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Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 367-373, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980730


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the brain effect mechanism and the correlation between brain functional imaging and cognitive function in treatment of depressive disorder (DD) with transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) based on the resting-state functional magenetic reasonance imaging (rs-fMRI).@*METHODS@#Thirty-two DD patients were included in a depression group and 32 subjects of healthy condition were enrolled in a normal group. In the depression group, the taVNS was applied to bilateral Xin (CO15) and Shen (CO10), at disperse-dense wave, 4 Hz/20 Hz in frequency and current intensity ≤20 mA depending on patient's tolerance, 30 min each time, twice daily. The duration of treatment consisted of 8 weeks. The patients of two groups were undertaken rs-fMRI scanning. The scores of Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) were observed in the normal group at baseline and the depression group before and after treatment separately. The differential brain regions were observed before and after treatment in the two groups and the value of degree centrality (DC) of fMRI was obtained. Their correlation was analyzed in terms of HAMD, HAMA and WCST scores.@*RESULTS@#The scores of HAMD and HAMA in the depression group were all higher than those in the normal group (P<0.05). After treatment, the scores of HAMD and HAMA were lower than those before treatment in the depression group; the scores of total responses, response errors and perseverative errors of WCST were all lower than those before treatment (P<0.05). The brain regions with significant differences included the left inferior temporal gyrus, the left cerebellar peduncles region 1, the left insula, the right putamen, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the right middle frontal gyrus. After treatment, the value of DC in left supplementary motor area was negatively correlated to HAMD and HAMA scores respectively (r=-0.324, P=0.012; r=-0.310, P=0.015); the value of DC in left cerebellar peduncles region 1 was negatively correlated to the total responses of WCST (r=-0.322, P=0.013), and the left insula was positively correlated to the total responses of WCST (r=0.271, P=0.036).@*CONCLUSION@#The taVNS can modulate the intensity of the functional activities of some brain regions so as to relieve depressive symptoms and improve cognitive function.

Humans , Depression/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/methods , Vagus Nerve
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 19-25, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362069


Introduction Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjuvant therapy used in the treatment of patients with refractory epilepsy who are not candidates for resective surgery or who have limited results after surgical procedures. Currently, there is enough evidence to support its use in patients with various types of epilepsy. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the possibility of optimizing therapy by reducing the consumption of the system's battery. Methods The prospective and double-blind analysis consisted in the evaluation of 6 patients submitted to VNS implantation for 3 months, followed by adjustment of the stimulation settings and continuity of follow-up for another month. The standard protocol was replaced by another with a frequency value of 20 Hz instead of 30 Hz to increase battery life. The safety of this procedure was evaluated through the assessment of two main variables: seizures and side effects. Results The stimulation at 20 Hz showed 68% reduction in the incidence of seizures (p»0.054) as well as low incidence of side effects. Conclusion The present study suggests that the reduction of the stimulation frequency from 30 to 20 Hz is a safe procedure, and it does not compromise the effectiveness of therapy.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Seizures/therapy , Vagus Nerve/anatomy & histology , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/adverse effects , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/therapy , Quality of Life , Seizures/prevention & control , Locus Coeruleus , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Treatment Outcome , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Implantable Neurostimulators
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 363-368, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927389


