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1.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 367-373, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980730

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the brain effect mechanism and the correlation between brain functional imaging and cognitive function in treatment of depressive disorder (DD) with transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) based on the resting-state functional magenetic reasonance imaging (rs-fMRI).@*METHODS@#Thirty-two DD patients were included in a depression group and 32 subjects of healthy condition were enrolled in a normal group. In the depression group, the taVNS was applied to bilateral Xin (CO15) and Shen (CO10), at disperse-dense wave, 4 Hz/20 Hz in frequency and current intensity ≤20 mA depending on patient's tolerance, 30 min each time, twice daily. The duration of treatment consisted of 8 weeks. The patients of two groups were undertaken rs-fMRI scanning. The scores of Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) were observed in the normal group at baseline and the depression group before and after treatment separately. The differential brain regions were observed before and after treatment in the two groups and the value of degree centrality (DC) of fMRI was obtained. Their correlation was analyzed in terms of HAMD, HAMA and WCST scores.@*RESULTS@#The scores of HAMD and HAMA in the depression group were all higher than those in the normal group (P<0.05). After treatment, the scores of HAMD and HAMA were lower than those before treatment in the depression group; the scores of total responses, response errors and perseverative errors of WCST were all lower than those before treatment (P<0.05). The brain regions with significant differences included the left inferior temporal gyrus, the left cerebellar peduncles region 1, the left insula, the right putamen, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the right middle frontal gyrus. After treatment, the value of DC in left supplementary motor area was negatively correlated to HAMD and HAMA scores respectively (r=-0.324, P=0.012; r=-0.310, P=0.015); the value of DC in left cerebellar peduncles region 1 was negatively correlated to the total responses of WCST (r=-0.322, P=0.013), and the left insula was positively correlated to the total responses of WCST (r=0.271, P=0.036).@*CONCLUSION@#The taVNS can modulate the intensity of the functional activities of some brain regions so as to relieve depressive symptoms and improve cognitive function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depression/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/methods , Vagus Nerve
2.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(3): 283-289, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407923

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: La lesión del nervio laríngeo recurrente es una grave complicación en cirugía tiroidea. El propósito del presente estudio es analizar la utilidad de la neuromonitorización vagal continua intraoperatoria en un hospital terciario. Materiales y Método: Estudio observacional, analítico y retrospectivo que recoge pacientes intervenidos de cirugía tiroidea con neuromonitorización en un período de 14 meses. La pérdida de señal se define como amplitud final nerviosa < 100 ^V, realizándose laringoscopia postquirúrgica ante la sospecha de lesión nerviosa. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el programa SPSS® V25,0, con p < 0,05. Resultados: Se incluyeron 120 pacientes intervenidos, registrándose en el 24,2% pérdida de señal. Factores de riesgo para lesión fueron bocio intratorácico (OR 5,31; IC 95% 1,56-17,99; p = 0,007), cirugía cervical previa (OR 5,76; IC 95% 0,64-51,97; p = 0,119) y patología maligna (OR 1,44; IC 95% 0,16-12,79; p = 0,743). Fue posible el cambio de estrategia quirúrgica en 7 casos. En el seguimiento posterior se cuantificó parálisis recurrencial transitoria en 27 pacientes y permanente en 4. Discusión: La neuromonitorización parece reducir la incidencia de parálisis laríngea porque aumenta la seguridad en la identificación del nervio recurrente y reduce su manipulación durante la cirugía. Conclusiones: La neuromonitorización intraoperatoria es útil para identificar el nervio laríngeo recurrente y advierte del riesgo potencial de lesión, permitiendo cambiar la estrategia quirúrgica para evitar la parálisis bilateral de cuerdas vocales.


