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1.
Salud bienestar colect ; 5(2): 1-14, sept.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366902

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN El cáncer de cuello uterino es una enfermedad que afecta a las mujeres a partir de los 20 años de edad, y en algunas ocasiones se desarrolla a partir de una edad temprana como a los 18 años. Muchas veces puede llegar a la muerte. La falta de información ha provocado un incremento en el índice de mortalidad de esta enfermedad. OBJETIVO Esta investigación fue determinar el índice de mortalidad de cáncer de cuello uterino que existe en mujeres de 20 a 50 años de edad en Hospitales Públicos de la ciudad de Guayaquil -Ecuador. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La presente investigación fue descriptiva, cuantitativa y de prevalencia. Se obtuvo una muestra de 224 pacientes. Realizando una encuesta virtual con 12 preguntas divididas en 3 categorías en la cual se calcula los porcentajes de: Conocimiento, Prevención, Síntomas. RESULTADOS: Las respuestas de las pacientes encuestadas varían en su porcentaje, el 50.4% tienen poco o nada de información acerca de esta enfermedad mientras que el 10% conoce mucho sobre el tema. CONCLUSIÓN: El cáncer de cuello uterino afecta a un sinnúmero de mujeres entre 20 a 50 años de edad, uno de los motivos para que la mujer padezca de esta enfermedad es el virus del papiloma humano. De acuerdo a los resultados, se pudo evidenciar que gran parte de la población encuestada tienen desconocimientos del tema tratado, así mismo sus prevenciones y sus síntomas, y toman esto como anomalías pasajeras.


INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is a disease that affects women from the age of 20, and sometimes develops from an early age such as 18 years. Many times it can lead to death. The lack of information has caused an increase in the mortality rate from this disease. OBJECTIVE: This research was to determine the mortality rate from cervical cancer that exists in women between 20 and 50 years of age in Public Hospitals in the city of Guayaquil -Ecuador. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present investigation was descriptive, quantitative and of prevalence. A sample of 224 patients was obtained. Carrying out a virtual survey with 12 questions divided into 3 categories in which the percentages of: Knowledge, Prevention, Symptoms are calculated. RESULTS: The responses of the surveyed patients vary in their percentage, 50.4% have little or no information about this disease while 10% know a lot about the subject. CONCLUSION: Cervical cancer affects countless women between 20 and 50 years of age, one of the reasons for women to suffer from this disease is the human papillomavirus. According to the results, it was possible to show that a large part of the surveyed population has ignorance of the subject treated, likewise its preventions and its symptoms, and they take this as temporary anomalies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/mortality , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mortality , Signs and Symptoms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Knowledge , Ecuador/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Inpatients
3.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 16(43): 2992, 20210126. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1292044

ABSTRACT

Introdução: De acordo com o Instituto Nacional do Câncer (INCA) a estimativa de novos casos de câncer do colo do útero (CCU) para o Estado do Espírito Santo, no triênio 2020-2022, é de 11,65 por 100.000 habitantes. Objetivos: Traçar o perfil clínico-epidemiológico das usuárias do serviço de atenção integral à saúde da mulher da policlínica da Universidade Vila Velha (UVV), a partir dos determinantes da consulta ginecológica, e correlacionar aos achados citológicos e histológicos. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal, observacional e retrospectivo envolvendo 590 prontuários de pacientes, atendidas entre fevereiro de 2011 e julho de 2016 no serviço de atenção integral à saúde da mulher na policlínica/UVV. Resultados: A média de idade das mulheres incluídas nesse estudo foi de 39,5 anos (DP± 16,2). Os fatores de risco como estado civil e tempo de relacionamento conjugal, multiparidade, e uso de contraceptivos hormonais orais foram associados a maior chance de CCU. Associação estatística da variável idade não evidenciou risco de CCU. Conclusões: Os resultados vão de acordo com os preconizados pelo INCA e Ministério da Saúde. Isso reforça a importância da rastreabilidade na atenção primária e os fatores que interferem na mesma.


Introduction: According to the National Cancer Institute (INCA), the estimate of new cases of cervical cancer (CC) for the State of Espírito Santo, in the 2020-2022 period, is 11.65 per 100,000 inhabitants. Objectives: To trace the clinical-epidemiological profile of users of the comprehensive women's health care service at the University Vila Velha (UVV), based on the determinants of gynecological consultation, and to correlate with cytological and histological findings. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational and retrospective study involving 590 medical records of patients, attended between February 2011 and July 2016 at the comprehensive care service for women's health in the polyclinic/UVV. Results: The average age of women included in this study was 39.5 years (SD±16.2). Risk factors such as marital status and length of marital relationship, multiparity, and use of oral hormonal contraceptives were associated with an increased chance of CC. Statistical association of the age variable did not show a risk of CC. Conclusion: The results are in line with those recommended by INCA and the Ministry of Health. This reinforces the importance of traceability in primary care and the interfering factors.


