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1.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200106, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1154774

ABSTRACT

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolated from avian cellulitis lesions produces a toxin, named Escherichia coli vacuolating factor (ECVF), that causes cell vacuolization and induces inflammatory response in broiler chicken. Methods We investigated the intracellular activities of ECVF in avian fibroblasts using fluorescence staining, electron microscopy, MTT and LDH measurements. As ECVF act specifically in avian cells, we performed blotting assay followed by mass spectrometry to better understand its initial intracellular protein recognition. Results ECVF induced actin contraction, mitochondrial damage and membrane permeability alterations. Ultrastructural analysis showed intracellular alterations, as nuclear lobulation and the presence of degraded structures inside the vacuoles. Moreover, ECVF induced cell death in fibroblasts. ECVF-biotin associates to at least two proteins only in avian cell lysates: alpha-actinin 4 and vinculin, both involved in cytoskeleton structure. Conclusion These findings demonstrated that ECVF plays an important role in avian cellulitis, markedly in initial steps of infection. Taken together, the results place this toxin as a target for drug and/or vaccine development, instead of the use of large amounts antibiotics.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Vacuoles , Actin Cytoskeleton , Chickens , Actins , Escherichia coli , Fibroblasts , Cellulitis
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 146-148, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088972

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Lisch corneal dystrophy is a rare corneal disease characterized by the distinctive feature of highly vacuolated cells. Although this feature is important, the nature of these vacuoles within corneal cells remains unknown. Here, we sought to analyze corneal cells from a patient diagnosed with Lisch dystrophy to characterize the vacuoles within these cells. Analyses using histopathology examination, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were all consistent with previous descriptions of Lisch cells. Importantly, the vacuoles within these cells appeared to be autophagosomes and autolysosomes, and could be stained with an anti-microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) antibody. Taken together, these findings indicate that the vacuoles we observed within superficial corneal cells of a patient with Lisch corneal dystrophy constituted autophagosomes and autolysosomes; this finding has not been previously reported and suggests a need for further analyses to define the role of autophagy in this ocular disease.


RESUMO A distrofia corneana de Lisch é uma doença rara, caracterizada principalmente pela presença de células altamente vacuoladas. Embora esta característica seja importante, a natureza desses vacúolos dentro das células da córnea permanece des conhecida. Aqui, procuramos analisar as células da córnea de um paciente diagnosticado com distrofia de Lisch para caracte rizar os vacúolos dentro dessas células. Análises utilizando exame histopatológico, microscopia confocal e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão foram todas consistentes com descrições previas de células de Lisch. Importante, os vacúolos dentro dessas células pareciam ser autofagossomos e autolisossomos, e po deriam ser corados com um anticorpo proteico 1A/1B-cadeia leve 3 (LC3) da proteína anti-microtúbulo associado a microtúbulos. Em conjunto, esses achados indicam que os vacúolos observados nas células superficiais da córnea de um paciente com distrofia corneana de Lisch constituíram autofagossomos e autolisossomos. Esse achado não foi relatado anteriormente e sugere a necessidade de mais análises para definir o papel da autofagia nessa doença ocular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Vacuoles/pathology , Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary/pathology , Autophagosomes/pathology , Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary/diagnostic imaging , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , Corneal Opacity/pathology , Corneal Opacity/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/methods , Microautophagy
3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 262-266, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811468

