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2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 108-112, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279083

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: En el contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19 existe inquietud en cuanto al impacto de la temporada de influenza. Objetivo: Analizar el impacto del antecedente de inmunización contra influenza en pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años con COVID-19, registrados entre marzo y agosto de 2020. Los datos fueron analizados mediante las pruebas exacta de Fisher y t de Student. Para evaluar el impacto en la mortalidad se utilizó un modelo de regresión logística; la relación entre el porcentaje de pacientes a quienes se aplicó la vacuna contra la influenza y la mortalidad fue determinada con el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: Se incluyeron 16 879 participantes; 17 % tuvo antecedente de vacunación contra influenza. La mortalidad fue menor en el grupo con historia de vacunación (3.5 % versus 7 %, p < 0.0001). El porcentaje de vacunación presentó una relación inversa con el porcentaje de mortalidad (r de Pearson –0.922, p = 0.026). Conclusiones: La inmunización contra la influenza fue un factor protector independiente de mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19. Aunque son necesarios más estudios para determinar la relación causal, será razonable incrementar la inmunización contra influenza en la población general.


Abstract Introduction: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is concern regarding the impact of the influenza season. Objective: To analyze the impact of influenza immunization history on patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Patients older than 18 years with COVID-19, registered between March and August 2020, were included. Data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test and Student’s t-test. To evaluate the impact on mortality, a logistic regression model was used; the relationship between the percentage of patients who received the influenza vaccine and mortality was determined with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: 16,879 participants were included; 17 % had a history of influenza vaccination. Mortality was lower in the group with a history of vaccination (3.5 % vs. 7 %, p < 0.0001). The vaccination rate had an inverse relationship with the mortality rate (Pearson’s r: -0.922, p = 0.026). Conclusions: Previous influenza immunization was an independent protective factor for mortality in patients with COVID-19. Although further studies are needed to determine a causal relationship, it would be reasonable to increase influenza immunization in the general population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Influenza Vaccines , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control
4.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(suplemento): 30-34, 2021. Ilus.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1255475

ABSTRACT

Introducción: una de las expectativas que tenemos actualmente es colocar vacunas seguras y efectivas para suministrar a la población. Con estas vacunas se intenta conseguir la inmunidad colectiva que permita quebrar la cadena de transmisión. Hay que tener estrategias de vacunación frente al COVID-19 teniendo en cuenta la disponibilidad progresiva de dosis, es necesario realizar un ejercicio de priorización atendiendo a principios éticos y criterios de riesgo. Objetivo: comparar si hay diferencias en los promedios de vacunación por cada 100 personas para COVID-19 entre los diferentes países de América. Materiales y métodos: se utilizó la base de datos de la vacunación con la información acumulada al 7 de mayo 2021. Se realizó a partir del análisis estadístico de los datos aplicando el análisis de varianza, se utilizó el paquete estadístico SPSS v.25. Resultados: a partir del análisis estadístico de los datos aplicando el análisis de varianza el p-valor de la prueba para la variable de vacunación es de 0,000, en este caso es menor a α =0.05, de esta manera se rechaza Ho, es decir la prueba de análisis de varianza nos indica que hay diferencias significativas entre la vacunación contra COVID-19 para los diferentes países de América. Conclusiones: el panorama ante la vacunación contra el COVID-19 a nivel de América es bastante preocupante, pues hay varios países con un bajísimo nivel de vacunación, esto se puede deber a que no sea una prioridad para todos los países, especialmente para los que tienen una baja densidad de población y no se estén presentando un gran número de contagios y muertes.


Introduction: one of our current expectations is to supply safe and effective vaccines to be administered to the population. The endpoint is achieving herd immunity through vaccination in order to break the chain of transmission. COVID 19 vaccination strategies expanding access to vaccine doses are necessary. Prioritization on the basis of ethical principles and risk criteria is required. Objective: to compare whether there are differences in COVID 19 vaccination rates per 100 people among the different countries of the Americas. Materials and methods: the vaccination database with the information collected to May 7 2021 was used. An analysis of variance test was applied using the SPSS v.25 statistical package. Results:the p-value obtained in the statistical analysis of variance test for the vaccination variable was 0.000, which is less than α=0.05, therefore, the hypothesis (Ho) is rejected, which means, the analysis of variance test indicates there are significant differences in COVID-19 vaccination in the different countries of America. Conclusions: the outlook for COVID-19 vaccination in the Americas is quite worrying, as there are several countries with very low vaccination rates, maybe due to the fact vaccination is not a priority for all countries, especially for those with low population density, who are not experiencing high COVID 19 infection and death rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Americas , Analysis of Variance
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Rubella outbreaks occurred among adults in Japan in 2013-2014 and 2018-2019 due to immunity gaps. In response and aiming at rubella elimination by 2020, the government introduced countermeasures comprising supplementary immunization activities for voluntary testing of adult non-healthcare-related workers and vaccination of susceptible individuals. However, as of October 2020, rubella immunity testing and vaccination rates remained low. This study was conducted to identify factors associated with adults voluntarily confirming their rubella immune status, to help develop effective promotion activities for hard-to-reach and left-behind populations.@*METHODS@#In this cross-sectional study, a general population sample of non-healthcare workers aged 20-49 years in Japan completed an online survey in November 2020. Univariate analysis was performed to examine associations of specific actions taken to confirm rubella immune status with social background characteristics, knowledge of rubella, and attitude to testing and vaccination. Log binomial regression analysis was performed to explore the associations following adjustment for social background characteristics.@*RESULTS@#Among 1,854 respondents (927 men, 927 women), only 23.4% of men and 39.4% of women in their 20s to 40s have taken some action related to rubella prevention. Three major factors were associated with the targeted population having taken voluntary action: (1) knowing about testing for confirmation of immunity status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.29 men, 2.89 women), the rubella outbreak in 2013 among men in their 20s to 40s (AOR 2.79 men, 1.64 women), and congenital rubella syndrome (AOR 1.89 men, 3.10 women); (2) having acquaintances who were vaccinated against or tested for rubella (AOR 2.98 men, 1.95 women); and (3) having a positive attitude toward influenza vaccination (AOR 2.48 men, 1.83 women). Marriage, desire for pregnancy, and having children were weakly associated with taking action.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Currently, insufficient voluntary action is being taken by high-risk adult populations to close the identified immunity gaps. In this last mile to rubella elimination, our findings and suggested potential interventions via annual health check-ups and occupational health and public health initiatives could prove helpful in developing further countermeasures that actively promote and implement supplementary immunization activities targeting all adult generations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Rubella/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
6.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(4): 322-325, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139703