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the modulation of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) on default mode network (DMN) in patients with primary insomnia (PI).@*METHODS@#A total of 22 PI patients (one patient dropped off and two patients were excluded) were included and treated with taVNS. The bilateral auricular points of Xin (CO15) and Shen (CO10) were selected and treated with disperse-dense wave at frequency of 4 Hz/20 Hz, the intensity was based on the patient's tolerance. taVNS was given once in the morning and once in the evening for 30 minutes each time. The treatment lasted for at least 5 days a week for 4 weeks. At the same time, 16 healthy subjects matched with gender and age were recruited. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) score was evaluated before and after treatment in PI patients. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data of PI patients before and after treatment and healthy subjects at baseline period were collected to observe the effect of taVNS on the functional connection (FC) between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and whole brain.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the total score of PSQI in PI patients was lower than that before treatment (P<0.01). Compared with healthy subjects, the FC of the left PCC was increased either with the left orbital superior frontal gyrus or with left middle frontal gyrus (P<0.001), and the FC between right PCC and left middle frontal gyrus was increased in PI patients before treatment (P<0.001). Compared before treatment, the FC between left PCC and left middle frontal gyrus was decreased (P<0.05), and the FC of the right PCC was decreased either with the right medial prefrontal cortex or with the left middle frontal gyrus in PI patients after treatment (P<0.001, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#taVNS can modulate the FC between anterior and posterior DMN, and between DMN and cognitive control network of PI patients, which may be one of the brain effect mechanisms of taVNS in the treatment of PI patients.

Humans , Brain/physiology , Default Mode Network , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Vagus Nerve , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods
Rev. méd. Hosp. José Carrasco Arteaga ; 10(3): 256-259, nov. 2018. Imagenes
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999911


INTRODUCCIÓN: El síndrome de Wolff Parkinson White se caracteriza por la conexión anómala entre la aurícula y el ventrículo durante el paso del estímulo sinusal, generalmente causada por una vía accesoria que conecta el músculo auricular con el músculo ventricular llamado haz de Kent, caracterizándose por la presencia de síntomas como: palpitaciones, sincope o muerte súbita y sumado a la presencia de onda delta, intervalo PR corto, QRS ancho y alteraciones de la repolarización ventricular en el electrocardiograma. El estudio electrofisiológico tiene como objetivo confirmar la presencia, localización y características de este haz anómalo y posteriormente, con seguridad, proceder a la ablación por radiofrecuencia eliminando esta vía accesoria, siendo considerado un procedimiento curativo en el caso del síndrome de Wolff Parkinson White. Durante el estudio se realiza estimulaciones eléctricas en los sitios específicos, tanto de la aurícula como del ventrículo, además se utiliza medicación intravenosa como la adenosina que actúa bloqueando al nódulo aurículoventricular y así observar el paso residual de la estimulación sinusal normal y/o el paso retrogrado del estímulo ventricular hacia la aurícula a través del haz de Kent, permitiendo de esta forma analizar las características de las conexiones aurículoventriculares previo a la ablación. La posibilidad de realizar una estimulación vagal selectiva de alta frecuencia y baja amplitud a nivel infraorbitario, descrita por Pachón et al [1], a través de la vena yugular interna y el consecuente bloqueo aurículoventricular transitorio que esta ocasiona, permite realizar el estudio sin necesidad de utilizar otras maniobras electrofisiológicas o medicación endovenosa

BACKGROUND: Wolff Parkinson White Syndrome is characterized by the bypass of the electrical signal through an abnormal pathway, different from the atrioventricular node that connects the atrial and ventricular muscles (Bundle of Kent). It presents with palpitations, syncope or can even cause sudden death. Electrocardiogram findings consist on Delta waves, shortened PR interval, widened QRS complex and altering of the ventricular repolarization. In the presence of Ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff Parkinson White Syndrome), the electrophysiological testing is key to confirm the presence, site and features of this accessory pathway. Later, with the certainty of the diagnosis proceed to perform the Radiofrequency Ablation, the definitive treatment to eliminate this abnormal pathway. This test is usually done with the use of electrophysiological maneuvers, stimulating key sites in the atria and the ventricle, with the help of intravenous drugs like Adenosine. The objective is to block the AV node to look how the remnants of the normal electrical signal move through the abnormal pathway, thus letting the physician analyze the characteristics previously mentioned of this pathway. After the ablation, these maneuvers are repeated to confirm the complete elimination of the accessory pathway that has direct relation with the prognostic. Based on the possibility of high frequency and low amplitude selective vagal stimulation described by Pachón et al [1], at infraorbital level through the internal jugular vein and the resulting transitory atrioventricular block. It is possible to study the abnormal pathway without the need of electrophysiological maneuvers or the use of IV drugs, either pre or post ablation.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac/trends , Cardiac Electrophysiology/methods , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome , Heart
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(9): 657-666, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888329


