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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(2): 263-269, ago., 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131300

ABSTRACT

Resumo As doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) são atualmente a maior causa de morte no Brasil e no mundo. Em 2016 as DCV foram responsáveis por mais de 17 milhões de mortes, representando 31% de todas as mortes em nível global. Mecanismos moleculares e genéticos podem estar envolvidos na proteção cardiovascular e devem ser considerados nas novas abordagens terapêuticas. Nesse sentido, recentes estudos têm relatado que o Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, BDNF) está reduzido em indivíduos predispostos a desenvolverem DCV, e que o treinamento físico aeróbio aumenta as quantidades de BDNF circulante. O BDNF é uma neurotrofina encontrada em altas concentrações no hipocampo e córtex cerebral, sendo considerada molécula-chave na manutenção da plasticidade sináptica e na sobrevivência das células neuronais. Além da plasticidade neuronal, BDNF também é importante na função vascular, promovendo angiogênese por meio da regulação por espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS). Entretanto, uma variante do gene do BDNF em humanos, o polimorfismo Val66Met (substituição do aminoácido valina por uma metionina na posição 66 do códon), que ocorre em 20-30% da população caucasiana, pode afetar as concentrações de BDNF no plasma e sua atividade em todos os tecidos periféricos contendo receptores tirosina quinase B (TrkB), como o endotélio. De fato, recentemente observamos que o polimorfismo Val66Met prejudica a reatividade vascular e o BDNF circulante em resposta ao treinamento físico. Dessa forma, apresentaremos a seguir uma discussão sobre os níveis séricos de BDNF na proteção cardiovascular, a variante genética Val66Met na reatividade vascular e o efeito do exercício físico.


Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. In 2016, CVD accounted for more than 17 million deaths, representing 31% of all deaths globally. Molecular and genetic mechanisms may be involved in vascular protection and should be considered in new therapeutic approaches. In this sense, recent studies have reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in individuals predisposed to develop CVD, and that aerobic physical training increases the amounts of circulating BDNF. BDNF is a neurotrophin found at high concentrations in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex and is considered a key molecule for the maintenance of synaptic plasticity and survival of neuronal cells. In addition to neuronal plasticity, BDNF is also important in vascular function, promoting angiogenesis through the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, a variant of the BDNF gene in humans, the Val66Met polymorphism (substitution of the amino acid valine for a methionine at position 66 of the codon), occurring in 20-30% of the Caucasian population, may affect plasma BDNF concentrations and its activity in all peripheral tissues containing tyrosine kinase B receptors (TrkB), such as the endothelium. Thus, we will present a discussion about the role of serum BDNF levels in cardiovascular protection, Val66Met genetic variant in vascular reactivity and the effect of physical exercise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/genetics , Valine , Brazil , Methionine
2.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 33: e190208, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136683

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess the relationship between branched-chain amino acids intake in the current diet and the metabolic and body adiposity markers in a population at cardiovascular risk. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with 282 adults and elderly people from the Cardiovascular Health Care Program of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and body composition data, as well as metabolic biomarkers were collected using standardized protocols. Dietary intake of branched amino acids was assessed using a 24-hour recall. Results Individuals with a higher branched-chain amino acids intake (≥2.6g/day, median value) had lower body fat (29.6 vs 32.2%; p=0.019), and higher serum ferritin (113.2 vs. 60.1mg/dL; p=0.006) and uric acid concentrations (4.4 vs. 4.0; p=0.023). In addition, a lower prevalence of overweight and excessive abdominal fat (p<0.05) was found in the individuals with higher branched-chain amino acids intake. They also had a higher daily intake of fiber, copper, zinc, magnesium, and iron, as well as a lower intake of total lipids. Conclusion In the present study, the intake of branched amino acids is negatively related to total and central adiposity, but more studies are needed to fully elucidate this possible relationship. (Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials, code RBR-5n4y2g).


