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1.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene, 05, 2023. 84 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1412602

ABSTRACT

La prevención y control de las enfermedades inmunoprevenibles, constituye uno de los elementos claves en la atención integral en salud, tendientes a disminuir las tasas de morbimortalidad en la población y grupos prioritarios de riesgo en El Salvador. Ante la necesidad apremiante de brindar alternativas esperanzadoras para el control de la mortalidad por dicha enfermedad, en nuestro país están por introducirse las vacunas que han mostrado la más alta eficacia, considerando los resultados prometedores de estudios existentes al momento. Este hecho, marca la necesidad, de diseñar los Lineamientos técnicos para la vacunación contra el SARS-CoV-2, a fin de establecer las disposiciones técnicas al personal de salud del Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud en los procesos de conservación, transporte y aplicación de la vacuna a la población objetivo


The prevention and control of immunopreventable diseases constitutes one of the key elements in comprehensive health care, tending to reduce morbidity and mortality rates in the population and priority risk groups in El Salvador. Given the pressing need to provide hopeful alternatives for the control of mortality from this disease, the vaccines that have shown the highest efficacy are about to be introduced in our country, considering the promising results of existing studies at the moment. This fact marks the need to design the Technical Guidelines for vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, in order to establish the technical provisions for health personnel of the National Integrated Health System in the processes of conservation, transport and application of the vaccine to the target population


Subject(s)
Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2 , Comprehensive Health Care , El Salvador
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 288-300, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399048

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a taxa de cobertura vacinal da poliomielite em relação às metas de vacinação de 95% da população-alvo, estabelecidas pelo Ministério da Saúde, com base nos registros de imunização do DATASUS nos estados do Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul, que compõem a região sul do Brasil, e na cidade de Pato Branco, PR. Métodos: Estudo descritivo de abordagem quantitativa referente à cobertura vacinal da Poliomielite nos estados da região sul e no município de Pato Branco, PR com resultados da cobertura avaliados quanto ao alcance das metas estabelecidas pelo Ministério da Saúde e comparado o desempenho entre os estados e o município no período de 2009 a 2019. Os dados foram recolhidos da seção de Imunizações do DATASUS, o departamento de informática do Sistema Único de Saúde do Brasil. Resultados: No período analisado, o município de Pato Branco se manteve com uma taxa satisfatória em relação à meta estabelecida pelo Ministério da Saúde, exceto nos anos de 2017 e 2018, onde ficou abaixo da meta em cerca de 3% e 11%, respectivamente. Em relação aos estados do sul, o estado do Paraná mostrou-se abaixo da meta de cobertura vacinal recomendada na maioria dos anos estudados, com a menor cobertura ocorrendo em 2017, ficando 15% abaixo do esperado; o estado de Santa Catarina, apesar de apresentar queda desde o ano de 2014, apresentou os melhores índices de cobertura vacinal, com a maior taxa de queda de cobertura no ano de 2018 com cerca de 7%; e o estado do Rio Grande do Sul se apresentou como o estado com o pior desempenho na região, demonstrando quedas significativas da cobertura desde 2010, com menor taxa de vacinação em 2017, ficando 18% abaixo do esperado. Conclusões: Pode-se observar uma queda nos valores da cobertura vacinal entre os anos de 2009 a 2019, tanto no município de Pato Branco, PR, quanto nos estados do Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul, algo que é motivo de crescente preocupação pelos serviços de saúde do país devido à possibilidade de reintrodução da doença no território nacional. Ressalta-se, então, a necessidade de criação de estratégias eficazes para o combate das quedas das taxas de cobertura vacinal no país.


