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1.
Med. infant ; 28(2): 181-193, Julio - Diciembre 2021. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1358853
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1289-1298, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The significant morbidity and mortality resulted from the infection of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) call for urgent development of effective and safe vaccines. We report the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, KCONVAC, in healthy adults.@*METHODS@#Phase 1 and phase 2 randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials of KCONVAC were conducted in healthy Chinese adults aged 18 to 59 years. The participants in the phase 1 trial were randomized to receive two doses, one each on Days 0 and 14, of either KCONVAC (5 or 10 μg/dose) or placebo. The participants in the phase 2 trial were randomized to receive either KCONVAC (at 5 or 10 μg/dose) or placebo on Days 0 and 14 (0/14 regimen) or Days 0 and 28 (0/28 regimen). In the phase 1 trial, the primary safety endpoint was the proportion of participants experiencing adverse reactions/events within 28 days following the administration of each dose. In the phase 2 trial, the primary immunogenicity endpoints were neutralization antibody seroconversion and titer and anti-receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G seroconversion at 28 days after the second dose.@*RESULTS@#In the phase 1 trial, 60 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-μg vaccine (n = 24), 10-μg vaccine (n = 24), or placebo (n = 12). In the phase 2 trial, 500 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-μg vaccine (n = 100 for 0/14 or 0/28 regimens), 10-μg vaccine (n = 100 for each regimen), or placebo (n = 50 for each regimen). In the phase 1 trial, 13 (54%), 11 (46%), and seven (7/12) participants reported at least one adverse event (AE) after receiving 5-, 10-μg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. In the phase 2 trial, 16 (16%), 19 (19%), and nine (18%) 0/14-regimen participants reported at least one AE after receiving 5-, 10-μg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. Similar AE incidences were observed in the three 0/28-regimen treatment groups. No AEs with an intensity of grade 3+ were reported, expect for one vaccine-unrelated serious AE (foot fracture) reported in the phase 1 trial. KCONVAC induced significant antibody responses; 0/28 regimen showed a higher immune responses than that did 0/14 regimen after receiving two vaccine doses.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Both doses of KCONVAC are well tolerated and able to induce robust immune responses in healthy adults. These results support testing 5-μg vaccine in the 0/28 regimen in an upcoming phase 3 efficacy trial.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx (No. ChiCTR2000038804, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=62350; No. ChiCTR2000039462, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=63353).


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
4.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 256-269, mayo.-ago. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223737

ABSTRACT

Las vacunas son altamente efectivas en prevenir enfermedades infecciosas a través del desarrollo en el individuo de una respuesta inmune protectora, sin desarrollar la enfermedad. Los distintos tipos de vacunas producen diferentes tipos de respuestas inmunes y variadas estrategias se han desarrollado para mejorar esta respuesta. El sistema inmune sufre cambios con la edad y esta inmunosenecencia altera la capacidad de responder frente a ellas. Por otro lado, si bien el sistema inmune puede reconocer elementos presentes en las vacunas y montar respuestas de hipersensibilidad ante ellos, las alergias a las vacunas son raras, teniendo que distinguirlas adecuadamente de otro tipo de reacciones. En caso que un paciente presente una reacción compatible con alergia, es importante conocer todos los componentes de la vacuna para realizar un estudio adecuado.


Vaccines are highly effective in preventing infectious diseases through the development in the individual a protective immune response, without developing the disease. Different types of vaccines produce different types of immune responses, and varied strategies have been developed to improve this response. The immune system undergoes changes with age, and this inmunosenescence alters the ability to respond to them. On the other hand, although the immune system can recognize elements present in vaccines and establish hypersensitivity responses to them, vaccine allergies are rare, having to properly distinguish them from other types of reactions. In the event that a patient has an allergy-compatible reaction, it is important to know all the components of the vaccine to conduct a proper study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines/immunology , Immunization/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Immunosenescence , Anaphylaxis/immunology , Antigens/immunology
5.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 304-316, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223757