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of non-vaccination against influenza among Brazilian older adults with systemic arterial hypertension and determine the main reasons for non-adherence. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from older adults (≥ 60 years of age) with hypertension who participated in the 2013 National Health Survey and reported not having been vaccinated against flu over the previous 12 months (n = 1,295). The analyses were performed using the Stata 14.0 software. The data were weighted because of the sampling design. An estimated 3,026,080 older adults with hypertension had not received a flu vaccine over the 12 months prior to the survey (22.6%). No significant associations were found with sex, age group or schooling. The prevalence of unvaccinated older adults was lower in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil than in the northern and northeastern regions, even after adjusting for age. The prevalence was higher among individuals without private health insurance. The main reasons for non-vaccination were fear of a reaction, rarely having the flu and not believing in the protection of the vaccine. The present findings underscore the need for healthcare professionals to explain to the population the benefits of the vaccine for preventing severe influenza (protective effect and possible reactions) and for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Increasing the prevalence of vaccination in older adults with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases is of fundamental importance within the realm of public health as a strategy for reducing occurrences of complications and deaths associated with influenza.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Hypertension/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination/psychology , Influenza, Human/psychology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
7.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7963, 31-07-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119726

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Distintas intervenciones han sido propuestas para reforzar el uso de la vacuna contra la influenza. El uso de recordatorios, ya sea a través de cartas, llamadas telefónicas, panfletos o aplicaciones tecnológicas, entre otras, ha destacado dentro de aquellas orientadas a incrementar la adherencia al tratamiento. Sin embargo, su efectividad no está clara. En este resumen, que forma parte de una serie de evaluaciones de recordatorios, se abordará el envío de múltiples recordatorios enviados por correo. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un meta-análisis y prepara-mos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos ocho revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron 35 estudios primarios, de los cuales cuatro corresponden a ensayos aleatorizados que analizan el uso de múltiples recordatorios enviados por correo. Concluimos que más de un recordatorio enviado por correo probablemente aumenta la adherencia a vacunación contra influenza en pacientes mayores de 60 años, mien-tras que podría resultar en poca o nula diferencia en menores de 6 años, pero la certeza de la evidencia es baja.


INTRODUCTION: Different interventions have been proposed to reinforce the use of the influenza vaccine. The use of reminders, whether through letters, phone calls, pamphlets or technological applications, among others, has stood out among those aimed at increasing ad-herence to treatment. However, its effectiveness is not clear. In this summary, which is part of a series of reminder evaluations, we assess the use of multiple mail reminders. METHODS: We conducted a search in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic health reviews, which is maintained by screening multiple sources of information, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted the data from the identified reviews, analyzed the data from the primary studies, performed a meta-analysis and prepared a summary table of the results using the GRADE method. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified eight systematic reviews including 35 primary studies, of which four analyze the use of more than one letter as a reminder. We conclude that the use of multiple mail reminders probably increase adherence to influenza vaccination in patients over 60; while it may make little or no difference in children under 6 years, but the certainty of the evidence is low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Reminder Systems , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Postal Service , Databases, Factual , Age Factors , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(4): e00015619, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089455

ABSTRACT

A imunização é reconhecida como uma das intervenções mais bem-sucedidas e custo-efetivas, resultando na erradicação e no controle de diversas doenças em todo o mundo. Todavia, uma preocupante redução na cobertura vacinal tem sido observada no Brasil, trazendo o recrudescimento de algumas doenças até então superadas. Dessa forma, no intuito de realizar um diagnóstico situacional que pondere as diferentes regiões do país e a tendência temporal de cobertura vacinal, o presente estudo teve o objetivo de evidenciar áreas com queda da cobertura vacinal de BCG, poliomielite e tríplice viral no Brasil por meio de um estudo ecológico que coletou informações acerca do número crianças de até um ano de idade imunizadas para essas três vacinas, no período entre 2006 e 2016, por município brasileiro. Os dados foram adquiridos por meio do Departamento de Informática do SUS. Foi realizada uma varredura espacial, analisando as variações espaciais nas tendências temporais de cobertura vacinal. Foi observada uma tendência de redução no número de imunizações no Brasil, com quedas de 0,9%, 1,3% e 2,7% ao ano para BCG, poliomielite e tríplice viral, respectivamente. Ademais, aglomerados significativos com tendências temporais de redução da cobertura vacinal foram verificados em todas as cinco regiões brasileiras. O estudo evidencia uma importante redução na cobertura vacinal nos últimos anos, constatando heterogeneidades consideráveis entre os municípios. Dessa forma, uma atenção singular e planejamento estratégico condizente com as características de cada localidade são necessários para o controle tanto da redução de cobertura vacinal como do reaparecimento de doenças no Brasil.


