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5.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 270-279, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223742

ABSTRACT

El recién nacido de pretérmino (RNPT), especialmente el menor de 32 semanas de edad gestacional, presenta un mayor riesgo de adquirir infecciones y que estas sean de curso más grave respecto a los recién nacidos de término (RNT), debido, entre otros factores a una inmadurez de varios componentes del sistema inmune. Muchas de estas infecciones son inmunoprevenibles por vacunas disponibles en nuestro medio y la recomendación actual es vacunar a los lactantes nacidos de pretérmino o bajo peso, salvo pocas excepciones, con todas las vacunas rutinariamente recomendadas según su edad cronológica al igual que un RNT. Sin embrago, en muchas oportunidades se observa un retraso en los calendarios de inmunización de estos lactantes principalmente por las aprehensiones respecto a la inmunogenicidad y seguridad de las vacunas en esta población. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar la evidencia disponible respecto a la eficacia y seguridad de las vacunas habitualmente utilizadas en lactantes, enfocados en los RNPT.


Preterm infants, especially those born with less than 32 weeks of gestational age, have a higher risk of acquiring serious infections compared to term infants due among other factors, to a decrease in several components of the immune system. Many of these infections are immunopreventable by vaccines available in our country. The current recommendation is to vaccinate all preterm or low weight born infants with few exceptions, using vaccines routinely recommended according to their chronological age just as term infants. However, on many occasions there is a delay in the immunization schedules of these infants mainly due to the apprehensions regarding the immunogenicity and safety of vaccines in this population. The aim of this article is to review the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of vaccines commonly used in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature/immunology , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Communicable Disease Control , Vaccination/methods , Safety , Immunization Schedule , Immunization/methods
6.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 280-286, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223750

ABSTRACT

Las vacunas han sido una de las herramientas más útiles para lograr disminuir la mortalidad infantil. Sin embargo, los beneficios de las vacunas para menores de un año son dispares, debido a que son muy pequeños para ser vacunados. Otro grupo vulnerable son las embarazadas, quienes presentan mayor morbimortalidad por enfermedades como la influenza. La inmunización materna puede proteger a la madre contra las infecciones prevenibles por vacuna y al recién nacido mediante el traspaso de anticuerpos específicos al feto. No hay evidencia de resultados adversos en el embarazo o el feto/recién nacido por la vacunación de mujeres gestantes con vacuna inactivada contra virus, bacterias o toxoides. Por lo tanto, el embarazo no debe impedir que las mujeres reciban las vacunas que están médicamente indicadas. En Chile, se recomienda la vacunación de las mujeres gestantes, antes o durante la temporada de influenza. A fines de 2017 se implementó la vacunación con dTpa de las embarazadas con más de 28 semanas de gestación, con el objetivo de proteger al recién nacido contra el coqueluche y sus complicaciones. En el presente artículo, se hace una revisión de la literatura disponible sobre la vacunación de las embarazadas, principalmente enfocado en inmunización contra la influenza, el coqueluche y los beneficios en sus hijos.


Vaccines have been one of the most useful tools to reduce infant mortality. However, the benefits of vaccines for children under one year are disparate, because they are too small to be vaccinated. Another vulnerable group are pregnant women, who have a higher morbidity and mortality due to diseases such as influenza. Maternal immunization can protect the mother against vaccine-preventable infections and the newborn by transferring specific antibodies to the fetus. There is no evidence of adverse outcomes in pregnancy or the fetus / newborn by vaccination of pregnant women with inactivated vaccine against viruses, bacteria or toxoids. Therefore, pregnancy should not prevent women from receiving vaccines that are medically indicated. In Chile, vaccination is recommended for pregnant women, before or during the influenza season. In addition to the end of 2017, vaccination with Tdap of pregnant women with more than 28 weeks of gestation was implemented, with the aim of protecting the newly born against pertussis and its complications. In this article, we review the available literature on the vaccination of pregnant women, mainly focused on immunization against influenza, pertussis and benefits in their children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/methods , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Immunization/methods , Influenza, Human/prevention & control
7.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 287-303, mayo.-ago. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223751

