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1.
Med. U.P.B ; 40(1): 28-34, 03/03/2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1177489

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: La incidencia de intoxicaciones en el servicio de urgencias viene en aumento en Colombia. En el abordaje inicial se solicitan paraclínicos de rutina, en ocasiones sin una correlación entre el xenobiótico, la fisiopatología y el riesgo clínico. El objetivo de esta investigación es describir el uso de las ayudas diagnósticas en el paciente intoxicado en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital de alta complejidad. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal con disponibilidad de datos para el periodo 2014-2016. Se recopiló información de los registros de las historias clínica de los pacientes que acudieron al servicio de urgencias con diagnósticos relacionados con intoxicaciones. Resultados: El 55.4% de la población fue de sexo femenino, el 54.5% eran menores de 25 años y la mayoría pertenencia al área urbana (77.7%). La intencionalidad en el 68.9% fue suicida. Se reportó el toxídrome en el 17.6% de los casos, donde el sedante fue el más común (9.2%). Las sustancias más usadas fueron los psicofármacos (22.8%), siendo los antidepresivos tricíclicos más comunes con un 10.9%; seguidos de los plaguicidas (19.1%), donde los organofosforados fueron los más comunes (8.8%). Las ayudas diagnósticas más solicitadas fueron el hemograma en un 94.3% de los casos, seguido de la creatinina en un 90.2%. El electrocardiograma se realizó en el 49.7% de los casos y los tóxicos en orina en el 7.8%. Conclusión: Se evidencia un uso rutinario de ayudas diagnósticas en el servicio de urgencias; se requieren estudios adicionales que evalúen la pertinencia de ayudas diagnósticas en este escenario.


Objective: The incidence of poisoning in the emergency department is increasing in Colombia. In the initial approach, paraclinical routines are requested, sometimes without a correlation between xenobiotic, pathophysiology and clinical risk. The objective of this research is to describe the use of diagnostic aids in poisoned patients in the emergency department of a high-complexity hospital. Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional study with retrospective data availability for the 2014-2016 period. Information was collected from the medical records of patients who came to the emergency department with diagnoses related to poisoning. Results: 55.4 % of the population was female, 54.5 % were under the age of 25, the majority belonging to the urban area (77%). The intentionality in 68.9% of them was suicidal. Toxidrome was reported in 17.6% of cases, the sedative being the most common (9.2%). Psychotropic drugs were the most commonly used substances (22.8%), the tricyclic anti-depressant being the most used with 10.9%, followed by pesticides with 19.1%, among which organophosphates were the most common (8.8%). The most requested diagnostic aids were the hemogram in 94.3% of the cases, followed by creatinine in 90.2%. The electrocardiogram was performed in 49.7% of the cases and the toxic in urine in 7.8%. Conclusions: A routine use of diagnostic aids is evidenced in the emergency department. Therefore, additional studies are required to evaluate the relevance of diagnostic aids in this setting.


Objetivo: A incidência de intoxicações no setor de emergência está aumentando na Colômbia. Na abordagem inicial, são solicitadas paraclínicas de rotina, às vezes sem correlação entre o xenobiótico, a fisiopatologia e o risco clínico. O objetivo desta pesquisa é descrever a utilização de meios auxiliares de diagnóstico em pacientes intoxicados no pronto-socorro de um hospital de alta complexidade. Metodologia: Estudo transversal descritivo com disponibilidade de dados para o período 2014-2016. As informações foram coletadas nos prontuários dos pacientes que compareceram ao pronto-socorro com diagnóstico de intoxicação. Resultados: 55,4% da população era do sexo feminino, 54,5% tinham menos de 25 anos e a maioria pertencia à zona urbana (77,7%). A intencionalidade em 68,9% foi suicida. Toxidromia foi relatada em 17,6% dos casos, sendo o sedativo o mais comum (9,2%). As substâncias mais utilizadas foram os psicotrópicos (22,8%), sendo os antidepressivos tricíclicos mais comuns com 10,9%; seguido por agrotóxicos (19,1%), onde os organo-fosforados foram os mais comuns (8,8%). Os meios diagnósticos mais solicitados foram o hemograma em 94,3% dos casos, seguido da creatinina em 90,2%. O eletrocardiograma foi realizado em 49,7% dos casos e a urina tóxica em 7,8%. Conclusão: Evidencia-se o uso rotineiro de meios auxiliares de diagnóstico no pronto-socorro; Estudos adicionais são necessários para avaliar a relevância dos auxiliares de diagnóstico neste cenário.


Subject(s)
Poisoning , Pesticides , Organophosphates , Psychotropic Drugs , Urine , Toxic Substances , Electrocardiography , Emergencies , Emergency Medical Services , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic
2.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-9, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1150304

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Citomegalovirus (CMV) es agente causal de infección congénita en todo el mundo con gran impacto socioeconómico, dado que produce pérdida de audición en la niñez y retraso del neurodesarrollo. No existen aún tratamientos con eficacia comprobada para todos los grupos de pacientes, ni se ha licenciado una vacuna segura y eficaz; tampoco se ha logrado consenso respecto al screening universal. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estimar la prevalencia de infección congénita por CMV y seroprevalencia materna en Tucumán y comparar si existen diferencias en las variables estudiadas según un índice de carencias y tipo de institución (pública o privada). MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio observacional de corte transversal. Se reclutaron 201 binomios recién nacido (RN)/madre de 8 maternidades del subsector público y privado. Se obtuvieron muestras de suero de la madre y orina del RN y se completó una Ficha de Recolección de Datos. Se utilizó PCR en tiempo real para la detección de genoma viral en muestras de orina de los RN y se realizó detección de IgG anti-CMV en el suero de las madres. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo una prevalencia estimada de infección congénita por CMV de 0,5% y una seroprevalencia materna de 96,9%. Se encontraron diferencias según índice de carencias y tipo de institución. DISCUSIÓN: La frecuencia de infección congénita fue baja, comparada con la seroprevalencia materna. Algunas de las variables estudiadas evidencian mayor vulnerabilidad en el sector público


Subject(s)
Urine , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections
3.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202804, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155370