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization 2016 edition assigned anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement-associated renal cell carcinoma (ALK-RCC) as an emerging renal tumor entity. Identifying ALK-RCC is important because ALK inhibitors have been shown to be effective in treatment. Here, we report the case of a 14-year-old young man with ALK-RCC. Computed tomography revealed a well-demarcated 5.3-cm enhancing mass at the upper pole of the left kidney. There was no further history or symptoms of the sickle-cell trait. The patient underwent left radical nephrectomy. Pathologically, the mass was diagnosed as an unclassified RCC. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a TPM3-ALK fusion gene. The present report and literature review demonstrate that TPM3-ALK RCC may be associated with distinct clinicopathological features. Microscopically, the tumors showed diffuse growth and tubulocystic changes with inflammatory cell infiltration. Tumor cells were dis-cohesive and epithelioid with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and cytoplasmic vacuoles. If morphological features and TFE3 expression are present in adolescent and young patients, molecular tests for ALK translocation should be performed. This awareness is critically important, because ALK rearrangement confers sensitivity to ALK inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Cytoplasm , Eosinophils , Gene Rearrangement , Humans , Kidney , Lymphoma , Nephrectomy , Phosphotransferases , Vacuoles , World Health Organization
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: GNE myopathy is a rare progressive myopathy caused by biallelic mutations in the GNE gene, and frequently accompanied by rimmed vacuoles in muscle pathology. The initial symptom of foot drop or hip-girdle weakness eventually spreads to all limbs over a period of decades. Recent advances in pathophysiologic research have facilitated therapeutic trials aimed at resolving the core biochemical defect. However, there remains unsettled heterogeneity in its natural course, which confounds the analysis of therapeutic outcomes. We performed the first large-scale study of Korean patients with GNE myopathy. METHODS: We gathered the genetic and clinical profiles of 44 Korean patients with genetically confirmed GNE myopathy. The clinical progression was estimated retrospectively based on a patient-reported questionnaire on the status of the functional joint sets and daily activities. RESULTS: The wrist and neck were the last joints to lose antigravity functionality irrespective of whether the weakness started from the ankle or hip. Two-thirds of the patients could walk either independently or with an aid. The order of losing daily activities could be sorted from standing to eating. Patients with limb-girdle phenotype showed an earlier age at onset than those with foot-drop onset. Patients with biallelic kinase domain mutations tended to progress more rapidly than those with epimerase and kinase domain mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The reported data can guide the clinical management of GNE myopathy, as well as provide perspective to help the development of clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Ankle , Disease Progression , Eating , Extremities , Foot , Hip , Humans , Joints , Muscular Diseases , Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle , Neck , Pathology , Phenotype , Phosphotransferases , Population Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vacuoles , Wrist
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1424-1432, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771787

ABSTRACT

Important progress has been made in the interpretation of subcellular location, ion transport characteristics and biological functions of endosomal Na⁺,K⁺/H⁺ antiporter in Arabidopsis thaliana. The endosomal Na⁺,K⁺/H⁺ antiporter contain two members, AtNHX5 and AtNHX6, whose amino acid sequence similarity is 78.7%. Studies have shown that AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 are functionally redundant, and they are all located in Golgi, trans-Golgi network (TGN), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and prevacuolar compartment (PVC). AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 are critical for salt tolerance stress and the homeostasis of pH and K⁺. It has been reported that there are conservative acidic amino acid residues that can regulate their ion activity in the endosomal NHXs transmembrane domain, which plays a decisive role in their own functions. The results of the latest research indicate that endosomal NHXs affect vacuolar transport and protein storage, and participate in the growth of auxin-mediated development in A. thaliana. In this paper, the progress of subcellular localization, ion transport, function and application of endosomal NHXs in A. thaliana was summarized.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis Proteins , Endosomes , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers , Vacuoles
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741205

ABSTRACT

Secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland (SC) is a newly introduced rare salivary gland tumor that shares histological, immunohistochemical, and genetic characteristics with secretory carcinoma of the breast. Here, we report the cytologic features of two cases of SC confirmed by surgical resection. In these two cases, SC was incidentally detected in a 64-year-old female and a 56-yearold male. Fine needle aspiration cytology revealed nests of tumor cells with a papillary or glandular structure floating in mucinous secretions. The tumor cells demonstrated uniform, round, smooth nuclear contours and distinct nucleoli. Multiple characteristic cytoplasmic vacuoles were revealed. Singly scattered tumor cells frequently showed variable sized cytoplasmic vacuoles. The cytopathologic diagnosis of SC should be considered when characteristic cytological findings are revealed. Further immunohistochemistry and gene analyses are helpful to diagnose SC.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Breast , Clothing , Cytoplasm , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma , Middle Aged , Mucins , Salivary Glands , Vacuoles
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742290

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine the pathogen-causing diarrhoea in sheep Ovis aries in the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Area, China. A trophozoite was identified as species of ciliate alveolates infecting the sheep based on morphological characteristics examined by microscope. It was mostly spherical, colourless and transparent, with many vesicles. Macronucleus and contractile vacuoles could not be distinguished. Size of the trophozoite was 80–180×70–150 μm and its surface was covered with cilia. Molecular analysis based on sequences of 18S rRNA and ITS genes confirmed the ciliate species as Balantidium coli. According to the literature, there have been many epidemiological investigations of B. coli infection in pigs, monkeys and humans. To our knowledge, this was the first report of B. coli infections in sheep in the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Area of China, or eleswhere around the world. Importantly, the sheep case was rare but raised our concern that B. coli may spread across species and expand its host range.