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a relação entre o consumo de aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada na dieta atual e os marcadores de adiposidade metabólica e corporal em uma população com perfil de elevado risco cardiovascular. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 282 adultos e idosos do Programa de Atenção Cardiovascular da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Dados sociodemográficos, antropométricos e de composição corporal, além de biomarcadores metabólicos, foram coletados utilizando protocolos padronizados. O consumo alimentar de aminoácidos ramificados foi avaliado através de um recordatório de 24 horas. Resultados Indivíduos com maior consumo de aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada (≥2,6g/dia, valor da mediana) apresentaram menores valores de gordura corporal (29,6 vs 32,2%; p=0,019) e maiores valores de séricos de ferritina (113,2 vs. 60,1mg/dL; p=0,006) e ácido úrico (4,4 vs. 4,0; p=0,023). Além disso, foi encontrada uma menor prevalência de sobrepeso e excesso de gordura abdominal (p<0,05) nos indivíduos com maior consumo de aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada. Eles também apresentaram um maior consumo diário de fibra, cobre, zinco, magnésio e ferro, além de um menor consumo de lipídios totais. Conclusão No presente estudo, o consumo de aminoácidos ramificados está negativamente relacionado à adiposidade total e central, porém mais estudos são necessários para elucidar completamente essa possível relação. (Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos, código RBR-5n4y2g)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Valine , Adiposity , Amino Acids, Branched-Chain , Isoleucine , Leucine , Heart Disease Risk Factors
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 18 patients from unrelated families harboring mutations of the transthyretin gene (TTR), and analyzed their characteristics and geographical distribution in South Korea. METHODS: The included patients had a diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis, clinical symptoms, such as amyloid neuropathy or cardiomyopathy, and confirmation of a TTR gene mutation using genetic analysis recorded between April 1995 and November 2014. RESULTS: The mean age at disease onset was 49.6 years, and the mean disease duration from symptom onset to diagnosis was 3.67 years. Fifteen of the 18 patients were classified as mixed phenotype, 2 as the neurological phenotype, and only 1 patient as the cardiac phenotype. The most-common mutation pattern in South Korea was Asp38Ala, which was detected in eight patients. Thirteen patients reported their family hometowns, and five of the eight harboring the Asp38Ala mutation were from the Gyeongsang province in southeast Korea. The other eight patients exhibited a widespread geographical distribution. A particularly noteworthy finding was that the valine at position 30 (Val30Met) mutation, which was previously reported as the most-common TTR mutation worldwide and also the most common in the Japanese population, was not detected in the present South Korean patients. CONCLUSIONS: South Korean patients with hereditary TTR amyloidosis exhibited heterogeneous TTR genotypes and clinical phenotypes. The findings of this study suggest that the distribution of TTR amyloidosis in South Korea is due to de novo mutations and/or related to the other countries in East Asia.


Subject(s)
Amyloid Neuropathies , Amyloidosis , Asians , Cardiomyopathies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis , Far East , Genotype , Humans , Korea , Phenotype , Prealbumin , Retrospective Studies , Valine
4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 891-899, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated peripheral and central metabolites affecting depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and anger in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients. METHODS: Metabolite levels were determined in the right and left thalamus and insula, in 12 CRPS patients using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). RESULTS: There were positive correlations between valine (Val)/tNAA (N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartylglutamate) and the anxiety, and a negative correlation between glutamine (Gln)/NAA and the depression. There were positive correlations between alanine (Ala)/Gln and the depression and suicidal ideation, between glutamate (Glu)/Gln and the depression and suicidal ideation, between N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG)/Gln and the depression. There was a positive correlation between Ala/NAAG and the trait anger and a negative correlation between creatine (Cr)/N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and the trait anger. There was a negative correlation between Cr/Glx (Glu+Gln) and the trait anger. High hemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase were associated with low pain levels, but CO2 and chloride showed positive correlations with pain levels in CRPS patients. Peripheral glucose, CO2 and chloride were associated with depression, anxiety, anger and suicidal ideation. CONCLUSION: The specific central and peripheral metabolites were associated with psychological disorders including depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation and anger in CRPS patients, showing pathological interactions between a painful body and mind.


Subject(s)
Alanine , Alkaline Phosphatase , Anger , Anxiety , Creatine , Depression , Glucose , Glutamic Acid , Glutamine , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Pilot Projects , Suicidal Ideation , Thalamus , Valine
5.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 39(2): 90-94, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844184

ABSTRACT

Objective: Memory impairment is an important contributor to the reduction in quality of life experienced by older adults, and genetic risk factors seem to contribute to variance in age-related cognitive decline. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important nerve growth factor linked with development and neural plasticity. The Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene has been associated with impaired episodic memory in adults, but whether this functional variant plays a role in cognitive aging remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on memory performance in a sample of elderly adults. Methods: Eighty-seven subjects aged > 55 years were recruited using a community-based convenience sampling strategy in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The logical memory subset of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised was used to assess immediate verbal recall (IVR), delayed verbal recall (DVR), and memory retention rate. Results: BDNF Met allele carriers had lower DVR scores (p = 0.004) and a decline in memory retention (p = 0.017) when compared to Val/Val homozygotes. However, we found no significant differences in IVR between the two groups (p = 0.088). Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism as a risk factor associated with cognitive impairment, corroborating previous findings in young and older adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Valine/genetics , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Memory Disorders/genetics , Methionine/genetics , Task Performance and Analysis , Wechsler Scales , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Alleles , Neuropsychological Tests
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(4): 1000-1006, jul.-ago. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-792469