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: to evaluate urinary biochemical alterations related to urolithogenesis processes after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Materials and methods : prospective study with 32 individuals without previous diagnosis of urolithiasis who underwent SG. A 24-h urine test was collected seven days prior to surgery and at 6-month follow-up. The studied variables were urine volume, urinary pH, oxalate, calcium, citrate, and magnesium and calcium oxalate super saturation (CaOx SS). Results: patients were mainly women (81.2%), with mean age of 40.6 years. Mean pre- and postoperative BMI were 47.1 ± 8.3 Kg/m2 and 35.5 ± 6.1 Kg/m2, respectively (p<0.001). Urine volume was significantly lower at the postoperative evaluation in absolute values (2,242.50 ± 798.26 mL x 1,240.94 ± 352.39 mL, p<0.001) and adjusted to body weight (18.58 ± 6.92 mL/kg x 13.92 ± 4.65 mL/kg, p<0.001). CaOx SS increased significantly after SG (0.11 ± 0.10 x 0.24 ± 0.18, p<0.001). Moreover, uric acid levels were significantly lower at the postoperative evaluation (482.34 ± 195.80 mg x 434.75 ± 158.38 mg, p=0.027). Urinary pH, oxalate, calcium, citrate, and magnesium did not present significant variations between the pre- and postoperative periods. Conclusion: SG may lead to important alterations in the urinary profile. However, it occurs in a much milder way than that of RYGB.


RESUMO Introdução: avaliar as alterações bioquímicas urinárias relacionadas aos processos de litíase urinária após gastrectomia vertical (GV). Método: estudo prospectivo, com 32 indivíduos submetidos a GV, sem diagnóstico prévio de urolitíase. Foi coletada urina de 24 horas, sete dias antes da operação e no retorno de 6 meses. As variáveis estudadas foram volume de urina, pH urinário, oxalato, cálcio, citrato e super saturação de oxalato e cálcio (SS CaOx). Resultados: os pacientes foram em sua maioria mulheres (81,2%), com idade média de 40,6 anos. O IMC médio pré e pós-operatório foi 47,1 ± 8,3 Kg/m2 e 35,5 ± 6,1 Kg/m2, respectivamente (p<0,001). O volume de urina foi significativamente baixo na avaliação pós-operatória em valores absolutos (2.242,50 ± 798,26 mL versus 1.240,94 ± 352,39 mL, p<0,001) e ajustado ao peso corporal (18,58 ± 6,92 mL/kg versus 13,92 ± 4,65 mL/kg, p<0,001). A SS CaOx aumentou significativamente após a GV (0,11 ± 0,10 versus 0,24 ± 0,18, p<0,001). Além disso, os níveis de ácido úrico apresentaram-se significativamente baixos na avaliação pós-operatória (482,34 ± 195,80 mg versus 434,75 ± 158,38 mg, p=0,027). PH urinário, oxalato, cálcio, citrato e magnésio não apresentaram variações significativas entre os períodos pré e pós-operatório. Conclusão: a GV pode levar a alterações importantes no perfil urinário. Entretanto, essas ocorrem de forma muito mais leve que na derivação gástrica em Y de Roux.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Uric Acid/blood , Urine/chemistry , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Urolithiasis , Gastrectomy , Postoperative Period , Calcium Oxalate/blood , Prospective Studies , Preoperative Period , Magnesium
4.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 17-26, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1145877

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: verificar a demanda de hemoculturas, aspirados traqueais e uroculturas realizadas no HU-UNIVASF/ EBSERH e a prevalência dos microrganismos identificados no período de janeiro a junho de 2016. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo documental com abordagem quantitativa. Resultados: o setor de microbiologia realizou 488 hemoculturas, 427 uroculturas e 197 aspirados traqueais. A positividade de hemoculturas mostrou-se entre 10,9 à 25,7%, e o percentual de contaminações variou de 6,8 à 14,0%. Os microrganismos mais prevalência nas hemoculturas foram Staphylococcus epidermidis (23,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19,3%) e Klebisiella pneumoniae (9,6%). Nas uroculturas foram Klebisiella pneumoniae (23,1%), Candida sp. (13,5%) e Escherichia coli (12,5%). Nos aspirados traqueais foram Acinetobacter baumannii (29,2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26,6%) e Staphylococcus aureus (16,2%). Conclusão: a cultura mais solicitada foi hemocultura. A bactéria mais prevalente nas hemoculturas foi Staphylococcus epidermidis, nos aspirados traqueais Acinetobacter baumannii e nas uroculturas Klebisiella pneumoniae


Objective: the study's purpose has been to verify the demand for blood cultures, tracheal aspirates and urine cultures performed at a University Hospital from the Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (HU-UNIVASF/EBSERH), as well as the predominance of microorganisms identified over the period from January to June 2016. Methods: it is a retrospective documentary study with a quantitative approach. Results: the microbiology sector carried out 488 blood cultures, 427 urine cultures and 197 tracheal aspirates. The positivity of blood cultures was between 10.9 and 25.7%, and the percentage of contaminations ranged from 6.8 to 14.0%. The most prevalent microorganisms in blood cultures were Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.6%). In urine cultures were Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.1%), Candida sp. (13.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%). In tracheal aspirates were Acinetobacter baumannii (29.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (16.2%). Conclusion: the most requested culture was blood culture. The most prevalent bacterium in blood cultures was Staphylococcus epidermidis, in tracheal aspirates was Acinetobacter baumannii, and in urine cultures was Klebsiella pneumoniae


Objetivo: el propósito del trabajo es verificar la demanda de hemocultivos, aspirados traqueales y urocultivos realizados en el Hospital Universitário de la Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco (HU-UNIVASF/ EBSERH) y la prevalencia de los microorganismos identificados en el período de enero a junio de 2016. Métodos: este trabajo es un estudio retrospectivo documental con abordaje cuantitativo. Resultados: el sector de microbiología realizó 488 hemocultivos, 427 urocultivos y 197 aspirados traqueales. La positividad de hemocultivos se mostró entre el 10,9 al 25,7%, y el porcentaje de contaminaciones varía de 6,8 a 14,0%. Los microorganismos más prevalentes en los hemocultivos fueron Staphylococcus epidermidis (23,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (19,3%) y Klebsiella pneumoniae (9,6%). En los urocultivos fueron Klebisiella pneumoniae (23,1%), Candida sp. (13,5%) y Escherichia coli (12,5%). En los aspirados traqueales fueron Acinetobacter baumannii (29,2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26,6%) y Staphylococcus aureus (16,2%). Conclusión: la cultura más solicitada fue hemocultivo. La bacteria más prevalente en los hemocultivos fue Staphylococcus epidermidis, en los aspirados traqueales, Acinetobacter baumannii y en los urocultivos, Klebisiella pneumoniae


