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1.
Rev Enferm UFPI ; 12(1): e4217, 2023-12-12. tab e graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1525428

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar evidências científicas relacionadas às intervenções não farmacológicas utilizadas para redução da dor relacionada à vacinação em lactentes. Métodos: Revisão integrativa, realizada com emprego da estratégia PICo nas bases de dados IBECS, MEDLINE e Scopus, no período de fevereiro a junho de 2022, que visou responder ao seguinte questionamento: quais as evidências científicas em relação às intervenções não farmacológicas utilizadas para redução da dor associada à vacinação em lactentes? Os descritores combinados com os booleanos OR e AND foram lactente, vacinação, dor, infant, vaccination e pain. Foram incluídos artigos no recorte temporal de 2011 a 2021, publicados nos idiomas português, inglês ou espanhol. Resultados: A amostra final foi composta por 32 estudos. As medidas de intervenção não farmacológicas propostas para o alívio da dor em lactentes submetidos à vacinação foram: aleitamento materno e soluções orais de açúcar; assistência profissional em sala de vacina; e medidas de estimulação sensorial. Conclusão: A utilização dessas estratégias evidenciadas na literatura científica é capaz de favorecer o manejo mais adequado da dor relacionada à administração de vacinas e, por conseguinte, aumentar o conforto e bem-estar do lactente, além de favorecer a adesão das famílias à vacinação. Descritores: Dor; Vacinação; Lactente; Intervenções Não Farmacológicas


Objective: To identify scientific evidence related to non-pharmacological interventions used to reduce vaccination-related pain in infants. Methods: This is an integrative review carried out using the PICo strategy, in the IBECS, MEDLINE and Scopus databases, from February to June 2022, which aimed to answer the following question: what is the scientific evidence regarding non-pharmacological interventions used to reduce pain associated with vaccination in infants? The descriptors combined with the OR and AND Booleans were infant, vaccination, pain. Articles from 2011 to 2021 and published in Portuguese, English or Spanish were included. Results:The final sample consisted of 32 studies. Non-pharmacological intervention measures proposed for pain relief in infants submitted to vaccination were: breastfeeding and oral sugar solutions; professional assistance in the vaccine room; and sensory stimulation measures. Conclusion: Using these strategies evidenced in the scientific literature is able to favor the most adequate management of pain related to vaccine administration and, therefore, increase infants' comfort and well-being, in addition to favoring families' compliance with vaccination. Descriptors: Pain; Vaccination; Infant; Non-Pharmacological Interventions


Subject(s)
Pain , Vaccination , Healthcare Models , Infant
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 9(3): 31547, 26 dez. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1524298

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O Programa Nacional de Imunizações presente na Atenção Primária à Saúde coordena o processo de imunização e o torna mais eficaz, porém esse sistema enfrenta problemas como a falta de acesso à internet e desabastecimento de imunizantes, que prejudicam a cobertura vacinal da população e dificultam o registro eletrônico dos dados indicadores, além de aumentar a taxa de abandono vacinal. Objetivo:Analisar os indicadores de Cobertura Vacinal e Taxa de Abandono nas capitais do Nordeste nos últimos cinco anos. Metodologia:Estudo epidemiológico, quantitativo e descritivo. As nove capitais do Nordeste do Brasil foram selecionadas para o estudo. A temática abordada é a Taxa de Abandono Vacinal e a Cobertura Vacinal nos últimos cinco anos nas capitais. Os dados foram coletados através doSistema de Informação do Programa Nacional de Imunização e armazenadosno Microsoft Excel. Resultados:Quanto às taxasde cobertura vacinal, Fortaleza teve o maior percentual, com 74,87%. Maceió obteve o segundo maior índice, com 66,12%. Em relação às taxas de abandono vacinal, Salvador registrou o maior número,com 27,39% nos últimos cinco anos. Não obstante, João Pessoaobteve a menor taxa, com 16,08%. Conclusões:Verificou-se que Fortaleza teve a maiorCobertura Vacinal e Salvador teve a maiorTaxa de Abandono Vacinal.Algumas capitais tiveram redução naCobertura Vacinal e aumento na Taxa de Abandono Vacinalno período pandêmico, indicando a necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre o impacto da Covid-19 e a circulação de informações equivocadas sobre vacinação. Logo, a atuação da atenção primária à saúde é crucial para reverter essa tendência, trabalhando na implementação de campanhas de imunização e na educação em saúde (AU).