Objective: To analyze the rate of polio vaccination coverage in relation to the vaccination goals of 95% of the target population, set by the Ministry of Health, based on DATASUS immunization records in the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul, which make up the southern region of Brazil, and in the city of Pato Branco, PR. Methods: A descriptive study of quantitative approach regarding the vaccination coverage of Poliomyelitis in the states of the southern region and in the municipality of Pato Branco, PR with coverage results evaluated as to the achievement of the goals set by the Ministry of Health and compared performance between the states and the municipality in the period from 2009 to 2019. The data were collected from the Immunizations section of DATASUS, the computer department of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Results: In the period analyzed, the municipality of Pato Branco remained with a satisfactory rate in relation to the target set by the Ministry of Health, except in the years 2017 and 2018, where it was below the target by about 3% and 11%, respectively. Regarding the southern states, the state of Paraná showed below the recommended vaccine coverage target in most of the years studied, with the lowest coverage occurring in 2017, being 15% below expected; the state of Santa Catarina, despite showing a drop since the year 2014, showed the best rates of vaccine coverage, with the highest rate of drop in coverage in the year 2018 with about 7%; and the state of Rio Grande do Sul presented itself as the state with the worst performance in the region, showing significant drops in coverage since 2010, with the lowest rate of vaccination in 2017, being 18% below expectations. Conclusions: A drop in vaccination coverage values can be observed between the years 2009 and 2019, both in the municipality of Pato Branco, PR, and in the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul, something that is a cause of growing concern for the country's health services due to the possibility of reintroduction of the disease in the national territory. Therefore, the need to create effective strategies to combat the declines in vaccination coverage rates in the country is highlighted.


Objetivo: Analizar la tasa de cobertura de vacunación antipoliomielítica en relación con las metas de vacunación del 95% de la población objetivo, establecidas por el Ministerio de Salud, a partir de los registros de inmunización DATASUS en los estados de Paraná, Santa Catarina y Rio Grande do Sul, que conforman la región sur de Brasil, y en la ciudad de Pato Branco, PR. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de abordaje cuantitativo referente a la cobertura vacunal de la Poliomielitis en los estados de la región sur y en el municipio de Pato Branco, PR con resultados de la cobertura evaluados en cuanto al alcance de las metas establecidas por el Ministerio de Salud y comparado el rendimiento entre los estados y el municipio en el período de 2009 a 2019. Los datos se recogieron de la sección de Inmunizaciones de DATASUS, el departamento de informática del Sistema Único de Salud de Brasil. Resultados: En el período analizado, el municipio de Pato Branco se mantuvo con una tasa satisfactoria en relación a la meta establecida por el Ministerio de Salud, excepto en los años 2017 y 2018, donde estuvo por debajo de la meta en cerca de 3% y 11%, respectivamente. En lo que respecta a los estados del sur, el estado de Paraná se mostró por debajo de la meta de cobertura vacunal recomendada en la mayoría de los años estudiados, siendo la cobertura más baja la que se produjo en el año 2017, estando un 15% por debajo de lo esperado; el estado de Santa Catarina, a pesar de mostrar una caída desde el año 2014, mostró los mejores índices de cobertura vacunal, siendo la mayor tasa de caída de la cobertura en el año 2018 con cerca de un 7%; y el estado de Río Grande do Sul se presentó como el estado con peor desempeño en la región, demostrando caídas significativas en la cobertura desde 2010, con la tasa de vacunación más baja en 2017, siendo un 18% por debajo de lo esperado. Conclusiones: Se observa una caída en los valores de las coberturas de vacunación entre los años 2009 y 2019, tanto en el municipio de Pato Branco, PR, como en los estados de Paraná, Santa Catarina y Rio Grande do Sul, algo que es motivo de creciente preocupación para los servicios de salud del país debido a la posibilidad de reintroducción de la enfermedad en el territorio nacional. Por lo tanto, se destaca la necesidad de crear estrategias eficaces para combatir el descenso de las tasas de cobertura de vacunación en el país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/supply & distribution , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Unified Health System , Immunization/statistics & numerical data , Health Strategies , Quality Indicators, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Health Services
3.
San Salvador; MINSAL; oct. 25, 2022. 20 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1402330

ABSTRACT

La vacunación constituye una estrategia de prevención primaria costo efectivo de gran impacto en muchas enfermedades a lo largo de la historia. La vacuna para la viruela símica fue aprobada por la FDA en 2019 para la prevención de la enfermedad de la viruela símica en adultos desde los 18 años de edad. Los presentes lineamientos establecen orientaciones para la vacunación contra la viruela símica, basada en las recomendaciones dadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y estará sujeto a actualizaciones acorde a la nueva evidencia que se vaya generando