Subject(s)
Urine/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Blood Culture , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Prevalence , Acinetobacter baumannii , Escherichia coli , Hospitals, University , Klebsiella pneumoniae
5.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(9): 550-554, 20200000.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362905

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the accuracy of post-void residual (PVR) urine volume measurements in patients with moderate bladder outlet obstruction. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted between January and December 2019. The inclusion criteria were male patients with symptoms of moderate bladder outlet obstruction. On the other hand, patients with a history of diabetes, symptoms of urinary tract infection, and positive urine for pyuria, as well as patients using medications, such as diuretics, alpha-blockers, and anticholinergic drugs, were excluded. The patients were asked to drink 1000 mL of water one to two hours before the initial ultrasound scan. Pre-void bladder capacity was measured, followed by a post-void ultrasound for residual urine volume measurement at three intervals: immediately after voiding, 15-20 minutes after the first void, and one week later with an empty bladder. Assessment of per-void capacity was carried out, based on the patient's subjective sensation of bladder fullness (a strong desire to void). Results: A total of 78 male patients, with the mean age of 60 years, were included in this study (27 cases in group I; 37 cases in group II; and 14 cases in group III). The mean PVR volume was 92 mL in the first measurement, 62 mL in the second measurement, and 60 mL in the third measurement. Significant differences were found between the first and second PVR measurements and between the first and third PVR measurements (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was found between the second and third PVR measurements (P=0.107). On the other hand, significant differences were found between groups I and II and between groups I and III (P<0.05) in the three PVR measurements. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between groups II and III in the three PVR measurements (P=0.204, 0.56, and 0.487 for the first, second, and third PVR measurements, respectively). Conclusion: A bladder ultrasound must be performed and interpreted carefully to avoid further unnecessary medications, investigations, or procedures. We recommend a second PVR measurement in patients with bladder outlet obstruction. Also, it is suggested to conduct similar studies in different conditions to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Urethral Obstruction/complications , Urination , Urine , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Ultrasonography
6.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(3): 243-247, 20200930. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280781

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the susceptibility profile of Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples from patients admitted in the adult ICU of a teaching hospital in the city of Juiz de Fora, MG. Methods: The study is retrospective and transversal, whose urine sample data were collected through electronic records from Hospital Infection Control Service, referring to the period from January to December of 2018. In these studies, cultures of urine with growth for E. coli that had colony counts ³ 100.000 CFU/mL were considered positive. Results: A total of 769 urine samples were submitted to culture, out of these, 240 (31,2%) presented microbial growth, being 37 (4,81%) positive for Escherichia coli. In relation to antimicrobial susceptibility profile, 3,24% of the strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 40,54% to norfloxacin, 35,13 to ampicillin, 32,43 to nitrofurantoin, 29,72% to cephalothin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefepime, 18,91% to sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim, 5,04% to amikacin and gentamicin. All the strains were sensitive to carbapenems. Nine (24,82%) strains productors of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) were isolated. Conclusion: The Escherichia coli is an important pathogen related to UTI and presents increasing resistance to the antimicrobials used in medicine practice, such as the quinolones and the beta-lactams.


Objetivo: Avaliar o perfil de suscetibilidade de Escherichia coli isoladas de uroculturas de pacientes internados na UTI adulto de um hospital de ensino na cidade de Juiz de Fora, MG. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo e transversal, cujos dados de urocultura foram coletados por meio dos registros eletrônicos do Serviço de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar, referentes ao período de janeiro a dezembro de 2018. Foram consideradas as culturas com crescimento positivo para E. coli com contagem de colônias ≥ 100.000 UFC/mL. Resultados: Foram submetidas à urocultura 769 amostras de urina, e, destas, 240 (31,2%) apresentaram crescimento microbiano, sendo 37 (4,81%) positivas para Escherichia coli. Em relação ao perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos, 43,24% das cepas foram resistentes ao ciprofloxacino, 40,54% ao norfloxacino, 35,13 à ampicilina, 32,43 à nitrofurantoína, 29,72% a cefalotina, ceftriaxona, ceftazidima e cefepime,18,91% ao sulfazotrim, 5,04% a amicacina e gentamicina. Todas as cepas foram sensíveis aos carbapenêmicos. Foram isoladas nove (24,82%) cepas produtoras de Beta-Lactamase de Espectro Estendido (ESBL). Conclusão: A Escherichia coli é um importante patógeno relacionado a infecção do trato urinário ( ITU) e, ainda, apresenta resistência crescente aos antimicrobianos utilizados na prática médica, tais como quinolonas e beta-lactâmico


Subject(s)
Urine , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli , Intensive Care Units
7.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(1, cont.): e2309, 20200000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129312

ABSTRACT

A diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença comum na rotina veterinária, de caráter multifatorial, gerando graves consequências na saúde dos pacientes acometidos. O diagnóstico é possível por meio de manifestações clínicas apresentadas e da realização de exames laboratoriais complementares. Entre esses exames, estão a dosagem da glicose sérica e a urinálise, as quais trazem ao clínico diversas informações, que podem ser correlacionadas aos demais achados, tornando possível o diagnóstico conclusivo de DM. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações urinárias e de glicemia em cães com DM. Para isto, foram analisados laudos de amostras urinárias e de glicose sérica de 15 animais, onde o diagnóstico foi conclusivo para DM. Verificou-se presença de glicosúria em 100% dos casos, sendo observado em 66,67% das amostras glicosúria maior que 1000 mg/dL e, em 33,33% amostras, de 500 mg/dL; a cetonúria esteve presente em 66,67 %; proteinúria em 66,67% e bacteriúria presente em 73,33 dos dados analisados. Já a hiperglicemia foi constatada em 13 pacientes (86,67%). Assim, conclui-se que a urinálise é um exame de suma importância para o estabelecimento do diagnóstico, da melhor terapêutica para cada caso e do prognóstico dos pacientes.(AU)