Introducción: Según el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (INCA), la estimación de nuevos casos de cáncer de cuello uterino (CC) para el Estado de Espírito Santo en el período 2020-2022 es de 11,65 por 100.000 habitantes. Objetivo: Trazar el perfil clínico-epidemiológico de las usuarias del servicio de atención integral de salud a la mujer de la policlínica Universitaria Vila Velha (UVV), a partir de los determinantes de la consulta ginecológica, y correlacionarlo con hallazgos citológicos e histológicos. Métodos: Estudio transversal, observacional y retrospectivo que involucró a 590 historias clínicas de pacientes, atendidas entre febrero de 2011 y julio de 2016 en el servicio de atención integral de salud de la mujer de la policlínica/UVV. Resultados: La edad promedia de las mujeres incluidas en este estudio fue de 39,5 años (DE ± 16,2). Los factores de riesgo como el estado civil y la duración de la relación matrimonial, la multiparidad y el uso de anticonceptivos hormonales orales se asociaron con una mayor probabilidad de CC. La asociación estadística de la variable edad no mostró riesgo de CC. Conclusiones: Los resultados están en línea con los recomendados por INCA y el Ministerio de Salud, lo que refuerza la importancia de la trazabilidad en la atención primaria y los factores que interfieren en ella.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Comprehensive Health Care , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Colposcopy
6.
Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires; Comisión Nacional de Evaluación de Tecnologías de Salud; Marzo 2021. 50 p. (Informe de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias N°11, 11).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1151680

ABSTRACT

El presente informe es producto del trabajo colaborativo de la Comisión Nacional de Evaluación de Tecnologías de Salud (CONETEC), dependiente del Ministerio de Salud de la Nación y creada por RM N° 623/2018. La CONETEC realiza evaluaciones y emite recomendaciones a la autoridad sanitaria sobre la incorporación, forma de uso, financiamiento y políticas de cobertura de las tecnologías sanitarias desde una perspectiva global del sistema de salud argentino. En sus evaluaciones y recomendaciones, la CONETEC tiene en cuenta criterios de calidad, seguridad, efectividad, eficiencia y equidad, evaluados bajo dimensiones éticas, médicas, económicas y sociales. Sus resultados son consensuados mediante discusiones públicas y ponderados a través de un marco de valor explícito, con la participación de todos los actores involucrados en el proceso de toma de decisiones en salud. Los informes y recomendaciones de esta comisión surgen de este proceso público, transparente y colaborativo, siendo de libre consulta y acceso para toda la sociedad


Subject(s)
Papillomaviridae , Women , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1838-1844, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Cervical cancer remains a major public health issue for the Uyghur women and other women living mainly in rural areas of Xinjiang. This study aims to investigate the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in rural areas of Xinjiang, China.@*METHODS@#Cervical cancer screening was performed on rural women aged 35 to 64 years from Xinjiang, China in 2017 through gynecological examination, vaginal discharge smear microscopy, cytology, and HPV testing. If necessary, colposcopy and biopsy were performed on women with suspicious or abnormal screening results.@*RESULTS@#Of the 216,754 women screened, 15,518 received HPV testing. The HPV-positive rate was 6.75% (1047/15,518). Compared with the age 35-44 years group, the odds ratios (ORs) of HPV positivity in the age 45-54 years and 55-64 years groups were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.37) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53-2.21), respectively. Compared with women with primary or lower education level, the ORs for HPV infection rates of women with high school and college education or above were 1.37 (95% CI: 1.09-1.72) and 1.62 (95% CI: 1.23-2.12), respectively. Uyghur women were less likely to have HPV infection than Han women, with an OR (95% CI) of 0.78 (0.61-0.99). The most prevalent HPV types among Xinjiang women were HPV 16 (24.00%), HPV 33 (12.70%), and HPV 52 (11.80%). The detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2+ was 0.14% and the early diagnosis rate of cervical cancer was 85.91%. The detection rates of vaginitis and cervicitis were 19.28% and 21.32%, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The HPV infection rate in Xinjiang is low, but the detection rate of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions is higher than the national average level. Cervical cancer is a prominent public health problem in Xinjiang, especially in southern Xinjiang.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alphapapillomavirus , China/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rural Population , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology
8.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 20(2): 633-641, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to analyze the access to cervical cancer preventive examination in Pernambuco between 2002 and 2015 by cytopathological exam coverage. Methods: public data from SUS Computer Department were used, then processed by Tabnet and Excel and calculated the slope of the over time coefficient trend by simple regression techniques. Afterwards, they were plotted in thematic maps covering cytopathological exams on Terraview app 4.2.2. Results: Pernambuco State presented an increase of exam coverage trend in all the health regions until 2010. Since that year it started to have stabilization and decreased the tendency. Comparing the coverage of the two first years, in 2002, 42.7% of the cities coverage was below 0.2 and in 2015 the scenario changed, 41.1% of the cities coverage was above 0.6. We emphasize that even in that same year 13.5% of the cities still had a low or too low coverage (less than 0.4). The over time trends in increase and decline were strongly meaningful. Conclusions: this study revealed that all health regions presented a coverage lower than recommended, in some period or in all of them, even with the State growth tendency it demonstrated an unequal and heterogeneous characteristic.


