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1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 446-453, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059096

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Lower urinary tract symptoms significantly worsen quality of life. The hypothesis that they might lead to serious systolic blood pressure alterations through inducing sympathetic nervous activity has not been studied so far. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between benign prostate enlargement-related storage and voiding symptoms and systolic blood pressure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional single-center study on data from a hospital patient record system. METHODS: We evaluated the medical records of all consecutive patients with benign prostate enlargement-related lower urinary tract symptoms admitted between January 2012 and December 2017. Storage and voiding symptoms were assessed separately. International Prostate Symptom Score, uroflowmetry, postvoiding residual urine volume and systolic blood pressure were recorded. Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis were used. RESULTS: Positive correlations were found between systolic blood pressure and all of the storage symptoms. Among these, urgency had the most significant effect. There were 166 patients (41.4%) with urgency for urination, which increased mean systolic blood pressure from 124.88 mmHg (average value in elevated blood pressure group) to 132.28 mmHg (average value in stage-1 hypertension group). Hesitancy in urinating and feeling of incomplete bladder emptying had weak positive correlations with systolic blood pressure. There was a negative correlation between systolic blood pressure and intermittency of urination. CONCLUSIONS: With increasing numbers of urine storage symptoms, systolic blood pressure also increases, while the opposite occurs for voiding symptoms in patients with benign prostate enlargement. We conjecture that storage symptoms may lead to this increase through inducing sympathetic hyperactivity. Further prospective studies with larger groups are needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatic Hyperplasia/complications , Urination/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/complications , Hypertension/complications , Organ Size , Prostate/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology
2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 775-781, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019893

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To identify how the most frequently used parameters in daily clinical practice diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) due to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) correlate to each other. Materials and methods The study included 452 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) of the UNICAMP urology outpatient clinic of LUTS. Inclusion criteria: patients with BOO due to BPH who agreed to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria: patients with urinary tract infection, neurological diseases that compromised the lower urinary tract, prior prostatic surgery, radiotherapy or urethral stenosis. Patient assessment: history, international prostate symptoms score (IPSS), nocturnal quality of life score (NQoL) questionnaires, physical and digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA, transabdominal ultrasound with intravesical prostate protrusion (IPP), post-mictional residue and free uroflowmetry. Results There was no strong Spearman correlation among the studied variables. The only moderate correlations occurred between IPSS and NQoL (p <0001; c=0.56) and between IPP and prostate volume (p <0001; c=0.57). Weak correlations between IPP and post-mictional residue (p <0001; c=0.31) and free uroflowmetry (p <0001; c=-0.26); and between IPSS and free uroflowmetry (p <0001, c=-0.21) were observed. Conclusion In this study, we found moderate, weak, very weak and absent correlation among the various parameters used in the diagnosis and management of BOO due to BPH. As the value of these tools is variable, the creation of a logical and objective algorithm was not possible and the treatment is based on the interpretation of clinical symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/diagnosis , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/diagnosis , Organ Size , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Hyperplasia/physiopathology , Prostatic Hyperplasia/pathology , Quality of Life , Reference Standards , Urination/physiology , Urodynamics/physiology , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/pathology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Ultrasonography/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Digital Rectal Examination , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/physiopathology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/pathology , Middle Aged
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 703-712, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019887

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is the most recent surgical technique for localized prostate cancer. The Da Vinci (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) system was first introduced in Brazil in 2008, with a fast growing number of surgeries performed each year. Objective Our primary endpoint is to analyze possible predictors of functional outcomes, related to patient and tumor features. As secondary endpoint, describe functional outcomes (urinary continence and sexual potency) from RARP performed in the Sírio-Libanês Hospital (SLH), a private institution, in São Paulo, from April 2008 to December 2015. Materials and Method Data from 104 consecutive patients operated by two surgeons from the SLH (MA and SA) between 2008 and 2015, with a minimum 12 months follow-up, were collected. Patient features (age, body mass index - BMI, PSA, date of surgery and sexual function), tumor features (tumor stage, Gleason and surgical margins) and follow-up data (time to reach urinary continence and sexual potency) were the variables collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 month and every 6 months thereafter. Continence was defined as the use of no pad on medical interview and sexual potency defined as the capability for vaginal penetration with or without fosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Results Mean age was 60 years old and mean BMI was 28.45 kg/m2. BMI >30kg/m2 (p<0.001) and age (p=0.011) were significant predictors for worse sexual potency after surgery. After 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, 20.7%, 45.7%, 60.9% and 71.8% from patients were potent, respectively. The urinary continence was reached in 36.5%, 80.3%, 88.6% and 92.8% after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Until the end of the study, only one patient was incontinent and 20.7% were impotent. Conclusion Age was a predictor of urinary and erectile function recovery in 12 months. BMI was significant factor for potency recovery. We obtained in a private hospital good functional results after 12 months of follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatectomy/methods , Urination/physiology , Penile Erection/physiology , Recovery of Function/physiology , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/physiopathology , Time Factors , Urinary Incontinence/physiopathology , Brazil , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/physiopathology , Body Mass Index , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology , Middle Aged
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1207-1214, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975659