Vaccination is a cost-effective primary prevention strategy with great impact on many diseases throughout history. The monkeypox vaccine was approved by the FDA in 2019 for the prevention of monkeypox disease in adults 18 years and older. These guidelines establish guidelines for vaccination against monkeypox, based on the recommendations given by the World Health Organization, and will be subject to updates according to new evidence that is generated


Subject(s)
Vaccination , Monkeypox , Vaccines , El Salvador
6.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 25-31, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380296

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El personal de salud constituye un grupo de riesgo para la infección por el virus de las hepatitis B. Objetivos: Evaluar la frecuencia de vacunación contra Hepatitis B en profesionales médicos y de enfermería de tres grandes centros hospitalarios del Departamento Central de Paraguay. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal. Se aplicó un cuestionario al personal médico y de enfermería en estudio, elaborado según trabajos afines. Resultados: Fueron encuestadas 1097 personas, siendo médicos 412 (37.6%) yersonal de enfermería 685 (62.4%). Se encontró un nivel de vacunación completa del 48.2% sobre el total de encuestados, 49.5% de los varones presentaron esquema completo y 47.7% de las mujeres. Según la profesión, el personal de enfermería tiene mejor acatamiento con 51% de vacunación completa contra 47% del personal médico. En el Hospital Central del Instituto de Previsión Social, casi un 62% tenía esquema completo, el Hospital de Clínicas alcanzó 40.9% y solamente 36.6% de los encuestados del Hospital Nacional de Itauguá tenían todas las dosis de vacuna anti-Hepatitis B. Para riesgo biológico bajo, el nivel de vacunación completa fue del 36.0%, alcanzó el 36.8% para riesgo moderado y 57.3% para los de alto riesgo de exposición. Conclusión: Ante la baja prevalencia de vacunación completa contra Hepatitis B en el personal de salud, esta debe mejorarse considerando el riesgo biológico de exposición. El equipo de control de infecciones y el Departamento de salud laboral deben llevar un registro de vacunación del personal y tener un plan de inmunizaciones obligatorio.


Introduction: Health care personnel constitute a risk group for hepatitis B virus infection. Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of vaccination against Hepatitis B in medical and nursing professionals of three large hospital centers in the Central Department of Paraguay. Materials and methods: Quantitative, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was administered to medical and nursing personnel included in the study, based on related studies. Results: A total of 1097 people were surveyed, 412 (37.6%) were physicians and 685 (62.4%) were nurses. In general, a complete vaccination level of 48.2% of the total respondents was reached, 49.5% of men had a complete vaccination schedule and 47.7% of women. According to profession, the nursing staff had a better compliance with complete vaccination with 51% versus 47% of the medical staff. In the Hospital Central del Instituto de Previsión Social almost 62% had a complete schedule, the Hospital de Clínicas reached 40.9% and only 36.6% of the respondents of the Hospital Nacional de Itauguá had all the doses of anti-Hepatitis B vaccine. For low biological risk, the level of complete vaccination was 36.0%, reaching 36.8% for moderate risk and 57.3% for those at high risk of exposure. Conclusion: The level of complete vaccination against Hepatitis B in health personnel was low and should be improved, taking into account the biological risk of exposure. The infection control team and the occupational health department should keep a record of staff vaccination and have a mandatory immunization plan for it.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepatitis Viruses , Occupational Health , Immunization , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Hepatitis B Vaccines
7.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 23 ago. 2022. 9 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1391037