Resumo Objetivos: analisar o acesso ao exame preventivo para o câncer de colo do útero em Pernambuco, entre 2002 e 2015, por meio da cobertura do citopatológico. Métodos: foram utilizados dados de domínio público do Departamento de Informática do SUS, processados no Tabnet e Excel® e calculados os coeficientes de inclinação de tendência temporal, por meio de técnicas de regressão simples. Por fim, foram plotados em mapas temáticos de cobertura de exames citopatológicos no aplicativo Terraview 4.2.2. Resultados: Pernambuco apresentou aumento na tendência de cobertura ao exame para todas as regiões de saúde até 2010. A partir deste ano, apresentou uma tendência de estabilização e diminuição. Ao comparar a cobertura no primeiro e no último ano, em 2002 42,7% dos municípios estavam com cobertura abaixo de 0.2 e em 2015 o cenário muda para 41,1% de municípios com cobertura acima 0.6. Destaca-se que neste mesmo ano 13,5% dos municípios ainda apresentavam uma cobertura baixa e muito baixa (<0.4). Tendências temporais de crescimento e decréscimo tiveram forte significância. Conclusões: todas as regiões de saúde apresentaram cobertura inferior ao preconizado, em algum período ou em todos, mesmo com a tendência estadual de crescimento, demonstrando uma característica heterogênea e desigual.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Gynecological Examination , Brazil/epidemiology , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Health Services Accessibility
9.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 440-446, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1052977

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o rastreamento do câncer do colo do útero de um município do Sul do Brasil. Método: realizou-se um estudo quantitativo descritivo retrospectivo pela análise dos laudos dos exames citopatológicos registrados no Sistema de Informação do Câncer. Resultados: identificou-se que a maioria dos exames foram realizados em mulheres alvo do programa, apesar da baixa cobertura do rastreamento. O reduzido número de amostras insatisfatórias representa um aspecto positivo. Em contrapartida, um número considerável das amostras não obteve representatividade da junção escamo-colunar, este constitui um ponto crítico a ser melhorado na eficácia do exame, uma vez que, verificou-se associação significativa entre a representação dos epitélios e alterações anormais. Conclusão: os achados deste estudo reforçam a importância da avaliação e do monitoramento constante da qualidade dos exames coletados, para que sejam efetivos no rastreamento das lesões que são precursoras do câncer do colo do útero


Objective: to analyze the cervical cancer screening of a municipality in the South of Brazil. Method: A retrospective descriptive quantitative study was performed by analyzing the reports of the cytopathological exams registered in the Cancer Information System. Results: It was identified that the majority of the exams were performed in women targeted by the program, despite the low coverage of the screening. The small number of unsatisfactory samples represents a positive aspect. In contrast, a considerable number of samples obtained not representative of the squamocolumnar junction, this is a critical point to be improved in the efficiency of the examination, since it was found a significant association between the representation and the abnormal changes epithelia. Conclusion: the findings of this study reinforce the importance of the evaluation and constant monitoring of the quality of the exams collected, so that they are effective in tracking the lesions that are precursors of cervical cancer


Objetivo: analizar el rastreo del cáncer del cuello del útero de un municipio del sur de Brasil. Método: se realizó un estudio cuantitativo descriptivo retrospectivo por el análisis de los laudos de los exámenes citopatológicos registrados en el Sistema de Información del Cáncer. Resultados: se identificó que la mayoría de los exámenes se realizaron en las mujeres objetivo del programa, a pesar de la baja cobertura del rastreo. El reducido número de muestras insatisfactorias es un aspecto positivo. En cambio, un número considerable de muestras no obtuvo representatividad de la unión escamoso-colunar, éste constituye un punto crítico que debe mejorarse en la eficacia del examen, ya que se ha observado una asociación significativa entre la representación de los epitelios y las alteraciones anormales. Conclusión: los hallazgos de este estudio refuerzan la importancia de la evaluación y del monitoreo constante de la calidad de los exámenes recogidos, para que sean efectivos en el rastreo de las lesiones que son precursoras del cáncer del cuello del útero


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/nursing , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Papanicolaou Test/statistics & numerical data , Women's Health Services , Retrospective Studies , Family Health Strategy
10.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 1125-1131, jan.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1117824

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o comportamento dos coeficientes de exames citopatológicos realizados e alterados em mulheres Paranaenses no período de 2006 a 2014. Método: Estudo transversal do tipo ecológico, utilizou dados do Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo do Útero, segundo faixa etária de 15 a 59 anos. Foi calculada a razão entre o número de casos de câncer de colo uterino, segundo a faixa etária, e mulheres paranaenses da mesma faixa etária, divididos por 100.000. Resultados: Apresentaram-se segundo estatística descritiva, utilizando gráficos e tabelas. Mostraram um aumento de exames realizados nas faixas etárias 15-19 e 50-59 anos, e quedas nas centrais, 20-49 anos. Os exames alterados aumentaram no período estudado nas faixas de 15-19 e 30-49 anos, e caíram nas demais. Conclusão: O estudo evidencia uma mudança no perfil daquelas que procuram o exame citopatológico, com aumento da busca pelas jovens, assim como de exames alterados nas mesmas


Objective: Analyze the behavior of the coefficients of cytological examination performed and altered in women from Paraná between 2006 and 2014. Methods: Cross-sectional study of the ecological type used data from the Cervical Cancer Information System, according to the age range of 15 to 59 years old. The ratio between the number of cervical cancer cases according to age group and women of the same age group, divided by 100,000, was calculated. Results: Were presented according to descriptive statistics, using graphs and tables. Conclusion: There was an increase in the number of examples performed in the 15-19 and 50-59 age groups, and in the age group 20-49. The altered exams increased in the studied period in the groups 15-19 and 30-49 and fell in the others. The study evidences a change in the profile of those who seek the cytological examination, with an increase in the demand by the younger, as well as altered exams in the same ones