Subject(s)
Balantidium , China , Cilia , Haplorhini , Host Specificity , Humans , Macronucleus , Sheep , Sheep, Domestic , Swine , Trophozoites , Vacuoles
8.
Mycobiology ; : 114-121, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729789

ABSTRACT

Mon1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor subunit that activates the Ypt7 Rab GTPase and is essential for vacuole trafficking and autophagy in eukaryotic organisms. Here, we identified and characterized the function of Mon1, an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mon1, in a human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans. Mutation in mon1 resulted in hypersensitivity to thermal stress. The mon1 deletion mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to cell wall and endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, the mon1 deletion mutant showed more resistance to the antifungal agent fluconazole. In vivo studies demonstrated that compared to the wild-type strain, the mon1 deletion mutant attenuated virulence in the Galleria mellonella insect model. Moreover, the mon1 deletion mutant was avirulent in the murine inhalation model. These results demonstrate that Mon1 plays a crucial role in stress survival and pathogenicity in C. neoformans.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Cell Wall , Cryptococcus neoformans , Cryptococcus , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Fluconazole , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Inhalation , Insecta , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Vacuoles , Virulence
9.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 118-122, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718262

ABSTRACT

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular tumor with intermediate malignity and metastasis risk. It presents epithelioid cells with intracytoplasmic vacuoles and low mitotic activity. Its vascular nature can be confirmed by immunohistochemical studies (vimentin, CD31, CD34, and factor VIII). It is extremely rare in the nasal cavity, with only one case reported on the middle turbinate in Korea. The authors present a case of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma on the choana with a size of 2mm, which easily coult have been misdiagnosed as a blood clot.


Subject(s)
Epistaxis , Epithelioid Cells , Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid , Korea , Nasal Cavity , Neoplasm Metastasis , Turbinates , Vacuoles
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 698-701, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715891

ABSTRACT

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are heterogeneous disorders with autosomal inheritance. Autosomal dominant LGMD mapped to 7q36.3 has been classified as LGMD type 1D (LGMD1D) in the Human Gene Nomenclature Committee Database. LGMD1D is characterized predominantly by limb-girdle weakness and may also show a bulbar symptom in some cases. In the past, the frequency of this disease was uncommon, and this disorder was mainly found in Europe and the United States. However, recently, this disorder has been reported in Asia, including Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Here, we report on three LGMD1D patients, including one with a novel mutation in DNAJB6, c.298T>A. While two patients complained of limb-girdle weakness, as would be expected, one patient had distal weakness. They had various serum creatine kinase levels. Radiologic findings in one patient showed fatty degeneration and atrophy in the posterior part of distal muscles. Pathologic findings in one of the patients showed rimmed vacuoles. Although LGMD1D is still uncommon in Korea, we discovered three Korean patients with LGMD1D, including one novel mutation in DNAJB6, p.Phe100Ile (c.298T>A).


Subject(s)
Asia , Atrophy , Creatine Kinase , Europe , Humans , Japan , Korea , Muscles , Muscular Diseases , Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle , Taiwan , United States , Vacuoles , Wills
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727861

ABSTRACT

Extra-hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in reproduction. To study the treatment effect of Grin (a novel hGHRH homodimer), the infertility models of 85 male Chinese hamsters were established by intraperitoneally injecting 20 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide once in a week for 5 weeks and the treatment with Grin or human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) as positive control was evaluated by performing a 3-week mating experiment. 2–8 mg/kg of Grin and 200 U/kg of hMG showed similar effect and different pathological characteristics. Compared to the single cyclophosphamide group (0%), the pregnancy rates (H-, M-, L-Grin 26.7, 30.8, 31.3%, and hMG 31.3%) showed significant difference, but there was no difference between the hMG and Grin groups. The single cyclophosphamide group presented loose tubules with pathologic vacuoles and significant TUNEL positive cells. Grin induced less weight of body or testis, compactly aligned tubules with little intra-lumens, whereas hMG caused more weight of body or testis, enlarging tubules with annular clearance. Grin presented a dose-dependent manner or cell differentiation-dependentincrease in testicular GHRH receptor, and did not impact the levels of blood and testicular GH, testosterone. Grin promotes fertility by proliferating and differentiating primitive cells through up-regulating testicular GHRH receptor without triggering GH secretion, which might solve the etiology of oligoasthenozoospermia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cyclophosphamide , Fertility , Gonadotropins , Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone , Humans , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Infertility , Infertility, Male , Male , Male , Pregnancy Rate , Reproduction , Testis , Testosterone , Vacuoles
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-649872