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the different urine flow patterns and active pelvic floor electromyography (EMG) during voiding in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) as well as presenting the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in these patients. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children diagnosed with VUR after toilet training from Sep 2013 to Jan 2016. 225 anatomically and neurologically normal children were included. The reflux was diagnosed with voiding cystourethrography. The study was comprised an interview by means of a symptom questionnaire, a voiding diary, uroflowmetry with EMG and kidney and bladder ultrasounds. Urine flow patterns were classified as bell shape, staccato, interrupted, tower and plateau based on the current International Children's Continence Society guidelines. Results: Of 225 children with VUR (175 girls, 50 boys), underwent uroflowmetry + EMG, 151 (67.1%) had an abnormal urine flow pattern. An active pelvic floor EMG during voiding was confirmed in 113 (50.2%) children. The flow patterns were staccato in 76 (33.7 %), interrupted in 41 (18.2%), Plateau in 26 (11.5%), tower in 12 (5.3%) and a bell shape or normal pattern in 70 (31.5%). Urinary tract infection, enuresis and constipation respectively, were more frequent symptoms in these patients. Conclusions: Bladder/bowel dysfunction is common in patients with VUR that increases the risk of breakthrough urinary tract infections in children receiving antibiotic prophylaxis and reduces the success rate for endoscopic injection therapy. Therefore investigation of voiding dysfunction with primary assessment tools can be used prior to treating VUR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Urination/physiology , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/physiopathology , Pelvic Floor/physiopathology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/physiopathology , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/complications , Retrospective Studies , Electromyography , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/diagnosis , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/etiology
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 805-811, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954065

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To examine the benefits of repetitive uroflowmetry and post void residual urine (PVR) tests in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE). Material and methods: Children aged ≥6 years with PNE who visited our clinics for management of enuresis were included for study. Patients were requested to complete a questionnaire including baseline characteristics and Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score (DVSS), 2-day bladder diary, and Rome III criteria for constipation. Two uroflowmetry and PVR tests were requested. Children with congenital or neurogenic genitourinary tract disorders were excluded. All children underwent urotherapy and desmopressin combined with anticholinergics or laxatives if indicated. The definition of abnormal flow patterns (≥1 abnormal), elevated PVR (≥1 abnormal), small maximal voided volume (MVV), nocturnal polyuria (NP) and response to treatment complied with the ICCS standardization document. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional-hazards regression tests were used to evaluate the predictors of response. Results: In total, 100 children aged 8.5±2.3 years were enrolled for study (M: F=66:34) with 7.3±7.4 months of follow-up. Poor correlation was observed between DVSS/small MVV and PVR (p>0.05). Univariate analysis revealed that elevated PVR is associated with significantly less hazard of complete response to medical treatment (HR: 0.52, p=0.03), while not significantly associated with abnormal flow patterns, NP, constipation or small MVV. Multivariate analysis revealed that only elevated PVR (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.80) and NP (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.10-7.28) were significant predictors for complete response. Conclusions: In managing pediatric enuresis, elevated PVR is a significant predictor for lower chance of complete response to treatment whether they had high DVSS or not.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Urination/physiology , Urinary Retention/diagnosis , Urinary Retention/physiopathology , Nocturnal Enuresis/diagnosis , Nocturnal Enuresis/physiopathology , Prognosis , Time Factors , Urodynamics/physiology , Urinary Bladder/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Urinary Retention/complications , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Nocturnal Enuresis/etiology , Nocturnal Enuresis/therapy
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(3): 536-542, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954047