Objetivo: Analizar el comportamiento de los coeficientes del examen citológico realizado y alterado en mujeres de Paraná entre 2006 y 2014. Método: Estudio transversal del tipo ecológico utilizó datos del Sistema de Información del Cáncer Cervical, de acuerdo con el rango de edad de 15 a 59 años de edad. Se calculó la relación entre el número de casos de cáncer cervical según el grupo de edad y las mujeres del mismo grupo de edad, dividido por 100.000. Resultados: Se presentaron de acuerdo con estadísticas descriptivas, usando gráficos y tablas. Hubo un aumento en el número de exámenes realizados en los grupos de 15-19 y 50-59 años, y en los grupos de edad de 20-49. Los exámenes alterados aumentaron en el período estudiado en los grupos 15-19 y 30-49 años y disminuyeron en los otros. Conclusión: El estudio evidencia un cambio en el perfil de quienes buscan el examen citológico, con un aumento en la demanda por parte de los más jóvenes, así como también exámenes alterados en los mismos


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Uterine Cervical Dysplasia/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Papanicolaou Test/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care , Information Systems , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 35(4): e881, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093513

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de cuello uterino es una neoplasia maligna originada en el cuello del útero, principalmente en la zona de transformación donde confluyen células escamosas y glandulares. Objetivo: Determinar la existencia de agregación familiar para cáncer de cuello uterino. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico transversal de casos y controles (estudio de agregación familiar) en pacientes atendidas en consulta de Oncología Ginecológica. Hospital General Universitario Vladimir Ilich Lenin, desde septiembre de 2017 a febrero de 2018. La muestra quedó conformada por 60 mujeres con el diagnóstico histológico de cáncer de cuello uterino (casos) y por 60 mujeres sin diagnóstico de enfermedad oncológica (controles). Ambos grupos fueron tomados de las áreas de salud pertenecientes al municipio Holguín y pareados por edad. Resultados: En el grupo casos existió una mayor frecuencia en el antecedente familiar para cáncer de cuello uterino, siendo más elevada para los familiares de 1er grado (31 familiares, 41,3 por ciento). El antecedente de infecciones vaginales se presentó como el factor de riesgo de mayor frecuencia, con 36,7 por ciento en el grupo casos y 37,1 por ciento en el grupo controles. Se determinó un riesgo aproximadamente 4 veces mayor de padecer cáncer de cuello uterino en aquellos individuos con historia familiar positiva de 1er grado, mientras que las mujeres con antecedentes de infecciones vaginales tenían 4,8 más riesgo de padecer cáncer de cuello uterino. Conclusiones: Mediante esta investigación se determinó que existe agregación familiar para cáncer de cuello uterino, mostraron un riesgo mayor de enfermar las pacientes con historia familiar positiva para la enfermedad y antecedentes de infecciones vaginales(AU)


Introduction: Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating in the cervix uteri, mainly in the transformation area where squamous and glandular cells converge. Objective: Determine the existence of family aggregation for cervical cancer. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional case-control family aggregation study was conducted of patients attending the Gynecologic Oncology Service at Vladimir Ilich Lenin General University Hospital from September 2017 to February 2018. The sample was 60 women with a histological diagnosis of cervical cancer (cases) and 60 women without an oncological diagnosis (controls). Both groups were recruited from the health areas in the municipality of Holguín and paired by age. Results: In the case group there was a greater frequency of family antecedents of cervical cancer, which was higher for first-degree relatives (31 relatives, 41.3 percent). A history of vaginal infection was the most common risk factor with 36.7 percent in the case group and 37.1 percent in the control group. It was determined that the risk for cervical cancer is approximately fourfold greater among individuals with a positive first-degree family history, whereas women with antecedents of vaginal infection were at 4.8 times greater risk for cervical cancer. Conclusions: The study determined the existence of family aggregation for cervical cancer, with a greater risk for the disease among women with a positive family history and antecedents of vaginal infection(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Medical History Taking , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 39(4): 297-302, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056650