ABSTRACT

Los pacientes inmunosuprimidos presentan un riesgo mayor de infecciones, debido a sus disfunciones inmunes, producto de la actividad de su enfermedad y la terapia inmunosupresora. El uso de vacunas disminuye este riesgo, otorgando protección directa e indirecta, a través de la vacunación del paciente y sus contactos. Las vacunas inactivadas han demostrado un perfil de seguridad adecuado en estos pacientes, por lo que no están contraindicadas, aunque su respuesta inmune puede ser inadecuada. Las vacunas vivas atenuadas, formalmente contraindicadas, poseen una información creciente que permite evaluar su riesgo/beneficio de manera individual. Por este motivo es necesario procurar mantener el calendario de vacunas actualizado y complementado, evitando el retraso en esquemas de vacunación y poniéndolo al día lo antes posible, con estrategias basadas en el individuo. Para llevar a cabo esto, se debe conocer y considerar los intervalos entre las vacunas, los esquemas acelerados, la solicitud de vacunas especiales, las aprobaciones vigentes y, finalmente, sus contraindicaciones.


Immunecompromised patients are at higher risk of infections due to their immune dysfunction caused by ongoing disease processes and immunosuppressive therapy. Patient vaccination or vaccination of the people in contact with patients diminishes their risk of infection. Although the immune response of immunocompromised patients might be impaired, the use of inactivated vaccines is safe and it is not contraindicated in these patients. Formerly, live attenuated vaccines were contraindicated in immunecompromised patients, but recently more data supports their use when evaluating case by case the risks and benefits of their application. Thus, it is important to keep and up-to-date, taylor-based and enhanced vaccination schedule in these cases. For this, specialists need to be informed about the availability of regular and special vaccines, their current approvals, vaccine administration protocols under specific situations and vaccine contraindications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Immunosuppression , Immunocompromised Host , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Immunization Schedule , Vaccines, Live, Unattenuated/administration & dosage
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 655-663, May-June, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128611

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to evaluate the extent of the protection for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2) infection, afforded by vaccination with a combo inactivated vaccine, which contains bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). Five 3-4-month-old calves were intramuscularly vaccinated with a single dose of the combo vaccine and boosted with same dose three weeks after the first vaccination, with five mock immunized calves serving as a control group. Twenty-one days after the second vaccination, all calves were challenged with BVDV-2 SX08 strain by spray into nostril. The unvaccinated animals developed typical clinical signs of high rectal temperature, diarrhoea with erosions and a dramatic drop in leukocyte counts. These signs occured markedly less in all vaccinated animals, the rectal temperature, leukopenia and virarmia of which, were significantly less than the mock immunized calves. It can be concluded that vaccination with the combo inactivated vaccine affords cross-protection against clinical effects of a challenge-infection with BVDV-2 SX08 strain, although it was part protection.(AU)


Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a extensão da proteção contra a infecção pelo vírus da diarréia viral bovina tipo 2 (BVDV-2) através da vacinação com uma vacina combinada inativada contendo o vírus da diarréia viral bovina tipo 1 (BVDV-1) e vírus da rinotraqueíte de bovinos infecciosos (IBRV). Cinco bezerros com 3 a 4 meses de idade foram vacinados via intramuscular com uma dose única da vacina combinada e reforçados com a mesma dose três semanas após a primeira vacinação, com cinco bezerros imunizados em simulação servindo como grupo controle. Vinte e um dias após a segunda vacinação, todos os bezerros foram desafiados com a cepa BVDV-2 SX08 por spray na narina. Os animais não vacinados desenvolveram sinais clínicos típicos, como alta temperatura retal, diarréia com erosões e queda drástica na contagem de leucócitos. Estes sinais tiveram ocorrência significativamente menor em todos os animais vacinados, cuja temperatura retal, leucopenia e virarmia eram significativamente menores do que os bezerros simulados. É possível concluir que a vacinação com a vacina combinada inativada proporciona proteção cruzada contra os efeitos clínicos de uma infecção provocada pela cepa BVDV-2 SX08, embora tenha sido parcialmente protegida.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Vaccination , Vaccines, Combined/analysis , Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral/immunology , Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral/immunology , Cross Protection , Vaccines, Inactivated , Leukocyte Count
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1378-1385, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826839