ABSTRACT Vagus nerve stimulation is an adjunctive therapy used to treat patients with refractory epilepsy who are not candidates for resective surgery or had poor results after surgical procedures. Its mechanism of action is not yet fully comprehended but it possibly involves modulation of the locus coeruleus, thalamus and limbic circuit through noradrenergic and serotonergic projections. There is sufficient evidence to support its use in patients with focal epilepsy and other seizure types. However, it should be recognized that improvement is not immediate and increases over time. The majority of adverse events is stimulation-related, temporary and decreases after adjustment of settings. Future perspectives to improve efficacy and reduce side effects, such as different approaches to increase battery life, transcutaneous stimulation and identification of prognostic factors, should be further investigated.

RESUMO A estimulação vagal é uma terapia paliativa utilizada no tratamento de pacientes com epilepsia refratária que não são candidatos à cirurgia ressectiva ou naqueles com evolução insatisfatória após o procedimento cirúrgico. Seu mecanismo de ação ainda não foi completamente elucidado mas possivelmente envolve a modulação do locus coeruleus, tálamo e circuito límbico através de projeções noradrenérgicas e serotoninérgicas. Atualmente há evidência suficiente para corroborar o uso desta terapia em pacientes com epilepsia focal e outros tipos de crise, com resultados que, apesar de não imediatos, melhoram progressivamente no longo prazo. Os eventos adversos são, em sua maioria, relacionados à estimulação e auto-limitados. Perspectivas futuras para aumentar a eficácia e reduzir os efeitos colaterais como a utilização de baterias com maior durabilidade, estimulação transcutânea e identificação de fatores prognósticos devem ser investigadas.

Humans , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy
Lima; s.n; feb. 2017. ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-848741


INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente informe está referido a la evaluación de la eficacia y seguridad del dispositivo médico Estimulador del Nervio Vago (ENV) en pacientes con el diagnóstico de Epilepsia Resistente a Fármacos, solicitado por el Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Aspectos Generales: La Epilepsia, es un transtorno neurológico de tendencia crónica que afecta a adultos y niños; en el mundo, unos 50 millones de personas padecen de epilepsia y es la causa de defunción más común de caso neurológico a nival mundial. La Epilepsia se caracteriza por convulsiones recurrentes, que pueden ser episodios de movimientos involuntários que afectan una parte del cuerpo (convulciones parciales) o a todo el cuerpo (convulciones generalizadas) que puede acompañarse de pérdida de conciencia y de control de los esfínteres. Tecnología Sanitaria de Interés: El dispositivo Estimulador del Nervio Vago es similar a un marcapaso, el cual se conecta mediante una vía al nervio que cruza por el lado izquierdo dek cuello. Este dispositivo es colocado por debajo de la clavícula, este aparato es programado para generar estímulos eléctros repetidos, a intensidades seleccionadas y regulares, que, al estimular el nervio vago, tiene como objetivo el reducir la frencuencia de crisis epilépticas. METODOLOGÍA: Estrategia de Búsqueda: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de la evidencia científica con respecto a la seguridad y eficacia del dispositivo denominado Estimulador del Nervio Vago (ENV) usado en pacientes con epilepsia fármaco resistente que no son tributarios de tratamiento quirúrgico por lesión cerebral focal. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos: Pubmed, Tripdatabase, Science Direct, Embase, EBSCO; además, de la información proporcionada por grupos internacionales o agencias internacionales de que realizan revisiones sistemáticas, evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias y guías de práctica clínica, tales como The Cochrane Library, el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia en Cuidado (NICE), The National Guideline Clearinhouse (NGC), The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). Finalmente, se hizouna búsqueda en, para poder identificar ensayos aún en elaboración o que no hayan sido publicados. RESULTADOS: Lugeo de la búsqueda realizada se encontró evidencia científica que evaluaron la eficacia y seguridad del dispositivo ENV para pacientes con epilepsia fármaco resistente que no son tributarios de tratamiento quirúrgico por lesión cerebral focal. Sinopsis de la Evidenvia: Se encontró evidencia acerca de la eficacia del dispositivo Estimulador del Nervio Vago (ENV) usado en pacientes con epilepsia fármaco resistente que no son tributarios de tratamiento quirúrgico por lesión cerebral focal: -Guías de Práctica Clínica (GPC): 02 Guías de Práctica Clínica; -Revisiones Sistemáticas (RS) y Metanálisis (ME): 02 selecionadas; -Evaluaciones de Tecnología Sanitaria (ETS) y Económicas: 02 ETS; -Estudios Experimentales: Incluidos en los estudios de revisiones sistemáticas y metanálisis; -Estudios Observacionales: ninguno seleccionado; -Ensayos clínicos en proceso: ninguno. Conclusiones: Esta evaluación de tecnología santiaria llevada a cabo por el Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación (IETSI) ha determinado que el uso del dispositivo Estimulador del nervio vago como tratamiento adyuvante para la Epilepsia Refractaria es eficaz para la reducción de las crisis epilépticas, ya que su efecto alcanzaría en la reducción de las crisis epilépticas, ya que su efecto alcanzaría en la reducción de hasta un 50% de las crisis epilépticas en el 50% de los pacientes tratados con el dispositivo. El dispositivo estimulador del nervio vago se muestra seguro en los pacientes con epilpsia refractaria, ya que los eventos adversos reportados no han impedido su uso en los pacientes con epilepsia refractaria. Se ha determinado que el uso del Dispositivo estimulador del nervio vago no disminuye la cantidad de medicamentos antiepilépticos en los pacientes con epilepsia refractaria. El dispositvo ENV debe utilizarse como terapia adyuante para la reducción de las crisis epilépticas. Hace falta mayores estudios que evidencien el efecto del dispositivo Estimulador del Nervio Vago en la calidad de vida de los pacientes o en la disminución de sus controles médicos o el número de hospitalizaciones. A pesar de que los resultados mostrados en la evidencia científica revisada no son alentadores, los médicos especialistas neurólogos y nerucirujanos, expresaron que el dispositivo estimulador del nervio vago representa la última alternativa que tienen este tipo de pacientes como tratamiento paliativo para disminuir la frecuencia de convulciones hasta en un 50% en un grupo de entre 30% a 50% de ellos, loo que podría traducirse en una mejora al menos modesta de su calidad de vida. El Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación aprueba el uso del dispositivo estimulador del nervio vago para pacientes con epilepsia refractaria. La aprobación del uso de este dispositivo tiene una vigencia de 02 años a partir d ela fecha de publicación.

Humans , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/rehabilitation , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Electrical Equipment and Supplies , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Treatment Outcome
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 72(7): 542-547, 07/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714585


We reviewed trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) and transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS). All techniques have shown preliminary promising results, although the results are mixed. Method: We performed a systematic review of the Medline and Embase databases, with no constraint to dates, through June 2013. The keywords were [(1) trigeminal nerve stimulation OR (2) cranial nerve OR (3) trigemin* OR (4) transcutaneous VNS OR (5) transcutaneous cranial nerve stimulation] and (6) mental disorders. Results: We included four preclinical and clinical five studies on TNS. All clinical data were based on open-label studies with small samples, which diminished the external validity of the results, thus reflecting the modest impact of TNS in current clinical practice. Of the tVNS clinical trials, three assessed physiological features in healthy volunteers, and one examined patients with epilepsy. Conclusion: TNS and tVNS improve treatment of particular neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. .