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate urodynamic alterations after sub-urethral sling surgery (SSU) in patients with post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI). Materials and Methods: We evaluated data of 22 patients submitted to radical prosta- tectomy (RP) or transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) that presented post-surgical urinary incontinence and were treated with SSU implant in a pilot study previously performed in our institution. Methods: Those patients with PPUI were evaluated by urodynamic exam (UD) before and after surgery, and the parameters were compared, including uroflow, cystometry and micturition study. Exclusion criteria included patients without pre-operatory urodynamic study, those with urethral stenosis, those not healed of prostate cancer, pa- tients without clinical conditions to be submitted to urodynamic study and those with severe neurological diseases or that refused to sign the consent form. Results were analyzed statistically by Fisher, Wilcoxon or Mann-Whitney tests. Results: During free uroflow, none parameters showed any statistical significant differ- ences. During cystometry, there were also no statistical differences and the same was observed at pressure versus flow study; the exception was at maximal flow detrusor pressure (PdetQmax), that was lower at post-operatory (p=0.028). In relation to the presence of urinary dysfunctions associated to PPUI, we observed a significant reduc- tion of detrusor overactivity (p=0.035) in relation to pre-operatory period. Conclusion: SSU surgery significantly reduced detrusor overactivity and PdetQMax; however, there were no alterations of other evaluated urodynamic parameters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Urinary Incontinence/surgery , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Urodynamics/physiology , Suburethral Slings , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Urinary Incontinence/physiopathology , Urination/physiology , Urinary Bladder/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Preoperative Period , Middle Aged
8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 356-366, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840829

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the lower urinary tract changes in mice treated with L-NAME, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or aminoguanidine, a competitive inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), after 5 weeks of partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), in order to evaluate the role of constitutive and non-constitutive NOS in the pathogenesis of this experimental condition. Materials and Methods C57BL6 male mice were partially obstructed and randomly allocated into 6 groups: Sham, Sham + L-NAME, Sham + aminoguanidine, BOO, BOO + L-NAME and BOO + aminoguanidine. After 5 weeks, bladder weight was obtained and cystometry and tissue bath contractile studies were performed. Results BOO animals showed increase of non-voiding contractions (NVC) and bladder capacity, and also less contractile response to Carbachol and Electric Field Stimulation. Inhibition of NOS isoforms improved bladder capacity and compliance in BOO animals. L-NAME caused more NVC, prevented bladder weight gain and leaded to augmented contractile responses at muscarinic and electric stimulation. Aminoguanidine diminished NVC, but did not avoid bladder weight gain in BOO animals and did not improve contractile responses. Conclusion It can be hypothesized that chronic inhibition of three NOS isoforms in BOO animals leaded to worsening of bladder function, while selective inhibition of iNOS did not improve responses, what suggests that, in BOO animals, alterations are related to constitutive NOS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/drug therapy , Guanidines/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Pressure , Time Factors , Urination/drug effects , Urination/physiology , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Urinary Bladder/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Muscle Contraction/drug effects
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 256-263, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840828

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To examine an association between the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and neuropsychological parameters. Moreover, we investigate the factors that affect each item in the questionnaire. Materials and Methods A total of 376 patients (males: 184; females: 192) with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were recruited. Cognitive testing was conducted using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) was assessed using OABSS and voiding diary. Results The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) (defined as OABSS ≥3 with an urgency score of ≥2) in patients with AD was 72.6%. Among the OAB subjects, the most common severity of symptom was moderate (72.6%), followed by mild (21.2%), and severe (5.8%). It was found that OABSS had a very high correlation with aging (r=0.75; p<0.001). When compared with neuropsychological parameters, it was found that OABSS was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.446; p<0.001). However, no significant correlation was found between the changes in OABSS scores and those in other neuropsychological parameters. Based on the individual symptom scores, urgency incontinence was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.43; p<0.001). Conclusions OABSS is a useful tool in assessing AD patients with LUTS. There was a consistent positive association between OABSS severity, including urgency incontinence, and CDR scores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/psychology , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Urination/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Activities of Daily Living , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Factors , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 304-310, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840818