ABSTRACT

Human dermal fibroblast is essential in wound healing of the skin through the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. With respect to oxidative stress, the effects of remifentanil on human dermal fibroblast have received little attention. Therefore, we investigated the effects of remifentanil on the apoptosis and autophagic reaction of human dermal fibroblasts under oxidative stress. The subjects were divided into the following groups: Control group: cells were incubated at 37℃ in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO₂. Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) group: cells were exposed to H₂O₂ for 2 h. RPC/H₂O₂ group: cells were pretreated with remifentanil for 2 h and exposed H₂O₂ for 2 h. 3-MA/RPC/H₂O₂ group: cells were pretreated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and remifentanil for 1 h and 2 h, respectively. We measured cell viability using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression levels of proteins associated with apoptosis and autophagy. Quantification of apoptotic cells was performed using flow cytometer analysis, and autophagic vacuoles were observed under a fluorescence microscope. Remifentanil treatment increased the proliferation of human dermal fibroblast and decreased apoptotic cell death, enhancing autophagic activity under oxidative stress. However, 3-MA, the autophagy pathway inhibitor, inhibited the protective effect of remifentanil in oxidative stress. This study demonstrates that remifentanil activated autophagy and decreased apoptotic death of human dermal fibroblasts under oxidative stress. Our results suggest that remifentanil may help in the treatment of oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Atmosphere , Autophagy , Blotting, Western , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , Fibroblasts , Fluorescence , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Oxidative Stress , Skin , Vacuoles , Wound Healing
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728580

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the cellular toxicities of three clinically used dry eye treatments; 3% diquafosol tetrasodium and hyaluronic acid at 0.3 and 0.18%. A methyl thiazolyltetrazoiun (MTT)-based calorimetric assay was used to assess cellular proliferation and a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay to assess cytotoxicity, using Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to 3% diquafosol tetrasodium, 0.3% hyaluronic acid (HA), or 0.18% HA or 1, 6 or 24 h. Cellular morphology was evaluated by inverted phase-contrast light microscopy and electron microscopy, and wound widths were measured 24 h after confluent HCECs were scratched. Diquafosol had a significant, time-dependent, inhibitory effect on HCEC proliferation and cytotoxicity. HCECs treated with diquafosol detached more from the bottoms of dishes and damaged cells showed degenerative changes, such as, reduced numbers of microvilli, vacuole formation, and chromatin of the nuclear remnant condensed along the nuclear periphery. All significantly stimulated reepithelialization of HCECs scratched, which were less observed in diquafosol. Therefore, epithelial toxicity should be considered after long-term usage of diquafosol and in overdose cases, especially in dry eye patients with pre-existing punctated epithelial erosion.


Subject(s)
Cell Proliferation , Chromatin , Dry Eye Syndromes , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Microscopy , Microscopy, Electron , Microvilli , Vacuoles , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152710