Aim: Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury is a serious complication in thyroid surgery. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the use of intraoperative continuous vagal neuromonitoring in a tertiary hospital. Materials and Method: Observational, analytical and retrospective study that includes patients who underwent thyroid surgery with neuromonitoring in a period of 14 months. Loss of signal is defined as final nerve amplitude < 100 ^V, and postsurgical laryngoscopy is performed due to suspicion of nerve injury. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS® V25.0 program, with p < 0.05. Results: 120 operated patients were included, registering loss of signal in 24.2%. Risk factors for injury were intrathoracic goiter (OR 5.31; 95% CI 1.56-17.99; p = 0.007), previous cervical surgery (OR 5.76; 95% CI 0.64-51.97; p = 0.119) and malignant pathology (OR 1.44; 95% CI 0.16-12.79; p = 0.743). A change in surgical strategy was possible in 7 cases. In the subsequent follow-up, transient recurrent paralysis was quantified in 27 patients and permanent in 4. Discussion: Neuromonitoring seems to reduce the incidence of laryngeal paralysis because it increases the security in the identification of the recurrent nerve and reduces its manipulation during surgery. Conclusions: Intraoperative neuromonitoring is useful to identify the recurrent laryngeal nerve and warns of the potential risk of injury, allowing to change the surgical strategy to avoid bilateral vocal cord paralysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/pathology , Thyroid Gland/surgery , Vagus Nerve , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Monitoring, Intraoperative
3.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 19-25, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362069

ABSTRACT

Introduction Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjuvant therapy used in the treatment of patients with refractory epilepsy who are not candidates for resective surgery or who have limited results after surgical procedures. Currently, there is enough evidence to support its use in patients with various types of epilepsy. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the possibility of optimizing therapy by reducing the consumption of the system's battery. Methods The prospective and double-blind analysis consisted in the evaluation of 6 patients submitted to VNS implantation for 3 months, followed by adjustment of the stimulation settings and continuity of follow-up for another month. The standard protocol was replaced by another with a frequency value of 20 Hz instead of 30 Hz to increase battery life. The safety of this procedure was evaluated through the assessment of two main variables: seizures and side effects. Results The stimulation at 20 Hz showed 68% reduction in the incidence of seizures (p»0.054) as well as low incidence of side effects. Conclusion The present study suggests that the reduction of the stimulation frequency from 30 to 20 Hz is a safe procedure, and it does not compromise the effectiveness of therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Seizures/therapy , Vagus Nerve/anatomy & histology , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/adverse effects , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/therapy , Quality of Life , Seizures/prevention & control , Locus Coeruleus , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Treatment Outcome , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Implantable Neurostimulators
4.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 363-368, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927389

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the modulation of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) on default mode network (DMN) in patients with primary insomnia (PI).@*METHODS@#A total of 22 PI patients (one patient dropped off and two patients were excluded) were included and treated with taVNS. The bilateral auricular points of Xin (CO15) and Shen (CO10) were selected and treated with disperse-dense wave at frequency of 4 Hz/20 Hz, the intensity was based on the patient's tolerance. taVNS was given once in the morning and once in the evening for 30 minutes each time. The treatment lasted for at least 5 days a week for 4 weeks. At the same time, 16 healthy subjects matched with gender and age were recruited. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) score was evaluated before and after treatment in PI patients. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data of PI patients before and after treatment and healthy subjects at baseline period were collected to observe the effect of taVNS on the functional connection (FC) between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and whole brain.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the total score of PSQI in PI patients was lower than that before treatment (P<0.01). Compared with healthy subjects, the FC of the left PCC was increased either with the left orbital superior frontal gyrus or with left middle frontal gyrus (P<0.001), and the FC between right PCC and left middle frontal gyrus was increased in PI patients before treatment (P<0.001). Compared before treatment, the FC between left PCC and left middle frontal gyrus was decreased (P<0.05), and the FC of the right PCC was decreased either with the right medial prefrontal cortex or with the left middle frontal gyrus in PI patients after treatment (P<0.001, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#taVNS can modulate the FC between anterior and posterior DMN, and between DMN and cognitive control network of PI patients, which may be one of the brain effect mechanisms of taVNS in the treatment of PI patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain/physiology , Default Mode Network , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Vagus Nerve , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods
5.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 619-622, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939504