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To assess patient satisfaction and quality of life after urethroplasty using two different self-reported outcome measures and to compare it with objective clinical data. Materials and Methods We prospectively collected data from 35 consecutive patients who underwent urethroplasty from January 2013 to September 2014. Patient demographics, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life score, urethral stricture surgery patient-reported outcome measure (USS-PROM), maximum flow rate (Qmax) and post-void residual urine were collected before, two and eight months after surgery. Failure occurred when any postoperative instrumentation was performed. General estimation equation was used to compare the results and linear regression analysis to correlate both questionnaires with objective data. Results Mean age was 61 years. Urethroplasties were equally divided between anastomotic and buccal mucosa grafts and 19 patients (59.3%) had a previous urethral procedure. Overall success rate was 87.5%. IPSS improved from a mean 19 at baseline to 5.32 at 8 months (p <0.001). The mean USS-PROM score also improved from 13.21 preoperatively to 3.36 after surgery (p <0.001) and 84.3% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with surgical results. Mean Qmax increased from 4.64mL/s to 11mL/s (p <0.001). Strong negative correlation was found respectively between flow rate and USS-PROM (r=-0.531, p <0.001) and with IPSS (r=-0.512, p <0.001). Conclusions Significant improvements in urinary symptoms and in quality of life are expected after urethroplasty and they are correlated with objective measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Urethra/surgery , Urethral Stricture/surgery , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Self Report/standards , Postoperative Period , Urination/physiology , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Middle Aged
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(1): 112-120, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840792

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Cystometric evaluation of the bladder after autotransplant and isogeneic transplant in female rats. Material and Methods Two groups were constituted: (A) bladder autotransplant with two subgroups: R1 – (control) and R2 – (bladder transplant); (B) isogeneic bladder transplant with three subgroups; T1 – (control); T2–T3, two subgroups observed for 30 and 60 days after transplant, respectively. All animals underwent cystometric evaluation. Afterwards, the bladders were removed for histological study. Results The transplanted bladders did not show significant changes in filling/storage and emptying/micturition functions after 30 and 60 days of evolution. Upon macroscopical evaluation, there was good revascularization and the tissue was well preserved. Cystometry results: Did not show significant differences in the micturition pressure in subgroups T2-T3, but did between subgroups R1−R2, T1−T2, and T1−T3. Significant differences were verified in the micturition interval between T1−T3, T2−T3, but not between R1−R2, T1−T2. There was significant difference in the micturition duration between T1−T3 but not between R1−R2, T1−T2 and T2−T3. No fistula was noted on the suture site nor leakage of urine in the abdominal cavity or signs of necrosis or retraction were observed. Conclusions Transplant of the bladder was shown to be a viable procedure. The results indicate that there was structural and functional regeneration of transplanted bladders, and these results indicate that it is possible that vascular endothelium growth and neurogenesis factors are involved and activated in the process of the preservation or survival of the transplanted organ.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Urinary Bladder/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder/transplantation , Pressure , Reference Values , Time Factors , Transplantation, Autologous , Urination/physiology , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(1): 121-126, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840811

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction This study compared percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training (ES + PFMT) in women with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). Materials and Methods 60 women with OAB were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups. In group A, women underwent ES with PFMT, in group B women underwent PTNS. Results A statistically significant reduction in the number of daily micturitions, episodes of nocturia and urge incontinence was found in the two groups but the difference was more substantial in women treated with PTNS; voided volume increased in both groups. Quality of life improved in both groups, whereas patient perception of urgency improved only in women treated with PTNS. Global impression of improvement revealed a greater satisfaction in patients treated with PTNS. Conclusion This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTNS and ES with PFMT in women with OAB, but greater improvements were found with PTNS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Tibial Nerve/physiopathology , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/methods , Pelvic Floor/physiopathology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/therapy , Syndrome , Time Factors , Urination/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Muscle Strength/physiology , Middle Aged
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(1): 127-133, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840809

