáveis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Fibrosis , Review , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Bacterial Infections/complications , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
18.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 37(2): 67-69, 2005. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-509816

ABSTRACT

Os Enterococcus faecalis são habitantes da microbiota do trato digestivo humano e de outros animais, apresentando baixa patogenicidade. No entanto, atualmente, são causas de infecções urinárias em pacientes internados em hospitais, comportando-se,muitas vezes, como agente oportunista em infecções hospitalares. Diante da importância desta bactéria em Saúde Pública, o objetivodeste estudo foi verificar a frequência e o perfil de resistência dos Enterococcus faecalis, isolados de cultura de urina de pacientes internados no Hospital Geral de Fortaleza (HGF). As bactérias foram isoladas no meio de cultura CLED e a identificação e o teste desusceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos foram realizados através do aparelho de automação MicrosScan®. No período de Julho a Dezembro de 2002, 37% das urinoculturas realizadas no Laboratório de Patologia Clínica do (HGF) foram positivas. A Escherichia coli foi a bactéria mais freqüente em infecções urinárias com 51%...


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection , Enterococcus faecalis , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Urinary Tract Infections , Administration, Intravesical , Escherichia coli , Rifamycins , Tetracycline , Vancomycin
19.
Femina ; 32(10): 821-825, nov.-dez. 2004.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-403067

ABSTRACT

A histerectomia radical para tratamento do câncer de colo do útero pode determinar morbidade significativa do trato urinário. Contudo, o aumento da sobrevida e a menor mortalidade, além da diminuição significativa das fístulas ureterais, tornaram mais evidentes as complicações tardias pós-histerectomias radicais, principalmente as disfunções uretro-vesicais. Essas alterações são geralmente conseqüencia da interrupção intra-operatória das vias nervosas para a bexiga e uretra, com destaque para os ramos dos plexos pélvico e hipogástrico. Por outro lado, o desenvolvimento da urodinâmica permitiu maior compreensão dessas mudanças funcionais do trato urinário inferior, que podem assumir espectro variado. Dessa maneira, observam-se alterações no armazenamento urinário, como perda da sensibilidade, aumento ou diminuição da capacidade cistométrica máxima e complacência, instabilidade do detrusor e incontinência urinária de esforço. Além disso, as alterações no esvaziamento vesical tendem a ser mais pronunciadas, com fluxos e pressões de micção diminuídas, o que determina elevados resíduos pós-miccionais e maior risco de infecção urinária. O seguimento das pacientes submetidas à histerectomia radical deve ser realizado por meio de método objetivo, como o estudo urodinâmico, para tentar identificar precocemente os efeitos deletérios da cirurgia sobre o trato urinário inferior, objetivando aplicação de terapia apropriada


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Hysterectomy , Urinary Tract/surgery , Urinary Tract/physiopathology , Urodynamics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
20.
Radiol. bras ; 37(6): 431-435, nov.-dez. 2004. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-393292

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Fazer uma revisão de 225 exames de urografia excretora, analisando estatisticamente as principais alterações relacionadas com o trato urinário, e reafirmar a utilidade do método. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo e descritivo realizado a partir de levantamento de 225 exames de urografia excretora realizados no período de 2/1/2002 a 29/11/2002, no Serviço de Radiologia do Hospital Santa Cruz da Beneficência Portuguesa de Niterói. RESULTADOS: Do total de 225 exames, 173 (76,9 por cento) apresentaram alterações radiológicas (anatômicas, congênitas, adquiridas, funcionais, relacionadas a litíase, cirurgias e outros) e 52 (23,1 por cento) foram normais. A alteração mais freqüente foi a urolitíase (35,9 por cento), seguida da dilatação do sistema pielocalicial (9,9 por cento). Observamos que 110 (48,9 por cento) eram pacientes do sexo masculino e 115 (51,1 por cento), do sexo feminino. O paciente mais jovem tinha apenas dois meses de idade e o mais idoso, 84 anos. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar do advento de novas técnicas diagnósticas como o ultra-som, a tomografia computadorizada e a ressonância magnética, a urografia excretora continua tendo importante papel diagnóstico, além de constituir excelente ferramenta de auxílio à programação cirúrgica do urologista.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urologic Diseases/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena , Urography , Diagnosis, Differential , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Tract/physiopathology
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