Introduction: The National Immunization Program present in Primary Health Carecoordinates the immunization process and makes it more effective, but this system faces problems such as lack of internet access and shortages of immunizers, which underminethe population's vaccination coverage and hinderthe electronic recording of indicator data, besides increasing the vaccination abandonment rate.Objective: To analyze the Vaccination Coverage and AbandonmentRate indicators in theNortheasterncapitalsover the last five years.Methodology: Epidemiological, quantitative and descriptive study. The nine capitals of NortheasternBrazil were selected for the study. The themesaddressed arethe VaccinationAbandonment Rate andtheVaccinationCoverage overthe last five years in the capitals. The data was collected through the National Immunization Program Information System and stored in Microsoft Excel.Results:As for vaccination coverage rates, Fortaleza had the highest percentage, with 74.87%. Maceió obtainedthe second highest index, with 66.12%. Regardingvaccinationabandonment rates, Salvador recordedthe highest number,with 27.39% over the last five years. Nonetheless, João Pessoa obtainedthe lowest rate, with 16.08%. Conclusions:It was found that Fortaleza had the highest Vaccination Coverage and Salvador had the highest VaccinationAbandonment Rate.Some capitals had a reduction in Vaccination Coverage and an increase in the VaccinationAbandonment Rate in the pandemic period, indicating the need for more research aboutthe impact of Covid-19 and the circulation of misinformation about vaccination. Therefore, the role of primary health care is essential forreversing this trend, working on the implementation of immunization campaignsand health education (AU).


Introducción:El Programa Nacional de Inmunizaciónpresente en la Atención Primariade Saludcoordina el proceso de inmunización y lo hace más eficaz, pero este sistema se enfrenta a problemas como la falta de acceso a internet y la escasez de inmunizadores, queperjudicanla cobertura de vacunación de la población y dificultan el registro electrónico de los datos de los indicadores, además de aumentar la tasa de abandono de vacunación.Objetivo:Analizar los indicadores de Cobertura de Vacunación y Tasa de Abandono en las capitales del Nordeste en los últimos cinco años.Metodología:Estudio epidemiológico, cuantitativo y descriptivo. Fueron seleccionadas para el estudio las nueve capitales del Nordeste de Brasil. LostemasabordadossonlasTasa de Abandono deVacunacióny la Cobertura de Vacunación en los últimos cinco años en las capitales. Los datos se recogieron a través del Sistema de Información del Programa Nacional de Inmunización y se almacenaron en Microsoft Excel.Resultados:En cuanto a las tasas de cobertura de vacunación, Fortaleza tuvo el porcentaje más elevado, con un74,87%. Maceióobtuvo lasegunda tasa más alta, con un66,12%. En cuanto a las tasas de abandono de vacunación, Salvador registró la cifra más alta, con un27,39% en los últimos cinco años. Sin embargo, João Pessoa obtuvola tasa más baja, con un16,08%.Conclusiones:Se notó queFortaleza tuvo la mayor Cobertura de Vacunación y Salvadortuvola mayor Tasa de Abandono de Vacunación. Algunas capitales tuvieron una reducción de la Cobertura de Vacunacióny un aumento de la Tasa de Abandono de Vacunacióndurante el período pandémico, indicandola necesidad de más investigaciones sobre el impacto de laCovid-19 y la circulación de información errónea sobre la vacunación. Por lo tanto, el rolde la atención primaria de salud es crucial para revertiresta tendencia, trabajando en la implementación de campañas de inmunización y educación sanitaria (AU).


Subject(s)
Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccination Hesitancy , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , COVID-19/epidemiology
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202757, jun. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1436138

ABSTRACT

Los niños cursan mayormente la infección por el virus SARS-CoV-2 en forma leve. Sin embargo, de forma muy infrecuente algunos pueden desarrollar una patología con marcada gravedad denominada síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico en niños relacionado temporalmente con COVID-19 (SIM-C). Dado su reciente surgimiento, aún hay aspectos de su fisiopatología que se desconocen. La posibilidad de recidiva en caso de reinfección o ante la vacunación contra SARS-CoV-2 son nuevos interrogantes a los que nos enfrentamos. Reportamos una serie de casos de 4 pacientes adolescentes que cursaron SIM-C y meses después han sido vacunados contra SARS-CoV-2 con plataformas ARN mensajero (ARNm) sin presentar recurrencia de la enfermedad ni efectos adversos cardiológicos


In most cases, children with SARS-CoV-2 have a mild infection. However, very rarely, some children may develop a severe disease called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children temporally associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C). Given its recent emergence, some aspects of its pathophysiology are still unknown. The possibility of recurrence in case of reinfection or SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are new questions we are facing. Here we report a case series of 4 adolescent patients who developed MIS-C and, months later, received the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine with messenger RNA (mRNA) platforms without disease recurrence or cardiac adverse events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2 , mRNA Vaccines/administration & dosage
6.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 56(1): 41-45, 20230401.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426685