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) on the sleep quality and nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with primary insomnia.@*METHODS@#Twenty-one patients with primary insomnia were included. Using SDZ-ⅡB electric acupuncture apparatus, Xin (CO15) and Shen (CO10) were stimulated with disperse-dense wave, 4 Hz/ 20 Hz in frequency, (0.2±30%) ms of pulse width and tolerable intensity. Electric stimulation was given once every morning and evening of a day, 30 min each time, for 4 weeks totally. Before and after treatment, the score of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), objective sleep structure (total sleep time [TST], sleep latency [SL], wake after sleep onset [WASO], sleep efficiency [SE], the percentages of non-rapid eye movement period 1, 2, 3, and the percentage of rapid eye movement period to TST [N1%, N2%, N3%, REM%] ) and nocturnal HRV (high frequency [HF], low frequency [LF], the ratio of LF to HF [LF/HF], standard deviation for the normal RR intervals [SDNN], squared root of the mean sum of squares of differences between adjacent intervals RR [RMSSD], the percentage of adjacent RR intervals with differences larger than 50 ms in the entire recording [PNN50%], the mean of sinus RR intervals [NNMean] ) were compared in the patients separately.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the score of each item and the total score of PSQI and SL were all reduced as compared with those before treatment (P<0.01, P<0.001); SE, N3%, LF, HF, LF/HF, SDNN, NNMean and RMSSD were all increased compared with those before treatment (P<0.001, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The taVNS improves the sleep quality and objective sleep structure in patients with primary insomnia, which is probably related to the regulation of autonomic nervous functions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Rate/physiology , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Vagus Nerve , Vagus Nerve Stimulation
6.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 814-818, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942961

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the safety and feasibility of Da Vinci robot-assisted pylorus and vagus nerve-preserving partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods: In this study, descriptive case series method was used to retrospectively analyze the data of 3 patients with gastric cancer who underwent Da Vinci robot-assisted pylorus and vagus nerve-preserving partial gastrectomy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University from December 2020 to February 2021. The linear layout was adopted for the setting of trocar, and the co-axial direction was the line connecting the umbilicus and splenic hilum. The inferior pyloric arteries and veins need to be preserved. The center was the bifurcation of the right gastroepiploic vessel and the inferior pyloric vessel. Dissection and exposure were performed from the upper, lower, right and left sides, and ventral and dorsal sides to complete the dissection of the inferior pyloric lymph nodes. The superior border of the pancreas was treated by the right diaphragmatic crus approach, the left retroperitoneal approach and the esophageal approach to determine the distribution of the posterior vagal trunk and its branches, and to determine the anatomical relationship with the left gastric artery. The left gastric artery was cut off while the celiac branch of vagus nerve and cardia branch of left gastric artery were preserved. Lymph node dissection was performed on the lateral side of nerve fibers around the blood vessels. Result: All the 3 patients successfully completed the robotic surgery without conversion to laparoscopy or laparotomy. The operation time was (340.0±26.4) (300-390) minutes, the intraoperative blood loss was (13.3±3.3) (10-20) ml, the number of dissected lymph nodes was 26.7±3.9 (19-32), the length of pylorus canal preserved was (3.3±0.3) (3-4) cm, the distal margin was (2.3±0.3) (2-3) cm, and the proximal margin was (3.0±0.6) (2-4) cm. No postoperative complications occurred in all the 3 patients. The first flatus time was 2-3 days after operation, and the postoperative hospital stay was 6-7 days. The operation cost of the 3 patients was (40±7) (33-53) thousand yuan. Conclusion: Da Vinci robot-assisted pylorus and vagus nerve-preserving partial gastrectomy is safe and feasible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrectomy , Laparoscopy , Lymph Node Excision , Pylorus/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Robotics , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Vagus Nerve
7.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 7(1): 20-25, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179293