O uso de estimulação de nervos cranianos de maneira transcutânea tem sido uma estratégia em desenvolvimento recente. Diferentes estudos apontam para resultados clínicos favoráveis no tratamento de diferentes quadros neuropsiquiátricos. Método: Revisão sistemática da literatura com base nas bibliotecas eletrônicas Medline e Embase, sem restrição de data inicial, até agosto de 2013. Os termos de busca utilizados foram [(1) trigeminal nerve stimulation OR (2) cranial nerve OR (3) trigemin* OR (4) transcutaneous VNS OR (5) transcutaneous cranial nerve stimulation] and (6) mental disorders. Resultados: Incluímos quatro estudos pré-clinicos e cinco estudos clínicos abordando estimulação do nervo trigêmeo. Todos os estudos foram abertos, com pequenas amostras, o que reduz a validade externa dos dados, refletindo a ainda incipiente atuação da técnica, apesar de promissora. Considerando-se a estimulação do nervo vago, três artigos avaliaram aspectos fisiológicos em voluntários saudáveis e um artigo estudou pacientes com epilepsia. Conclusão: As estratégias de estimulação transcutânea de nervos cranianos, apesar de incipiente, tem demonstrado resultados clínicos favoráveis no tratamento de distúrbios neuropsiquiátricos. .

Female , Humans , Male , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/methods , Trigeminal Nerve/physiology , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Mental Disorders/therapy , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. neurol ; 49(1)jan.-mar. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-676570


A Síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut (SLG) é uma encefalopatia epiléptica grave da infância caracterizada por múltiplos tipos de crises intratáveis, anormalidades cognitivas e comportamentais e alterações eletroencefalográficas características. Na grande maioria dos casos as crises se tornam refratárias mesmo com politerapia, sendo indicado tratamentos alternativos. O uso de calosotomia é descrito para ajudar no controle das crises, entretanto novas terapias como o estimulador de nervo vago (ENV) começaram a ser utilizadas. Neste caso, relatamos um paciente com SLG, que apesar das drogas antiepilépticas apresentava crises diárias, que foi submetido a ENV, com redução das crises. Discutimos o tratamento não farmacológico da SLG, comparando a calosotomia com ENV...

The Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) is a severe childhood epileptic encephalopathy characterized by multiple types of intractable seizures, cognitive and behavioral abnormalities and specific electroencephalographic features. Most patients are refractory even with polytherapy, so alternative treatment is indicated. Callosotomy is indicated in these cases, however vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is a less invasive option. This is a case report of a patient with LGS, which despite antiepileptic drugs had daily seizures, who underwent VNS, with reduction of seizures. We discuss the nonpharmacological treatment of LGS, comparing the callosotomy with VNS...

Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Epilepsy, Absence/diagnosis , Epilepsy, Absence/drug therapy , Epilepsy/surgery , Epilepsy/complications , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(1): 25-30, Jan. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662415


INTRODUCTION: Refractory epilepsy accounts for 20 to 30% of epilepsy cases and remains a challenge for neurologists. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an option for palliative treatment. OBJECTIVE: It was to study the efficacy and tolerability of VNS in patients implanted with a stimulator at the Curitiba Institute of Neurology (INC). METHODS: A case study of six patients with refractory epilepsy submitted to a VNS procedure at the INC in the last four years was described and discussed. RESULTS: Mean age at time of implantation was 29 years. Mean follow-up was 26.6 months. Seizure frequency decreased in all patients (40-50% (n=2) and >80% (n=4)). Three patients no longer required frequent hospitalizations. Two patients previously restricted to wheelchairs started to walk, probably because of improved mood. CONCLUSION: In this population, VNS proved to be a sound therapeutic option for treating refractory epilepsy.