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El virus Sars-cov2 es el causante de una enfermedad respiratoria, cuyo grado de severidad es variable, de formas sintomáticas leves a graves. Debido a que no se ha encontrado un tratamiento eficaz para hacerle frente a esta patología, se ha puesto el foco en la prevención mediante vacunas. Una población objetivo de la primera y segunda fase de vacunación a nivel país, fue el personal de salud, por lo que se realiza una encuesta para determinar qué tipo de patologías de base presentan, rango etario predominante, si presentaron algún efecto adverso, y cuántas dosis de inmunización recibieron. Objetivos: Describir el porcentaje de vacunación contra Sars-cov2 en el personal de salud, las enfermedades de base, efectos adversos presentados y describir los motivos por el que se evita la vacunación. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal mediante una encuesta en línea (Google Forms). En el cuestionario se registraron las siguientes variables: sexo, edad, profesión dentro del área de salud, departamento de residencia, enfermedad de base, dosis principales y de refuerzo recibidas, efectos adversos presentados, necesidad de atención médica posterior y razones por las que no se han aplicado todas las dosis. Resultados: La mayoría de los encuestados fueron parte del personal médico (85.4%), en su mayoría se encontraban entre los 20-29 años y los 40-49 años. El 48.6% no presenta patologías de base. El 96.3% de la población recibió 2 dosis de la vacuna para Sars-cov2. El 46.3% recibió 2 dosis de refuerzo. Discusión: La predisposición a completar el esquema fue más baja de lo esperado, siendo menor de la mitad. La predisposición para recibir la vacuna contra el COVID-19, en la población general fue de 52,02%. Cabe recalcar que el éxito de un programa de vacunación depende de la proporción de la población que desee vacunarse. Conclusión: La vacunación es un medio de prevención por lo que su promoción es un paso importante para evitar la enfermedad grave. Es necesario realizar una buena educación a toda la población sobre la eficacia, las dosis necesarias para obtener inmunidad, los efectos adversos y los motivos que deben retrasar la colocación de las dosis, porque, como se menciona anteriormente, el éxito de un programa de vacunación depende de la proporción de la población que desee vacunarse.


Introduction: The Sars-cov2 virus is the cause of a respiratory disease, whose degree of severity is variable, from mild to severe symptomatic forms. Since no effective treatment has been found to deal with this pathology, the focus has been on prevention through vaccination. A target population for the first and second phase of vaccination at the country level was health personnel. So a online survey is performed to determine what type of underlying pathologies they present, the age range predominance, the side effects displayed and how many doses they received. Objectives: Describe the percentage of vaccination against Sars-cov2 in health personnel, the underlying diseases, adverse effects and, to describe the reasons why vaccination is avoided. Materials and methods: A descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study is carried out using an online survey (Google Forms). The following variables were recorded in the questionnaire: sex, age, profession within the health area, department of residence, underlying disease, main and booster doses received, adverse effects presented, need for subsequent medical attention and reasons why they did not have been applied all the doses. Results: Most of the respondents were part of the medical staff (85.4%), the majority were between 20-29 years and 40-49 years. The 48.6% do not present basic pathologies. The 96.3% of the population received 2 doses of the Sars-cov2 vaccine. 46.3% received 2 booster doses. Discussion: The predisposition to complete the scheme was lower than expected, being less than a half. The predisposition to receive the COVID-19 vaccine in the general population was 52.02%. It should be emphasized that the success of a vaccination program depends on the proportion of the population that wishes to be vaccinated. Conclusion: Vaccination is a way of prevention, so its promotion is an important step to avoid a serious disease. It is necessary to give a good education to the entire population about the efficacy, the necessary doses to obtain immunity, the adverse effects and the reasons that should delay the doses, because, as mentioned above, the success of a vaccination program depends on the proportion of the population that wants to be vaccinated.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Immunization , Vaccination , Occupational Groups
7.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(2): 279-283, Mar.-Apr. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449807

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Shoulder pain is a common presentation in the primary care setting, and shoulder pain after vaccination has a growing body of literature. The present study sought to understand how a standardized treatment protocol would aid patients experiencing shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (SIRVA). Methods Patients experiencing SIRVA were retrospectively recruited between February 2017 and February 2021. All patients were treated with physical therapy and offered a cortisone injection. Post-treatment range of motion (i.e., forward elevation, external rotation, internal rotation) and patients' reported outcomes were collected with the visual analogue scale (VAS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), simple shoulder test (SST), and single assessment numeric evaluation (SANE) scores. Results A total of 9 patients were retrospectively examined. Among them, 6 patients presented within one month of a recent vaccination event, while 3 patients presented 67, 87, and 120 days after vaccination. Furthermore, 8 of the patients completed physical therapy, and 6 of them underwent a cortisone injection. The follow-up time averaged 8 months. At final follow-up, the mean external rotation was 61º (standard deviation, SD±3º) and the mean forward elevation was 179º (SD±45º). Internal rotation ranged between L3 and T10. The VAS pain scores were 3.5/10.0 (SD±2.4), the mean ASES score was 63.5/100.0 (SD±26.3), and the SST scores were 8.5/12.0 (SD±3.9). Finally, the SANE scores were 75.7/100.0 (SD±24.7) and 95.7/100.0 (SD±6.1) in the injured and contralateral shoulders respectively. Conclusion Shoulder pain after a vaccination treated with physical therapy and cortisone injection ultimately resulted in favorable shoulder range of motion and functional score outcomes. Level of Evidence IV