Immunization is known to be one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions, resulting in the eradication and control of various diseases in the world. However, Brazil has experienced a worrisome drop in vaccination coverage, associated with the resurgence of various previously controlled or eradicated diseases. This study thus conducted a situational diagnosis weighing Brazil's different regions and time trends in vaccination coverage in order to identify areas with reduction in vaccination coverage for BCG, poliomyelitis, and MMR. This ecological study collected data on the number of children up to one year of age who had been vaccinated with these three vaccines from 2006 to 2016, according to municipality (county). Data were obtained from the Brazilian Health Informatics Department. A spatial scan was performed, analyzing spatial variations in the time trends for vaccination coverage. Downward trends were seen in the number of immunizations in Brazil, with reductions of 0.9%, 1.3%, and 2.7% per year for BCG, poliomyelitis, and MMR, respectively. Significant decreases were also seen in all five major geographic regions with time trends in the reduction of vaccination coverage. The study evidenced an important reduction in vaccination coverage in recent years, with major heterogeneity between municipalities. Thus, focused attention and strategic planning in keeping with each local area's characteristics are necessary to address both the reduction of vaccination coverage and the resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases in Brazil.


La inmunización está reconocida como una de las intervenciones más exitosas y costo-eficientes, consiguiendo la erradicación y control de diversas enfermedades en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, se ha observado una preocupante reducción en la cobertura de la vacunación en Brasil, conllevando el recrudecimiento de algunas enfermedades hasta entonces superadas. De esta forma, con el fin de realizar un diagnóstico situacional, que pondere las diferentes regiones del país y la tendencia temporal de cobertura vacunación, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evidenciar áreas con una caída de la cobertura vacunación respecto a BCG, poliomielitis y triple vírica en Brasil. Se trata de un estudio ecológico, que recabó información acerca del número de niños de hasta un año de edad inmunizados con estas tres vacunas, durante el período entre 2006 y 2016, por municipios brasileños. Los datos se consiguieron a través del Departamento de Informática del SUS. Se realizó un barrido espacial, analizando las variaciones espaciales en las tendencias temporales de cobertura de vacunación. Se observó una tendencia de reducción en el número de inmunizaciones en Brasil, con caídas de 0,9%, 1,3% y 2,7% al año, en el caso de BCG, poliomielitis y triple vírica, respectivamente. Además, se verificaron aglomerados significativos con tendencias temporales de reducción en la cobertura de vacunación dentro de las cinco regiones brasileñas. El estudio evidencia una importante reducción en la cobertura de vacunación durante los últimos años, constatando heterogeneidades considerables entre los municipios. De esta forma, una atención singular y planificación estratégica, acorde con las características de cada localidad, son necesarias para el control, tanto de la reducción de la cobertura de vacunación, como del resurgimiento de enfermedades en Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/administration & dosage , Vaccination Coverage/trends , Brazil , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
9.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(2): e2019004, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101125

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever as perdas físicas, por descarte, dos imunobiológicos fornecidos pelo Programa Nacional de Imunizações (PNI) ao estado do Ceará no período 2014-2016, e os custos das doses perdidas. Métodos: estudo descritivo, com dados dos formulários de avaliação de imunobiológicos sob suspeita e dos pareceres favoráveis de descarte. Resultados: foram incluídos 317 formulários, dos quais 72,0% obtiveram parecer de descarte; foram identificadas 160.767 doses perdidas, totalizando um custo de R$ 1.834.604,75; as perdas representaram 0,45%, 0,93% e 0,53% do custo total das vacinas nos anos de 2014, 2015 e 2016, respectivamente; o principal motivo das perdas físicas identificadas foi a falta de energia elétrica (54,9%). Conclusão: identificou-se grande número de doses descartadas por perdas físicas, com elevado custo absoluto; faz-se necessário um controle mais rigoroso, pois falhas na dinâmica de conservação podem interferir na oferta dos imunobiológicos.


Objetivo: describir las pérdidas físicas por eliminación de inmunobiológicos proporcionados por el Programa Nacional de Inmunización (PNI) al estado de Ceará, en el periodo 2014-2016, y los costos de las dosis omitidas. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, con datos de formula-rios de evaluación de los inmunobiológicos sospechosos y de las opiniones favorables de descarte. Resultados: se incluyeron un total de 317 formularios, de los cuales el 72,0% obtuvo una opinión de descarte, y se identificaron 160.767 dosis omitidas, con un costo total de R$ 1.834.604,75; las pérdidas representaron el 0,45%, el 0,93% y el 0,53% del costo total de las vacunas en 2014, 2015 y 2016, respectivamente; la razón principal de las pérdidas físicas identificadas fue la falta de electricidad (54,9%). Conclusión: iden-tificamos un gran número de dosis descartadas por pérdidas físicas, con un alto costo absoluto; es necesario un control más estricto, ya que las fallas en la dinámica de conser-vación pueden interferir con el suministro de inmunobiológicos.