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory profiles of women with anal neoplasia associated with cervical neoplasia attending a tertiary healthcare facility in northeastern Brazil. Methods: This epidemiological, descriptive study was conducted using a database from a cross-sectional study carried out between December 2008 and January 2016. Women with a diagnosis of cervical neoplasia associated with anal neoplasia were included in the present study. Results: Of the women with cervical neoplasia, 14% were found to have an anal intraepithelial lesion or anal cancer. Median age was 33 years, 68% were non-white, and 70% were from urban regions, had little schooling and low income. Most reported having had anoreceptive (73%) and unprotected intercourse (84%). Regarding symptoms, 7% reported bleeding and 11% pruritus. Overall, 10% of the sample tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus. Anal cytology was abnormal in 92%. High-resolution anoscopy was abnormal in all cases. Histopathology revealed three cases of invasive carcinoma and high-grade lesions in 32% of the cases. Conclusion: Women with a diagnosis of anal and cervical neoplasia are often young, non-white women, who initiated their sexual life at an early age, were exposed to unprotected anoreceptive intercourse, live in urban centers, have little schooling and a low-income level.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever os perfis epidemiológico, clínico e laboratorial de mulheres com neoplasia anal associada à neoplasia cervical atendidas em uma unidade de saúde terciária no nordeste do Brasil. Métodos: Este estudo epidemiológico e descritivo usou um banco de dados de um estudo transversal realizado entre dezembro de 2008 e janeiro de 2016. Mulheres com diagnóstico de neoplasia cervical associada à neoplasia anal foram incluídas no presente estudo. Resultados: Das mulheres com neoplasia cervical, 14% apresentaram lesão intra-epitelial anal ou câncer anal. A mediana de idade foi de 33 anos; 68% das pacientes não eram brancas e 70% eram provenientes de regiões urbanas, com baixa escolaridade e baixa renda. A maioria relatou histórico de relações sexuais anoreceptivas (73%) e desprotegidas (84%). Quanto aos sintomas, 7% relataram sangramento e 11% prurido. No geral, 10% das pacientes apresentaram serologia positiva para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana. A citologia anal foi anormal em 92% da amostra. A anuscopia de alta resolução foi anormal em todos os casos. A histopatologia revelou três casos de carcinoma invasivo e lesões de alto grau em 32% dos casos. Conclusão: As mulheres com diagnóstico de neoplasia anal e cervical geralmente são jovens, não brancas, que iniciaram sua vida sexual em idade precoce, foram expostas a relações sexuais anoreceptivas desprotegidas, moram em centros urbanos e têm baixa escolaridade e baixo nível de renda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Anus Neoplasms/epidemiology , Health Profile , Carcinoma in Situ/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Carcinoma in Situ/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/diagnosis , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(3): 641-649, Jul.-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041084

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to determine the incidence of the main high oncogenic risk types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) ( 16, 18, 31 and 33) and the risk factors for cervical adenocarcinoma. Methods: a case-control study was carried out with 324 women (69 with adenocarcinoma and 260 healthy controls) between 2001 and 2014. Information on risk factors associated with adenocarcinomawere collected and the detection performed on HPVby using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. Results: adenocarcinoma was associated with age ≥40 years old (OR=2.95; 95%CI=1.13-7.71), ≤3 years of schooling (OR=2.34; 95%CI=1.02-5.37), presence of HPV (OR=6.75; 95%CI=2.41-18.91),women in menopausal status (OR=4.76; 95%CI:1.70-13.31) black race (OR=6.71; 95%CI= 2.11-21.32) and never had undergone cervical cancer screening (OR=9.92; 95%CI:2.41-40.81). Andamong the HPV types detected, HPV 18 was observed to be strongly associated with adenocarcinoma of the cervix (OR=99.1; 95%CI=12.96-757.78). Conclusions: the factors associated with cervical adenocarcinoma were ≥40 years old, ≤3 years of schooling, black race, menopausal status, never had undergone cervical cancer screening and the presence of HPV.


Resumo Objetivos: determinar a incidência dos principais Papilomavirus Humano (HPV) de alto risco oncogênico (16, 18, 31 e 33) e os fatores associados ao adenocarcinoma do colo uterino. Métodos: realizado estudo de caso-controle com 324 mulheres (69 com adenocarcinoma e 260 controles saudáveis), de 2001 a 2014. Foram colhidas informações sobre fatores de risco associados ao adenocarcinoma e realizada a detecção do HPV pelo método da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR). Resultados: o adenocarcinoma foi associado à idade >40 anos (OR=2,95; IC95%=1,13 - 7,71), escolaridade <3 anos (OR=2,34; IC95%=1,02 - 5,37), presença do HPV (OR=6,75; IC95%=2,41 - 18,91), mulher no estado menopausal (OR=4,76; IC 95%=1,70 - 13,31), raça negra (OR=6,71; IC95%=2,11 - 21,32) e nunca ter feito o exame de prevenção de Papanicolau (OR=9,92; IC95%=2,41 - 40,81). Entre os tipos de HPV encontrados observou-se que HPV 18 teve forte associação (OR=99,1; IC95%=12,96 - 757,78) com o adenocarcinoma de colo uterino. Conclusões: os fatores associados ao adenocarcinoma de colo uterino foram idade >40 anos, escolaridade <3 anos, raça negra, estado menopausal, nunca ter realizado o Papanicolau e presença do HPV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Papillomaviridae/classification , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Incidence , Risk Factors
14.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 914-927, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094098

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: entre las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles se encuentra el cáncer cérvico uterino, el cual constituye una de las principales causas de muerte en la actualidad. En los últimos años la morbilidad de este tipo de cáncer ha influido notablemente en los indicadores de salud y la calidad de vida de la población femenina mundial. Objetivo: diseñar una intervención educativa para la prevención del cáncer cérvico uterino, en estudiantes de primer año de la carrera de Medicina en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas. Materiales y métodos: investigación de Desarrollo la cual requiere un estudio observacional, descriptivo, que se inserta en el Programa Ramal Enfermedades Crónicas no Transmisibles. El universo de estudio 740 adolescentes la muestra 246 alumnos, seleccionada mediante un muestreo sistemático. Resultados: la mayoría de los estudiantes reflejan como estado civil solteros o bajo unión consensual, el comienzo de las relaciones sexuales tiene mayor incidencia en las edades de 14 a 15 años aunque es significativa la cifra de adolescentes que entre los 16 y 17 años que inician las relaciones sexuales. En cuanto a la presencia de los factores de riesgo del cáncer cérvico uterino como múltiples compañeros sexuales, uso de tabletas anticonceptivas, presencia del hábito de fumar así como infecciones de transmisión sexual se evidenciaron con cifras más significativas múltiples compañeros sexuales y el uso de tabletas anticonceptivas, en cuanto a la distribución de motivos que impulsaron al inicio de las relaciones sexuales, se destacan los motivos de experimentar sensaciones nuevas, el hecho de complacer a la pareja y la presión grupal respectivamente, solo 5.28% responde a una búsqueda de placer. Conclusiones: los estudiantes presentan factores de riesgo de considerable magnitud de padecer cáncer cérvico uterino. Se diseñó la propuesta de intervención educativa.