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease on the veterinary routine. It has a multifactorial character generating severe consequences on the health of the patient. It can be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and by making additional laboratory tests. These tests include the measurement of serum glucose and urinalysis, which provides the physician with additional information to be correlated with other findings, in order to reach a conclusive diagnosis of DM. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating urinary and glycemic alterations in dogs with DM. It analyzed reports of urine and serum glucose samples from 15 animals with a conclusive diagnosis for DM. Glycosuria was present in 100% of the cases. In addition, it was also observed that in 66.67% of the samples, glycosuria was higher than 1000 mg/dL, and in 33.33%, it was 500 mg/dL. Ketonuria was present in 66.67% of the samples, while proteinuria was observed in 66.67%. Bacteriuria was present in 73.33% of the samples on the analyzed data. Hyperglycemia was observed in 13 of these patients (86.67%), and thus, it can be concluded that urinalysis is an extremely important test for diagnosis, to choose the best therapy for each case and prognosis of the patients.(AU)


Diabetes mellitus (DM) es una enfermedad común en la rutina veterinaria, con un carácter multifactorial, que genera graves consecuencias en la salud de los pacientes afectados. El diagnóstico es posible a través de las manifestaciones clínicas presentadas y mediante realización de pruebas de laboratorio complementarias. Entre esas pruebas, están la medición de la glucosa en suero y el análisis de orina, que brindan al médico informaciones diversas que pueden ser correlacionadas a otros hallazgos, lo que permite hacer un diagnóstico concluyente de DM. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar las alteraciones urinarias y glucémicas en perros con DM. Para esto, se analizaron informes de muestras de glucosa en suero y orina de 15 animales, donde el diagnóstico fue concluyente para DM. La glucosuria estuvo presente en el 100% de los casos, observándose en el 66,67% de las muestras glucosuria mayor de 1000 mg / dL y, en el 33,33% de las muestras, de 500 mg / dL; la cetonuria estuvo presente en 66.67%; proteinuria en 66.67% y bacteriuria presente en 73.33 de los datos analizados. Se observó hiperglucemia en 13 de esos pacientes (86,67%). Por lo tanto, se concluye que el análisis de orina es una prueba extremadamente importante para establecer el diagnóstico, el mejor tratamiento para cada caso y el pronóstico de los pacientes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Urine , Urinalysis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Dogs/physiology , Ketosis/diagnosis
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1292-1299, 01-06-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147243

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effectiveness of the urine sample collection method in predicting the volume urinary and synthesis of microbial nitrogen. Eight fistulated steers were used with accessible rumens and kept in individual stalls. Their diets consisted of corn silage; corn silage + concentrate; corn silage + concentrate with addition of lipids in the form of soybean oil; and corn silage + concentrate with addition of lipids in the form of soybean grains. Estimates of microbial protein synthesis were obtained based on the urinary excretion of purine derivatives. There was no effect of diets on daily creatinine excretion (P>0.05). There were differences (P<0.05) between the urinary volume and microbial synthesis values determined by the total urine collection and those estimated from the urine spot samples and equations proposed by different authors. The estimation of microbial synthesis based on the urine excretion of purine derivatives should be performed from the total collection of the urine for a period of 24 hours.


Este estudo investigou a eficácia do método de coleta de amostras de urina sobre a predição do volume urinário e síntese de nitrogênio microbiano. Oito novilhos fistulados foram utilizados com rúmen acessível e mantidos em baias individuais. Suas dietas consistiram de silagem de milho; silagem de milho + concentrado; silagem de milho + concentrado com adição de lipídios na forma de óleo de soja; e silagem de milho + concentrado com adição de lipídios na forma de grãos de soja. Estimativas de síntese de proteína microbiana foram obtidas com base na excreção urinária de derivados de purina. Não houve efeito de dietas na excreção diária de creatinina (P> 0,05). Houve diferenças (P <0,05) entre o volume urinário e os valores de síntese microbiana determinados pela coleta total de urina e os estimados a partir das amostras de manchas de urina e equações propostas por diferentes autores. A estimativa da síntese microbiana baseada na excreção de urina dos derivados de purina deve ser realizada a partir da coleta total da urina por um período de 24 horas.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Animal Feed , Urine , Creatinine
9.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 956-967, 01-05-2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147179

ABSTRACT

The visceral establishment of Leishmania infantum in dogs may result in kidney and bladder tissue injury, with L. infantum ending up in urine. This study therefore aimed at investigating the presence of Leishmania sp. in urinary sediments, and correlating the results with those from renal and bladder serum biochemistry and histopathology. Thirty dogs with negative Nested-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for E. canis were used in the experiment, and were divided into three groups: control group (10 dogs), neither leishmaniasis nor clinical changes; group I (15 dogs), leishmaniasis but no Leishmania sp. in urine; and group II (5 dogs), leishmaniasis, as well as Leishmania sp. in urine. All animals were submitted to clinical, serological, and parasitological diagnosis for leishmaniasis, biochemical exams, and kidney and bladder histopathology. The parasite was also detected in the bladder imprint of one group II dog. Group II dogs presented with very low albumin concentrations, low albumin/globulin ratios, and kidney and bladder lesions. In the kidneys, hydropic degeneration, thickened Bowman's capsule, and thickening of the tubular capsule were detected in all dogs with positive urinary sediment. However, no significant difference in these renal changes was observed between groups. The intensity and distribution of bladder inflammatory infiltrates were significantly (p-value < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis' and Dunn's tests) higher in group II dogs, compared with those of the other groups. The presence of Leishmania sp.in the urine of infected dogs appeared to be related to low serum albumin concentrations and more severe bladder lesions


O estabelecimento visceral de Leishmania infantum em cães pode resultar em lesões nos tecidos dos rins e da bexiga, favorecendo a chegando do parasito até a urina. Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a presença de Leishmania sp. em sedimentos urinários e correlacionar os resultados com os achados de quantificações bioquímicas séricas e histopatologia de rim e bexiga. Trinta cães com Nested-Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) negativa para E. canis foram utilizados no experimento e foram divididos em três grupos: grupo controle (10 cães), negativos para leishmaniose e sem alterações clínicas; grupo I (15 cães), com leishmaniose, mas sem Leishmania sp. na urina; e grupo II (5 cães), com leishmaniose e com Leishmaniasp. na urina. Todos os animais foram submetidos a diagnóstico clínico, sorológico e parasitológico para leishmaniose, exames bioquímicos e histopatologia de rim e bexiga. O parasito foi detectado no imprimt de bexiga de um cão do grupo II. Os cães do grupo II apresentaram concentrações muito baixas de albumina, baixa relação albumina/globulina e lesões nos rins e na bexiga. Nos rins, foram detectadas degeneração hidrópica, espessamento da cápsula de Bowman e espessamento da cápsula tubular, em todos os cães com sedimento urinário positivo. No entanto, nenhuma diferença significativa nessas alterações renais foi observada entre os grupos. A intensidade e a distribuição dos infiltrados inflamatórios da bexiga foram significativamente (p-valor < 0,05, testes de Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn) maiores nos cães do grupo II, em comparação com a dos outros grupos. A presença de Leishmania sp. na urina de cães infectados parece estar relacionada a baixa concentração sérica de albumina e a lesões mais graves na bexiga.


Subject(s)
Urine , Leishmaniasis , Dogs
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): e178-e182, abr. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100431

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de jarabe de arce es una entidad autosómica recesiva producida por un error congénito en el metabolismo de tres aminoácidos esenciales de cadena ramificada: valina, leucina e isoleucina. La forma neonatal de esta enfermedad se manifiesta por un cuadro de compromiso neurológico grave y progresivo, asociado a un olor peculiar de la orina, consecuencia de la eliminación del exceso de estos aminoácidos. Este olor a azúcar quemada remeda a la melaza obtenida de los arces, lo que da nombre a esta enfermedad. El mejor método para eliminar estos tóxicos es la hemodiafiltración, pero, en los centros en los que esta práctica no es posible, la diálisis peritoneal constituye una alternativa.Se presenta a un recién nacido con leucinosis, con compromiso grave del sistema nervioso central, en quien la diálisis peritoneal fue de utilidad para superar la descompensación metabólica.


Maple syrup disease is an autosomal recessive entity caused by a congenital error in the metabolism of three essential branched-chain amino acids: valine, leucine and isoleucine. The neonatal form of this disease is expressed by a severe and progressive neurological compromise, associated with a peculiar smell of urine, a consequence of the elimination of the excess of these amino acids. This smell of burnt sugar mimics the molasses obtained from maples, which gives its name to this disease. The best method to eliminate these toxins is hemodiafiltration, but in centers where this practice is not possible, peritoneal dialysis is an alternative.We present a newborn with leukinosis with severe central nervous system involvement in whom peritoneal dialysis was useful to overcome metabolic decompensation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Peritoneal Dialysis , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/diagnosis , Urine/chemistry , Weight Loss , Maple Syrup Urine Disease/therapy
11.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(1): 61-68, mar. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130580

ABSTRACT

El uso de bisfenol-A (BPA) a nivel de la industria global se ha venido incrementando en los ultimos anos, y fueron los mercados emergentes los impulsores de esta demanda creciente. Las aplicaciones de BPA en la industria de los alimentos y bebidas representan solo del 3 al 4% del consumo global de policarbonato, pero su uso esta siendo reexaminado debido a que se conocieron varios trabajos cientificos que indican la existencia de una relacion directa entre el BPA y los efectos adversos para la salud. La contaminacion de los alimentos y bebidas se produce por migracion del BPA desde los envases que los contienen (alimentos enlatados, vinos, etc.), y es la principal fuente de exposicion en el humano. Para evaluar dicha exposicion se desarrollo y valido un metodo analitico por cromatografia gaseosa acoplada a espectrometria de masa para la cuantificacion de BPA total en orina de mujeres embarazadas atendidas en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires en el ano 2013, con un limite de cuantificacion de 2,0 ng/mL y un limite de deteccion de 0,8 ng/mL. De las 149 muestras de orina analizadas, el 66,4% fueron cuantificables, con la mediana de BPA total de 4,8 ng/mL (4,3 ng/mg de creatinina) y la media geometrica de 4,8 ng/mL (4,7 ng/mg de creatinina).


The use of bisphenol-A (BPA) at the level of the global industry has been increasing in recent years, with emerging markets being the drivers of this growing demand. BPA applications in the food and beverage industry represent only 3 to 4% of the global consumption of polycarbonate, but its use is being reexamined because several scientific works were reported indicating the existence of a direct relationship between BPA and adverse effects on health. The contamination of food and beverages is produced by the migration of BPA from the containers that hold them (canned foods, wines, etc.) and it is the main source of exposure in humans. To evaluate this exposure, an analytical method was developed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for the quantification of total BPA in urine of pregnant women treated at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires in 2013, with a limit of quantification of 2.0 ng/mL and of detection of 0.8 ng/mL. Of the 149 urine samples analyzed, 66.4% were quantifiable, with a median total BPA of 4.8 ng/mL (4.3 ng/mg creatinine) and a geometric mean of 4.8 ng/mL (4.7 ng/mg creatinine).


O uso de bisfenol-A (BPA) ao nivel da industria global foi aumentando nos ultimos anos, e foram os mercados emergentes que deram impulso a essa demanda crescente. As aplicacoes de BPA na industria de alimentos e bebidas representam apenas 3 a 4% do consumo global de policarbonato, mas seu uso esta sendo reexaminado visto que varios trabalhos cientificos indicando a existencia de uma relacao direta entre o BPA e os efeitos adversos na saude foram conhecidos. A contaminacao dos alimentos e bebidas e produzida pela migracao de BPA das embalagens que os contem (alimentos enlatados, vinhos, etc.) e e a principal fonte de exposicao em humanos. Para avaliar esta exposicao, foi desenvolvido e avaliado um metodo analitico por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas para a quantificacao do BPA total na urina de gestantes atendidas no Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires em 2013, com um limite de quantificacao de 2,0 ng/mL e um limite de deteccao de 0,8 ng/mL. Das 149 amostras de urina analisadas, 66,4% foram quantificaveis, com uma mediana de BPA total de 4,8 ng/mL (4,3 ng/mg de creatinina) e a media geometrica de 4,8 ng/mL (4,7 ng/mg de creatinina).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Urine , Pregnancy/urine , Endocrine Disruptors , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Toxicology/statistics & numerical data , Food Industry , Health , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Food and Beverages , Pregnant Women , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Food
12.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(1): 13-18, mar. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130574

ABSTRACT

La deteccion de trastornos metabolicos minerales puede explicar diversas anomalias fisiologicas que exigen para su interpretacion la comparacion con valores de referencia validados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la determinacion de valores de referencia en la poblacion infantil uruguaya, de los analitos sodio, potasio, calcio, magnesio, fosforo y urato relacionados con la creatinina en muestras de la segunda miccion de la manana en 470 escolares (240 ninas y 230 ninos) con edades comprendidas entre 7 y 12 anos. Las medianas obtenidas fueron: Na/Crea: 139 mmol/g, K/Crea: 78 mmol/g, Ca/Crea: 77 mg/g, Mg/Crea: 71 mg/g, P/Crea: 500 mg/g, Ur/Crea: 554 mg/g, Crea: 117 mg/dL. A excepcion de los cocientes Na/Crea y K/Crea se encontro una disminucion de la excrecion de estos analitos con la edad, independientemente del sexo. Los valores obtenidos resultaron ser analogos a los de otras poblaciones con tipo de alimentacion similar.


The detection of mineral metabolic disorders can explain several pathologies which require the comparison with reference values for their interpretation. The aim of this study was to determine the reference values of 470 Uruguayan school children with ages between 7 and 12 for sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosporous and urate and their relationship with creatinine in urine samples of the second urination of the morning. The median obtained were: Na/Crea: 139 mmol/g, K/Crea: 78 mmol/g, Ca/Crea: 77 mg/g, Mg/Crea: 71 mg/g, P/Crea: 500 mg/g, Ur/Crea: 554 mg/g, Crea: 117 mg/dL. A diminishment of excretion with the age was found, regardless the sex, except for Na/Crea and K/Crea. The values obtained were similar to those of others populations with a similar diet.


A detecção de distúrbios metabólicos minerais pode explicar várias anomalias fisiológicas, que exigem a comparação com valores de referência validados para serem interpretados. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar valores de referência na população infantil uruguaia, dos analitos sódio, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, fósforo e urato relacionados com a creatinina em amostras da segunda micção da manhã em 470 alunos (240 meninas e 230 meninos) com idades entre 7 e 12 anos. As medianas obtidas foram: Na/Crea: 139 mmol/g, K/Crea: 78 mmol/g, Ca/Crea: 77 mg/g, Mg/Crea: 71 mg/g, P/Crea: 500 mg/g, Ur/Crea: 554 mg/g, Crea: 117 mg/dL. Com exceção dos quocientes Na/Crea e K/Crea, foi encontrada uma diminuição na excreção destes analitos com a idade independentemente do sexo. Os valores obtidos foram análogos aos de outras populações com um tipo similar de dieta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Reference Values , Urine/chemistry , Phosphorus , Potassium , Sodium , Students , Uric Acid , Calcium , Determination , Creatinine , Diet , Magnesium , Minerals
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 97-101, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098446

ABSTRACT

Dietary chromium supplementation before, during, and after weaning was conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that chromium supplementation could reduce weaning-induced cortisol release in beef calves. We examined the effects of chromium supplementation in 150 crossbred calves (male and female) between five and six months of age. The calves were randomly divided by sex and breed into two equal homogeneous groups (n=75). One group was used as the control, and the other experimental group received supplementation with 0.9mg of chromium carbon-amino-phospho-chelate per 100kg BW. The chromium supplement was mixed with mineral salt for the consumption of 0.1% of BW, and the supplement was administered via creep feeding 60 days before and 60 days after forced weaning. Calves were weighed, and their blood and urine samples were obtained at four time-points: T0 (60 days before weaning), T1 (at weaning), T2 (48 hours after weaning), and T3 (60 days after weaning). Blood samples were used to determine chromium, cortisol, total protein, and albumin concentrations, and urine samples were used to determine urinary creatinine and chromium levels. Cumulative weight gain was higher in calves supplemented with chromium before weaning and during the experiment (P<0.05). In addition, weaning-related stress caused an increase in chromium excretion in the urine, and chromium supplementation reduced stress, which resulted in lower cortisol and total protein levels during weaning.(AU)


O estudo foi realizado para avaliar a hipótese de que a suplementação dietética com cromo antes, durante e após a desmama possa diminuir a concentração de cortisol causado por este processo em bezerros de corte. Para tal, foram utilizados 150 bezerros mestiços, machos e fêmeas, entre cinco e seis meses de idade. Os animais foram divididos randomicamente por sexo e grupo genético em dois grupos homogêneos (n=75), um mantido como controle e outro suplementado com 0,9mg de carboaminofosfoquelato de cromo/100 kg PV misturado a um sal proteinado para ser consumido na base de 0,1% do PV via creep feeding, no decorrer de 60 dias antes e 60 dias após à desmama forçada. Os animais foram pesados e foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas e urinárias no M0 (60 dias antes da desmama), M1 (desmama), M2 (48 horas após a desmama) e M3 (60 dias após à desmama) para determinação de cromo, cortisol, proteína total e albumina no sangue e da concentração urinária de creatinina e cromo. O ganho acumulado de peso foi superior nos bezerros suplementados com cromo antes da desmama e no decorrer de todo o experimento (P<0,05). A suplementação com cromo reduziu os teores de cortisol e de proteína total durante a desmama. O estresse da desmama provocou aumento da excreção de cromo pela urina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Weaning , Cattle/growth & development , Cortisone/antagonists & inhibitors , Weight Gain , Chromium/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Urine
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(Suppl 2): 112-117, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136381

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE We aimed to present a review of renal changes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify original articles regarding clinical, laboratory, and anatomopathological kidney changes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 published until May 7, 2020. The search was carried out across PubMed, Scopus, and Embase using the keywords "COVID-19", "coronavirus", "SARS-CoV-2", "kidney injury" and "kidney disease". Fifteen studies presented clinical and laboratory renal changes in patients with COVID-19, and three addressed anatomopathological changes. DISCUSSION Acute kidney injury (AKI) was a relevant finding in patients with COVID-19. There were also significant changes in laboratory tests that indicated kidney injury, such as increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), proteinuria, and hematuria. The presence of laboratory abnormalities and AKI were significant in severely ill patients. There was a considerable prevalence of AKI among groups of patients who died of COVID-19. Histopathological analysis of the kidney tissue of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 suggested that the virus may directly affect the kidneys. CONCLUSION Although COVID-19 affects mainly the lungs, it can also impact the kidneys. Increased serum creatinine and BUN, hematuria, proteinuria, and AKI were frequent findings in patients with severe COVID-19 and were related to an increased mortality rate. Further studies focusing on renal changes and their implications for the clinical condition of patients infected with the novel coronavirus are needed.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Apresentar uma revisão sobre as alterações renais nos pacientes com COVID-19. MÉTODOS Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de literatura para buscar estudos referentes a pacientes com alterações renais clínicas, laboratoriais e anatomopatológicas durante a infecção por SARS-CoV-2. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados eletrônicos PubMed, Scopus e Embase, com as palavras-chaves: "COVID-19", "coronavirus", "Sars-CoV-2", "kidney injury" e "kidney disease", para identificar artigos originais publicados na literatura até 07 de maio de 2020. Quinze estudos trouxeram alterações renais clínicas e laboratoriais dos pacientes com COVID-19, e três abordaram análises anatomopatológicas. DISCUSSÃO A Lesão renal aguda (LRA) foi um achado relevante nos pacientes com COVID-19. Houve também alterações significativas nos exames laboratoriais que indicam lesão renal, como o nível de creatinina e ureia séricas, proteinúria e hematúria. As alterações laboratoriais e a LRA foram importantes nos pacientes que desenvolveram o quadro grave da doença. Há considerável prevalência de LRA nos grupos de pacientes que vieram a óbito. Na análise histopatológica de pacientes com SARS-CoV-2 foram encontrados achados renais sugestivos que o vírus poderia ter efeitos diretos sobre o rim. CONCLUSÃO A COVID-19 é uma doença que, apesar de acometer principalmente os pulmões, também acomete os rins. Aumento das escórias nitrogenadas, hematúria, proteinúria e LRA foram achados frequentes em pacientes com quadros graves da COVID-19. Esses achados foram relacionados a maior mortalidade. É necessária a realização de mais estudos com enfoque nas alterações renais e suas implicações no quadro clínico causadas pelo novo coronavírus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/urine , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Proteinuria/etiology , Urine/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/urine , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Creatinine/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Hematuria/etiology
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5063, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039731

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A 65-year-old male with a history of urinary tract trauma requiring cystotomy and chronic bladder catheterization, presenting with chronic and uninvestigated changes in the color of the urine bag system, with no urine color change, and positive urine culture for Proteus mirabilis . These characteristics refer to the purple urine bag syndrome, a not weel-known condition, with a benign course in most cases, and associated with urinary tract infection in patients with chronic bladder catheterization. Although it is characterized by marked changes, it is underdiagnosed by healthcare professionals.


RESUMO Homem de 65 anos com história de trauma do sistema urinário, sendo necessário cistotomia e sondagem vesical crônica, apresentando alterações crônicas e não investigadas da cor do sistema coletor de urina, sem alteração da cor da urina, e urocultura positiva para Proteus mirabilis . Tais características remetem à síndrome do saco coletor de urina roxo, uma entidade pouco conhecida, de curso benigno na maioria da vezes, associada à infecção urinária em paciente com cateterismo vesical de demora. Embora seja caracterizada por alterações marcantes, é subdiagnosticada pelos profissionais de saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Reservoirs, Continent/adverse effects , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Proteus mirabilis/isolation & purification , Syndrome , Urinary Tract Infections/pathology , Urine/microbiology , Risk Factors , Catheter-Related Infections/pathology
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200339, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154865

ABSTRACT

We evaluated sweat, blood and urine specimens obtained from an ongoing cohort study in Brazil. Samples were collected at pre-established intervals after the initial rash presentation and tested for Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA presence by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). From 254 participants with confirmed infection, ZIKV RNA was detected in the sweat of 46 individuals (18.1%). Sweat presented a median cycle threshold (Ct) of 34.74 [interquartile range (IQR) 33.44-36.04], comparable to plasma (Ct 35.96 - IQR 33.29-36.69) and higher than urine (Ct 30.78 - IQR 28.72-33.22). Concomitant detection with other specimens was observed in 33 (72%) of 46 participants who had a positive result in sweat. These findings represent an unusual and not yet investigated virus shedding through eccrine glands.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sweat/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Urine/virology , Blood/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/classification , Cohort Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190338, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091240

ABSTRACT

Oropouche virus (OROV) is an arthropod-borne virus of the Peribunyaviridae family, transmitted to humans primarily by Culicoides paraensis. It is one of the main arboviruses infecting humans in Brazil, primarily in the Amazon Region. Here, we report the detection of OROV in the saliva and urine of a patient whose samples were collected five days after the onset of symptoms. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed the results. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the detection of OROV in the saliva and urine of an infected patient. In addition, the results of our study expand the current knowledge pertaining to the natural history of Oropouche fever.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Saliva/virology , Urine/virology , Orthobunyavirus/isolation & purification , Orthobunyavirus/genetics , Bunyaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , Base Sequence , Amino Acid Sequence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Middle Aged
18.
Infectio ; 23(4): 364-370, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1040007

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad de la identificación directa de microorganismos en muestras de orina y hemocultivos empleando la tecnología MALDI-TOF MS, mediante el análisis de concordancia en la identificación, tiempo necesario para la obtención de un resultado y costos asociados a cada método de identificación. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de febrero de 2017 a octubre de 2017. Se seleccionaron a conveniencia 180 muestras de orinas y 129 hemocultivos de pacientes de la Clínica El Rosario, Medellín, se realizó identificación del microorganismo directamente de la muestra y a partir del cultivo por MALDI-TOF (Vitek® MS‚ bioMérieux). Se analizaron los costos y tiempo, para determinar la utilidad de esta tecnología en los procesos del laboratorio de microbiología. Resultados: En el 79,6% de las orinas positivas y en el 76% de los hemocultivos se obtuvo una identificación de microorganismos directamente por MALDI-TOF MS. El tiempo de identificación directa tuvo una media de 6 horas y por cultivo una media de 29 horas. El costo total por aislamiento identificado de forma directa (sin incluir el valor del equipo) fue de $8.200 (2,58 USD) en muestras de orina y de $9.720 (3,06 USD) en hemocultivos positivos. El equipo introduce un costo variable en cada identificación de acuerdo con el número de identificaciones que se realicen en el laboratorio. Conclusiones: Estos resultados confirman la utilidad del MALDI-TOF MS para generar identificaciones más rápidas cuando se utiliza directamente en muestras clínicas, sin embargo, tiene un bajo desempeño en la identificación directa de bacterias gram positivas, siendo necesario evaluar otros protocolos que mejoren la identificación directa. El costo de los consumibles es bajo, pero la adquisición de esta tecnología introduce un costo variable que depende del volumen de muestras identificadas en el laboratorio.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the utility of the direct identification of microorganisms in urine and blood cultures samples, using MALDI-TOF by evaluating concordance for identification, time to obtain an identification result and associated costs. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study from February to October 2017 in 180 urine samples and 129 positive blood cultures samples of patients from the El Rosario Clinic in Medellin- Colombia. The clinical samples were processed directly for microorganisms identification by using MALDI-TOF (Vitek® MS‚ bioMérieux). This result was compared with the result obtained with Maldi tof -MS done for the cultured microorganism. An analysis of cost and time to achieve an identification result was made to determinate the utility of this technology in the laboratory procedures. Results: 79,6 % of positive urines and the 76 % of blood cultures were identified directly from the sample by MALDI-TOF. MALDI-TOF applied directly had a mean time for obtaining an identification of 6 hours compared to 29 hours to obtain an identification from cultures. The cost of direct identification was $8.200 (2,58 USD) in urine samples and $9.720 (3,06 USD) in blood cultures (without including the equipment cost). This cost is variable depending of the number of identifications that the laboratory performs. Conclusions: These results support the usefulness of MALDI-TOF for getting rapid identification results using the direct methodology in clinical samples. However, the capability to identify gram positive bacteria needs to be improved. The incorporation of this methodology in microbiology laboratories may improve the opportunity in the etiological diagnosis and should have a positive impact on patient care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria , Urine , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Blood Culture , Mass Spectrometry , Cost Control
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(4): 245-251, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1054928

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Debido a la fuerte industrialización de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alrededores, la población podría estar expuesta a metales. Para poder evaluar el nivel de exposición de los niños al cromo y al mercurio, es fundamental tener valores de referencia (VR) propios. El objetivo fue determinar los VR pediátricos para cromo y mercurio en la muestra aislada de orina. Población y métodos: Se incluyeron niños y niñas no expuestos a los contaminantes evaluados que concurrieron al Servicio de Bajo Riesgo y al Consultorio del Jardín Maternal del Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan". Se cuantificó cromo (UCr), mercurio (UHg) y creatinina urinarios. Se calcularon los p95 con su intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC 95 %] según el concepto para VR de la German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Resultados: Se incluyeron 160 pacientes en el estudio. Se obtuvieron 144 muestras de niños y niñas de entre 1 y 17 años (mediana: 7 años). Se cuantificó UCr a 137 muestras y UHg a 129. La mediana y rango de cromo fue 0,54 (indetectable -3,06) µg/g de creatinina y la de mercurio fue 0,49 (indetectable -7,57) µg/g de creatinina.Conclusiones: Los VR fueron, para UCr, hasta 1,5 µg/l [1,2-2,8] y hasta 2,2 µg/g de creatinina [1,8-3,0] y para UHg, hasta 2,5 µg/l [1,8-4,8] y 3,2 µg/g de creatinina [2,5-4,7


Introduction. Due to the heavy industrialization of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires, the population may have become exposed to metals.To assess the level of exposure to chromium and mercury in children, it is critical to have local reference values (RVs). Our objective was to determine pediatric RVs for chromium and mercury in a single urine sample.Population and methods: Children who were not exposed to the studied contaminants and who attended the Department of Low Risk Conditions and the Daycare Center Office of Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" were included. Urinary chromium (UCr), urinary mercury (UHg), and urinary creatinine were measured. The p95 and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were estimated based on the RV concept proposed by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission.Results: The study included 160 patients. A total of 144 samples from children aged 1-17 years (median: 7 years) were collected. UCr was measured in 137 samples and UHg, in 129 samples. The median value of chromium was 0.54 µg/g of creatinine (range, undetectable to 3.06), while that of mercury was 0.49 µg/g of creatinine (range, undetectable to 7.57). Conclusions: The RVs for UCr were up to 1.5 µg/L [1.2-2.8] and up to 2.2 µg/g of creatinine [1.8-3.0], and for UHg, up to 2.5 µg/L [1.8-4.8] and 3.2 µg/g of creatinine [2.5-4.7]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Reference Values , Chromium/urine , Mercury/urine , Urban Population , Urine , Environmental Exposure/analysis
20.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 51(1): 58-64, 30/03/2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008206

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: A sedimentoscopia apresenta atividade manual acentuada, pouca uniformidade e maiores custos aos laboratórios. Em diversos países é utilizado o emprego seletivo da sedimentoscopia em amostras de rotina de urina com normalidade nas etapas físico-químicas, no Brasil não ocorre uma abordagem nesse modelo. Assim, é importante avaliar a aplicabilidade do emprego seletivo da sedimentoscopia tendo em vista o custo-benefício na análise da rotina de urina. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo analítico descritivo através de resultados de exames de urina de indivíduos do município de Paulo Afonso ­ BA. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o teste de qui-quadrado e o valor de p<0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: A partir dos resultados referentes aos 2.607 exames de urina de rotina analisados, foi observado que 66% das mostras não apresentaram alterações físico-químicas. Destas amostras com análise físico-química sem alterações, 12,89% compreenderam alteração na análise sedimentoscópica e, dentre os elementos analisados, a presença de piócitos foi a anormalidade que apresentou maior incidência. O valor preditivo negativo referente aos elementos encontrados na sedimentoscopia de urina com análise físico-química sem alterações foi de 86%. Conclusão: Apesar do considerável valor preditivo negativo, o valor de alterações encontradas em urinas com análise físico-química normal é relevante e expõe a necessidade da realização dessa etapa no exame de rotina de urina. A utilização seletiva da sedimentoscopia deve ser adotada de maneira crítica, pois é necessária uma avaliação minuciosa dos riscos relacionados à saúde do paciente e à qualidade do exame.


Objective: Sediment microscopy is a markedly manual activity, with poor uniformity and high labor costs. In several countries, the selective use of sediment microscopy for routine urine samples with normal physicochemical results is used, in Brazil, an approach in this model does not occur. It is therefore important to evaluate the applicability of a selective use of sediment microscopy in Brazil, taken from the view of cost-benefit analysis. Methods: A descriptive analytical study was carried out using results of urine exams from individuals in the city of Paulo Afonso/BA. The chi-square test was used for analysis and the value of p <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: From the results of the 2607 routine urine tests analyzed, 1722 samples presented no physicochemical alterations. Of these samples with physicochemical analysis without alterations, 12.89% presented alterations during sediment analysis and among the elements analyzed the presence of pyocytes was the abnormality that presented higher incidence. The negative predictive value for the urine elements found during sediment microscopy of the normal physicochemical analyses was 86%. Conclusion: Despite the considerable negative predictive value, the value of alterations found in urines with normal physicochemical analysis is relevant and exposes the need to perform this step in the routine urinalysis. Since a thorough evaluation of the risks linked to the patient's health and quality examination


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Urine , Urinalysis , Microscopy
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