ABSTRACT

Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, com o objetivo de estimar a exigência de valina e isoleucina digestível para codornas de corte em crescimento. No experimento 1, foram utilizadas 2.160 codornas de corte de um dia de idade, não sexadas, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com arranjo fatorial 4x4, sendo quatro níveis de valina digestível (0,90, 1,10, 1,30 e 1,50%) e quatro níveis de isoleucina digestível (0,80, 1,00, 1,20 e 1,40%), totalizando 16 tratamentos, com três repetições e 45 codornas por unidade experimental. O peso corporal, o ganho de peso e a biomassa corporal acumulada aumentaram linearmente em função dos níveis de valina digestível e foram influenciados de forma quadrática, estimando 1,38% de isoleucina digestível. No experimento 2, foram utilizadas 1.440 codornas de corte não sexadas, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com arranjo fatorial 4x4, sendo quatro níveis de valina digestível (0,82, 1,02, 1,22 e 1,42%) e quatro níveis de isoleucina digestível (0,73, 0,93, 1,13 e 1,33%), totalizando 16 tratamentos, com três repetições e 30 codornas por unidade experimental. O desempenho de codornas de corte, no período de 15 a 35 dias de idade, não foi influenciado pelo aumento dos níveis de valina e isoleucina digestível nas rações experimentais. Conclui-se que as exigências de valina e isoleucina digestível para o máximo desempenho de codornas de corte, no período de um a 14 dias de idade, foram de 1,50% e 1,38%, respectivamente, correspondendo às relações valina:lisina de 95% e isoleucina:lisina de 88%. Os menores níveis avaliados, no período de 15 a 35 dias de idade, de 0,82% de valina digestível e de 0,73% de isoleucina digestível, correspondendo às relações valina:lisina de 52% e isoleucina: lisina de 46%, foram suficientes para satisfazer as exigências nutricionais das codornas de corte sem comprometer o desempenho.(AU)


Two experiments were carried out in order to estimate the requirements of digestible valine and isoleucine for growing meat quails. In experiment 1, 2160 meat quails with 1 day of age, not sexed, were used, distributed in a completely randomized design with a 4x4 factorial arrangement, with four levels of digestible valine (0.90, 1.10, 1.30, and 1.50%) and four levels of digestible isoleucine (0.80, 1.00, 1.20, and 1.40 %), totaling 16 treatments with three replications and 45 quails per experimental unit. The body weight, the weight gain, and the accumulated body biomass linearly increased in function of digestible valine levels and were influenced in a quadratic way estimating 1.38% of digestible isoleucine. In experiment 2, 1440 meat quails, not sexed, were used, distributed in a completely randomized design with a 4x4 factorial arrangement, with four levels of digestible valine (0.82, 1.02, 1.22, and 1.42%) and four levels of digestible isoleucine (0.73, 0.93, 1.13, and 1.33%), totaling 16 treatments with three replications and 30 quails per experimental unit. The performance of meat quails from 15 to 35 days of age was not affected by increased levels of digestible valine and digestible isoleucine in the experimental diets. It was concluded that the requirements of digestible valine and digestible isoleucine for maximum performance of meat quail from one to 14 days of age were 1.50% and 1.38%, respectively, corresponding to relations: valine: lysine of 95% and isoleucine: lysine of 88%. The lower levels evaluated, in the period of 15 to 35 days old, 0.82% digestible valine and 0.73% of digestible isoleucine, corresponding to relations valine: lysine of 52% and isoleucine: lysine of 46% were sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of meat quails without compromising performance.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Amino Acids , Animal Feed/analysis , Coturnix , Isoleucine/administration & dosage , Valine/administration & dosage
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108196