ABSTRACT

A vacinação é a principal ferramenta de prevenção primária de doenças e uma das medidas mais bem-sucedidas em saúde pública, com melhor custo-efetividade (ABBAS et al , 2006; WHO, 2021a). Além disso, a imunização evita incapacidades e cerca de 2 a 3 milhões de mortes, em todo o mundo, a cada ano (UE, 2020; PAHO, 2022; WATSON et al., 2022). Não obstante os esforços implementados por organizações internacionais e locais, dados da OMS apontam que a cobertura vacinal global caiu de 86% em 2019 para 81% em 2021, o que significa que cerca de 25 milhões de crianças menores de 1 ano não receberam as vacinas básicas (WHO, 2021a). Já no Brasil (Figura 1), a cobertura manteve-se estável de 1999 a 2015 e em contrapartida, em 2016 e no último triênio, apresenta tendência de queda (BRASIL, 2022b). Diante dessa realidade, objetivou-se investigar as estratégias utilizadas para ampliar a vacinação, e assim, subsidiar a formulação e tomada de decisão em políticas públicas para mitigar a baixa cobertura vacinal


Vaccination is the main tool for primary disease prevention and one of the most successful and cost-effective public health measures (ABBAS et al , 2006; WHO, 2021a). In addition, immunization prevents disability and an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths worldwide each year (EU, 2020; PAHO, 2022; WATSON et al., 2022). Notwithstanding the efforts implemented by international and local organizations, WHO data indicate that global vaccination coverage dropped from 86% in 2019 to 81% in 2021, which means that about 25 million children under 1 year of age do not received the basic vaccines (WHO, 2021a). In Brazil (Figure 1), coverage remained stable from 1999 to 2015 and, on the other hand, in 2016 and in the last three years, it shows a downward trend (BRASIL, 2022b). Faced with this reality, the objective was to investigate the strategies used to expand vaccination, and thus subsidize the formulation and decision-making in public policies to mitigate the low vaccination coverage


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/trends , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/history , Vaccination Coverage/trends
8.
San Salvador; MINSAL; jul. 29, 2022. 82 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1392936

ABSTRACT

Ante la necesidad apremiante de brindar alternativas esperanzadoras para el control de la mortalidad por la enfermedad del SARS-Cov-2, en nuestro país están por introducirse las vacunas que han mostrado la más alta eficacia, considerando los resultados prometedores de estudios existentes al momento. Este hecho marca la necesidad de diseñar los Lineamientos técnicos para la vacunación contra el SARS-CoV-2, a fin de establecer las disposiciones técnicas al personal de salud del Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud en los procesos de conservación, transporte y aplicación de la vacuna a la población objetivo


Given the pressing need to provide hopeful alternatives for the control of mortality from SARS-Cov-2 disease, the vaccines that have shown the highest efficacy are about to be introduced in our country, considering the promising results of existing studies at the moment. This fact marks the need to design the Technical Guidelines for vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, in order to establish the technical provisions for health personnel of the National Integrated Health System in the processes of conservation, transport and application of the vaccine. to the target population


Subject(s)
Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2 , Population , Vaccines , Efficacy , El Salvador
9.
Más Vita ; 4(2): 244-256, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392269

ABSTRACT

El rol de enfermería en el proceso de vacunación contra el SARS-CoV-2 ha sido fundamental para el registro, control y gestión de estas inmunizaciones en los tiempos propuestos por los gobiernos locales. Objetivo: analizar las experiencias de los estudiantes de Enfermería en el proceso de vacunación para el SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos: fue una investigación cuantitativa, descriptiva, transversal que incluyó a un total de 36 estudiantes de la carrera de enfermería de la Universidad Técnica de Ambato a quienes previa firma de un consentimiento informado se les aplicó una encuesta de 15 preguntas cerradas a través de Google Forms para conocer las expectativas, conocimientos, destrezas y experiencias en el proceso de vacunación así como para detectar las principales necesidades de aprendizaje y desempeño práctico. Resultados: el 94% de los estudiantes estuvo de acuerdo con participar en el plan de vacunación, la principal motivación (64,7%) fue adquirir mayores destrezas y conocimientos sobre esta nueva inmunización lo que se logró en el 92% de los estudiantes quienes catalogaron a la experiencia como positiva en su formación profesional, sin embrago, el manejo del sistema de salud pública fue un inconveniente en este proceso y representó la principal necesidad de formación. Conclusión: La mayoría de estudiantes de enfermería tuvieron los suficientes conocimientos, destrezas y experiencias para participar del proceso de vacunación para el SARS-CoV-2 porque dentro de su malla curricular se contempla ampliamente el uso de inmunizaciones en todo tipo de edad, pero en virtud de que el COVID-19 es relativamente nuevo implicó recibir una capacitación sobre preparación, efectos adversos y monitorización con lo cual los estudiantes estuvieron preparados para participar activamente del plan de vacunación(AU)