ABSTRACT

Se presenta una breve revisión los nervios olfatorio, trigémino, facial, glosofaríngeo y vago, el primero funcionalmente relacionado con la inervación quimiosensitiva olfativa en la mucosa nasal, los siguientes para el registro de dolor endocraneal y para la mucosa orofaríngea, a efectos de transducción sensitiva gustativa. Estos nervios se vinculan con los síntomas en pacientes positivos para Covid-19, que manifiestan como dolor de cabeza, disosmia, anosmia, disgeusia, ageusia entre otras características neurosemiológicas. Se concluye que estas características semiológicas se puedan deber a mecanismos neurotrópicos y transinápticos por lo que se debe realizar un examen neurológico más riguroso sobre síntomas y signos de pacientes con Covid-19.


A brief review of olfactory, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves is presented, the first one functionally related to odoriferous chemosensory innervation in the nasal mucosa, the following four cranial nerves to endocranial headache and oropharyngeal mucosa for purposes of gustatory sensory transduction. These nerves are associated with symptoms in Covid-19 positive patients, which dysosmia, anosmia, dysgeusia, ageusia manifestation, among other neurosemiological characteristics. It is concluded that these semiological characteristics may be due to neurotropic and transynaptic mechanisms, therefore a more rigorous neurological examination should be performed on symptoms and signs of Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Coronavirus Infections , Cranial Nerves , Betacoronavirus , Olfactory Nerve , Trigeminal Nerve , Vagus Nerve , Facial Nerve , Glossopharyngeal Nerve
8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 44-48, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089370

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The anatomical complexity of the jugular foramen makes surgical procedures in this region delicate and difficult. Due to the advances in surgical techniques, approaches to the jugular foramen became more frequent, requiring improvement of the knowledge of this region anatomy. Objective To study the anatomy of the jugular foramen, internal jugular vein and glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves, and to identify the anatomical relationships among these structures in the jugular foramen region and lateral-pharyngeal space. Methods A total of 60 sides of 30 non-embalmed cadavers were examined few hours after death. The diameters of the jugular foramen and its anatomical relationships were analyzed. Results The diameters of the jugular foramen and internal jugular vein were greater on the right side in most studied specimens. The inferior petrosal sinus ended in the internal jugular vein up to 40 mm below the jugular foramen; in 5% of cases. The glossopharyngeal nerve exhibited an intimate anatomical relationship with the styloglossus muscle after exiting the skull, and the vagal nerve had a similar relationship with the hypoglossal nerve. The accessory nerve passed around the internal jugular vein via its anterior wall in 71.7% of cadavers. Conclusion Anatomical variations were found in the dimensions of the jugular foramen and the internal jugular vein, which were larger in size on the right side of most studied bodies; variations also occurred in the trajectory and anatomical relationships of the nerves. The petrosal sinus can join the internal jugular vein below the foramen.


Resumo Introdução A complexidade anatômica do forame jugular torna a realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos nessa região delicada e difícil. Devido aos avanços obtidos nas técnicas cirúrgicas, as abordagens do forame jugular têm sido feitas com maior frequência, o que requer uma melhoria correspondente no conhecimento de sua anatomia. Objetivo Estudar a anatomia do forame jugular, da veia jugular interna e dos nervos glossofaríngeo, vago e acessório, assim como as relações anatômicas entre estas estruturas na região do forame jugular e no espaço parafaríngeo. Método Foram examinados 60 lados de 30 cadáveres frescos algumas horas após a morte. Os diâmetros e suas relações anatômicas foram analisados. Resultados Os diâmetros do forame jugular e da veia jugular interna foram maiores no lado direito na maioria dos espécimes estudados. O seio petroso inferior terminava na veia jugular interna até 40 mm abaixo do forame jugular, em 5% dos casos. O nervo glossofaríngeo exibiu uma relação íntima anatômica com o músculo estiloglosso após a sua saída do crânio e o nervo vago exibiu uma relação semelhante com o nervo hipoglosso. O nervo acessório passou em torno da veia jugular interna via sua parede anterior em 71,7% dos cadáveres. Conclusão Foram encontradas variações anatômicas nas dimensões do forame jugular e da veia jugular interna, que apresentaram tamanhos maiores à direita na maioria dos espécimes estudados; variações também ocorreram na trajetória e nas relações anatômicas dos nervos. O seio petroso pode se unir à veia jugular interna abaixo do forame.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anatomic Variation/physiology , Jugular Foramina/anatomy & histology , Neck/anatomy & histology , Vagus Nerve/anatomy & histology , Dissection , Glossopharyngeal Nerve/anatomy & histology , Accessory Nerve/anatomy & histology , Jugular Veins/anatomy & histology
9.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 89-95, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781763