ABSTRACT

La vacunación es la medida preventiva más costo-efectiva para evitar las enfermedades infecciosas inmunoprevenibles, a nivel individual y comunitario. Los riesgos biológicos laborales, deben ser manejados en un sistema de gestión del riesgo, donde la vacuna es el elemento clave de protección personal (EPP) específico cuya provisión y uso obligatorio tiene normas legislativas referidas a la entrega por el empleador, la capacitación en la prevención y el uso por el trabajador. En Chile, hay 8.364.282 trabajadores según datos de Superintendencia de Seguridad Social (SUSESO). La Ley 16.744 y sus Decretos Supremos (DS) indican las condiciones que se deben mantener en los lugares de trabajo y el derecho a saber por parte del trabajador; también existen circulares del Ministerio de Salud que incluyen situaciones y grupos especiales laborales a vacunar, pero es necesaria una normativa que oriente a trabajadores dependientes e independientes y a empleadores sobre qué vacunas colocar, en qué situaciones y a quiénes dependiendo de la actividad laboral. En este artículo, hacemos una reseña de la situación legal, de recomendaciones en otros países y enumeramos algunas vacunas que podrían implementarse en la población expuesta a riesgo.


Vaccination is the most cost-effective measure for immune-preventable infectious diseases, at individual and community level. Biological occupational hazards must be faced in a risk management system, where the vaccine is a specific key as an element of personal protection, whose provision and obligatory use has legislative norms related to the delivery by the employer, the training in the prevention and the use by the worker. Several countries count with technical guides for vaccination in the working population. In Chile in 2018, there were 8.364.282 workers according with Superintendence of Social Security. Law 16.744 and Supreme Decrees indicate the environmental conditions for workers and the right to know the risks; also, Ministry of Health has issued circulars where some working conditions need specific vaccination. Is for that reason that is necessary a regulation that guides dependent and independent workers and employers on when and which vaccines must be used depending on the labor activity. In this article, we review the legal situation, other guides in different countries and list some vaccines that could be implemented in the population at specifical risks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Communicable Disease Control , Occupational Health , Vaccination/methods , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Risks , Chile , Immunization/methods , Occupational Diseases/immunology
8.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(1): e197, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1094982

ABSTRACT

La inmunización, es un mecanismo de defensa que asegura la inmunidad humoral para prevenir enfermedades infantiles graves, y es responsabilidad de los padres. Objetivo: Se plantea indagar el conocimiento vaccinal, en madres con hijos menores de 5 años. Métodos: el estudio se orienta bajo el paradigma cualitativo, enfoque fenomenológico; Los participantes del estudio fueron madres que vacunaron a sus hijos en el centro de salud 20 de febrero, distrito 12D03 Quevedo-Mocache, Ecuador. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el soware Atlas ti, vinculando 18 preguntas de reflexión. Resultados: Las categorías emergentes fueron: 1) Las vacunas son muy importantes y necesarias. 2. Vacunaron porque sus hijos crecen sanos y fuertes. 3. para algunas el vacunatorio es agradable y para otras no. 4. Algunas reciben buen trato y atención, otras no. 5. Es insuficiente la información sobre las vacunas. 6. Piden cambios de enfermeras y horarios. Conclusión: el conocimiento vaccinal de las madres, esdeterminante para la protección y la no propagación de enfermedades en sus hijos(AU)


Immunization is a defense mechanism that ensures humoral immunity to prevent serious childhood diseases, and is the responsibility of the parents. Objective: to investigate the vaccine knowledge in mothers with children under 5 years. Methods: the study is oriented under the qualitative paradigm, hermeneutic approach; e study participants were mothers who vaccinated their children in the health center February 20, district 12D03 Quevedo-Mocache, Ecuador. The Atlas ti soware was used to analyze the data, linking 18 reflection questions. Results: The emerging categories were: 1) Vaccines are very important and necessary. 2. They vaccinated because their children grow up healthy and strong. 3. For some the vaccine is nice and for others it is not. 4. Some receive good treatment and attention, others do not. 5. Insufficient information about vaccines. 6. Ask for changes of nurses and schedules. Conclusion: the vaccinal knowledge of the mothers, is decisive for the protection and non-propagation of diseases in their children(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Rotavirus Infections/classification , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination/classification , Vaccination/methods , Immunization Programs , Rotavirus/classification , Social Welfare , Socioeconomic Factors , Child, Preschool , Sociological Factors
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 72 p. graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291986