Resumo Objetivo A dor no ombro é um quadro comum na atenção primária e há cada vez mais relatos acerca de sua ocorrência após a vacinação. Este estudo buscou entender como um protocolo de tratamento padronizado ajudaria pacientes com lesão no ombro relacionada à administração de vacina (SIRVA). Métodos Os pacientes com SIRVA foram recrutados de forma retrospectiva entre fevereiro de 2017 e fevereiro de 2021. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à fisioterapia e receberam uma prescrição de cortisona injetável. A amplitude de movimento pós-tratamento (ou seja, elevação anterior, rotação externa, rotação interna) e os desfechos relatados pelo paciente foram analisados a partir das pontuações da escala visual análoga (EVA), da American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), do teste simples do ombro (SST) e da avaliação numérica única (SANE). Resultados No total, 9 pacientes foram examinados de maneira retrospectiva. Entre eles, 6 pacientes foram atendidos no primeiro mês após a vacinação e os outros três, depois de 67, 87 e 120 dias. Ademais, 8 dos pacientes fizeram todo o tratamento fisioterápico e 6 receberam uma injeção de cortisona. O período médio de acompanhamento foi de 8 meses. À última consulta, a rotação externa média foi de 61° (desvio padrão, DP±3°)ea elevação anterior média foi de 179° (DP ± 45°). A rotação interna variou entre L3 e T10. As pontuações de dor à EVA foram de 3,5/10,0 (DP ± 2,4) e o escore médio ASES foi de 63,5/100,0 (DP ± 26,3); as pontuações de SST foram 8,5/12,0 (DP ± 3,9). Por fim, os escores de SANE foram de 75,7/100,0 (DP ± 24,7) e 95,7/100,0 (DP ± 6,1) nos ombros lesionados e contralaterais, respectivamente. Conclusão A dor no ombro após a vacinação tratada com fisioterapia e injeção de cortisona melhorou a amplitude de movimento e os escores funcionais. Nível de Evidência IV


Subject(s)
Humans , Bursitis , Vaccination , Pain Management , Rotator Cuff Injuries , Shoulder Injuries
8.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(1): 358, abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1509730

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo es una revisión bibliográfica que compara la inmunidad anti-SARS-CoV-2 inducida por la infección natural y la inducida por vacunación, para entenderlas particularidades de la respuesta en cada caso, así como sus ventajas y desventajas. Se escogieron artículos que reportaran la medición de concentración de anticuerpos séricos, determinantes de inmunidad celular y/o evolución clínica de los pacientes. Se encontró que: A) Los pacientes recuperados de una infección por SARS-CoV-2 presentaron una respuesta mayor y más heterogénea de anticuerpos y células B de memoria que los pacientes vacunados, con un mayor número de linfocitos TCD4+, que cooperan con la diferenciación de linfocitos B y con la producción de anticuerpos neutralizantes. B) La vacunación previene la tormenta de citocinas asociada a la infección natural. C) Dos dosis de una vacuna basada en ARN mensajero logran una concentración de anticuerpos de clase IgG prácticamente igual a la de los pacientes severamente enfermos, pero sin el daño a los nódulos linfáticos asociado a la infección natural. D) Se puede aumentar el número de linfocitos B administrando dosis de refuerzo de la vacuna. Si bien, tanto la vacunación como la infección natural generan respuestas anti-SARS-CoV-2 significativas, la vacunación es el método más seguro para proteger a la población, pues evita el riesgo a la inmunopatología y a la mortalidad asociados con la infección natural. Más aún, la inmunidad híbrida (aquella que adquieren los pacientes que superaron la infección natural y fueron después vacunados) induce una producción de anticuerpos capaces de neutralizar por completo al SARS-CoV-2(AU)


This work is a bibliographic review that comparesanti-SARS-CoV-2 inmmune response induced by natural infección with that induced by vaccination, to understand theparticularities of each response, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Research articles that reported levels of antibodies in serum, determinants of cellular inmmunity and/or clinical evolution of patients were chosen. It was found that: A) Pacients previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 presented a larger and more heterogeneous response of antibodies and memory B cells than vaccined patients, with a larger number of CD4+T cells that cooperate with the differentiation of B cells and production of neutralizing antibodies. B) Vaccination prevents the cytokine storm associated with natural infection. C) Two doses of an mRNA vaccine induced an IgG concentration nearly equal to severe ill patients but without the damage to lymph nodes associated with natural infection. D) B cell levels can be increased by giving booster doses of the vaccine. Althought both vaccination and natural infection generate significant anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses, vaccination is the safest method to protect general population, because it avoids the risk of immunopathology and mortality associated with natural infection. Futhermore, hybrid immunity (thatadquired by patients who overcame the natural infection and were later vaccinated), induces production of antibodies capable of completely neutralizing SARS-CoV-2(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , B-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination
9.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 18(45): 3128, 20230212.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1427540