The role of nursing in the vaccination process against SARS-CoV-2 has been essential for the registration, control and management of these immunizations in the times proposed by local governments. Objective: to analyze the experiences of Nursing students in the vaccination process for SARS-CoV-2. Materials and methods: it was a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional research that included a total of 36 nursing students at the Technical University of Ambato, to whom, after signing an informed consent, a survey of 15 closed questions was applied through of Google Forms to know the expectations, knowledge, skills and experiences in the vaccination process as well as to detect the main learning needs and practical performance. Results: 94% of the students agreed to participate in the vaccination plan, the main motivation (64.7%) was to acquire greater skills and knowledge about this new immunization, which was achieved in 92% of the students who They classified the experience as positive in their professional training, however, the management of the public health system was an inconvenience in this process and represented the main need for training. Conclusion: The majority of nursing students had sufficient knowledge, skills and experiences to participate in the vaccination process for SARS-CoV-2 because the use of immunizations at all ages is widely contemplated within their curriculum, but in Due to the fact that COVID-19 is relatively new, it involved receiving training on preparation, adverse effects, and monitoring, with which the students were prepared to actively participate in the vaccination plan(AU)


Subject(s)
Students, Nursing , Immunization , Vaccination , Education, Nursing , SARS-CoV-2 , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Professional Training , COVID-19
11.
San Salvador; MINSAL; jun. 20, 2022. 43 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1392901

ABSTRACT

Los casos de rabia en animales no se registran en nuestro país desde el año 2018, pero es importante que el MINSAL continúe ejecutando acciones de promoción de salud y prevención de la enfermedad para lo cual contamos con documentación regulatoria relacionadas con la realización de las campañas de vacunación felina y canina con la participación intersectorial para mantener los logros alcanzados de cero casos de rabia en humanos en los últimos 13 años. Los presentes lineamientos técnicos establecen las directrices para que el abordaje integral al paciente expuesto al virus de la rabia, vigilancia epidemiológica y medida de prevención y control en los animales causantes de la exposición, para disminuir el riesgo de transmisión de rabia en la población


Cases of rabies in animals have not been registered in our country since 2018, but it is important that MINSAL continues to carry out health promotion and disease prevention actions, for which we have regulatory documentation related to carrying out rabies campaigns. feline and canine vaccination with intersectoral participation to maintain the achievements of zero cases of rabies in humans in the last 13 years. These technical guidelines establish the guidelines for a comprehensive approach to the patient exposed to the rabies virus, epidemiological surveillance and prevention and control measures in the animals causing the exposure, to reduce the risk of rabies transmission in the population


Subject(s)
Rabies , Disease , Disease Prevention , Population , Rabies virus , Vaccination , El Salvador
12.
Más Vita ; 4(2): 50-63, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392069