ABSTRACT

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is zoonotic pathogen that can cause listeriosis, and vaccine is one of the effective methods to prevent this pathogen infection. In this study, we developed a novel vaccine that is a mixture of inactivated bacteria and Montanide™ ISA 61 VG, a mineral oil adjuvant, and evaluated the safety and immune response characteristics of this vaccine. The mice immunized with the ISA 61 VG adjuvant had high safety, and it could induce significantly higher titer of anti-listeriolysin O (LLO) antibody and higher value of IgG2a/IgG1 ratio compared with the group without the adjuvant. In particular, it could provide 100% immune protection against lethal doses of Lm challenge in mice. In summary, ISA 61VG adjuvant significantly enhanced the ability of inactivated listeria vaccine to induce humoral and cellular immune responses, thereby enhanced the protective immune response in the host, and it is a potential vaccine candidate for the prevention of Lm infection in humans and animals.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Pharmacology , Animals , Hemolysin Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Pharmacology , Immunity, Cellular , Listeria monocytogenes , Allergy and Immunology , Listeriosis , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Vaccines, Inactivated , Allergy and Immunology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Adjuvants used in inactivated vaccines often upregulate type 2 immunity, which is dominant in allergic diseases. We hypothesised that cumulative adjuvant exposure in infancy may influence the development of allergies later in life by changing the balance of type 1/type 2 immunity. We examined the relationship between immunisation with different vaccine types and later allergic disease development.@*METHODS@#We obtained information regarding vaccinations and allergic diseases through questionnaires that were used in The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), which is a nationwide, multicentre, prospective birth cohort study that included 103,099 pregnant women and their children. We examined potential associations between the initial vaccination before 6 months of age and symptoms related to allergies at 12 months of age.@*RESULTS@#Our statistical analyses included 56,277 children. Physician-diagnosed asthma was associated with receiving three (aOR 1.395, 95% CI 1.028-1.893) or four to five different inactivated vaccines (aOR 1.544, 95% CI 1.149-2.075), compared with children who received only one inactivated vaccine. Similar results were found for two questionnaire-based symptoms, i.e. wheeze (aOR 1.238, 95% CI 1.094-1.401; three vaccines vs. a single vaccine) and eczema (aOR 1.144, 95% CI 1.007-1.299; four or five vaccines vs. a single vaccine).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results, which should be cautiously interpreted, suggest that the prevalence of asthma, wheeze and eczema among children at 12 months of age might be related to the amount of inactivated vaccine exposure before 6 months of age. Future work should assess if this association is due to cumulative adjuvant exposure. Despite this possible association, we strongly support the global vaccination strategy and recommend that immunisations continue.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#UMIN000030786 .


Subject(s)
Asthma , Epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Epidemiology , Female , Food Hypersensitivity , Epidemiology , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan , Male , Vaccines, Inactivated , Viral Vaccines
9.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. xxi, 150 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026458