ABSTRACT

Acupuncture has remarkable effects on treating functional gastrointestinal diseases, but its central mechanism is not clear. At present, the research has mainly focused on several central nuclei, such as the dorsal vagus complex (DVC), nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), locus coeruleus (LC), subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN), central amygdala (CeA), etc. It is not clear whether the nuclei are involved in acupuncture regulation of gastric function through certain interrelation. A further summary of related literature indicates that many brain regions or nuclei in the central nervous system are closely related to gastric function, such as DVC, NRM, parabrachial nuclei (PBN), LC, periaqueductal gray (PAG), cerebellum, PVN, arcuate nucleus (Arc), hippocampus, CeA, etc. Most of these nuclei have certain fiber connections with each other, in which DVC is the basic center, and other nuclei are directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of gastric function through DVC. Is DVC the key target in acupuncture regulation of gastric function? Does other nuclei have direct or indirect neural circuit with DVC to participate in the regulation of gastric function by acupuncture, such as the possibility of CeA-DVC neural loop in acupuncture regulating gastric function. Therefore, more advanced techniques such as photogenetics, chemical genetics should be introduced and the central mechanism of acupuncture on regulating gastric function with DVC as center, from the view of nerve loop, will become the focus of further research, which could explain the central integration mechanism of acupoint compatibility by modern neuroscience technology.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Locus Coeruleus , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus , Vagus Nerve
11.
Vascular Specialist International ; : 105-110, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762012

ABSTRACT

Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) represent 70% of humans, providing motor fibers to the larynx. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged on the 3rd postoperative day. These tumors are therapeutically challenging owing to their proximity to vital neck and skull base structures. Early detection decreases surgical morbidity and mortality. Preservation of viable neural tissue is important in advanced disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Carotid Artery, External , Head , Laryngeal Nerves , Larynx , Mortality , Neck , Paraganglioma , Skull Base , Vagus Nerve
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 403-409, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759962

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a prevalent disease with significant morbidity and mortality. It is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation due to excess body fat. Weight homeostasis is maintained through changes in various gastrointestinal hormones caused by dietary intake. However, being overweight or obese breaks the balance of these appetite-related gastrointestinal hormones and creates resistance to the actions of these hormones. The sensitivity of vagal afferent neurons to peripheral signals becomes blunted. Cytokines produced by excessive fat tissue damage our normal immune system, making us vulnerable to infection. In addition, various changes in gastrointestinal motility occur. Therefore, this review focuses on the various changes in gastrointestinal hormones, the immune state, the vagus nerve, and gastrointestinal movement in obese patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adipose Tissue , Cytokines , Gastrointestinal Hormones , Gastrointestinal Motility , Homeostasis , Immune System , Inflammation , Mortality , Neurons, Afferent , Obesity , Overweight , Physiology , Vagus Nerve
13.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 344-352, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788773