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To study the usefulness of MRI in preoperative evaluation of PFUDD. Can MRI provide additional information on urethral distraction defect (UDD) and cause of erectile dysfunction (ED)? Materials and Methods In this prospective study, consecutive male patients presenting with PFUDD were included from Feb 2011 till Dec 2012. Those with traumatic spinal cord injury and pre-existing ED were excluded. Patients were assessed using IIEF questionnaire, retrograde urethrogram and micturating cystourethrogram (RGU+MCU) and MRI pelvis. Primary end point was erectile function and secondary end point was surgical outcome. Results Twenty patients were included in this study. Fourteen patients (70%) were ≤40years; fifteen patients (75%) had ED, seven patients (35%) had severe ED. MRI findings associated with ED were longer median UDD (23mm vs. 15mm, p=0.07), cavernosal injury (100%, p=0.53), rectal injury (100%, p=0.53), retropubic scarring (60%, p=0.62) and prostatic displacement (60%, p=0.99). Twelve patients (60%) had a good surgical outcome, five (25%) had an acceptable outcome, three (15%) had a poor outcome. Poor surgical outcome was associated with rectal injury (66.7%, p=0.08), cavernosal injury (25%, p=0.19), retropubic scarring (18.1%, p=0.99) and prostatic displacement (16.7%, p=0.99). Five patients with normal erections had good surgical outcome. Three patients with ED had poor outcome (20%, p=0.20). Conclusions MRI did not offer significant advantage over MCU in the subgroup of men with normal erections. Cavernosal injury noted on MRI strongly correlated with ED. Role of MRI may be limited to the subgroup with ED or an inconclusive MCU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pelvis/injuries , Pelvis/diagnostic imaging , Urethra/injuries , Urethra/diagnostic imaging , Urethral Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Erectile Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Pelvis/surgery , Prostatic Diseases/physiopathology , Prostatic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Urethra/surgery , Urethra/physiopathology , Urethral Diseases/surgery , Urethral Diseases/physiopathology , Urination/physiology , Radiography , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Preoperative Period , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology , Middle Aged
14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(5): 1018-1027, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796875

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of neuronal nitric oxide synthase on the striated urethral sphincter and the urinary bladder. Materials and Methods: A coaxial catheter was implanted in the proximal urethra and another one in the bladder of female rats, which were anesthetized with subcutaneous injection of urethane. The urethral pressure with saline continuous infusion and bladder isovolumetric pressure were simultaneously recorded. Two groups of rats were formed. In group I, an intrathecal catheter was implanted on the day of the experiment at the L6-S1 level of the spinal cord; in group II, an intracerebroventricular cannula was placed 5-6 days before the experiment. Results: It was verified that the group treated with S-methyl-L-thio-citrulline, via intrathecal pathway, showed complete or partial inhibition of the urethral sphincter relaxation and total inhibition of the micturition reflexes. The urethral sphincter and the detrusor functions were recovered after L-Arginine administration. When S-methyl-L-thio-citrulline was administered via intracerebroventricular injection, there was a significant increase of urethral sphincter tonus while preserving the sphincter relaxation and the detrusor contractions, at similar levels as before the use of the drugs. Nevertheless there was normalization of the urethral tonus when L-Arginine was applied. Conclusions: The results indicate that, in female rats anaesthetized with urethane, the nNOS inhibitor administrated through the intrathecal route inhibits urethral sphincter relaxation, while intracerebroventricular injection increases the sphincter tonus, without changing bladder function. These changes were reverted by L-Arginine administration. These findings suggest that the urethral sphincter and detrusor muscle function is modulated by nitric oxide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Thiourea/analogs & derivatives , Urethra/drug effects , Urination/drug effects , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Citrulline/analogs & derivatives , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/pharmacology , Arginine/pharmacology , Pressure , Reference Values , Thiourea/pharmacology , Time Factors , Urethane/pharmacology , Urethra/physiology , Urination/physiology , Urinary Bladder/physiology , Injections, Spinal , Citrulline/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/physiology
15.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 15(2): 235-241, Abr.-Jun. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-974848

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Estudo transversal realizado em oito escolas públicas e particulares do Riacho Fundo,(Distrito Federal),com escolares deseis a 12 anos, com o objetivo de avaliar a frequência de ida e permissão para uso do toalete na escola, sob a perspectiva do escolar, assim como mensurar a taxa de ocorrência e o impacto da experiência de ter tido alguma vez na vida um evento de perda urinária no contexto escolar. A coleta de dados incluiu entrevista por meio de perguntas-chave desenvolvidas pelas pesquisadoras. A análise dos dados incluiu técnicas básicas de análise exploratória de dados como,frequência absoluta e relativa, calculadas no programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Das 86 crianças participantes da pesquisa, 73% (n=63) relataram irtodos os dias ao toalete escolar, ao passo que as que afirmam não utilizar o toalete apontaram como justificativas a falta de vontade, a falta de papel higiênico nos toaletes e a falta de privacidade ou problema com as portas. Quanto à permissão para o uso do toalete, 66% (n=57) afirmaram poder ir sempre que tivessem vontade. A experiência de perda urinária na escola foi relatada por17 (20%) crianças e apresentou impacto altamente negativo sob a perspectiva do escolar.