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Autophagy is one of the key responses of cells to programmed cell death. Memantine, an approved anti-dementia drug, has an antiproliferative effect on cancer cells but the mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to test the possibility of induction of autophagic cell death by memantine in glioma cell lines. METHODS: Glioma cell lines (T-98 G and U-251 MG) were used for this study. RESULTS: The antiproliferative effect of memantine was shown on T-98 G cells, which expressed N-methyl-D-aspartate 1 receptor (NMDAR1). Memantine increased the autophagic-related proteins as the conversion ratio of light chain protein 3-II (LC3-II)-/LC3-I and the expression of beclin-1. Memantine also increased formation of autophagic vacuoles observed under a transmission electron microscope. Transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down NMDAR1 in the glioma cells induced resistance to memantine and decreased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio in T-98 G cells. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that in glioma cells, memantine inhibits proliferation and induces autophagy mediated by NMDAR1.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Cell Death , Cell Line , Gastrin-Secreting Cells , Glioma , Memantine , N-Methylaspartate , RNA, Small Interfering , Transfection , Vacuoles
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intravenous palonosetron-HCl, a second-generation antagonist of selective serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptors, can prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). 5-HT3 receptors are abundant in the lower brainstem and the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord, which provides a theoretical rationale for neuraxial administration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for CINV, PONV, and opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. However, there are no reports of neuraxial administration of palonosetron-HCl. Before neuraxial administration of a drug is accepted for clinical use, its safety must be proven. This study was conducted to determine whether neuraxial administration of palonosetron-HCl produces neurologic injury. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats under general anesthesia were catheterized intrathecally and the catheter tip was advanced caudally to the L1 vertebra. After 7 days, 20 µl of normal saline (N group, n = 6) or 20 µl (1 µg) of palonosetron-HCl (P group, n = 6) were injected intrathecally once per day for 2 weeks. Neurotoxic changes were evaluated by light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) of the spinal cord. Behavioral changes were also evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: One of the N group rats and three of the P group rats demonstrated abnormal behavior during intrathecal drug injection, but otherwise their behavior was normal. The spinal cords of the N group did not have any abnormal findings by LM or EM. The spinal cords of the P group had multiple vacuoles in the white matter by LM, especially in the dorsal funiculus, and EM revealed myelin, axonal, and mitochondrial swelling. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that chronic intrathecal administration of palonosetron-HCl produced microscopic morphologic changes in the spinal cords of rats.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Animals , Axons , Brain Stem , Catheters , Humans , Injections, Spinal , Male , Microscopy , Microscopy, Electron , Mitochondrial Swelling , Myelin Sheath , Nausea , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3 , Serotonin , Spinal Cord , Spine , Substantia Gelatinosa , Vacuoles , Vomiting , White Matter
16.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 157-164, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204548

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is believed to be the most prevalent liver disease worldwide and a major cause of chronic liver injury. It is characterized by lipid accumulation in the absence of significant alcohol consumption and frequently progresses to steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although many studies have been conducted to better understand NAFLD since it was first recognized, there are still many gaps in knowledge of etiology, prognosis, prevention and treatment. Methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet, a well-established experimental model of NAFLD in rodents, rapidly and efficiently produces the clinical pathologies including macrovesicular steatosis and leads to disease progression. In this study, we measured the response to MCD diet in C57BL/6N mice obtained from three different sources; Korea NIFDS, USA, and Japan. We evaluated changes in body weight, food consumption, and relative weights of tissues such as liver, kidney, gonadal white adipose tissue, inguinal white adipose tissue, and brown adipose tissue. These basic parameters of mice with an MCD diet were not significantly different among the sources of mice tested. After 3 weeks on an MCD diet, histopathological analyses showed that the MCD diet induced clear fat vacuoles involving most area of the acinus in the liver of all mice. It was accompanied by increased serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and decreased levels of serum triglyceride and cholesterol. In conclusion, the response of C57BL6N mice originating from different sources to the MCD diet showed no significant differences as measured by physiological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue, Brown , Adipose Tissue, White , Alanine Transaminase , Alcohol Drinking , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Body Weight , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cholesterol , Diet , Disease Progression , Fatty Liver , Gonads , Japan , Kidney , Korea , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Methionine , Mice , Models, Theoretical , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Pathology , Prognosis , Rodentia , Triglycerides , Vacuoles , Weights and Measures
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194884

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the histopathological changes of anterior capsule and lens epithelial cells in various types of cataract. METHODS: Patients scheduled for cataract surgery of phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation were enrolled in this study. Anterior capsule tissues sized 5 mm were obtained at the time of continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis during surgery. Histological examination of the obtained tissue was performed by transmission electron microscope. RESULTS: Nuclear cataract showed a uniform cuboidal monolayer of epithelial cells firmly attached to the anterior capsule. But, the mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum were damaged and replaced with vacuoles. Anterior subcapsular cataract showed multilayers of epithelial cells with irregular intracellular structures. Epithelial cells of mature cataract were severely damaged and detached from the anterior capsule, accompanied by expansion of intra-cellular space and a large amount of vacuoles. Epithelial cells were irregular and severely damaged, and intracellular structures were hardly observed in traumatic cataract. Deposition of pseudoexfoliation materials on the anterior capsule was observed in pseudoexfoliation cataract. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in epithelial cells caused by fluid accumulation and electrolyte imbalance in the lens attributes more to cataract formation than do changes the in lens capsule.