ABSTRACT

A vacinação/imunização de rotina é intrínseca à prática da Atenção Primária à Saúde em todo o Brasil. Nos últimos anos, o país vem enfrentando questões como a queda e a heterogeneidade da cobertura vacinal, motivadas por determinantes diversos, um deles a hesitação vacinal. Este artigo de perspectiva pretende oferecer às/aos profissionais da Atenção Primária à Saúde outro olhar sobre o fenômeno da hesitação vacinal, com lentes múltiplas e específicas ao contexto, que permitam compreendê-lo em sua complexidade.


Routine vaccination/immunization is intrinsic to the Primary Health Care practice throughout Brazil. For the past few years, the country has faced issues such as the fall and heterogeneity of vaccination uptake rates, motivated by different causes, one of which is vaccine hesitancy. This perspective article intends to offer Primary Health Care professionals another look at the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy, with multiple and context-specific lenses, which allow them to approach the theme and understand it in its complexity.


La vacunación/inmunización de rutina es intrínseca a la práctica de la Atención Primaria de Salud en todo Brasil. En los últimos años, el país ha venido enfrentando problemas como la caída y la heterogeneidad de las coberturas de vacunación, motivados por diferentes determinantes, una de ellas es la vacilación en la vacunación. Este artículo en perspectiva pretende ofrecer a los profesionales de Atención Primaria una mirada al fenómeno de la vacilación vacunal, con lentes múltiples y contextuales, que les permitan abordar el tema y comprenderlo en su complejidad.


Subject(s)
Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy , Primary Health Care , Immunization Programs , Health Policy
10.
San Salvador; MINSAL; feb. 20, 2023. 20 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1426052

ABSTRACT

La Dirección de Inmunizaciones, es una dirección especializada del Ministerio de Salud de El Salvador, que tiene asignada la rectoría de todos los aspectos relacionados a la vacunación e inmunización de la población salvadoreña. Esta Dirección es el resultado de una acción conjunta entre los países de la Región de las Américas y de organismos internacionales como la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), su interés es contribuir con acciones tendientes a lograr coberturas universales de vacunación, con el fin de disminuir las tasas de mortalidad y morbilidad causadas por las enfermedades inmunoprevenibles y está sujeta conforme a la Ley de Vacunas. En este sentido y para documentar la organización y funcionamiento de dicha Dirección, se ha elaborado el presente manual como un instrumento técnico normativo de gestión institucional, en el cual se integra la organización y funcionamiento de las diferentes dependencias que lo componen, se describen y establecen los objetivos generales y específicos, las relaciones de autoridad y dependencia de cada ambiente, así como las relaciones de trabajo internas y externas. Tiene el propósito de identificar con claridad las funciones de cada una de las áreas administrativas que la integran, evitar la duplicidad de funciones, conocer las líneas de comunicación y de mando; permitiendo así contar con un instrumento técnico administrativo integrado, que sirva de referencia y consulta a todo el personal laborando en la institución


The Immunization Directorate is a specialized department of the Ministry of Health of El Salvador, who is assigned the rectory of all aspects related to vaccination and immunization of the Salvadoran population. This Address is the result of an action collaboration between the countries of the Region of the Americas and international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), its interest is to contribute with actions aimed at achieving universal vaccination coverage, in order to reduce the rates of mortality and morbidity caused by vaccine preventable diseases and is subject to according to the Vaccination Law. In this sense and to document the organization and operation of said Directorate, has prepared this manual as a regulatory technical management instrument institution, which integrates the organization and operation of the different dependencies that compose it, describe and establish the general objectives and specific, the relationships of authority and dependency of each environment, as well as the internal and external working relationships. Its purpose is to clearly identify the functions of each of the areas that integrate it, avoid duplication of functions, know the lines of communication and command; thus allowing to have a technical administrative instrument integrated, that serves as a reference and consults all the personnel working in the institution


Subject(s)
Immunization , Manuals as Topic , Population , Vaccines , Vaccination , El Salvador , Vaccination Coverage
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(1): e202202648, feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1412875