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is one of the major chronic neurological diseases affecting many patients. Resection surgery is the most effective therapy for medically intractable epilepsy, but it is not feasible in all patients. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjunctive neuromodulation therapy that was approved in 1997 for the alleviation of seizures; however, efforts to control epilepsy by stimulating the vagus nerve have been studied for over 100 years. Although its exact mechanism is still under investigation, VNS is thought to affect various brain areas. Hence, VNS has a wide indication for various intractable epileptic syndromes and epilepsy-related comorbidities. Moreover, recent studies have shown anti-inflammatory effects of VNS, and the indication is expanding beyond epilepsy to rheumatoid arthritis, chronic headaches, and depression. VNS yields a more than 50% reduction in seizures in approximately 60% of recipients, with an increase in reduction rates as the follow-up duration increases. The complication rate of VNS is 3–6%, and infection is the most important complication to consider. However, revision surgery was reported to be feasible and safe with appropriate measures. Recently, noninvasive VNS (nVNS) has been introduced, which can be performed transcutaneously without implantation surgery. Although more clinical trials are being conducted, nVNS can reduce the risk of infection and subsequent device failure. In conclusion, VNS has been demonstrated to be beneficial and effective in the treatment of epilepsy and various diseases, and more development is expected in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Brain , Comorbidity , Depression , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Epilepsy , Equipment Failure , Follow-Up Studies , Headache Disorders , Seizures , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation , Vagus Nerve Stimulation , Vagus Nerve
14.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 363-376, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765957

ABSTRACT

The role of the microbiome in health and human disease has emerged at the forefront of medicine in the 21st century. Over the last 2 decades evidence has emerged to suggest that inflammation-derived oxidative damage and cytokine induced toxicity may play a significant role in the neuronal damage associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines and T cell infiltration has been observed in the brain parenchyma of patients with PD. Furthermore, evidence for inflammatory changes has been reported in the enteric nervous system, the vagus nerve branches and glial cells. The presence of α-synuclein deposits in the post-mortem brain biopsy in patients with PD has further substantiated the role of inflammation in PD. It has been suggested that the α-synuclein misfolding might begin in the gut and spread “prion like” via the vagus nerve into lower brainstem and ultimately to the midbrain; this is known as the Braak hypothesis. It is noteworthy that the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms (constipation, dysphagia, and hypersalivation), altered gut microbiota and leaky gut have been observed in PD patients several years prior to the clinical onset of the disease. These clinical observations have been supported by in vitro studies in mice as well, demonstrating the role of genetic (α-synuclein overexpression) and environmental (gut dysbiosis) factors in the pathogenesis of PD. The restoration of the gut microbiome in patients with PD may alter the clinical progression of PD and this alteration can be accomplished by carefully designed studies using customized probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biopsy , Brain , Brain Stem , Cytokines , Deglutition Disorders , Dysbiosis , Enteric Nervous System , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Mesencephalon , Microbiota , Neuroglia , Neurons , Parkinson Disease , Probiotics , Vagus Nerve
15.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 442-460, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abdominal pain can be evoked or exacerbated after gastrointestinal cold stimulation in some patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), indicating a low temperature-induced sensitization of visceral perception. We investigated the role of vagal transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a cold-sensing ion channel) in cold-aggravated visceral mechanonociception in a stress-induced IBS animal model. METHODS: TRPA1 expression was examined in antral biopsies of healthy controls and IBS-D patients. Abdominal symptoms were assessed before and after warm or cold water intake. The visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distention (CRD) following intra-antral infusion of cold saline was measured in animals undergoing sham or chronic water avoidance stress. TRPA1 expression, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and neuronal calcium influx in vagal afferents were assessed. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls, IBS-D patients displayed elevated antral TRPA1 expression, which was associated with symptom scores after cold (4°C) water intake. Intra-antral infusion of cold saline increased VMR to CRD in naive rats, an effect dependent on vagal afferents. In stressed rats, this effect was greatly enhanced. Functional blockade and gene deletion of TRPA1 abolished the cold effect on visceral nociception. TRPA1 expression in vagal (but not spinal) afferents increased after stress. Moreover, the cold-induced, TRPA1-dependent ERK1/2 activation and calcium influx in nodose neurons were more robust in stressed rats. CONCLUSIONS: Stress-exaggerated visceral mechanonociception after antral cold exposure may involve up-regulation of TRPA1 expression and function on vagal afferents. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism for abnormal gastrointestinal cold sensing in IBS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Abdominal Pain , Ankyrins , Biopsy , Calcium , Cold Temperature , Drinking , Gene Deletion , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Models, Animal , Neurons , Nociception , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Stress, Psychological , Up-Regulation , Vagus Nerve , Visceral Pain , Water
16.
Journal of Movement Disorders ; : 67-83, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765855