ABSTRACT Introduction: cervical cancer is one of the non-communicable chronic diseases. It is currently one of the main causes of death. During the last years, this kind of cancer morbidity has notably struck on health and life quality indicators of female population around the world. Objective: to design an educative intervention for preventing cervical cancer in students of the first year of Medicine studies in the University of Medical Sciences of Matanzas. Materials and methods: development research demanding a descriptive, observational study, inserted in the Branch Program Non-communicable Chronic Diseases. The universe of study is 740 teenagers, and the sample, systematically sampled, 246 students. Results: most of students gave the category of single or consensual union as marital status; the beginning of sexual relationships has higher incidence at the age of 14-15 years, although it is significant the quantity of adolescents beginning sexual relationships at the ages of 16 and 17 years. In order to the presence of cervical cancer risk factors like multiple sexual partners, contraceptive tablets use, smoking habit and sexually transmitted infections (STI), multiple sexual partners and the use of contraceptive tablets showed the most significant quantities; and about the distribution of the motives boosting the beginning of sexual relationships are highlighted the motives of experimenting new sensations, the fact of pleasing the sexual partner and the group pressure, respectively; just 5.28 % answered it was looking for pleasure. Conclusions: students have considerable risk factors of suffering cervical cancer. A proposal of educative intervention was designed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Sex Education , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/mortality , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Risk Factors , Students, Public Health , Early Medical Intervention , Preventive Health Services , Research , Smoking , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Contraceptives, Oral/therapeutic use , Unsafe Sex , Education , Observational Study , Healthy Lifestyle
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(4): 322-328, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043438

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Brazilian opportunistic screening programs for cervical cancer have limited impact. In the regions of two cities (Campinas and Curitiba) with high human development indices, consistent information from 96-97% of all cervical cancer cases managed within the public healthcare system is available. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence rate (IR) and temporal trends in these regions, covering 2001-2012. DESIGN AND SETTING: A population-based cohort study was conducted under the assumption that all cervical cancer cases were managed in cancer referral center hospitals. METHODS: 3,364 records (1,646 from Campinas; 1,718 from Curitiba) were analyzed to provide estimates of IR, age-standardized IR (ASR) and cervical cancer trends (shown per 100,000 women/year). Longitudinal patterns were analyzed using linear regression and shown as annual percentage change (APC); P < 0.05 for significance. RESULTS: Annual IR and ASR estimates for cervical cancer ranged from 3.8 to 8.0 over 2001-2012, decreasing over more recent years, and were similar for the two regions. The age-specific IR was about 50% lower among women aged 45 years or older (IR-2001/IR-2012: Campinas = 14.8/8.0; Curitiba = 18.7/8.3; P < 0.001). There was an increasing APC trend in Campinas among women aged 15-24 years, and a decreasing IR trend for squamous-cell histology in both regions (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cervical cancer incidence estimates showed slowly decreasing trends in both regions, most evidently for women aged 45 years or older and for squamous-cell histology. These findings reflect the opportunistic nature of the population screening program, despite the comparatively high economic development level in the two regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Incidence , Cohort Studies , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
16.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(6): 387-393, June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013625

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Themain objective of the present study was to estimate the annual treatment costs of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) per patient at an oncology center in Brazil from a societal perspective by considering direct medical, direct nonmedical, and indirect costs. Methods A cost analysis descriptive study, in which direct medical, direct nonmedical, and indirect costs were collected using a microcosting approach, was conducted between May 2014 and July 2016 from a societal perspective. The study population consisted of women diagnosed with ICC admitted to a tertiary hospital in Recife, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The annual cost per patient was estimated in terms of the value of American Dollars (US$) in 2016. Results From a societal perspective, the annual ICC treatment cost per patient was US $ 2,219.73. Direct medical costs were responsible for 81.2% of the total value, of which radiotherapy and outpatient chemotherapy had the largest share. Under the base-case assumption, the estimated cost to the national budget of a year of ICC treatment in the Brazilian population was US$ 25,954,195.04. Conclusion We found a high economic impact of health care systems treating ICC in a poor region of Brazil. These estimates could be applicable to further evaluations of the cost-effectiveness of preventing and treating ICC.