ABSTRACT

Nas últimas décadas, dados relacionados com a saúde humana, desde informações clínicas e epidemiológicas até imagens médicas e experimentos ômicos, foram gerados e acumulados em uma quantidade sem precedentes na história. Um campo novo de pesquisa chamado "Imunologia de Sistemas" emergiu para tentar integrar, analisar, interpretar e predizer os mecanismos moleculares de doenças e vacinas. Esta tese mostra diversas aplicações da Imunologia de Sistemas no estudo de arboviroses, vacina da gripe, câncer, tuberculose, pneumonia, artrite, dentre outros. Também mostra o desenvolvimento de ferramentas computacionais amigáveis que permitem com que qualquer cientista, sem conhecimento prévio de bioinformática, possa realizar análises de Imunologia de Sistemas. Os achados das análises forneceram novas hipóteses e insights que, ao serem testados e validados experimentalmente, melhoram nosso entendimento sobre os processos imunológicos por trás da vacinação e de doenças humanas


Subject(s)
Vaccines/pharmacology , Disease/classification , Vaccination/methods , Computational Biology/instrumentation , Tuberculosis/immunology , Growth and Development
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 576-584, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058083

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Chile es un país de baja endemia de virus de hepatitis B (VHB), pero los países de mayor flujo migratorio hacia Chile tienen una endemia intermediaalta. La inmunoprofilaxis (IP) en el recién nacido (RN) es fundamental para evitar la transmisión vertical de VHB. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de HBsAg en mujeres embarazadas: inmigrantes, y chilenas con conductas de riesgo (CR), y evaluar el cumplimiento de la indicación de IP a los RN de madre con HBsAg reactivo. Material y Métodos: Cohorte prospectiva de cribado de HBsAg a mujeres embarazadas inmigrantes, y chilenas con CR, entre julio 2017 y junio 2018 en CABL. Los RN de madre con HBsAg reactivo se les administró IP adecuada (antes de 12 h de vida). Resultados: Se realizó un total de 1.415 HBsAg: 1.265 a inmigrantes y 150 a chilenas con CR. Se obtuvieron 37 pacientes con HBsAg reactivos. Dos falsos positivos. La prevalencia HBsAg en inmigrantes fue 2,7% y 0,66% en chilenas con CR (p < 0,05). El 91,1% provenía de Haití, con una prevalencia de 3,5% en nuestra área. Todos los RN (36) recibieron IP. La mediana de administración de IP fue 3:02 h. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de VHB en mujeres gestantes inmigrantes fue superior a lo reportado en la población general y en mujeres chilenas con CR. Planteamos la necesidad de implementar el cribado universal en el embarazo, y en especial, en mujeres embarazadas provenientes de países con endemia intermedia-alta.


Background: Chile is a low-endemic HBV country, but countries with the highest migratory flow to Chile have an intermediate-high endemicity. In order to avoid vertical transmission of HBV, immunoprophylaxis (IP) in the newborn (NB) is a key factor. Aim: To identify HBsAg prevalence in pregnant immigrants and Chilean pregnant women with risk behaviors (RB) and to asses IP use in the NB. Material and Methods: Prospective HBsAg screening cohort of immigrant and Chilean pregnant women with RB, between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2018 in CABL. IP of all NB of reactive HBsAg mothers was assessed. Results: 1,415 HBsAg samples, 1,265 immigrants and 150 Chileans with RB. 37 reactive HBsAg. Two false positive. HBsAg prevalence in immigrant pregnant women was 2.7% and 0.66% in Chileans with RB (p < 0.05). 91.1% came from Haiti, with a prevalence of 3.5% in our region. All NB (36) received IP with a median of administration of 3:02 h. Conclusions: The prevalence in immigrant pregnant women was higher than that reported in the general population and in Chilean women with RB. We proposed the need for universal screening in pregnancy, especially in pregnant women from countries with intermediate-high endemicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Emigrants and Immigrants , Hepatitis B/transmission , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/analysis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Risk-Taking , Time Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chile/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Vaccination/methods
11.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 45(3): e1458, jul.-sep. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1058434