RESUMEN Se realizó un estudio transversal en 8 escuelas públicas y privadas del Riacho Fundo (Distrito Federal) con escolares de 6 a 12 años que tuvo como objetivo evaluar la frecuencia de idas y permiso al baño en la escuela bajo la perspectiva del escolar, así como medir la tasa de ocurrencia y el impacto de la experiencia de haber tenido alguna vez en la vida pérdida urinaria en el contexto escolar. La recolección de datos incluyó entrevistas con preguntas claves desarrolladas por los investigadores. El análisis de datos incluyó las técnicas básicas de análisis exploratorio de datos como la frecuencia absoluta y relativa, calculada utilizando el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. De los 86 niños participantes, el 73% (n = 63) informaron ir todos los días al baño de la escuela, las justificaciones para no ir fueron falta de voluntad, la falta de papel higiénico y la falta privacidad o problemas con las puertas. En referencia al uso del baño, el 66% (n = 57) dijo que podían ir cuando tuviesen necesidad. La experiencia de pérdida urinaria en la escuela fue reportada por 17 (20%) niños y presentó un impacto muy negativo desde la perspectiva del escolar.


ABSTRACT This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 8 public and private schools of Riacho Fundo (Federal District), with children between 6 and 12 years old, that aimed to evaluate their frequency of going to the school restroom and permission to use it from the children's perspective, as well as to measure the rate of occurrence and impact of the experience of having had some once in a lifetime urinary leakage in the school setting. Data collection included interviews with key questions developed by the researchers. Data analysis included basic techniques of exploratory data analysis such as absolute and relative frequencies calculated using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program. Out of 86 participating children, 73% (n = 63) reported going every day to the school restroom while those reporting not going pointed out reasons as they did not need to, lack of toilet paper, and lack of privacy or problems with the stalls' doors. Regarding permission to use the restroom, 66% (n = 57) stated being allowed to go whenever they needed. The experience of urinary incontinence at school was reported by 17 (20%) children and presented as a highly negative impact from their perspective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pediatric Nursing/education , School Health Services/standards , Urinary Incontinence/urine , Urination/physiology , Urine/physiology , Child Behavior/physiology , Toilet Facilities/standards , Nursing Evaluation Research/standards , Bathroom Equipment/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(3): 608-613, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785734

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The study was designed to determine the effect of low frequency (2.5Hz) intraurethral electrical stimulation on bladder capacity and maximum voiding pressures. Materials and Methods The experiments were conducted in 15 virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats (220–250g). The animals were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (1.5g/kg). Animal care and experimental procedures were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Antwerp University (code: 2013-50). Unipolar square pulses of 0.06mA were used to stimulate urethra at frequency of 2.5Hz (0.2ms pulse width) in order to evaluate the ability of intraurethral stimulation to inhibit bladder contractions. Continuous stimulation and intermittent stimulation with 5sec ‘‘on’’ and 5sec ‘‘off’’ duty cycle were applied during repeated saline cystometrograms (CMGs). Maximum voiding pressures (MVP) and bladder capacity were investigated to determine the inhibitory effect on bladder contraction induced by intraurethral stimulation. Results The continuous stimulation and intermittent stimulation significantly (p<0.05) decreased MVP and increased bladder capacity. There was no significant difference in MVP and bladder capacity between continuous and intermittent stimulation group. Conclusions The present results suggest that 2.5Hz continuous and intermittent intraurethral stimulation can inhibit micturition reflex, decrease MVP and increase bladder capacity. There was no significant difference in MVP and bladder capacity between continuous and intermittent stimulation group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Reflex/physiology , Urethra/physiology , Urination/physiology , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Pressure , Reference Values , Time Factors , Urodynamics , Urinary Bladder/physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/therapy , Pudendal Nerve/physiopathology , Muscle Contraction/physiology
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(2): 321-326, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782861