Resumo Objetivo O objetivo principal do presente estudo foi estimar os custos anuais por paciente do tratamento do câncer do colo do útero (CCU) invasivo em um centro de oncologia no Brasil, sob a perspectiva da sociedade, considerando os custos diretos médicos, diretos não médicos e indiretos. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo descritivo de análise de custos, no qual os custos médicos diretos, não médicos diretos e indiretos foram coletados por meio de uma abordagem de microcustos, realizado entre maio de 2014 e julho de 2016 sob a perspectiva da sociedade. A população do estudo foi composta por mulheres diagnosticadas com CCU invasivo internadas em um hospital terciário em Recife, PE, Brasil. O custo anual por paciente foi estimado emtermos de dólares americanos (US$) para o ano de 2016. Resultados O custo anual do tratamento do CCU invasivo sob a perspectiva da sociedade foi de US$ 2.219,73 por paciente. Os custos médicos diretos foram responsáveis por 81,2% do valor total, dos quais a radioterapia e a quimioterapia ambulatorial tiveram a maior participação. Sob o pressuposto do caso base, o custo estimado para o orçamento nacional de um ano de tratamento do CCU invasivo na população brasileira foi de US$ 25.954.195,04. Conclusão Foi encontrado um alto impacto econômico dos sistemas de saúde para o tratamento do CCU invasivo em uma região pobre do Brasil. Essas estimativas poderão ser aplicáveis emavaliações adicionais do custo-efetividade da prevenção e tratamento do CCU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/economics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/economics , Mass Screening/economics , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Papillomavirus Infections/economics , Early Detection of Cancer/economics , Vaginal Smears , Brazil/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Costs and Cost Analysis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/therapy , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/economics , Health Services Research , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
17.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(1): 6-15, abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1007859

ABSTRACT

En Paraguay la incidencia de cáncer de cuello uterino (CCU) es superior a las observadas en otros países de la región. El agente etiológico asociado al CCU es el virus papiloma humano (VPH), esencialmente tipos de alto riesgo oncogénicos. El objetivo es describir aspectos epidemiológicos de la infección genital por el virus papiloma humano de alto riesgo (VPH-AR) en mujeres de 25 a 64 años que consultaron en servicios de Patología Cervical del MSPyBS, de mayo a diciembre de 2013. Se utilizó el Cobas 4800 HPV Test (Roche) que permite la detección individual de VPH-16 y VPH-18 y un pool de otros VPH-AR que incluye 12 genotipos de alto riesgo. Los otros VPH-AR fueron tipificados por hibridación reversa en línea (RLB). Entre las 495 mujeres incluidas, se detectaron 72 casos positivos (14,5%) de VPH-AR. Se identificaron 19 tipos virales; siendo el más frecuente VPH-16 (2,1%), seguido del VPH-31, 33, 58 y 66; el VPH-18 aparece en sexto lugar. Este trabajo aporta los primeros datos sobre la implementación de técnicas moleculares para detección y tipificación de VPH como parte del sistema de salud pública de Paraguay. El predominio de VPH-16, confirma su amplia circulación a nivel mundial y dado su mayor potencial oncogénico, representa una alerta a considerar, en especial en las mujeres mayores de 30 años portadoras de una infección persistente. Estos resultados apoyan la importancia de la implementación criteriosa y la utilización apropiada de las pruebas moleculares actualmente disponibles para la prevención y control del CCU(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Paraguay/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Genotyping Techniques
18.
Rev. salud pública ; 21(2): 161-167, ene.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1101852

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe cervical cancer mortality rates and their corresponding trends, and to analyze the spatial correlations of this type of cancer in Natal-RN, Brazil, between 2000 and 2012. Materials and Methods The simple linear regression model, the empirical Bayes method and the Global Moran's index were used for the statistical analysis. Results The mortality coefficient of cervical cancer in Natal, standardized by age range, was 5.5 per 100 000 women. All historical series for the coefficients studied were classified as stable. The Global Moran's index obtained was 0.048, with a p-value for the spatial test correlation between neighborhoods of 0.300. The average family income by neighborhood showed no significant correlation to cervical cancer mortality rates. Conclusion This study found a temporal stabilization and spatial independence trend of cervical cancer mortality rates in women from Natal, as well as the absence of correlation between these rates and the average family income of the of the participating women distributed by neighborhoods. In view of this, changes in the public policies should be made aimed at preventing the disease; adopting these measures could positively impact the screening program, improving the coverage of Pap smears and immunization campaigns against HPV, in order to reverse this trend and achieve a reduction of mortality rates.(AU)


RESUMEN Objetivo Describir las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer de cuello uterino y sus tendencias, así como analizar las correlaciones espaciales de este tipo de cáncer en Natal-RN, Brasil, entre 2000 y 2012. Materiales y Métodos Para el análisis estadístico se utilizaron el modelo de regresión lineal simple, la estimación empírica de Bayes y el índice Moran Global. Resultados La tasa de mortalidad por cáncer de cuello uterino en Natal, estandarizado por rango de edad, fue 5.5 por cada 100 000 mujeres. Todas las series históricas para los coeficientes estudiados se clasificaron como estables. El índice Moran Global obtenido fue 0.048, con un valor p de 0.300 para la correlación de prueba espacial entre vecindarios. El ingreso familiar promedio por vecindario no mostró correlación significativa con las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer de cuello uterino. Conclusión En este estudio se observó una tendencia temporal de estabilización e independencia espacial de la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer cervical en mujeres de Natal, así como la ausencia de correlación entre estas tasas y el ingreso familiar promedio de las mujeres participantes, distribuidas por vecindarios de la ciudad. En vista de esto, se sugiere que se adopten cambios en las políticas públicas dirigidas a la prevención de la enfermedad que apunten a medidas que puedan tener un impacto positivo en el programa de monitoreo, mejorando la cobertura de la prueba de Papanicolaou, así como de las campañas de vacunación contra el VPH, con el objetivo de revertir esta tendencia y lograr una reducción en las tasas de mortalidad de la enfermedad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/mortality , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Immunization Programs/supply & distribution , Papanicolaou Test/instrumentation , Statistical Analysis , Bayes Theorem , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
19.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 88, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043327