ABSTRACT

A vacina de febre amarela atenuada é uma das mais bem-sucedidas já desenvolvidas. Entretanto, restrições de administração para pacientes imunodeprimidos e raros eventos adversos associados são desvantagens que motivam o desenvolvimento de vacinas mais seguras. À medida que aumenta a segurança, a imunogenicidade diminui na ausência de replicação viral. Nesse contexto, adjuvantes são elementos chave na ativação da imunidade inata para modulação das respostas adaptativas e proteção. Adjuvantes de diferentes naturezas e mecanismos de ação têm sido estudados: imunoestimuladores como agonistas de TLR, carreadores de antígenos e agentes de efeito depósito. Nesse estudo pretendemos identificar adjuvantes promissores para o desenvolvimento de novos candidatos vacinais para febre amarela. Para isso, camundongos C57BL/6 foram imunizados com diferentes formulações de antígenos modelo (vírus inativado e proteínas de envelope recombinantes produzidas em diferentes sistemas de expressão) com os adjuvantes: Al(OH)3; Addavax (emulsão baseada em esqualeno); combinações de Al(OH)3 e Flagelina FliC (agonista de TLR5); e CAF01 (nanopartícula) em esquema de 2 doses (D0 e D28) ou 3 doses (D0, D14 e D28). Após a imunização, os camundongos foram desafiados com inóculo letal do vírus de febre amarela por via intracerebral para determinar as taxas de sobrevivência. Os soros foram analisados por ELISA e PRNT50 para detecção dos títulos de IgG total e anticorpos neutralizantes


O vírus FA17DD inativado apresentou o melhor desempenho como antígeno modelo, sendo capaz de induzir 100% de proteção ao desafio após imunização com 2 doses na formulação com o adjuvante Addavax e 70% de proteção na formulação com hidróxido de alumínio. Os demais adjuvantes avaliados (Al(OH)3/ Flagelina FliC e CAF01) não foram capazes de gerar incremento de proteção com os antígenos avaliados. As formulações experimentais com melhor desempenho (FA17DD inativado/Addavax e FA17DD inativado/Al(OH3) foram avaliadas em um segundo ensaio para melhor caracterização das respostas imunológicas envolvidas na proteção. Ambas foram capazes de induzir apenas níveis basais de anticorpos neutralizantes; porém altos títulos de IgG para o vírus da febre amarela com predomínio do subtipo IgG1. A caracterização das respostas celulares locais (ELISpot citocinas e células B) no sítio de inoculação nos tempos pré e pós-desafio revelou níveis superiores de IFNγ nos animais sobreviventes. Após o desafio, todos os animais sobreviventes apresentaram altos títulos de anticorpos neutralizante e IgG total, com incremento do subtipo IgG2a. O uso de Addavax como adjuvante para vacinas não vivas para febre amarela surge como uma alternativa promissora de induzir proteção com menor número de doses. A aplicação do modelo de desafio murino para febre amarela na avaliação de novos adjuvantes se mostrou uma abordagem promissora para a avaliação de novos adjuvantes para uso neste modelo, bem como na geração de conhecimentos extrapoláveis para outros candidatos vacinais em desenvolvimento. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Assay , Recombinant Proteins , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Yellow Fever Vaccine
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 63-70, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839185

ABSTRACT

Abstract The World Health Organization influenza forecast now includes an influenza B strain from each of the influenza B lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) for inclusion in seasonal influenza vaccines. Traditional trivalent influenza vaccines include an influenza B strain from one lineage, but because two influenza B lineages frequently co-circulate, the effectiveness of trivalent vaccines may be reduced in seasons of influenza B vaccine-mismatch. Thus, quadrivalent vaccines may potentially reduce the burden of influenza compared with trivalent vaccines.In this Phase III, open-label study, we assessed the immunogenicity and safety of Southern Hemisphere inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (Fluarix™ Tetra) in Brazilian adults (NCT02369341). The primary objective was to assess hemagglutination-inhibition antibody responses against each vaccine strain 21 days after vaccination in adults (aged ≥18–60 years) and older adults (aged >60 years). Solicited adverse events for four days post-vaccination, and unsolicited adverse events and serious adverse events for 21 days post-vaccination were also assessed.A total of 63 adults and 57 older adults received one dose of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine at the beginning of the 2015 Southern Hemisphere influenza season. After vaccination, in adults and older adults, the hemagglutination-inhibition titers fulfilled the European licensure criteria for immunogenicity. In adults, the seroprotection rates with HI titer ≥1:40 were 100% (A/H1N1), 98.4% (A/H3N2), 100% (B/Yamagata), and 100% (B/Victoria); in older adults were 94.7% (A/H1N1), 96.5% (A/H3N2), 100% (B/Yamagata), and 100% (B/Victoria). Pain was the most common solicited local adverse events in adults (27/62) and in older adults (13/57), and the most common solicited general adverse events in adults was myalgia (9/62), and in older adults were myalgia and arthralgia (both 2/57). Unsolicited adverse events were reported by 11/63 adults and 10/57 older adults.The study showed that inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine was immunogenic and well-tolerated in Brazilian adults and older adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Time Factors , Brazil , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Vaccination/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Hemagglutination, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115779