Objective: to describe discarded wasted immunobiological products provided by the National Im-munization Program (PNI) to the State of Ceará between 2014 and 2016, and the costs of discarded doses. Methods: this was a descriptive study using data from suspect im-munobiological product evaluation forms and data from disposal approval forms. Results: a total of 317 forms were included, 72.0% of which had a disposal approval form, and 160,767 discarded doses were identified, at a total cost of BRL 1,834,604.75; wastage accounted for 0.45%, 0.93% and 0.53% of the total cost of vaccines in 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively; the main reason for the wastage identified was electric power shortage (54.9%). Conclusion: we identified a large number of discarded wasted doses, with high absolute cost; tighter control is necessary, as failures in conservation dynamics may interfere with the supply of immunobiologicals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Medical Waste Disposal/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Brazil , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Drug Storage/standards
10.
Medwave ; 20(5): e7747, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116979

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Distintas intervenciones han sido propuestas para reforzar el uso de la vacuna contra la influenza. El uso de recordatorios, ya sea a través de cartas, llamadas telefónicas, panfletos o aplicaciones tecnológicas, entre otras, ha destacado dentro de aquellas orientadas a incrementar la adherencia al tratamiento. Sin embargo, su efectividad no está clara. En este resumen, el primero de una serie de evaluación de recordatorios, se abordará el uso de un recordatorio enviado por correo. MÉTODOS Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un meta-análisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES Identificamos ocho revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron 35 estudios primarios, de los cuales, 32 corresponden a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que un recordatorio enviado por correo probablemente aumenta la adherencia a vacunación contra influenza en todos los grupos etarios (población adulta, mayores de 60 años y menores de 18 años).


INTRODUCTION Different interventions have been proposed to improve influenza vaccine coverage. The use of reminders, through letters, phone calls, pamphlets or technological applications, among others, has stood out among the different alternatives to increase adherence to vaccination. However, its effectiveness is not clear. In this summary, the first of a series of evaluation of reminders will address the use of a reminder sent by mail. METHODS We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the identified reviews, analyzed the data from the primary studies, performed a meta-analysis and prepared a summary table of the results using the GRADE method. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS We identified eight systematic reviews that included 35 primary studies, of which 32 correspond to randomized trials. We concluded that a reminder sent by mail, probably increase adherence to influenza vaccination in all age groups (adult population, over 60 an under 18)


Subject(s)
Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Postal Service , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Databases, Factual , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control
11.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 98, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, BBO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139459

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of being a beneficiary of the Bolsa Família Program (BFP) in the vaccination of children aged 13 to 35 months. METHODS: Our study was based on all birth records of residents of Ribeirão Preto (SP) and probabilistic sampling with 1/3 of the births of residents of São Luís (MA), selecting low-income children, born in 2010, belonging to the cohorts Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís Birth Cohort Studies and eligible for the Bolsa Família program. The information of Cadastro Único (CadÚnico - Single Registry) was used to categorize the receipt of benefit from the BFP (yes or no). The final sample consisted of 532 children in Ribeirão Preto and 1,229 in São Luís. The outcome variable was a childhood vaccine regimen, constructed with BCG, tetravalent, triple viral, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, rotavirus and yellow fever vaccines. The adjustment variables were: economic class, mother's schooling and mother's skin color. Children with monthly per capita family income of up to R$ 280.00 and/or economic class D/E were considered eligible for the benefit of the BFP. A theoretical model was constructed using a directed acyclic graph to estimate the effect of being a beneficiary of the BFP in the vaccination of low-income children. In the statistical analyses, weighing was used by the inverse of the probability of exposure and pairing by propensity score. RESULTS: Considering a monthly per capita family income of up to R$ 280.00, being a beneficiary of the BFP had no effect on the childhood vaccination schedule, according to weighing by the inverse of the probability of exposure (SL-coefficient: −0.01; 95%CI −0.07 to 0.04; p = 0.725 and RP-coefficient: 0.04; 95%CI −0.02 to 0.10; p = 0.244) and pairing by propensity score (SL-coefficient: −0.01; 95%CI −0.07 to 0.05; p = 0.744 and RP-coefficient: 0.04; 95%CI −0.02 to 0.10; p = 0.231). CONCLUSIONS: The receipt of the benefit of the BFP did not influence childhood vaccination, which is one of the conditionalities of the program. This may indicate that this conditionality is not being adequately monitored.


RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Estimar o efeito de ser beneficiário do Programa Bolsa Família (PBF) na vacinação de crianças de 13 a 35 meses. MÉTODOS: Partiu-se de todos os registros de nascimentos de residentes de Ribeirão Preto (SP) e de amostragem probabilística com ⅓ dos nascimentos de residentes de São Luís (MA), selecionando-se crianças de baixa renda, nascidas em 2010, pertencentes às coortes Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís Birth Cohort Studies e elegíveis ao PBF. As informações do Cadastro Único (CadÚnico) foram utilizadas para categorizar o recebimento de benefício do PBF (sim ou não). A amostra final foi de 532 crianças em Ribeirão Preto e 1.229 em São Luís. A variável-desfecho foi esquema vacinal infantil, construída com as vacinas BCG, tetravalente, tríplice viral, hepatite B, poliomielite, rotavírus e febre amarela. As variáveis de ajuste foram: classe econômica, escolaridade da mãe e cor de pele da mãe. Consideraram-se elegíveis ao benefício do PBF crianças com renda familiar per capita mensal de até R$ 280,00 e/ou da classe econômica D/E. Para estimar o efeito de ser beneficiário do PBF na vacinação de crianças de baixa renda, construiu-se um modelo teórico por meio de gráfico acíclico direcionado. Nas análises estatísticas, foi usada ponderação pelo inverso da probabilidade de exposição e pareamento por escore de propensão. RESULTADOS: Considerando renda familiar per capita mensal de até R$ 280,00, ser beneficiário do PBF não teve efeito no esquema vacinal infantil, segundo ponderação pelo inverso da probabilidade de exposição (SL-coeficiente: −0,01; IC95% −0,07 a 0,04; p = 0,725 e RP-coeficiente: 0,04; IC95% −0,02 a 0,10; p = 0,244) e pareamento pelo escore de propensão (SL-coeficiente: −0,01; IC95% −0,07 a 0,05; p = 0,744 e RP-coeficiente: 0,04; IC95% −0,02 a 0,10; p = 0,231). CONCLUSÕES: O recebimento do benefício do PBF não exerceu influência sobre a vacinação infantil, que é uma das condicionalidades do programa. Isso pode indicar que essa condicionalidade não está sendo adequadamente acompanhada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Public Assistance , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Program Evaluation , Cohort Studies , Immunization Schedule , Government Programs
12.
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, BBO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139461

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Due to social distancing guidelines and the displacement of both human and material resources to fight the covid-19 pandemic, individuals seeking healthcare services face certain challenges. Immunization programs have already been a worrisome topic for health authorities due to declines in vaccine uptake rates and are now especially affected by the covid-19 pandemic. Disbelief in science, dissemination of fake news about vaccines, socioeconomic vulnerability and social inequality are some of the challenges faced. This commentary article discusses the impacts of the covid-19 pandemic on immunization programs in Brazil. In light of advances (and notability) of Brazil's national immunization program, established in the 1970s, the programs face challenges, such as the recent drop in vaccine uptake rates. In addition to this health crisis, there is also Brazil's current political crisis, which will undoubtedly require assistance from researchers, policymakers and society to be fixed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Immunization Programs , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Brazil , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4655-4664, dez. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055729

ABSTRACT

Abstract This article aims to identify the prevalence and factors associated with influenza vaccination in pregnant women. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a municipality in the southernmost region of Brazil, which included all women giving birth in 2016. The outcome was having received the vaccine against influenza during pregnancy. Sociodemographic, behavioral and prenatal care characteristics and morbidities were analyzed. The analysis included sample description, the prevalence of vaccination for each independent variable and a multivariate analysis. Two thousand six hundred ninety-four pregnant women were interviewed, of which 53.9% reported having been vaccinated. Factors associated with increased prevalence of vaccination were mother's higher schooling, prenatal care, tetanus vaccination and prenatal care performed in a public service. On the other hand, prenatal care onset after the first quarter reduced the prevalence of vaccination. The results point to the need to reinforce the importance of vaccination against influenza among pregnant women and among health professionals, regardless of the severity of the current epidemiological setting.


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é identificar a prevalência da imunização contra a gripe em mulheres grávidas e seus fatores associados. Estudo transversal realizado em um município no extremo sul do Brasil, que incluiu todas as mulheres que deram à luz no ano de 2016. O desfecho foi ter recebido a vacina contra a gripe durante a gravidez. Características sociodemográficas, comportamentais, do pré-natal e morbidades foram analisadas como fatores associados à vacinação. A análise constou de descrição da amostra, prevalência da vacinação para cada uma das variáveis independentes e análise multivariada. Foram entrevistadas 2.694 parturientes, das quais 53,9% informaram ter recebido a vacina. Os fatores associados a uma maior prevalência de imunização foram: maior escolaridade materna, realização do pré-natal, ter realizado a vacina antitetânica e fazer o pré-natal em um serviço público. Por outro lado, o início do pré-natal após o primeiro trimestre reduziu a prevalência de imunização. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de reforçar a importância da imunização contra a Influenza entre mulheres grávidas e entre profissionais da saúde, independentemente da gravidade do atual cenário epidemiológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Pregnant Women , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Prenatal Care , Brazil , Tetanus Toxoid/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Educational Status
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 419-426, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089319

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for one of the most common human viral infections. An estimated 257 million people are living with chronic HBV infection worldwide, and mortality has reached 900,000 deaths in recent years. In 2001, the World Health Organization reported a prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection in Iran between 2-7%. Objective: To assess the effect of the national HBV mass vaccination program after 25 years. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in vaccinated and unvaccinated people according to the year of birth. Blood samples were obtained from each enrolled person and data about demographic variables, and medical and vaccination history were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Persons were considered uninfected if they were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HBc. Also, Vaccine effectiveness was measured by calculating the risk of disease among vaccinated and unvaccinated persons and defining the percentage risk reduction of infection in the vaccinated group. Results: A total of 2720 persons were interviewed. The rate of HBV breakthrough infection among the vaccinated group was significantly lower than in unvaccinated group. One hundred ninety-four cases with positive HBV markers of infection were identified. The risk ratio of HBV infection was 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54-0.94 (vaccinated/unvaccinated). The estimated vaccination effectiveness against Hepatitis B infection was 29% (95% CI: 6%-46%). Conclusions: Iran has successfully combined hepatitis B vaccination into regular immunization programs. The WHO goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to an equivalent of 1% by 2020 has been reached. With respect to vaccination effectiveness and low prevalence of the disease in the country, catch-up hepatitis B vaccination programs for adolescents can guarantee the immunity of the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B, Chronic/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology
15.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(5): 559-562, oct. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058184