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder arising from an interplay between genetic and environmental risk factors. Studies have suggested that the pathological hallmarks of intraneuronal α-synuclein aggregations may start from the olfactory bulb and the enteric nervous system of the gut and later propagate to the brain via the olfactory tract and the vagus nerve. This hypothesis correlates well with clinical symptoms, such as constipation, that may develop up to 20 years before the onset of PD motor symptoms. Recent interest in the gut–brain axis has led to vigorous research into the gastrointestinal pathology and gut microbiota changes in patients with PD. In this review, we provide current clinical and pathological evidence of gut involvement in PD by summarizing the changes in gut microbiota composition and gut inflammation associated with its pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Constipation , Enteric Nervous System , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation , Microbiota , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Olfactory Bulb , Parkinson Disease , Pathology , Risk Factors , Vagus Nerve
17.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 344-352, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765345

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy is one of the major chronic neurological diseases affecting many patients. Resection surgery is the most effective therapy for medically intractable epilepsy, but it is not feasible in all patients. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjunctive neuromodulation therapy that was approved in 1997 for the alleviation of seizures; however, efforts to control epilepsy by stimulating the vagus nerve have been studied for over 100 years. Although its exact mechanism is still under investigation, VNS is thought to affect various brain areas. Hence, VNS has a wide indication for various intractable epileptic syndromes and epilepsy-related comorbidities. Moreover, recent studies have shown anti-inflammatory effects of VNS, and the indication is expanding beyond epilepsy to rheumatoid arthritis, chronic headaches, and depression. VNS yields a more than 50% reduction in seizures in approximately 60% of recipients, with an increase in reduction rates as the follow-up duration increases. The complication rate of VNS is 3–6%, and infection is the most important complication to consider. However, revision surgery was reported to be feasible and safe with appropriate measures. Recently, noninvasive VNS (nVNS) has been introduced, which can be performed transcutaneously without implantation surgery. Although more clinical trials are being conducted, nVNS can reduce the risk of infection and subsequent device failure. In conclusion, VNS has been demonstrated to be beneficial and effective in the treatment of epilepsy and various diseases, and more development is expected in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Brain , Comorbidity , Depression , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Epilepsy , Equipment Failure , Follow-Up Studies , Headache Disorders , Seizures , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation , Vagus Nerve Stimulation , Vagus Nerve
18.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 282-294, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759012