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El Ministerio de Salud contempla vacunas específicas para personas con riesgo elevado de infecciones invasoras por bacterias capsuladas (BC). En la actualidad se desconoce el cumplimiento del programa. El objetivo fue evaluar el estado de vacunación para BC en ≤ 18 años con factores de riesgo. Población y métodos. Estudio observacional, analítico, mediante encuesta a padres de ≤ 18 años con VIH, asplenia y/o déficit de complemento que concurrieron al vacunatorio de un hospital pediátrico de octubre de 2020 a septiembre de 2021. Se recabaron datos sociodemográficos y clínicos. Se evaluó el estado de vacunación para BC: neumococo, meningococo y Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), calendario regular y antigripal. Se administró la escala de reticencia a la vacunación (ERV): rango 10-50. Se analizó la asociación entre las variables estudiadas y la vacunación para BC mediante regresión logística (OR, IC95%). Se utilizó la base datos REDCap® y STATA vs14®. Resultados. Participaron 104 sujetos, media 9,9 años (DE 4,4). Asplenia: 91,3 %, VIH: 7,6 % y déficit de complemento: 0,9 %. Nivel socioeconómico: pobreza relativa: 38,4 %, seguido por clase media: 37,5 %. Estado de vacunación completa para meningococo: 45 %, neumococo: 42 %, Hib: 97 %. El 77,9 % tenía al día el calendario regular y el 61,5 %, el antigripal. Media ERV: 41,9 (DE 3,2). No se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre las variables y el estado de vacunación para BC. Conclusiones. Un elevado porcentaje no tenía vacunación completa para BC, tampoco el calendario regular y antigripal. La confianza en la vacunación de los cuidadores fue elevada.


Introduction. The Ministry of Health has established specific vaccines for people at high risk for invasive infections with encapsulated bacteria (EB). There is currently no information about compliance with the vaccination schedule. Our objective was to assess EB vaccination status in subjects ≤ 18 years with risk factors. Population and methods. Observational, analytical study with a survey to parents of subjects aged ≤ 18 years with HIV, asplenia and/or complement deficiency attending a vaccination center at a children's hospital between October 2020 and September 2021. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Their vaccination status for the EB pneumococcus, meningococcus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), their regular vaccination and flu vaccination schedules were assessed. The vaccine hesitancy scale (VHS) was administered: range 10­50. The association between the study variables and EB vaccination was analyzed using logistic regression (OR, 95% CI). The REDCap® database and the STATA® v.14 software were used. Results. A total of 104 subjects participated; mean age: 9.9 years (SD: 4.4). Asplenia: 91.3%, HIV: 7.6%, and complement deficiency: 0.9%. Socioeconomic level: relative poverty: 38.4%, followed by middle class: 37.5%. Complete vaccination status: meningococcal vaccine 45%, pneumococcal vaccine: 42%, Hib: 97%. The regular vaccination and flu vaccination schedules were up-to-date in 77.9% and 61.5% of cases, respectively. Mean VHS score: 41.9 (SD: 3.2). No significant associations were observed between variables and EB vaccination status. Conclusions. A high percentage of subjects had not completed neither their EB vaccination nor their regular or their flu vaccination schedules. Caregivers' confidence in vaccines was high.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Haemophilus Vaccines , Haemophilus influenzae type b , Haemophilus Infections/prevention & control , Haemophilus Infections/epidemiology , Vaccination , Hospitals, Pediatric
12.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene, 05, 2023. 84 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1412602

ABSTRACT

La prevención y control de las enfermedades inmunoprevenibles, constituye uno de los elementos claves en la atención integral en salud, tendientes a disminuir las tasas de morbimortalidad en la población y grupos prioritarios de riesgo en El Salvador. Ante la necesidad apremiante de brindar alternativas esperanzadoras para el control de la mortalidad por dicha enfermedad, en nuestro país están por introducirse las vacunas que han mostrado la más alta eficacia, considerando los resultados prometedores de estudios existentes al momento. Este hecho, marca la necesidad, de diseñar los Lineamientos técnicos para la vacunación contra el SARS-CoV-2, a fin de establecer las disposiciones técnicas al personal de salud del Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud en los procesos de conservación, transporte y aplicación de la vacuna a la población objetivo


The prevention and control of immunopreventable diseases constitutes one of the key elements in comprehensive health care, tending to reduce morbidity and mortality rates in the population and priority risk groups in El Salvador. Given the pressing need to provide hopeful alternatives for the control of mortality from this disease, the vaccines that have shown the highest efficacy are about to be introduced in our country, considering the promising results of existing studies at the moment. This fact marks the need to design the Technical Guidelines for vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, in order to establish the technical provisions for health personnel of the National Integrated Health System in the processes of conservation, transport and application of the vaccine to the target population


Subject(s)
Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2 , Comprehensive Health Care , El Salvador
13.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Online) ; 12(1): 1-10, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1413422