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cobertura de los programas de vacunación infantil está asociada con la probabilidad de supervivencia de los infantes y es una medida de desempeño de los sistemas nacionales de inmunización. Objetivo: Caracterizar los programas de vacunación infantil en países latinoamericanos a partir de la supervivencia de infantes durante el periodo 2000-2015. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo del programa de inmunización de 21 países de América Latina soportado en la metodología del análisis envolvente de datos con ventanas de tiempo. Las variables asociadas son: vacunas (Bacillus calmette-Guérin, difteria, Bordetella pertussis y el tétanos, sarampión, polio) y tasa de supervivencia (menores de 1 año, menores de 5 años). Resultado: Durante el periodo de estudio, 2000-2015, la eficiencia de los programas de vacunación varió entre el 77 por ciento y el 99 por ciento y la ineficiencia se comportó entre el rango de valores del 1 por ciento al 23 por ciento. Se pudieron identificar cuatro grupos de países con una clasificación correcta del 95,2 por ciento. Conclusiones: En América Latina los programas de vacunación infantil tienen comportamientos diferentes en cada país. El conjunto formado por Argentina, Brasil, Cuba, México y Uruguay son referentes en este tipo de programa, debido a la tasa de cobertura de vacunación y tasa de supervivencia de niños menores a cinco años de edad, de acuerdo a los resultados de eficiencia, este grupo podría obtener iguales tasas de supervivencia con menor tasa de cobertura(AU)


Introduction: Coverage of children vaccination programs is associated with the survival probability of infants and it is a measure of the performance of national immunization systems. Objective: To characterize children vaccination programs in Latin American countries from infants survival during 2000-2015. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of the immunization program in 21 Latin American countries was carried out based in the methodology of the data envelopment analysis with time windows. The associated variables were: vaccines (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, diphtheria, Bordetella pertussis and tetanus, measles, polio) and survival rate (under 1 year, under 5 years). The information was taken from the reports of the World Health Organization. Results: During the studied period (2000-2015), the efficiency of vaccination programs varied between 77 percent and 99 percent, and the inefficiency was in the range from 1 percent to 23 percent. The result showed the identification of four groups of countries with a correct classification of 95,2 percent. Conclusions: In Latin America, children's vaccination programs present different behaviors in each country. The group formed by Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico and Uruguay are the reference in children vaccination programs, due to the rate of vaccination coverage and the survival rates in children under 5 years. In accordance to the efficiency results, this group would have equal survival rates with less rate of coverage(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Vaccination/methods , Immunization Programs , Survivorship , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Latin America
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(3): 253-259, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042722

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El sarampión sigue siendo una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad en el niño. Durante estos últimos años, se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública mundial, que se atribuye a bajas coberturas de vacunación observadas en diferentes países. Para su control se dispone de una vacuna a virus vivo, altamente eficaz, que fue empleada por primera vez en Chile en 1964, logrando cobertura en prácticamente todo el país en un breve plazo. Esta fue la primera experiencia mundial, imitada lue go por otros países que resulto en una importante caída de las tasas de morbilidad y de mortalidad. Su eficacia ha sido ampliamente demostrada, pero requiere de la mantención de coberturas superiores a 95%. En Chile persistió una situación de endemia de menor magnitud hasta el año 1993. En años recientes, ha habido algunos brotes reducidos y casos esporádicos vinculados a contactos con casos importados, sin embargo, según datos recientes, el sarampión está circulando ahora en más de 160 países en un nivel de propagación sin precedentes, siendo los viajeros infectados el principal vehículo de transmisión. En Chile, el Ministerio de Salud ha decidido reforzar y poner al día la vacunación de grupos susceptibles, en especial viajeros. En esta actualización se revisan aspectos históricos y la información actual de esta enfermedad que ha resurgido mostrando su alto impacto epidemiológico en la población pediátrica y adulta a nivel global.