INTRODUÇÃO: Epilepsias refratárias compreendem de 20 a 30% dos casos de epilepsia e constituem desafio clínico. A neuroestimulação do nervo vago (VNS) é uma opção de tratamento paliativo. OBJETIVOS: Foi estudar a eficácia e a tolerabilidade da VNS nos pacientes implantados no Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC). MÉTODOS: Um estudo de casos de seis pacientes com epilepsia refratária, submetidos à VNS no INC em quatro anos, foi descrito e discutido. RESULTADOS: A média de idade na implantação foi 29 anos. O seguimento médio foi 26,6 meses. A frequência de crises diminuiu em todos os pacientes (40-50% em um paciente e >80% em quatro). Três pacientes deixaram de internar frequentemente. Dois pacientes restritos a cadeiras de rodas começaram a andar, provavelmente por melhora de seu humor. CONCLUSÃO: Nesta população, a VNS provou ser uma excelente opção no tratamento de epilepsia refratária.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Electrodes, Implanted , Epilepsy/therapy , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Electrodes, Implanted/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/instrumentation
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 68(3): 433-451, June 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-550281


The use of neuromodulation as a treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) has recently attracted renewed interest due to development of other non-pharmacological therapies besides electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). METHOD: We convened a working group of researchers to discuss the updates and key challenges of neuromodulation use for the treatment of MDD. RESULTS: The state-of-art of neuromodulation techniques was reviewed and discussed in four sections: [1] epidemiology and pathophysiology of MDD; [2] a comprehensive overview of the neuromodulation techniques; [3] using neuromodulation techniques in MDD associated with non-psychiatric conditions; [4] the main challenges of neuromodulation research and alternatives to overcome them. DISCUSSION: ECT is the first-line treatment for severe depression. TMS and tDCS are strategies with a relative benign profile of side effects; however, while TMS effects are comparable to antidepressant drugs for treating MDD; further research is needed to establish the role of tDCS. DBS and VNS are invasive strategies with a possible role in treatment-resistant depression. In summary, MDD is a chronic and incapacitating condition with a high prevalence; therefore clinicians should consider all the treatment options including invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation approaches.

O uso de técnicas de neuromodulação para o tratamento do transtorno depressivo maior (TDM) tem despertado um renovado interesse nos últimos anos com o desenvolvimento de outras intervenções não-farmacólogicas além da eletroconvulsoterapia (ECT), como a estimulação magnética transcraniana (EMT), a estimulação transcraniana por corrente continua (ETCC), a estimulação cerebral profunda (DBS) e a estimulação de nervo vago (VNS). MÉTODO: Nós organizamos um grupo de trabalho com vários pesquisadores para discutir os avanços recentes e os principais desafios para o uso da neuromodulação no tratamento do TDM. RESULTADOS: O estado-da-arte da neuromodulação foi revisado e discutido em quatro seções: [1] epidemiologia e fisiopatologia do TDM; [2] uma revisão das técnicas de neuromodulação; [3] o uso das técnicas de neuromodulação na depressão que ocorre associada ou em virtude de condições não-psiquiátricas; [4] os principais desafios da pesquisa na neuromodulação e alternativas para superá-los. DISCUSSÃO: ECT é o tratamento de primeira linha para depressão grave. EMT e ETCC são estratégias com um perfil benigno de efeitos adversos; contudo, enquanto os efeitos da EMT são comparáveis ao das drogas antidepressivas para o tratamento da TDM, a eficácia da ETCC ainda precisa ser estabelecida por mais pesquisas clínicas. DBS e VNS são intervenções invasivas com um papel possível para a depressão refratária. Em resumo, TDM é uma condição crônica, incapacitante e de alta prevalência; portanto na prática clínica todas as opções de tratamento possíveis, incluindo as farmacológicas e não-farmacológicas, devem ser consideradas.