ABSTRACT

The search for ideal brucellosis vaccines remains active today. Currently, no licensed human or canine anti-brucellosis vaccines are available. In bovines, the most successful vaccine (S19) is only used in calves, as adult vaccination results in orchitis in male, prolonged infection, and possible abortion complications in pregnant female cattle. Another widely deployed vaccine (RB51) has a low protective efficacy. An ideal vaccine should exhibit a safe profile as well as enhance protective efficacy. However, currently available vaccines exhibit one or more major drawbacks. Smooth live attenuated vaccines suffer shortcomings such as residual virulence and serodiagnostic interference. Inactivated vaccines, in general, confer relatively low levels of protection. Recent developments to improve brucellosis vaccines include generation of knockout mutants by targeting genes involved in metabolism, virulence, and the lipopolysaccharide synthesis pathway, as well as generation of DNA vaccines, mucosal vaccines, and live vectored vaccines, have all produced varying degrees of success. Herein, we briefly review the bacteriology, pathogenesis, immunological implications, candidate vaccines, vaccinations, and models related to Brucella.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Bacteriology , Brucella , Brucellosis , Cattle , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolism , Models, Animal , Orchitis , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Inactivated , Virulence
13.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): 48-53, 2017. tab.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846509

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) exists in types I and II and infects dogs leading mainly to enteritis, though type II has already been associated with generalized and highly lethal infection. A CCoV-type II inactivated vaccine produced in A72 canine cells is available worldwide and largely used, though the molecular stability after serial passages of vaccine seeds is unknown. This article reports the evolution of the CCoV-II vaccine strain 1-71 in A72 cells based on partial S gene sequencing, showing the predominance of neutral evolution and the occurrence of four sites under purifying selection. Thus, cell-adapted strains of CCoV-II may be genetically stable after serial passages in a same cell line due to a stable virus-host relationship.(AU)


O Coronavírus canino (CCoV) ocorre como tipos I e II e infecta cães, levando principalmente a enterite, apesar do tipo II já ter sido associado à infecção generalizada e altamente letal. Uma vacina de CCoV-II inativada produzida em células caninas A72 é disponível mundialmente e largamente utilizada, apesar da sua estabilidade molecular após passagens seriadas de sementes vacinais ser desconhecida. Este artigo relata a evolução da amostra vacinal CCoC-II 1-71 em células A-72 com base em sequenciamento parcial do gene S, demonstrando predomínio de evolução neutra e a ocorrência de quaro sítios sob seleção purificante. Portanto, amostras de CCoV-II adaptadas a cultivos celulares podem ser estáveis geneticamente após passagens seriadas em uma mesma linhagem celular devido à existência de uma relação estável vírus-hospedeiro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Canine , Vaccines, Inactivated/analysis , Serial Passage , Vaccines/history
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110769