Abstract: Measles is still a major cause of child morbidity and mortality. In recent years, it has become a global public health problem, attributed to low vaccination coverage observed in different countries. In order to control it, a highly effective live virus vaccine is available, which was used for the first time in Chile in 1964, covering practically the whole country in a short period of time. This was the first world experience, which was later imitated by other countries leading to a significant drop in mor bidity and mortality rates. Its effectiveness has been amply demonstrated, but it requires coverage maintenance higher than 95%. In Chile, minor endemic situation persisted until 1993. In recent years, there have been some reduced outbreaks and sporadic cases linked to contacts with imported cases, however, according to recent data, measles is now circulating in more than 160 countries at an unprecedented spread level, where infected travelers are the main vehicle of transmission. In Chile, the Ministry of Health has decided to strengthen and update the vaccination of susceptible groups, especially travelers. This update reviews historical aspects and current information on this re-emer ging disease, showing its high epidemiological impact on the pediatric and adult population globally.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Measles/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Public Health , Vaccination/methods , Measles/prevention & control
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(1): 83-90, feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003656

ABSTRACT

Abstract Given that the last notified case of poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus type 2 was in 1999, in 2012, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the withdrawal of the type 2 component of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the introduction of a bivalent OPV (bOPV) in all countries by 2016. WHO recommended also that the withdrawal should be preceded by the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization schedules. The introduction of IPV prior to the change of the bOPV in 2016 to trivalent OPV (tOPV) was based on the concept of ensuring that a substantial proportion of the population would be protected against type 2 polio after the removal of the type 2 OPV. However, the world's two producers of IPV (Bilthoven Biologicals and Sanofi) have faced problems in the production of this vaccine and therefore reported a reduction of the global supply of IPV. In response to the potential shortage of IPV, at a meeting held on March 10 2017, the SAGE and Technical Advisory Group (TAG) of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) urged the countries in the Latin American region to replace the routine administration of the full doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV-C) in the immunization schedule (administered by intramuscular route), administering a fraction of the full dose in two intradermal shots (IPV-f). The possibility of this strategy was analyzed by opinion leaders convened by the Paraguayan Society of Pediatrics with the support of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE) and Latin American Association of Pediatrics (ALAPE). This document presents the results of the discussion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination/methods , Pan American Health Organization , World Health Organization , Injections, Intradermal , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/administration & dosage , Risk Factors , Vaccine Potency , Latin America
14.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(1): 34-40, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-985122

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar a percepção da importância das vacinas e os riscos da recusa vacinal entre alunos de Medicina e médicos. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado por meio da aplicação de questionários sobre vacinas, recusa vacinal e suas repercussões acerca da saúde pública e individual. A amostra, de 92 sujeitos, foi selecionada numa escola privada de Medicina: grupo 1 (53 estudantes do primeiro ao quarto ano) e grupo 2 (39 médicos). Os dados colhidos foram tabulados no programa Microsoft Excel e analisados estatisticamente com o teste exato de Fisher. Resultados: Os dois grupos consideram o Programa Nacional de Imunizações confiável e reconhecem a importância das vacinas, mas 64,2% dos estudantes e 38,5% dos médicos desconhecem o número de doenças infecciosas evitáveis pelas vacinas no calendário básico. A maioria dos entrevistados possuía carteira de vacinas, mas nem todos receberam vacina influenza 2015. Conheciam pessoas que recusavam vacinas e/ou recusavam vacinar seus filhos (respectivamente, 54,7 e 43,3% dos estudantes e 59,0 e 41,0% dos médicos). Dos médicos, 48,7% já atenderam pacientes que se recusaram a receber vacinas. Consideram causas de recusa vacinal: medo de eventos adversos, razões filosóficas, religiosas e desconhecimento sobre gravidade e frequência das doenças. Aspectos éticos da recusa vacinal e possibilidades legais de exigir vacinas para crianças não são consenso. Conclusões: Alunos de Medicina e médicos não se vacinam adequadamente, apresentam dúvidas sobre calendário vacinal, segurança das vacinas e recusa vacinal. Melhorar sua capacitação é importante estratégia para manter as coberturas vacinais e abordar a recusa vacinal de forma ética.


ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the perception of medical students and physicians on the importance of vaccination and the risks of vaccine refusal. Methods: Cross-sectional study with application of questionnaires about vaccines, vaccine refusal and its repercussions on public and individual health. A sample of 92 subjects was selected from a private medical school: group 1 (53 students from first to fourth grades) and group 2 (39 physicians). Data collected were tabulated in the Microsoft Excel Program and analyzed by Fisher's exact test. Results: Both groups considered the National Immunization Program reliable and recognized the importance of vaccines, but 64.2% of students and 38.5% of physicians are unaware of the vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in the basic immunization schedule. Most of the interviewees had a personal vaccine registry, but not all had received the 2015 influenza vaccine. Both groups had known people who refused vaccines for themselves or for their children (respectively, 54.7 and 43.3% of students and 59.0 and 41.0% of physicians). The total of 48.7% of physicians had already assisted vaccine refusers. Appointed causes of vaccine refusal were: fear of adverse events, philosophical and religious reasons and lack of knowledge about severity and frequency of diseases. Ethical aspects of vaccine refusal and legal possibilities of vaccine requirements for children are not consensus. Conclusions: Medical students and doctors are not adequately vaccinated and have queries about the vaccination schedule, vaccine safety and vaccine refusal. Improving these professionals' knowledge is an important strategy to maintain vaccine coverage and address vaccine refusal ethically.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Vaccination/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination Refusal/legislation & jurisprudence , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/ethics
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 395-402, ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978050

ABSTRACT

As last notified case of poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus type 2 was 1999, in 2012, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the withdrawal of the type 2 component of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the introduction of bivalent OPV (bOPV) in all countries by 2016. WHO recommended also that the withdrawal should be preceded by the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization schedules. The introduction of IPV prior to the change of the bOPV in 2016 to trivalent OPV (tOPV) was based on the concept of ensuring that a substantial proportion of the population would be protected against type 2 polio after the removal of the type 2 OPV. However, the world's two producers of IPV (Bilthoven Biologicals and Sanofi) have faced problems in the production of this vaccine and therefore reported reduction in IPV global supply. In response to the possible shortage of IPV, the SAGE and Technical Adviser Group (TAG) of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), in the meeting of March 10, 2017, has urged that countries in the Latinamerican region should replace the routine administration of the full doses of polio inactivated vaccine (IPV-C) in the immunization schedule (administered by intramuscular route) by the administration of a fraction of the full dose in two shots by intradermal route (IPV-f). The possibility of this strategy was analyzed by leaders of opinions gathered by the call of the Paraguayan Pediatric Society with the support of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE) and Latin American Association of Pediatrics (ALAPE). The results of the discussion are presented in this document.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/administration & dosage , Vaccination/methods , Immunization Programs/methods , Disease Eradication/methods , Pan American Health Organization , Risk Factors , Immunization Schedule , Latin America
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(1): 41-46, Jan.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951623