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of sociodemographic, reproductive, clinical and lifestyle habits in the cohort of women diagnosed with cervical cancer, assisted at Inca between 2012 and 2014, according to the histological type. METHODS Retrospective observational study of a hospital cohort of 1,004 women diagnosed with cervical cancer. Data were obtained from the Inca hospital cancer registry, physical and electronic records. RESULTS The most frequent histological type was squamous cell carcinoma (83.9%). Approximately 70% of the women aged more than 40 years. The study includes non-white women (67.4%), with less than 8 years of education (51.9%), with onset of sexual activity up to 16 years of age (40.7%), who were pregnant before (95.5%), with more than one pregnancy (82.9%), and more than two children (52.7%); 45.8% of the women were smokers or former smokers. Cervical adenocarcinoma was positively associated with earlier staging (IA-IIA) (OR = 1.79; 95%CI 1.03-3.13), as well as women with ≥ 12 years of education (OR = 6.30; 95%CI 1.97-20,13), who had no children (OR = 3.81; 95%CI 1.20 - 12,08) or who had up to two children (OR = 1.74; 95%CI 1.05 - 2,87). CONCLUSIONS The difference between histological types is highlighted, suggesting that women with cervical adenocarcinoma may represent a distinct clinical entity of cervical neoplasia, which may require different approaches from those used in squamous cell carcinoma.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Determinar a distribuição das características sociodemográficas, reprodutivas, clínicas e de hábitos de vida na coorte de mulheres diagnosticadas com câncer cervical, atendidas no Inca entre 2012 e 2014, segundo o tipo histológico. MÉTODOS Estudo observacional retrospectivo de uma coorte hospitalar de 1.004 mulheres diagnosticadas com câncer cervical. Os dados foram obtidos pelo Registro Hospitalar de Câncer do Inca, prontuários físicos e eletrônicos. RESULTADOS O tipo histológico mais frequente foi o carcinoma de células escamosas (83,9%). Aproximadamente 70% das mulheres foram diagnosticadas com mais de 40 anos de idade. Houve a predominância de mulheres não brancas (67,4%), com menos de 8 anos de escolaridade (51,9%), com início da atividade sexual até 16 anos de idade (40,7%), que já engravidaram alguma vez na vida (95,5%), com mais de uma gestação (82,9%) e mais de dois filhos (52,7%); 45,8% das mulheres eram tabagistas ou ex-tabagistas. O adenocarcinoma cervical esteve positivamente associado ao estadiamento mais precoce (IA-IIA) (OR = 1,79; IC95% 1,03-3,13), assim como a mulheres com ≥ 12 anos de estudo (OR = 6,30; IC95% 1,97-20,13), que não tiveram filhos (OR = 3,81; IC95% 1,20-12,08) ou que tiveram até dois filhos (OR = 1,74; IC95% 1,05-2,87). CONCLUSÕES Destaca-se a diferença entre os tipos histológicos, sugerindo que as mulheres com adenocarcinoma cervical possam representar uma entidade clínica distinta de neoplasia cervical, podendo demandar abordagens diferentes das utilizadas no carcinoma de células escamosas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Distribution , Life Style , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
20.
Femina ; 47(1): 55-60, 20190131. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046493

ABSTRACT

O câncer do colo do útero é o câncer mais comum na gravidez, com uma estimativa de 1 a 12 casos por 10.000 gestações. Com a melhora do rastreio do câncer do colo do útero e uma tendência feminina de engravidar em idade mais avançada, observa-se que cerca de 43% das pacientes diagnosticadas com câncer do colo do útero têm menos de 45 anos e 20% a 28% são menores de 40 anos. O diagnóstico e o tratamento da doença na gravidez são difíceis e desafiadores, pois geram angústia para a gestante, sua família e os profissionais de saúde. Novos estudos destacam que a preservação da fertilidade e a qualidade de vida estão se tornando preocupações cada vez mais importantes de mulheres jovens com câncer e que os procedimentos cirúrgicos devem ser menos invasivos. O comitê de oncologia da FIGO revisou o sistema de estadiamento do câncer do colo do útero. Este artigo discute o diagnóstico e tratamento do câncer do colo do útero com base no estágio da doença, incluindo atenção a questões de fertilidade e qualidade de vida.(AU)


Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in pregnancy, with an estimated 1-12 cases per 10,000 pregnancies. With improved cervical cancer screening and a tendency to become pregnant at a later age, it is noted that about 43% of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer are younger than 45 and 20-28% are younger than 40 years. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease in pregnancy are difficult and challenging, as they create distress for pregnant women, their families and health professionals. New studies highlight that preserving fertility and quality of life are becoming increasingly important concerns for young women with cancer and that surgical procedures should be less invasive. The FIGO oncology committee reviewed the staging system for cervical cancer. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer based on the stage of the disease, including attention to issues of fertility and quality of life.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/mortality , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk
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