ABSTRACT

The present study describes the development of DNA vaccines using the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes from AF2240 Newcastle disease virus strain, namely pIRES/HN, pIRES/F and pIRES-F/HN. Transient expression analysis of the constructs in Vero cells revealed the successful expression of gene inserts in vitro. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that single vaccination with the constructed plasmid DNA (pDNA) followed by a boost with inactivated vaccine induced a significant difference in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody levels (p < 0.05) elicited by either pIRES/F, pIRES/F+ pIRES/HN or pIRES-F/HN at one week after the booster in specific pathogen free chickens when compared with the inactivated vaccine alone. Taken together, these results indicated that recombinant pDNA could be used to increase the efficacy of the inactivated vaccine immunization procedure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chickens , HN Protein/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Newcastle Disease/immunology , Newcastle disease virus/enzymology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110768

ABSTRACT

In Korea, several outbreaks of low pathogenic AI (H9N2) viral infections leading to decreased egg production and increased mortality have been reported on commercial farms since 1996, resulting in severe economic losses. To control the H9N2 LPAI endemic, the Korea Veterinary Authority has permitted the use of the inactivated H9N2 LPAI vaccine since 2007. In this study, we developed a killed vaccine using a low pathogenic H9N2 AI virus (A/chicken/Korea/ADL0401) and conducted safety and efficacy tests in commercial layer farms while focusing on analysis of factors that cause losses to farms, including egg production rate, egg abnormality, and feed efficiency. The egg production rate of the control group declined dramatically 5 days after the challenge. There were no changes in feed consumption of all three groups before the challenge, but rates of the control declined afterward. Clinical signs in the vaccinated groups were similar, and a slight decline in feed consumption was observed after challenge; however, this returned to normal more rapidly than the control group and commercial layers. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the safety and efficacy of the vaccine are adequate to provide protection against the AI field infection (H9N2) epidemic in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Emulsions , Female , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza in Birds/immunology , Oviparity , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218587

ABSTRACT

Although the overall incidence of hepatitis A in Korea has been decreasing, adolescents remain highly vulnerable to its outbreaks. This study was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of three hepatitis A vaccines in Korean adolescents. Healthy anti-hepatitis A virus seronegative subjects aged 13 to 19 yr were randomized in three equal groups to receive two doses of Avaxim(TM), Epaxal(R), or Havrix(R), 6 to 12 months apart. Seroconversion rates one month after the first dose were 98%, 95%, and 93% for Avaxim(TM), Epaxal(R), and Havrix(R), respectively. Seroconversion rates reached 100% for all vaccine groups one month after the second dose. Anti-HAV geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were 7,207.7 mIU/mL (95% CI, 6023.1-8684.7), 1,750.5 mIU/mL (95% CI, 1362.9-2248.3), and 1,953.5 mIU/mL (95% CI, 1459.4-2614.7) after two doses of Avaxim(TM), Epaxal(R), and Havrix(R) respectively. Avaxim(TM) was significantly more immunogenic than Epaxal(R) and Havrix(R), whereas there were no significant differences in antibody responses between Epaxal(R) and Havrix(R). Local and systemic solicited adverse events (AEs) were mostly of mild-to-moderate intensity and resolved within 5 days. No serious AEs were reported. In conclusion, all three vaccines are highly immunogenic and well-tolerated in Korean adolescents. (Clinical Trial Registry NCT00483470)


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antibody Formation , Female , Hepatitis A/immunology , Hepatitis A Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis A Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Young Adult
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8371

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leads to major economic losses in the swine industry. Vaccination is the most effective method to control the disease by PRRSV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the efficacy of a glycoprotein (GP) 5-modified inactivated vaccine was investigated in pigs. The study was performed in three farms: farm A, which was porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)-negative, farm B (PRRS-active), which showed clinical signs of PRRS but had not used vaccines, and farm C (PRRS-stable), which had a history of endemic PRRS over the past years, but showed no more clinical signs after periodic administration of modified live virus vaccine. RESULTS: The inactivated vaccine induced great enhancement in serum neutralizing antibody titer, which was sufficient to protect pigs from further infections of PRRSV in a farm where pre-existing virus was circulating. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that vaccination with the inactivated vaccine composed of viruses possessing deglycosylated GP5 would provide enhanced protection to pigs from farms suffering from endemic PRRSV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Swine , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccines, Inactivated
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(9): 843-851, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-756410