Subject(s)
Capsulorhexis , Cataract , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Epithelial Cells , Golgi Apparatus , Humans , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Mitochondria , Phacoemulsification , Vacuoles
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206703

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Previously the authors reported age-related changes in the activities of anti-oxidative enzyme activities and protein expressions in the tongues of rats. Because more information is required about relations between aging and oxidative stress and anti-oxidative enzyme efficiency, the authors investigated differences between the expression of master regulator of anti-oxidative enzymes (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 [Nrf2]), levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial structures in the tongues of young and aged Fischer 344 rats. METHODS: Age-dependent changes in Nrf2 protein and ROS were determined by Western blotting and using chemical kits, respectively. Tongue specimens were examined by electron microscopy. The study was conducted using rats aged 7 months (young, n=8) or 22 months (old, n=8). RESULTS: Nrf2 protein levels in the tongues of aged rats were lower than in young rats. ROS levels were higher in older rats and mitochondrial structural deficits were observed their tongues. Three young rats showed moderate mitochondrial degeneration, whereas profound degeneration with mitochondrial cristae disruption, swelling, rupture, or intramitochondrial vacuole formation was observed in all 8 old rats. Notably, mitochondrial rupture was observed in 5 old rats. CONCLUSION: Antioxidant defense systems of old rats were compromised by Nrf2 deficiency, which could lead to the deleterious accumulation and release of ROS and probably mitochondrial structural deficits in aged tongue tissues.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Blotting, Western , Microscopy, Electron , Mitochondria , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rupture , Tongue , Vacuoles
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110371

ABSTRACT

Thymic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare. Although its histologic features have been occasionally reported, a lack of description of the cytologic features has hampered the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this condition. Herein, we describe the cytologic findings and histology of four aspiration cytology specimens of thymic adenocarcinoma. The specimens were obtained from primary tumors, metastatic lymph nodes, and pericardial effusions. All four specimens showed three-dimensional glandular clusters with a loss of polarity and nuclear overlapping. One specimen had extensive extracellular mucinous material. Three specimens contained tumor cells with intracytoplasmic vacuoles. While the specimen with extracellular mucin showed relatively mild cytologic atypia, other specimens exhibited more atypical cytologic changes: irregular nuclear membranes, a coarse chromatin pattern, and prominent nucleoli. The cytologic features were correlated with the histologic features in each case of enteric type thymic adenocarcinoma. The differential diagnosis included other thymic carcinomas, yolk sac tumors, and metastatic adenocarcinoma from the lung or colorectum.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Chromatin , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Endodermal Sinus Tumor , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Mediastinum , Mucins , Nuclear Envelope , Pericardial Effusion , Thymoma , Thymus Gland , Vacuoles
20.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 187-199, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50233

ABSTRACT

Tobacco smoking has been identified as an important factor in premature skin aging to detect the histological changes occurred in adult male guinea pig thin skin under the influence of low and high doses of nicotine; which constitutes approximately 0.6%–3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco. Fifteen adult male pigmented guinea pigs were equally divided into three groups: group I, control; group IIA, low dose nicotine treated; 3 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks; and group IIB, high dose nicotine treated; 6 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks. Specimens from the back thin skin were processed for light and electron microscopy. Nicotine administration revealed flattened dermo-epidermal junction and reduced rete ridges formation. Collagen bundles were disorganized with increased spaces between them. A reduction in the amount of elastic fibers in the dermis were also observed compared to group I. Ultrastructurally, keratinocytes had hyperchromatic nuclei, intracytoplasmic vacuoles, disruption of desmosomal junctions, irregular tonofilaments distribution, and increased inter-cellular spaces. These changes were more pronounced with high dose nicotine administration. The epidermal thickness was reduced in low dose nicotine administration. But, high dose nicotine administration revealed increased epidermal thickness compared to the control group. Nicotine induced structural changes of adult male guinea pig thin skin. These changes were more pronounced with high dose nicotine administration.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Collagen , Dermis , Elastic Tissue , Guinea Pigs , Guinea , Humans , Intermediate Filaments , Keratinocytes , Male , Microscopy, Electron , Nicotine , Skin Aging , Skin , Smoking , Tobacco , Vacuoles
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