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate correlation between visual prostate score (VPSS) and maximum flow rate (Qmax) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted at a university Hospital. Sixty-seven adult male patients>50 years of age were enrolled in the study after signing an informed consent. Qmax and voided volume recorded at uroflowmetry graph and at the same time VPSS were assessed. The education level was assessed in various defined groups. Pearson correlation coefficient was computed for VPSS and Qmax. Results: Mean age was 66.1±10.1 years (median 68). The mean voided volume on uroflowmetry was 268±160mL (median 208) and the mean Qmax was 9.6±4.96mLs/sec (median 9.0). The mean VPSS score was 11.4±2.72 (11.0). In the univariate linear regression analysis there was strong negative (Pearson's) correlation between VPSS and Qmax (r=848, p<0.001). In the multiple linear regression analyses there was a significant correlation between VPSS and Qmax (β-http://www.blogapaixonadosporviagens.com.br/p/caribe.html after adjusting the effect of age, voided volume (V.V) and level of education. Multiple linear regression analysis done for independent variables and results showed that there was no significant correlation between the VPSS and independent factors including age (p=0.27), LOE (p=0.941) and V.V (p=0.082). Conclusion: There is a significant negative correlation between VPSS and Qmax. The VPSS can be used in lieu of IPSS score. Men even with limited educational background can complete VPSS without assistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostate/physiopathology , Urination/physiology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/diagnosis , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/physiopathology , Symptom Assessment/methods , Reference Values , Time Factors , Urodynamics , Severity of Illness Index , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Diagnostic Techniques, Urological , Educational Status
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(2): 327-333, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782844

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Decision-making regarding surgery for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is challenging. The 24-hour pad weight test is commonly used to objectively quantify PPI. However, pad weight may vary based upon activity level. We aimed to quantify variability in pad weights based upon patient-reported activity. Materials and Methods: 25 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were prospectively enrolled. All patients demonstrated clinical stress urinary incontinence without clinical urgency urinary incontinence. On three consecutive alternating days, patients submitted 24-hour pad weights along with a short survey documenting activity level and number of pads used. Results: Pad weights collected across the three days were well correlated to the individual (ICC 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.93), p<0.001). The mean difference between the minimum pad weight leakage and maximum leakage per patient was 133.4g (95% CI 80.4–186.5). The mean increase in 24-hour leakage for a one-point increase in self-reported activity level was 118.0g (95% CI 74.3–161.7, p<0.001). Pad weights also varied significantly when self-reported activity levels did not differ (mean difference 51.2g (95% CI 30.3–72.1), p<0.001). Conclusions: 24-hour pad weight leakage may vary significantly on different days of collection. This variation is more pronounced with changes in activity level. Taking into account patient activity level may enhance the predictive value of pad weight testing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/etiology , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/physiopathology , Urination/physiology , Incontinence Pads , Reference Values , Time Factors , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/surgery , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/diagnosis , Activities of Daily Living , Linear Models , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Diagnostic Techniques, Urological , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Self Report , Clinical Decision-Making , Middle Aged
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(2): 389-391, Mar.-Apr. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782868

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Recurring priapism is rare in pre-pubertal children and may be attributed to multiple causes. We propose that voiding dysfunction (VD) may also justify this symptom and detail a clinical case of recurring stuttering priapism associated to overactive bladder that completely resolved after usage of anticholinergics and urotherapy. Sacral parasympathetic activity is responsible for detrusor contraction and for spontaneous erections and a relationship between erections and bladder status has been proved in healthy subjects (morning erections) and models of medullar trauma. High bladder pressures and/or volumes, voiding incoordination and posterior urethritis can potentially trigger reflex erections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Priapism/etiology , Priapism/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/complications , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/physiopathology , Priapism/therapy , Urination/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Cholinergic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Urinary Bladder, Overactive/therapy
20.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 173-181, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201366

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Urinary catheterization is a common technique in clinical practice. There is, however, no consensus on management prior to removal of the indwelling catheter for short-term patients. This systematic review examined the necessity of clamping before removal of an indwelling urinary catheter in short-term patients. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using eight databases and predetermined keywords-guided searches. Some 2,515 studies were evaluated. Ten studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected. RESULTS: The quality of the studies was assessed using the Jadad scoring system. Only 40.0% of studies were rated as high quality. This review found that catheter clamping prior to removal was not necessary for the short-term patient. When made a comparison with the unclamping group, there was no significant difference in recatheterization risk, risk of urine retention, patients' subjective perceptions and rate of urinary tract infection. CONCLUSIONS: This review indicated that bladder training by clamping prior to removal of urinary catheters is not necessary in short-term catheter patients. In addition, clamping carries the risk of complications such as prolonging urinary catheter retention and urinary tract injury. Further investigation requires higher quality methodologies and more diverse study designs.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , Catheters, Indwelling , Constriction , Device Removal , Humans , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Perception , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Retreatment , Urinary Catheterization/methods , Urinary Catheters , Urinary Retention/psychology , Urinary Tract Infections/therapy , Urination/physiology
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