ABSTRACT

La percepción de padres ante los programas de vacunación de los niños para la prevención de enfermedades, así como las campañas de información y conocimiento sobre las vacunas, motiva el interés científico por conocer y evaluar los factores relacionados al grado de conocimiento, aptitudes y fuentes de información de la población sobre las vacunas, siendo la inmunización un método que permite adquirir inmunidad contra las enfermedades comunes y mortales y reduce gastos por tratamientos para la mejoría de la salud. Objetivo: Describir la percepción de los padres sobre la vacunación infantil. Metodología: Investigación cualitativa, a través del estudio de revisión de contenido relacionado con el descriptor vacunación, donde se recopila la información de interés según su aparición en la búsqueda. El estudio está basado en el paradigma positivista con observación y registro de información relevante con el tema. Resultados: La falta de información sobre los riesgos y beneficios de la vacunación es un factor que induce a la desconfianza e inseguridad respecto a las vacunas; gran parte de los padres considera útil la vacuna, necesaria y beneficiosa pero prevalece la idea que la inmunización puede ser algo peligroso y con efectos indeseables y secuelas graves por información mediática no bién conducida. Conclusiones: Diversos estudios señalan factores que impiden que los padres de los niños cumplan con los esquemas de vacunación, entre estos la falta de información y conocimiento sobre las vacunas, que evitan las enfermedades en los menores reforzando el sistema inmunológico, así como, otra de las razones es la falta de vacunas en los centros asistenciales, que genera desinterés y dificulta el cumplimiento de los programas de vacunación, además, servicios lentos y poca empatía del personal que presta atención en los centros de salud aumentan la percepción negativa sobre la vacunación(AU)


The perception of parents regarding the vaccination programs for children for the prevention of diseases, as well as the information and knowledge campaigns about vaccines, motivates the scientific interest in knowing and evaluating the factors related to the degree of knowledge, aptitudes and sources of information for the population about vaccines, immunization being a method that allows acquiring immunity against common and deadly diseases and reduces expenses for treatments to improve health. Objective: To describe the perception of parents about childhood vaccination. Materials and Methods Qualitative research, through a content review study related to the vaccination descriptor, where the information of interest is compiled according to its appearance in the search. The study is based on the positivist paradigm with observation and recording of information relevant to the subject. Results: The lack of information about the risks and benefits of vaccination is a factor that induces mistrust and insecurity regarding vaccines; A large part of the parents considers the vaccine useful, necessary and beneficial, but the idea prevails that immunization can be something dangerous and with undesirable effects and serious sequelae due to misguided media information. Conclusnios: Various studies point to factors that prevent parents of children from complying with vaccination schedules, including lack of information and knowledge about vaccines, which prevent diseases in minors by strengthening the immune system, as well as another of The reasons are the lack of vaccines in health centers, which generates disinterest and makes it difficult to comply with vaccination programs, in addition, slow services and little empathy of the personnel who provide care in health centers increase the negative perception about vaccination(AU)


Subject(s)
Parents , Perception , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination , Health Centers , Disease , Disease Prevention
13.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(2): 251-255, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400205

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 é a enfermidade causada pelo SARS-CoV-2, descrita em 2019, em Wuhan. Desde então, causou a morte de milhões de pessoas. A doença caracteriza-se entre sintomas gripais e gastrointestinais, podendo evoluir com gravidade. A importância de compreender como melhorar a eficácia da vacinação levou à investigação de fatores que podem influenciar a resposta imune. A prática de exercícios foi identificada como um fator que pode melhorar a função imunológica e, portanto, ser um potencial adjuvante para respostas imunes. O treinamento crônico, ou altos níveis de atividade física durante um período prolongado (mês/ anos) e, separadamente, o exercício agudo ­ a realização de uma única sessão de exercício (minutos/horas), são dois segmentos relacionados à resposta imunológica ao exercício físico. O exercício agudo é conhecido por gerar efeitos de curto prazo sobre o sistema imune, mas parecem existir efeitos contrastantes entre sessões de exercícios moderados e exercícios prolongados. Na ausência de uma medicação profilática ou tratamento efetivo, a existência de vacinas e associação com a prática de exercícios, particularmente em populações em risco de disfunção imunológica, como idosos, deve ser estimulada. Assim, nesta revisão os autores buscam dissertar e hipotetizar sobre os efeitos do exercício nas respostas à vacinação. Enfim, a prática de exercícios se apresenta como adjuvante dos efeitos imunológicos sobre a vacinação, todavia, com o andamento da vacinação global para SARS-CoV-2, serão necessários estudos com acompanhamento regular para que possamos avaliar a correlação entre a atividade física e a resposta imunológica a estes imunizantes.


COVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which was first described in Wuhan in 2019. Since then, it has caused the death of millions of people. COVID-19 is characterized by flulike and gastrointestinal symptoms and may become severe. The importance of understanding how to improve vaccination effectiveness has led to the investigation of factors that may influence immune response. Exercise has been associated with improved immune function and, therefore, may be a potential adjuvant to vaccine-induced immune responses. Chronic training (high levels of physical activity over a prolonged period [months/ years]) or acute exercise alone (engaging in a single exercise session [minutes/hours)] are two segments related to the immune response to physical exercise. Acute exercise is known to have short-term effects on the immune system, but there seems to be contrasting effects between moderate exercise sessions and prolonged exercise. In the absence of prophylactic medication or effective treatment, vaccination plus exercise, particularly in populations at risk for immune dysfunction such as older adults, should be encouraged. Thus, in this review, we aimed to discuss and hypothesize the effects of exercise on vaccination responses. Exercise is presented as an adjuvant to improve the immunological effects of vaccination; however, as the COVID-19 vaccination advances worldwide, studies with regular monitoring will be necessary to evaluate the correlation between physical activity and the immune response to these vaccines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Immunity , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Risk Factors , Allergy and Immunology , Immune System
16.
San Salvador; MINSAL; abr. 04, 2022. 97 p. ilus, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1368027

ABSTRACT

El presente documento esta elaborado con el fin de facilitar herramientas para el cumplimiento y estandarización de los lineamientos en relación a la vacunación segura en tres aspectos fundamentales: seguridad de la persona que recibe la vacuna, del personal de salud, comunidad y medio ambiente


This document is prepared in order to provide tools for the compliance and standardization of the guidelines in relation to safe vaccination in three fundamental aspects: safety of the person receiving the vaccine, of the health personnel, community and environment


Subject(s)
Immunization , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Safety , Vaccines
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(3): 969-978, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364705

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o impacto da pandemia de COVID-19 nos valores de vacinação para as imunizações voltadas a indivíduos com menos de um ano de vida no Brasil. Analisou-se os valores de cobertura vacinal, em território nacional, de dez vacinas presentes no calendário do Programa Nacional de Imunizações (PNI) durante os últimos oito anos (2013-2020). Esse é um estudo ecológico e todos os dados foram extraídos do PNI. Comparativamente aos anos prévios, em 2020 registrou-se o menor valor de cobertura vacinal da média do conjunto das vacinas estudadas, 75,07%, enquanto em 2019 esse mesmo índice ficou em 84,44%, resultando em uma queda de 11,10% entre esses dois períodos. Além disso, no ano da pandemia, das dez vacinas analisadas, nove registraram o seu menor valor histórico de cobertura, todas estando a no mínimo 14 pontos percentuais abaixo da meta do Ministério da Saúde. Embora já houvesse uma tendência de queda na cobertura vacinal, por diversos motivos, o presente estudo demonstra que os valores registrados em 2020 foram significativamente menores, fenômeno também registrado em outros países. Portanto, mesmo não conseguindo afirmar que a pandemia de COVID-19 e as medidas de distanciamento sejam as causas da queda dos valores de imunização, podemos inferir que há uma associação.


Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the vaccination numbers for immunization geared toward individuals under 12 months of age in Brazil. This study analyzed the numbers of the nationwide vaccination coverage of ten vaccines present in the calendar from the National Immunization Program (NIP) over the past eight years (2013-2020). This is an ecological study, and all data were taken from the NIP. In comparison to the previous years, 2020 recorded the lowest figures of vaccination coverage (VC) of the average of the group of studied vaccines - 79.07% - while in 2019, this same index was 84.44%, resulting in a drop of 11.10% between these two periods. Moreover, during the year of the pandemic, of the ten analyzed vaccines, nine recorded their lowest historical VC figures, all of which were at least 14 percentage points below the goals set by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS, in Portuguese). Although there had already been a tendency toward a decline in VC, for various reasons, the present study illustrates that the numbers recorded in 2020 were significantly lower, a phenomenon also reported in other countries. Therefore, although it is impossible to affirm that the COVID-19 pandemic and its distancing measures are the causes for the drop in the immunization numbers, it can be inferred that there is indeed an association.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vaccination , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage
18.
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(1): 104-119, jan.-mar. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366548