ABSTRACT

Resumen: A pesar del enorme impacto de las vacunas en la salud de la población, estas han sido y son objeto de cuestionamientos por grupos que las consideran innecesarias o inseguras y argumentan que las personas tienen el derecho a decidir sobre si estas deben ser administradas o no. Sin embargo el uso de vacunas tiene connotaciones distintas a otras decisiones en salud, ya que no vacunar impacta no solo al individuo, sino también a la comunidad que lo rodea. El inmunizar a un alto porcentaje de la población permite limitar la circulación de los agentes infecciosos, logrando la llamada inmunidad comunitaria que protege a los no vacunados por razones médicas o porque son muy pequeños. Por esta razón muchos países han definido las vacunas como obligatorias. Como Comité Consultivo de Inmunizaciones nos parece que esta estrategia es correcta sin embargo debe ser acompañada por una política de educación de la población y personal de salud sobre los beneficios y riesgos reales de las va cunas. Así mismo es necesario introducir mejoras en el sistema de notificación de reacciones adversas a vacunas haciéndolo más accesible. Adicionalmente se debe dar respuesta oportuna a los afectados por supuestas o reales reacciones a vacunas y en los casos de eventos adversos graves efectivamente asociados a vacunas. Entregar cobertura económica y acompañamiento. Finalmente es esencial la coordinación entre los diferentes actores y comunicadores para transmitir mensajes que generen confianza y respondan a las inquietudes de la población de hoy en día.


Abstract: Although vaccines have had a tremendous impact in public health they are questioned by certain groups that consider them unnecessary or unsafe and argue in favor of the right to decide to be vacci nated or not. However vaccines must have special considerations because unlike other medical deci sions, not vaccinating has consequences not only for the individual but also for other members of the community. Immunizing a high proportion of the population limits the circulation of an infectious agent attaining what is called community or herd immunity that protects the susceptible members of the group. For this reason many countries consider vaccination mandatory as a responsibility of every citizen. This committee agrees with this view but thinks other strategies should be implemented as well, such as special educational efforts for the public and parents addressing benefits and real risks of vaccinating. Also health care professionals should be trained in vaccines. The notification system for adverse events currently available should be improved and be more accessible. Persons truly affected by adverse events due to vaccination should receive on time responses and be offered psychological and financial support. Finally all stakeholders should make coordinated efforts to work together to deliver messages that answer concerns on vaccines and bring confidence back to the public.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Health Policy , Parents/psychology , Chile , Public Health , Health Education/methods , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Immunity, Herd , Vaccination Refusal/legislation & jurisprudence
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 3147-3158, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011890

ABSTRACT

Resumo A vacina influenza é recomendada para todos trabalhadores de saúde, mas sua cobertura permanece insatisfatória. Estudo transversal que objetivou identificar fatores associados à vacinação contra influenza, realizado com trabalhadores de saúde de um grande Complexo Hospitalar de Salvador, Bahia. Utilizou-se questionário autoaplicável baseado nos modelos "Conhecimento, Atitudes e Práticas" e "Health Belief Model". A variável dependente foi a vacinação contra influenza em 2014, e as independentes representaram fatores sociodemográficos, histórico vacinal, conhecimentos e atitudes sobre influenza/vacina influenza. Usou-se regressão logística, calculou-se odds ratio a intervalos de confiança de 95%, ajustando para sexo, idade e profissão. Elegeu-se o melhor modelo multivariado através de eliminação retrógada e do Critério de Informação de Akaike. Participaram 755 trabalhadores. A cobertura da vacina influenza foi de 61,5%, sendo maior entre enfermeiros (69,0%) e menor entre médicos (49,1%). Os fatores associados a vacinar-se contra influenza foram: conhecer que mesmo estando saudável deve-se vacinar (OR = 3,15; IC95%:1,74-5,71); saber que a vacina não protege por muitos anos (OR = 2,08; IC95%:1,30-3,33); e não temer efeitos adversos pós-vacinais (OR = 1,93; IC95%:1,26-2,95).