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in China in 2019 and later ignited a global pandemic. Contrary to expectations, the effect of the pandemic was not as devastating to Africa and its young population compared to the rest of the world. To provide insight into the possible reasons for the presumed immune sufficiency to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Africa, this review critically examines literature published from 2020 onwards on the dynamics of COVID-19 infection and immunity and how other prevalent infectious diseases in Africa might have influenced the outcome of COVID-19. Studies characterising the immune response in patients with COVID-19 show that the correlates of protection in infected individuals are T-cell responses against the SARSCoV-2 spike protein and neutralising titres of immunoglobin G and immunoglobin A antibodies. In some other studies, substantial pre-existing T-cell reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in many people from diverse geographical locations without a history of exposure. Certain studies also suggest that innate immune memory, which offers protection against reinfection with the same or another pathogen, might influence the severity of COVID-19. In addition, an initial analysis of epidemiological data showed that COVID-19 cases were not severe in some countries that implemented universal Bacillus Calmette­Guerin (BCG) vaccination policies, thus supporting the potential of BCG vaccination to boost innate immunity. The high burden of infectious diseases and the extensive vaccination campaigns previously conducted in Africa could have induced specific and non-specific protective immunity to infectious pathogens in Africans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vaccination , Coronavirus , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes , Communicable Diseases , Pandemics , Immunity
14.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(1): 9-15, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1414325

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the twelfth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of worldwide cancer related death. Chronic hepatitis B infection, caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and exposure to aflatoxins is fundamental in the formation of HCC in developing countries. This review of scientific publications aims to establish the detrimental effects of aflatoxin-contaminated foods and highlights the correlation between aflatoxin and hepatitis B viral-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. Research has shown a significant increase in the occurrence of HCC in HBV-infected individuals exposed to fungal toxins. HBV demonstrates the ability to integrate and bind to p53 protein in the host DNA and propagate hepatocyte vulnerability through carcinogenic aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) damage. Although there has been clear evidence about the synergistic interaction of exposure to AFB1 and HBV infection in the induction of HCC, other literature has shown otherwise, mainly because incomplete and vague findings and hypotheses were made in regions where AFB1 and HBV pose a public health risk. Vaccination against hepatitis B and measures such as robust food safety systems to avoid hepatotoxicity and hepatocellular carcinogenesis induced by AFB1 is the most effective methods in the prevention of HCC induced by HBV and AFB1


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B virus , Vaccination , Aflatoxin B1 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Aflatoxins , Hepatitis
15.
Revue Africaine de Médecine et de Santé publique ; 6(1): 126-137, 2023. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1417204

ABSTRACT

La séroprévalence des anticorps anti hépatite A (correspondant au taux d'immunisation) était de 100% à Sétif (Algérie), chez les personnes âgées entre 10 et 14 ans en 1986. Elle est passée à 70,4% en 2011. Partant de ce fait, les auteurs se proposent de prévoir cette séroprévalence, dans la même wilaya en 2024, à travers le modèle 'Logit binaire multiple', sur la base des données d'une enquête réalisée en 2011. La séroprévalence globale chez les sujets âgés entre 5 et 19 ans serait, selon les résultats de ce modèle, de 67% en 2024; les principaux facteurs associés à cette séroprévalence seraient l'âge, l'habitat, la taille des ménageset l'antécédent d'ictère. En conséquence, un programme de vaccination pourrait s'imposer comme une nouvelle stratégie de lutte contre la maladie dans la wilaya de Sétif.


The seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A antibodies (corresponding to the immunization rate) was 100% in Sétif, in people aged between 10 and 14 years in 1986. It has declined to 70.4% in 2011. Starting from this fact, the authors propose to predict this seroprevalence, in the same wilaya (district) in 2024, through the 'multiple binary logit' model, based on data from a survey carried out in 2011. The overall seroprevalence in subjects aged between 5 and 19 years would be, according to the results of this model, 67% in 2024; the main factors associated with this seroprevalence would be age, habitat, household size and a history of jaundice. As a result, a vaccination program could establish itself as a new disease control strategy in Sétif.


Subject(s)
Seroepidemiologic Studies , Immunization , Vaccination , Hepatitis A Antibodies , Hepatitis A
16.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 732-735, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985465

ABSTRACT

This study followed up the immune memory after 3-dose revaccination among infants with non-and low-response following primary hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination. About 120 children without self-booster doses were finally included who had anti-HBs<10 mIU/ml (anti-HBs negative) at the time of follow-up, of whom 86 children completed blood sampling and anti-HBs testing. Before the challenge dose, all 86 children were negative for anti-HBs, and the GMC of anti-HBs was<10 mIU/ml. The seropositive conversion rate of anti-HBs was 100% and the GMC of anti-HBs was 886.11 (95%CI: 678.15-1 157.84) mIU/ml after the challenge dose. Compared with those with GMC<7 mIU/ml before the challenge dose, infants with GMC>7 mIU/ml had a higher anti-HBs level after the challenge dose. The β value (95%CI) was 0.82 (0.18-1.46) (P=0.012). Compared with those with GMC<1 000 mIU/ml at primary vaccination, infants with GMC≥1 000 mIU/ml had a higher anti-HBs level after the challenge dose. The β value (95%CI) was 0.78 (0.18-1.38)(P=0.012). The results showed a stronger immune memory was found at 9 years after revaccination among infants with non-and low-response to HepB.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Immunization, Secondary , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Immunologic Memory , Follow-Up Studies , Vaccination , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies
17.
Singapore medical journal ; : 294-301, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984212