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo busca analisar postagens na rede social digital Twitter que contêm os termos 'HIV/aids' e 'covid-19' publicadas em abril de 2021, quando o Ministério da Saúde amplia a vacinação contra a covid-19 para pessoas com HIV/aids. Nosso objetivo foi o de comparar os dois acontecimentos epidemiológicos do país, evidenciar paralelos, subjetividades e lições a partir do corpus. Para tanto, optamos por um método quantiqualitativo de análise de redes semânticas baseada na coleta de conteúdos digitais, identificandose os pares ou o conjunto de palavras que mais se conectam, formando redes de significações análogas, denominadas clusters. Como resultado, identificamos a polarização político-partidária dos comentários sobre covid-19 e HIV/aids no Twitter, a reemergência dos estigmas associados a grupos específicos, como de homossexuais e asiáticos, o espalhamento em larga escala de desinformação sobre as duas doenças, revelando um campo de tensões e de disputas narrativas e midiáticas como ferramenta 'necropolítica'.


This article seeks to analyze posts on the digital social network Twitter containing the terms 'HIV/aids' and 'covid-19' published in April 2021, when the Ministry of Health expands vaccination against covid-19 for people with HIV/aids. Our objective was to compare the two epidemiological events in the country, highlighting parallels, subjectivities and lessons from the corpus. In order to do that, we chose a quanti-qualitative method of analysis of semantic networks based on the collection of digital content, identifying the pairs or sets of words that most connect, forming networks of analogous meanings, called clusters. As a result, we identified the political-partisan polarization of comments on covid-19 and HIV/aids on Twitter, the re-emergence of stigmas associated with specific groups, such as homosexuals and Asians, the largescale spread of misinformation about the two diseases, revealing a field of tensions and narrative and media disputes as a 'necropolitical' tool.


Este artículo busca analizar publicaciones em la red social digital Twitter que contienen los términos 'VIH/sida' y 'covid-19' publicados en abril de 2021, cuando el Ministerio de Salud amplía la vacunación contra covid-19 para personas con VIH/sida. Nuestro objetivo fue comparar los dos eventos epidemiológicos en el país, destacando paralelos, subjetividades y lecciones del corpus. Por ello, optamos por un método cuanticualitativo de análisis de redes semánticas basado en la recolección de contenido digital, identificando los pares o conjuntos de palabras que más conectan, formando redes de significados análogos, llamados clusters. Como resultado, identificamos la polarización político-partidista de los comentarios sobre el covid-19 y el VIH/sida en Twitter, el resurgimiento de estigmas asociados con grupos específicos, como los homosexuales y los asiáticos, la difusión a gran escala de información errónea sobre las dos enfermedades, revelando un campo de tensiones y disputas narrativas y mediáticas como herramienta 'necropolítica'.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , Communication , Social Media , Semantic Web , COVID-19/immunology , Vaccination , Access to Information , Social Discrimination
20.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e189113, fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363104

ABSTRACT

Animal shelters are places with a high risk of exposure to infectious diseases due to the high density, population dynamics of the shelter, and the stress to which dogs and cats are subjected. The immunization process through vaccines is an essential component in the prevention and health and welfare management program for these animals. This review aims to evaluate the guidelines on vaccination of dogs and cats in shelter environments, highlighting points of comparison with the Brazilian reality.(AU)


Os abrigos de animais são locais com um alto risco de exposição às doenças infecciosas devido à alta densidade, à dinâmica populacional do abrigo e ao estresse a que os cães e gatos estão submetidos. O processo de imunização por meio das vacinas é um componente essencial no programa de prevenção e gestão de saúde e bem-estar para esses animais. Esta revisão tem como objetivo revisar as diretrizes sobre a vacinação de cães e gatos em ambientes de abrigos, ressaltando pontos de comparação com a realidade brasileira.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunization/veterinary , Vaccination/veterinary , Disease Prevention , Housing, Animal
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