Abstract Influenza vaccine is recommended for all health workers, but vaccination coverage remains unsatisfactory. A cross-sectional study that aimed to identify factors associated with influenza vaccination was carried out with health workers from a large Hospital Complex in Salvador, Bahia. A self-administered questionnaire was used based on the models "Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices" and "Health Belief Model". The dependent variable was the vaccination status against influenza in 2014, and the independent variables were sociodemographic factors, vaccine history, knowledge and attitudes about influenza/influenza vaccine. Logistic regression was used, odds ratio was calculated with 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for sex, age and occupation. The best multivariate model was chosen through backwards elimination and the Akaike Information Criterion. 755 workers participated. Influenza vaccine coverage was 61.5%, being higher among nurses (69.0%) and lower among physicians (49.1%). The factors associated with being vaccinated against influenza were: knowing that even when healthy, one must vaccinate against influenza (OR = 3.15; 95%CI:1.74-5.71); knowing that the vaccine does not protect for many years (OR = 2.08; 95%CI:1.30-3.33); and not to be afraid of post-vaccine adverse effects (OR = 1.93; 95%CI: 1.26-2.95).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Attitude of Health Personnel , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 2971-2982, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011871

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study was to analyze the mortality trend due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) among older adults, identify changes in the trend and determine the correlation with influenza vaccine coverage (2000 to 2012) in the state of São Paulo between 1980 and 2012. An ecological time series study was conducted involving secondary data from Brazilian information systems. Linear and polynomial regression models as well as joinpoint regression were used to estimate the trends. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between age-standardized mortality coefficients and vaccine coverage. A decreasing tendency in mortality due to IHD occurred in both sexes, higher mortality rates were found for males and greater reductions were found in the period after the vaccination campaigns. However, no statistically significant changes occurred in the year coinciding with or near the onset of the campaigns. In the overall sample, no evidence of a linear correlation was found between the mortality coefficients and vaccination coverage. Other factors directly associated with morbidity and mortality due to ischemic heart disease may have influenced the trend.


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a tendência dos coeficientes de mortalidade por doenças isquêmicas do coração (DIC) nos idosos no estado de São Paulo, entre 1980 e 2012, identificar mudanças na tendência e verificar a relação entre as coberturas da vacinação contra influenza e os referidos coeficientes de mortalidade. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico de série temporal, realizado com dados secundários do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM), do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) e do Sistema de Informações do Programa Nacional de Imunização. Para análise dos dados, utilizaram-se técnicas de correlação, modelos de regressão linear, polinomial e joinpoint regression. Observou-se tendência de queda dos coeficientes de mortalidade por DIC em ambos os sexos, sobremortalidade masculina e redução mais expressiva dos coeficientes no período após a intervenção vacinal. As mudanças estatisticamente significativas encontradas nas tendências não ocorreram em ano coincidente ou próximo do início das campanhas. Para o total de idosos, não foi constatada correlação linear entre os coeficientes de mortalidade e as coberturas vacinais. Outros fatores associados à morbimortalidade dos idosos por DIC podem ter influenciado na tendência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Myocardial Ischemia/mortality , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 461-468, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042663

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los sistemas de vigilancia pasiva de los eventos supuestamente atribuidos a vacunación o inmu nización (ESAVI) permiten monitorizar efectos adversos (EA) conocidos y pesquisar EA infrecuentes. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir los ESAVI notificados en Chile entre los años 2014 y 2016. Material y Método: Estudio de vigilancia epidemiológica. Se realizó un análisis general y un sub-análisis para vacuna pentavalente. Se calculó la tasa de reporte (TR) global de ESAVI cada 100.000 dosis de vacunas, la TR de ESAVI considerados de interés y el odds ratio de reporte (ROR) de apneas para pentavalente. Resultados: El total de ESAVI notificados fue de 2.552 con una TR global de 9,13. Un 13,4% de los ESAVI fueron serios. La TR de eventos de interés fue en general menor a las tasas de referencia. La vacuna con mayor TR (44,3) fue pentavalente, con un ROR de apnea versus otras vacunas de 10,5 (IC 95% 3,77-29,47). Discusión: Este estudio entrega una visión general de los ESAVI notificados en Chile. La TR global fue similar a otras reportadas, pero las de eventos de interés fueron menores a las referencias internacionales. Se muestra una posible asociación entre apneas y vacuna pentavalente.


Background: Passive surveillance systems for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) allow the monitoring of known adverse effects (AE) and the investigation of infrequent AE. Aim: To describe the AEFI notified in Chile between 2014 and 2016. Methodology: This was a study of epidemiological surveillance. A general analysis of AEFI and sub-analysis for pentavalent vaccine was carried out. It was calculated the global reporting rate of AEFI every 100,000 doses of vaccines, the reporting rate of AEFI considered of interest and the odds ratio of reporting (ROR) of apneas for pentavalent. Results: The total AEFI reported was 2,552 with a global reporting rate of 9,13. 13.4% of AEFI were serious. The vaccine reporting rate of events of interest was generally lower than the reference rates. The vaccine with the highest reporting rate (44.3) was pentavalent, with an ROR of apnea versus other vaccines of 10.5 (95% CI 3.77-29.47). Discussion: This study provides an overview of the AEFI notified in Chile. The global reporting rate was similar to other studies, but those of events of interest were lower than international references. A possible association between apnea and pentavalent vaccine is shown.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccines/adverse effects , Chile/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Disease Notification
19.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 124-130, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019462