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Immune response to vaccination in infants born prematurely may be lower than in infants born at full-term. Some clinical factors might be associated with humoral immune response. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to compare the immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in infants born prematurely with those born at full-term and to analyze factors associated with measles and varicella antibody levels. Methods: Prospective study including two groups of infants aged 12 months. One group of infants born prematurely with birth-weight <1500 g and who were in follow-up at the outpatient clinic for preterm infants at the institution and other group of infants born at full-term. Infants with malformations, primary immunodeficiency diseases, born to HIV-positive mothers or who had received plasma or immunoglobulin transfusions five months before or three weeks after vaccination were excluded. Plasma antibodies were measured by ELISA and factors associated with antibody levels were assessed by linear regression. Results: Sixty-five premature and 56 full-term infants were included. The percentage of immune individuals after vaccination against measles (100% vs. 100%) and varicella (92.5% vs. 93.2%) were similar in both groups, as well as the antibody levels against measles (2.393 vs. 2.412 UI/mL; p = 0.970) and varicella (0.551 vs. 0.399 UI/mL; p = 0.114). Use of antenatal corticosteroids decreased measles antibody levels whereas breastfeeding for more than six months increased varicella antibody levels. Conclusions: Humoral responses to measles and varicella were similar between infants born prematurely and full-term infants. Measles antibody levels were negatively associated with antenatal corticosteroid use; varicella antibodies were positively associated with prolonged breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Infant, Premature/immunology , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight/immunology , Chickenpox Vaccine/immunology , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Breast Feeding , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Linear Models , Chickenpox/immunology , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Gestational Age , Vaccination/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Measles/immunology , Measles/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral/blood
18.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(supl.6): 2604-2611, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-977667

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the influence of socio-demographic characteristics in the self-care of people with heart failure (HF). Method: Cross-sectional, analytical study, held in three private hospitals in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, with 57 hospitalized patients. The data were collected through a demographic characterization form and a self-care assessment scale and were analyzed with inferential statistics, using mean comparison tests. Results: Self-care was best assessed in people with higher education level, higher household income and in a relationship. Conclusion: The socio-demographic characteristics influenced seven self-care practices: dietary control; monitoring of body weight; effort in labor activities; knowledge about HF; up-to-date vaccination record; leisure activities; and family and social support network with strong bonds. The higher prevalence of answers indicating satisfactory self-care practices among the patients occurred in the areas of health promotion and tolerance to stress.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Averiguar la influencia de las características sociodemográficas en el autocuidado de personas con insuficiencia cardíaca (IC). Método: Estudio transversal, analítico, realizado en tres hospitales privados de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, con 57 pacientes internados. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de formulario de caracterización sociodemográfica y de escala de evaluación del autocuidado y fueron analizados con estadística inferencial, utilizando pruebas de comparación de promedios. Resultados: El autocuidado fue mejor evaluado en personas con mayor escolaridad, renta familiar más alta y con pareja. Conclusión: Las características sociodemográficas influenciaron siete prácticas de autocuidado: el control dietético; el monitoreo del peso corporal; el esfuerzo en la actividad laboral; el conocimiento sobre la IC; el esquema de vacunación actualizado; las actividades de ocio; y la red de apoyo familiar y social con vínculos fuertes. La mayor prevalencia de respuestas indicativas de las prácticas de autocuidado satisfactorias entre los pacientes ocurrió en los ámbitos de la promoción de la salud y de la tolerancia al estrés.


RESUMO Objetivo: Averiguar a influência de características sociodemográficas no autocuidado de pessoas com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). Método: Estudo transversal, analítico, realizado em três hospitais privados de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, com 57 pacientes internados. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulário de caracterização sociodemográfica e de escala de avaliação do autocuidado e foram analisados com estatística inferencial, utilizando-se testes de comparação de médias. Resultados: O autocuidado foi melhor avaliado em pessoas com maior escolaridade, renda familiar mais alta e companheiro. Conclusão: As características sociodemográficas influenciaram sete práticas de autocuidado: controle dietético; monitoramento do peso corporal; esforço na atividade laboral; conhecimento sobre a IC; esquema vacinal atualizado; atividades de lazer; e rede de suporte familiar e social com vínculos fortes. A maior prevalência de respostas indicativas de práticas de autocuidado satisfatórias entre os pacientes ocorreu nos domínios de promoção da saúde e tolerância ao estresse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Self Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Heart Failure/psychology , Social Support , Brazil , Exercise/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Health Literacy/standards , Body Weight Maintenance , Heart Failure/therapy , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(supl.1): 668-676, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-898484

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To understand, from the perspective of the professional, the Permanent Education (PE) in the vaccination room in its real context. Method: Multiple holistic-qualitative case studies, based on Maffesoli's Interpretive Sociology with 56 participants from four microregions of the Western Extended Region of Minas Gerais State. Results: They present PE as infrequent and insufficient. They denote that the practical-theoretical experience with vaccine contributes to the work; the search for knowledge, starting from the professional itself; and the professional training fails to perform in the vaccination room. Final considerations: The notions of PE are linked to the daily needs of individuals and services, with indication of being interactive, periodic, in specific and non-global issues for better assimilation. Obstacles to the non-implementation of PEH are realized by the workload associated with insufficient human resources, the distance of the nurses from the vaccination room and the lack of support from the higher levels.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Comprender, bajo la óptica del profesional, la Educación Permanente (EP) en sala de vacuna en su contexto real. Método: Estudio de casos múltiples holístico-cualitativo, fundamentado en la Sociología Comprensiva del Cotidiano con 56 participantes de cuatro microrregiones de la Región Ampliada Oeste de Minas Gerais. Resultados: Presentan la EP como poco frecuente e insuficiente. Denotan que la experiencia práctico-teórica con vacuna contribuye con el trabajo, la búsqueda del conocimiento partiendo del propio profesional y la formación profesional falla para la actuación en sala de vacuna. Consideraciones finales: Los conceptos de EP están ligadas a las necesidades cotidianas individuales y de los servicios, con indicios de ser interactiva, periódica, en temas puntuales y no globales para una mejor asimilación. Los obstáculos para la no realización de la EPS se concretan en la sobrecarga de trabajo asociada a los recursos humanos insuficientes, el distanciamiento del enfermero de la sala de vacuna y la falta de apoyo de las instancias superiores.


RESUMO Objetivo: Compreender, sob a ótica do profissional, a Educação Permanente (EP) em sala de vacina em seu contexto real. Método: Estudo de casos múltiplos holístico-qualitativo, fundamentado na Sociologia Compreensiva do Cotidiano com 56 participantes de quatro microrregiões da Região Ampliada Oeste de Minas Gerais. Resultados: Apresentam a EP como pouco frequente e insuficiente. Denotam que a experiência prático-teórica com vacina contribui com o trabalho, a busca do conhecimento partindo do próprio profissional e a formação profissional falha para atuação em sala de vacina. Considerações finais: As noções de EP vêm atreladas às necessidades cotidianas individuais e dos serviços, com indicação de ser interativa, periódica, em temas pontuais e não globais para melhor assimilação. Os entraves para não realização da EPS se concretizam na sobrecarga de trabalho associada a recursos humanos insuficientes, o distanciamento do enfermeiro da sala de vacina e a falta de apoio das instâncias superiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Perception , Patient Education as Topic/standards , Vaccination/methods , Nurses/psychology , Brazil , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Vaccination/trends , Workload/standards , Workload/psychology , Holistic Nursing/trends , Qualitative Research , Workforce
20.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 7 jul. 2017. a) f: 31 l:42 p. graf, mapas.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 2, 46).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1104181

ABSTRACT

La parotiditis epidémica (fiebre urliana) es una infección vírica aguda, sistémica, endémica en todo el mundo y los seres humanos son los únicos huéspedes naturales del virus. La enfermedad es en general, benigna y autolimitada y un tercio de las personas afectadas tiene una infección subclínica. Puede producir una infección más grave en individuos que han pasado la pubertad que en los niños. En este informe se describe esta enfermedad y sus agentes etiologicos, incubación y transmisibilidad, cuadros clínicos y complicaciones, diagnóstico, medidas de prevención y control, vigilancia, notificación del caso y toma de muestra, situación histórica en Argentina, y situación actual en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Parotid Diseases/prevention & control , Parotid Diseases/epidemiology , Parotitis/diagnosis , Parotitis/etiology , Parotitis/pathology , Parotitis/prevention & control , Parotitis/epidemiology , Health Surveillance , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/trends , Disease Notification
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