ABSTRACT

A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) defective in glycoprotein E (gE) was constructed from a Brazilian genital BoHV-1 isolate, by replacing the full gE coding region with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene for selection. Upon co-transfection of MDBK cells with genomic viral DNA plus the GFP-bearing gE-deletion plasmid, three fluorescent recombinant clones were obtained out of approximately 5000 viral plaques. Deletion of the gE gene and the presence of the GFP marker in the genome of recombinant viruses were confirmed by PCR. Despite forming smaller plaques, the BoHV-1△gE recombinants replicated in MDBK cells with similar kinetics and to similar titers to that of the parental virus (SV56/90), demonstrating that the gE deletion had no deleterious effects on replication efficacy in vitro. Thirteen calves inoculated intramuscularly with BoHV-1△gE developed virus neutralizing antibodies at day 42 post-infection (titers from 2 to 16), demonstrating the ability of the recombinant to replicate and to induce a serological response in vivo. Furthermore, the serological response induced by recombinant BoHV-1△gE could be differentiated from that induced by wild-type BoHV-1 by the use of an anti-gE antibody ELISA kit. Taken together, these results indicated the potential application of recombinant BoHV-1 △gE in vaccine formulations to prevent the losses caused by BoHV-1 infections while allowing for differentiation of vaccinated from naturally infected animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Gene Deletion , Herpesvirus 1, Bovine/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Herpesviridae Infections/prevention & control , Herpesviridae Infections/veterinary , Herpesvirus 1, Bovine/chemistry , Herpesvirus 1, Bovine/genetics , Immunoblotting , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recombination, Genetic/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/genetics
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(6): 809-813, Sept. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763096

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis has great public health impact with high rates of mortality and the only prophylactic measure for it is the Mycobacterium bovisbacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. The present study evaluated the release of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor and IL-6] and chemokines [macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β] by THP-1 derived macrophages infected with BCG vaccine obtained by growing mycobacteria in Viscondessa de Moraes Institute medium medium (oral) or Sauton medium (intradermic) to compare the effects of live and heat-killed (HK) mycobacteria. Because BCG has been reported to lose viability during the lyophilisation process and during storage, we examined whether exposing BCG to different temperatures also triggers differences in the expression of some important cytokines and chemokines of the immune response. Interestingly, we observed that HK mycobacteria stimulated cytokine and chemokine production in a different pattern from that observed with live mycobacteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemokines , Macrophages/immunology , Microbial Viability/immunology , Mycobacterium bovis/classification , Cell Line , Cytokines , Interleukin-1 , Macrophages/classification , Macrophages/drug effects , Mycobacterium bovis/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccines, Inactivated
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22784

ABSTRACT

All vaccines are developed to elicit an effective immune response in vaccinated animals such as innate, humoral and cell mediated response to protect animal health. Quality and intensity of the immune responses are differing by characteristics of the vaccine formulation and nature of the infectious agent. Modified live virus vaccines showed advantages over killed vaccines in terms of rapid immune response, duration of the immunity and better cell mediated protection mechanism. The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is relatively newly emerging (1986 in United States, 1990 in Europe) viral pathogen in pigs and tremendous effort has been made to protect pigs from this economically devastating disease such as developing killed, modified live, recombinant protein based and DNA vaccines. However, only cell culture attenuated virus vaccine is practiced with arguably limited efficacy. The PRRSV vaccine did not clear virus from infected pigs nor prevent re-infection of the virus. The vaccine showed very limited innate immune response, low anamnestic immune response and negligible cell mediated immune response. Despite of the current developed scientific technology, there still remain many questions to solve a most important pig disease worldwide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Culture Techniques , Immunity, Innate , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Swine , United States , Vaccines , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Inactivated
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