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Cervical cancer has a high disease burden in Singapore, and it is strongly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Despite constant efforts to encourage vaccination, local HPV vaccine uptake remains low. Universal mass vaccination is a proven cost-effective method to reduce the cervical cancer disease burden. This paper reviews the newly implemented school-based HPV vaccination programme in Singapore and the factors that led to its success.@*METHODS@#Fully subsidised HPV vaccinations were offered to all Secondary 1 female students on an opt-in basis, starting as a rollout dose in 2019. One-time catchup vaccination was also offered to female students in Secondary 2-5. Eligible recipients were identified using enrolment data provided by Ministry of Education schools. A total of 19,144 students across 139 schools were offered the rollout dose, and 20,854 students across 140 schools were offered the catchup doses.@*RESULTS@#High vaccine uptake rates of 80.6%-87.3% were noted with the introduction of the school-based programme, translating to high vaccine coverage of 90.3%-93.4%. Only a small proportion of students (1.5%-1.9% per cohort) opted out. The rate of reported side effects, which were commonly known effects, was low at one in 1000. Among the students who reported side effects, those who received the second vaccine dose did so uneventfully.@*CONCLUSION@#High HPV vaccine coverage was achieved after implementation of the school-based immunisation programme. Timely assessment of knowledge lapses and targeted intervention, strong partnerships with stakeholders, constant on-site adaptation and positive social influence contributed to its success. This model can be applied to future school health programmes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Singapore , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Vaccination , Immunization Programs
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1157-1162, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985648

ABSTRACT

Influenza is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by influenza virus. Pregnancy is associated with physiologic and immunological changes that may increase the risk for influenza virus infection and influenza-related complications. Influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection. WHO and many countries have classified pregnant women as a priority population for influenza vaccination, however, there are still many challenges for promoting influenza vaccination in pregnant women in China, influenza vaccination coverage in pregnant women remains low and some influenza vaccine package inserts list pregnancy as an absolute contraindication. In this paper, we summarize the research progress in the effects of influenza infection and influenza vaccination during pregnancy both at home and abroad, then discuss the strategies to promote influenza vaccination in pregnancy for the purpose of providing reference for the related research and policy development in China.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Pregnant Women , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines , Vaccination , Orthomyxoviridae
19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 673-676, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985545

ABSTRACT

With the expansion of mpox virus infection from endemic to a global epidemic in 2022, the WHO declared that the mpox event constituted a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Due to the high degree of gene sequence similarity among orthopox viruses and cross-reactive antibodies induced by orthoviruses, smallpox vaccination may affect the immune response induced by mpox virus infection. The analysis of the protective effects of smallpox vaccination against mpox virus infection will help define the focus of prevention and control. In this review, we clarify the protection of the smallpox vaccine against mpox virus infection by analyzing the correlation between smallpox vaccination, immune response status, and clinical data and providing evidence for the prevention, control, and strategies of mpox epidemics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smallpox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Smallpox Vaccine/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Immunity
20.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 561-567, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985527

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the vaccination status of enterovirus type 71 (EV71) inactivated vaccines in China from 2017 to 2021 and provide evidence for making policy on immunization strategy against hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Methods: Using the reported dose number of EV71 vaccination and birth cohort population data collected by the China immunizaiton program information system to estimate the cumulative coverage of EV71 vaccine by the end of 2021 among the birth cohorts since 2012 at national, provincial, and prefecture levels, and analyze the correlation between the vaccination coverage and the potential influencing factors. Results: As of 2021, the estimated cumulative vaccination coverage of the EV71 vaccine was 24.96% in birth cohorts since 2012. The cumulative vaccination coverage was between 3.09% and 56.59% in different provinces, between 0 and 88.17% in different prefectures. There was a statistically significant correlation between vaccination coverage in different regions and the region's previous HFMD prevalence and disposable income per capita. Conclusions: Since 2017, the EV71 vaccines have been widely used nationwide, but the coverage of EV71 vaccination varies greatly among regions. Vaccination coverage is higher in relatively developed regions, and the intensity of previous epidemic of HFMD may have a certain impact on the acceptance of the vaccine and the pattern of immunization service. The impact of EV71 vaccination on the epidemic of HFMD requires further studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterovirus A, Human , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , Viral Vaccines , Enterovirus , Vaccination , China/epidemiology
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