ABSTRACT

The autonomic nervous system plays critical roles in maintaining homeostasis in humans, directly regulating inflammation by altering the activity of the immune system. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a well-studied neuroimmune interaction involving the vagus nerve. CD4-positive T cells expressing β2 adrenergic receptors and macrophages expressing the alpha 7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the spleen receive neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and acetylcholine and are key mediators of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Recent studies have demonstrated that vagus nerve stimulation, ultrasound, and restraint stress elicit protective effects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. These protective effects are induced primarily via activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. In addition to these immunological roles, nervous systems are directly related to homeostasis of renal physiology. Whole-kidney three-dimensional visualization using the tissue clearing technique CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain/body imaging cocktails and computational analysis) has illustrated that renal sympathetic nerves are primarily distributed around arteries in the kidneys and denervated after ischemia-reperfusion injury. In contrast, artificial renal sympathetic denervation has a protective effect against kidney disease progression in murine models. Further studies are needed to elucidate how neural networks are involved in progression of kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetylcholine , Arteries , Autonomic Nervous System , Cholinergic Neurons , Homeostasis , Immune System , Inflammation , Kidney Diseases , Kidney , Macrophages , Nervous System , Neurotransmitter Agents , Norepinephrine , Optogenetics , Physiology , Receptors, Adrenergic , Receptors, Nicotinic , Reperfusion Injury , Spleen , Sympathectomy , Sympathetic Nervous System , T-Lymphocytes , Ultrasonography , Vagus Nerve , Vagus Nerve Stimulation
19.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 49-61, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740311

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The perigastric vagus nerve may play an important role in preserving function after gastrectomy, and intraoperative neurophysiologic tests might represent a feasible method of evaluating the vagus nerve. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of neurophysiologic evaluations of the function and viability of perigastric vagus nerve branches during gastrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients (1 open total gastrectomy, 1 laparoscopic total gastrectomy, and 11 laparoscopic distal gastrectomy) were prospectively enrolled. The hepatic and celiac branches of the vagus nerve were exposed, and grabbing type stimulation electrodes were applied as follows: 10–30 mA intensity, 4 trains, 1,000 µs/train, and 5× frequency. Visible myocontractile movement and electrical signals were monitored via needle probes before and after gastrectomy. Gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 3 weeks and 3 months, respectively. RESULTS: Responses were observed after stimulating the celiac branch in 10, 9, 10, and 6 patients in the antrum, pylorus, duodenum, and proximal jejunum, respectively. Ten patients responded to hepatic branch stimulation at the duodenum. After vagus-preserving distal gastrectomy, 2 patients lost responses to the celiac branch at the duodenum and jejunum (1 each), and 1 patient lost response to the hepatic branch at the duodenum. Significant procedure-related complications and meaningful postoperative diarrhea were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative neurophysiologic testing seems to be a feasible methodology for monitoring the perigastric vagus nerves. Innervation of the duodenum via the celiac branch and postoperative preservation of the function of the vagus nerves were confirmed in most patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: KCT0000823


Subject(s)
Humans , Diarrhea , Duodenum , Electrodes , Gastrectomy , Information Services , Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring , Jejunum , Methods , Needles , Prospective Studies , Pylorus , Vagus Nerve
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(3): e201900303, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989066

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate whether there is a relationship between renal artery vasospasm related low glomerular density or degeneration and neurogenic lung edema (NLE) following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: This study was conducted on 26 rabbits. A control group was formed of five animals, a SHAM group of 5 to which saline and a study group (n=16) injected with homologous blood into the sylvian cisterna. Numbers of degenerated axons of renal branches of vagal nerves, atrophic glomerulus numbers and NLE scores were recorded. Results: Important vagal degeneration, severe renal artery vasospasm, intrarenal hemorrhage and glomerular atrophy observed in high score NLE detected animals. The mean degenerated axon density of vagal nerves (n/mm2), atrophic glomerulus density (n/mm3) and NLE scores of control, SHAM and study groups were estimated as 2.40±1.82, 2.20±1.30, 1.80±1.10, 8.00±2.24, 8.80±2.39, 4.40±1.14 and 154.38±13.61, 34.69±2.68 and 12.19±1.97 consecutively. Degenerated vagal axon, atrophic glomerulus and NLE scores are higher in study group than other groups and the differences are statistically meaningful (p<0.001). Conclusion: Vagal complex degeneration based glomerular atrophy have important roles on NLE following SAH which has not been extensively mentioned in the literature.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Renal Artery , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Ischemia/complications , Kidney/blood supply , Nerve Degeneration/complications , Vagus Nerve/pathology , Vascular Diseases/complications , Disease Models, Animal
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