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes a variety of immunosuppressants and biological agents, which increase the risk of infections due to altered cellular and humoral immunity. Prevention of these infections can be done through vaccination, however, patients with IBD are usually under-immunized. OBJECTIVE: Analyze the immunization status of patients with IBD and confront it with the current recommendations to verify if the immunization guidelines are being followed correctly. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study including 239 IBD patients being regularly followed in the Gastroenterology Service from Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná, which were subjected to a survey about their relevant demographic data and immunization status. RESULTS: The amount of patients that declared being unaware of their immunization status is high - between 34.3% (Tdap) and 52% (meningococcal) - excepting IIV, hepatitis B and HPV. The vaccines with the largest rates of patients declaring to have taken it are inactivated influenza vaccine (72.4%), BCG (55.3%), hepatitis B (48.3%), measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (43.8%) and DTaP (43%). The vaccines with the lowest rates of patients declaring to have taken it are Haemophilus influenza type b (0.8%), herpes zoster (2.1%) and HPV (3.4%). Patients that are being treated or have been treated with biological therapy have the largest immunization coverage for inactivated influenza vaccine (81%) and PPSV23 (25.9%), also they have the largest awareness rates for those vaccines. CONCLUSION: Although being a specialized service linked to a university hospital, vaccination coverage and patients' awareness rates proved to be below the desirable level. Vaccination and recovery of the immunization history is recommended immediately after the diagnosis of IBD, regardless of the use of biological agents. Those findings support the need of implementing hospital guidelines and constantly verifying its application by the multidisciplinary team in specialized services in IBD.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: No tratamento de doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII) são usados imunossupressores e agentes biológicos, o que aumenta o risco de infecções pela alteração da imunidade celular e humoral. A prevenção de algumas dessas infecções pode ser feita pela vacinação, entretanto pacientes com DII apresentam baixas taxas de cobertura vacinal. OBJETIVO: Analisar a situação vacinal de pacientes com DII e comparar com a recomendação vigente na literatura para verificar se os esquemas de imunização estão sendo corretamente aplicados nessa população. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal analítico com 239 pacientes com DII em acompanhamento no Serviço de Gastroenterologia do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná, os quais foram submetidos a um questionário sobre dados demográficos relevantes e sobre a situação vacinal. RESULTADOS: A taxa de pacientes que declarou não ter conhecimento de sua situação vacinal é alta - entre 34,3% (dTpa) e 52% (meningocócica) - com exceção das vacinas influenza, hepatite B e HPV. As vacinas com maior taxa de pacientes que declararam ter recebido a vacina são influenza (72,4%), BCG (55,3%), hepatite B (48,3%), tríplice viral (43,8%) e DTPa (43%). As vacinas com menor taxa de pacientes que declararam ter recebido a vacina são Haemophilus influenza b (0,8%), herpes zoster (2,1%) e HPV (3,4%). Pacientes que fazem ou já fizeram tratamento com agentes biológicos têm melhor cobertura vacinal das vacinas para influenza (81%) e PP23V (25,9%), além de maior conhecimento sobre o estado vacinal para essas vacinas. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de se tratar de um serviço especializado ligado a um hospital universitário, a cobertura vacinal e o conhecimento dos pacientes sobre as vacinas estão abaixo do desejado. A recuperação do histórico vacinal e a recomendação das vacinas necessárias devem ser realizadas logo após o diagnóstico de DII, independentemente do uso de agentes biológicos. Esses achados indicam a necessidade da criação e monitoramento constante da aplicação de um protocolo pela equipe multidisciplinar de serviços especializados em DII.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Immunization Schedule , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Middle Aged
20.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(2): 351-360, Feb. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-984211

ABSTRACT

Resumo Estudo transversal em interface com a extensão em 22 escolas públicas de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brasil, que compõe 605 adolescentes entre 13 e 18 anos. Teve por objetivo analisar a situação vacinal de adolescentes do 9º ano do ensino fundamental e o conhecimento sobre doenças transmissíveis e as imunopreveníveis. Foi utilizada amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios de seleção: escolas, turmas e alunos. Identificou-se baixa cobertura vacinal entre os adolescentes, 45,1%, a vacina contra a febre amarela apresentou a menor cobertura, 64%; quando perguntados sobre quais as doenças e as infecções que acreditavam estar imunizados, prevaleceu as vacinas contra Paralisia Infantil (60,7%), Febre Amarela (56,0%), Tétano (34,0%) e Sarampo (28,6%). Versaram-se intervenções extensionistas com 6.650 pessoas direcionadas à vacinação (2.334 doses administradas) com o intuito de ampliar a cobertura vacinal e a realização de ações educativas (2.839 adolescentes participantes) sobre doenças sexualmente transmissíveis; planejamento familiar; drogas lícitas e ilícitas. O estudo apresentou impacto positivo pela ampliação da cobertura vacinal e as ações de extensão foram essenciais para o conhecimento sobre os temas propostos.


Abstract A cross-sectional study in conjunction with a health extension program was conducted with 605 adolescents aged between 13 and 18 years from 22 public schools in Divinópolis, Brazil. The aim of the study was to determine the vaccination status of the adolescents and their level of knowledge of communicable and vaccine-preventable diseases. Three-stage cluster sampling was used comprising schools, classes, and students. The findings show that vaccination coverage among adolescents was 45.1% and yellow fever was shown to have the lowest coverage rate (64%). The most mentioned diseases when the adolescents were asked which vaccinations they had had were infantile paralysis (60.7%), yellow fever (56%), tetanus (34%), and measles (28.6%). Extension activities were conducted with 6,650 people, comprising vaccination (2,334 doses administered), aimed at expanding vaccination coverage, and health education activities with 2,839 adolescents directed at sexually transmitted diseases, family planning; and licit and illicit drugs. The study had a positive impact in terms of the expansion of vaccination coverage and the extension activities played an essential role in increasing the adolescents' knowledge of the themes addressed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Students/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Schools , Brazil , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
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