Humans , Depressive Disorder, Major/therapy , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Electroconvulsive Therapy/methods , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods , Brazil , Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Depressive Disorder, Major/physiopathology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods
Cir. & cir ; 78(1): 15-24, ene.-feb. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-565713


Introducción: El papel de la estimulación crónica intermitente del nervio vago (ECINV) en el tratamiento de la epilepsia refractaria está evolucionando y requiere precisarse mediante la descripción de resultados, efectos adversos y complicaciones en poblaciones específicas. Material y métodos: Se seleccionaron los pacientes con epilepsia refractaria sometidos a ECINV con mínimo 12 meses de seguimiento, utilizando estadística descriptiva e inferencial para valorar el efecto sobre la frecuencia e intensidad de las crisis, memoria, ánimo, estado de alerta, recuperación postictal y calidad de vida (escala subjetiva, cuestionario QoLIE-31), y los factores (sexo, edad, tiempo de evolución, número/tipo crisis, parámetros de estimulación) asociados a la respuesta clínica. Se describen los parámetros de estimulación usados, empleo del magneto, complicaciones y efectos adversos. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 35 pacientes, edad de cinco a 48 años, 18 con epilepsia parcial, 17 con generalizada. No hubo complicaciones, infección o alteración de la cicatrización en los procedimientos quirúrgicos. La reducción promedio en crisis fue de 55.65 % (p < 0.001). En epilepsias generalizadas hubo 58.8 % de respondedores y 88.9 % en parciales. Cuatro sujetos presentaron mejoría > 90 %, con control total; en dos pacientes aumentó la frecuencia de las crisis. La respuesta al tratamiento fue buena subjetivamente en 33 pacientes. La calificación global de QoLIE-31 aumentó 12.6 puntos (p = 0.020). Solo el tipo de crisis se asoció con la respuesta clínica. Los efectos adversos fueron transitorios y respondieron al cambio de parámetros de estimulación. Conclusiones: la ECINV es segura, bien tolerada y eficaz para el tratamiento paliativo en casos seleccionados de crisis parciales y generalizadas multifocales refractarias.

BACKGROUND: The role of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) in the treatment of refractory epilepsy is still evolving and requires precision through extensive description of acute and chronic results, adverse effects and complications in specific populations. METHODS: We selected patients with refractory epilepsy subjected to VNS who had completed at least a 12-month followup. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to review and assess the effects of VNS on seizure frequency/intensity, memory, alertness, mood, postictal recovery, and quality of life (subjective scale, QoL IE-31 inventory) as well as factors (gender, age, age of onset, time of surgery, stimulation parameters, seizure frequency and type) associated with clinical response. We describe stimulation parameters, complications and adverse effects compared to other series. RESULTS: We selected 35 patients with an age range of 5-48 years; 18 patients presented partial epilepsy and 17 generalized epilepsy. All procedures and wound healing were uneventful, and no infections were reported. Median reduction in seizure frequency was 55.65% (p <0.001). Four patients showed improvement of >90%. Two patients became seizure free, whereas seizure frequency increased in two patients. The subjectively qualified response to treatment was good in 33 patients. The mean global increase in the QoLIE-31 Scale was 12.6 (p = 0.020). Improvements in memory, mood, alertness and postictal recovery period were documented. Only seizure type showed statistically significant association with clinical response. Adverse effects were transitory and responded to changes in stimulation parameters. CONCLUSIONS: VNS is a safe, feasible, well-tolerated and effective palliative treatment in appropriately selected cases of refractory partial and multifocal generalized seizures.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Epilepsy/therapy , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Affect , Awareness , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Palliative Care , Combined Modality Therapy , Electrodes, Implanted , Epilepsy, Generalized/drug therapy , Epilepsy, Generalized/epidemiology , Epilepsy, Generalized/therapy , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsies, Partial/drug therapy , Epilepsies, Partial/epidemiology , Epilepsies, Partial/therapy , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/adverse effects , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/instrumentation , Memory , Mexico/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome