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West Indian med. j ; 53(6): 406-412, Dec. 2004.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-410093


Most low-resource settings depend on hormonal contraceptives for their family planning programmes and cervical cancer occurs in higher frequency in these populations. To determine whether hormonal contraception use increases cervical carcinoma in-situ (CIS) risk, a case-control study was conducted in the Kingston and St Andrew Corporate area of Jamaica, using 119 cases from the Jamaica Tumour Registry and 304 population controls matched on year of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and clinic where Pap smear was obtained. While CIS cases were more likely to have 'ever used' combined oral contraceptives (COC) (OR = 1.4, 95 CI: 0.8, 2.5), depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use was similar. Compared to women who never used hormonal contraceptives, the risk of CIS was elevated in: women who had used COCs five years or more (OR = 2.1, 95 CI: 1.0, 4.6), women who first used COC for less than 10 years prior to the interview (OR = 1.8, 95 CI: 0.9, 3.7) and women who were 18 to 24 years old when they first used COCs (OR = 1.8, 95 CI: 0.9, 3.4). Similarly, compared to women who never used DMPA, the risk of CIS was elevated in: women using DMPA five years or more (OR = 1.9, 95 CI: 0.7, 4.8), women reporting use within a year prior to interview (OR = 2.8, 95 CI: 0.7, 10.7) and women who initiated use of DMPA when they were 20 and 24 years old (OR = 1.4, 95 CI: 0.7, 3.1). These results suggest that if hormonal contraceptive use confers any risk of CIS, it is confined to long-term users. Increased risk in some groups, however, warrant further study

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , /adverse effects , Contraceptive Agents, Female/adverse effects , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/chemically induced , Case-Control Studies , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Contraceptives, Oral, Combined , Jamaica/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Time Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147187


The anticarcinogenic effects and mechanisms of the biotechnological drugs of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Russia, bioginseng, panaxel and panaxel- 5, were studied. Bioginseng was produced from a tissue culture of ginseng root cultured on standard medium, whereas panaxel and panaxel-5 were produced from ginseng tissue root cultures using standard mediums enriched with 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide and 1-hydroxygermatran-monohydrate respectively. All three ginseng drugs inhibited the development of mammary tumors induced by intramammary injections of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in rats, the development of the brain and spinal cord tumors induced by transplacental administration of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) in rats, and the development of uterine, cervical and vaginal tumors induced by intravaginal applications of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mice. The ginseng drugs induced the cytotoxic activity of macrophages in mice, enhanced T-lymphocyte rosette formation in guinea pigs exposed to cyclophosphamide, and stimulated the production of thyroid hormones in rats. These mechanisms may contribute to the anticarcinogenic action of the ginseng drugs. The organic germanium compounds present in panaxel and panaxel-5 did not potentiate the anticarcinogenic or immuno- stimulatory effects as much as biogeinseng. Preliminary clinical trials with panaxel and bioginseng were carried out in patients with precancerous lesions of the esophagus and endometrium. Panaxel was found to have a strong therapeutic effect in patients suffering from chronic erosive esophagitis. Bioginseng induced the regression of adenomatous-cystic hyperplasia of the endometrium in some patients. Thus, we conclude that the drugs of ginseng appear to hold considerable promise for future cancer chemoprevention.

Adenocarcinoma/chemically induced , Adult , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , Cells, Cultured , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/chemically induced , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic , Disease Models, Animal , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Endometrium/pathology , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagus/pathology , Estradiol/blood , Female , Fibroadenoma/chemically induced , Humans , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Male , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neoplasms, Experimental/chemically induced , Nervous System Neoplasms/chemically induced , Panax/metabolism , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Rats , Culture Techniques , Uterine Neoplasms/chemically induced , Vaginal Neoplasms/chemically induced
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-33782


O adenocarcinoma de células claras de vagina e cérvice é um câncer raro. Aproximadamente 2/3 destas pacientes têm história positiva de exposiçäo intra-uterina ao dietilestilbestrol. A maioria das pacientes säo jovens e têm estágios iniciais e säo tratados com sucesso pela cirurgia pélvica radical. Um cuidadoso programa de investigaçäo e tratamento é proposto pelos autores

Child , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Adenocarcinoma/chemically induced , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/chemically induced , Vaginal Neoplasms/chemically induced , Diethylstilbestrol/adverse effects