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore associations of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with cognitive functioning and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: We included 133 subjects meeting the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia who were in the post-acute stage of the disease. BDNF Val66Met genotypes were identified via polymerase chain reaction. The computerized neurocognitive function battery, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), and the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment (SWN-K) were administered. Gender-stratified sub-analysis was also conducted to identify gender-specific patterns in the findings. RESULTS: In male patients, no significant difference in any measure by BDNF genotype was evident. In female patients, scores on the CDSS and total PANSS and all subscales were significantly higher in valine (Val) carriers. In addition, scores on the SOFAS and SWN-K were significantly lower in Val carriers. In terms of neurocognitive measures, female patients with the Val allele had significantly poorer reaction times and fewer correct responses on the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Trail Making Test (Parts A and B). After adjustment of PANSS total scores and log-transformed CDSS scores, CPT outcomes were significantly poorer in female patients with than in those without the Val allele. CONCLUSION: Gender-specific associations of the Val allele with poor neurocognitive function and more severe psychopathology were evident. Further studies are required to explore the mechanisms of these differences and the potential utility of the BDNF genotype as a predictor of outcome in patients with schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cognition , Depression , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic , Psychopathology , Reaction Time , Schizophrenia , Trail Making Test , Valine
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256592

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intradermal injection of methylene blue for treatment of moderate to severe acute thoracic herpes zoster and prevention of postherpetica neuralgia in elderly patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty-four elderly patients with herpes zoster were randomized to receive a 10-day course of intradermal injection of methylene blue and lidocaine plus oral valaciclovir (group A, 32 cases) and intradermal injection of lidocaine plus oral valaciclovir (group B).Herpes evaluation index, pain rating index, incidence of postherpetic neuralgia, and comprehensive therapeutic effect were compared between the two groups at 11, 30 and 60 days after the treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups (all P>0.05). Compared with that in group B, the time for no new blister formation, blister incrustation and decrustation, and pain relief was significantly shortened in group A (P<0.05) with also obviously lower pain intensity after the treatment. The incidence of postherpetic neuralgia was significantly lower in group A than in group B at 30 days (P<0.05), but not at 60 and 90 days after the treatment. The total clinical response rate was 93.8% in group A, much higher than that in group B (62.5%, P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Intradermal injection of methylene blue can effectively shorten the disease course, reduce the pain intensity and prevent the development of postherpetic neuralgia in elderly patients with herpes zoster.</p>


Subject(s)
Acyclovir , Therapeutic Uses , Aged , Herpes Zoster , Humans , Incidence , Injections, Intradermal , Lidocaine , Therapeutic Uses , Methylene Blue , Therapeutic Uses , Neuralgia, Postherpetic , Therapeutics , Pain Measurement , Valine , Therapeutic Uses
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(6): 1721-1728, nov.-dez. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-768162

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as relações de valina:lisina digestíveis em dietas com teor reduzido de proteína bruta (PB) e os efeitos dessa redução sobre desempenho e rendimento de carcaça em frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 1200 pintos machos seguindo modelo inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos de seis repetições (exceto controle, com 10 repetições), compostos por 30 aves cada. O tratamento controle (T1) foi formulado conforme os níveis de proteína bruta e aminoácidos (AAs) recomendados por Rostagno et al . (2011), e os demais tratamentos (T2 a T6) tiveram seus níveis de PB reduzidos (4% em relação ao controle) e variaram em função da relação valina:lisina digestíveis, com cinco níveis equidistantes em intervalos de 0,07:1, variando de 0,63:1 e 0,91:1 (dietas até 21 dias) e de 0,64:1 e 0,92:1 (dietas após 21 dias). As seguintes características de desempenho foram avaliadas: ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, viabilidade criatória e índice de eficiência produtiva. Aos 46 dias de idade, seis animais por repetição foram abatidos para determinação de rendimento de carcaça e de cortes comerciais. As diferentes relações valina:lisina digestíveis não influenciaram o desempenho dos animais (P>0,05) para nenhuma característica avaliada. A redução proteica piorou a conversão alimentar dos animais (P≤0,05) até os 21 dias. Os resultados sugerem que os níveis de valina utilizados não afetam o desempenho dos animais, apenas o rendimento de peito e que, portanto, a redução proteica não é recomendada durante as três primeiras semanas de criação.


This study aimed to evaluate valine:lysine ratios in diets with reduced content of crude protein and the effects of this reduction on the performance of broiler chickens. 1200 male chicks were used following a complete randomized design with six replicates of six treatments (except control, with 10 replicates), each one with 30 chicks. The control treatment (T1) was formulated following levels of crude protein (CP) and the amino acids (AAs) recommended by Rostagno et al. (2011), and the other treatments (T2 to T6) had reduced levels of CP (4 % compared to control) and varied in proportion valine:lysine, with 5 levels at equidistant intervals 0.07:1 ranging from 0.63:1 to 0.91:1 (up to 21 days) and from 0.64:1 to 0.92:1 (after 21 days). The performance characteristics measured were: weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, viability and productive efficiency index. At 46 days six animals per replicate were slaughtered for evaluation of carcass and commercial cuts. The different valine:lysine ratios did not affect animal performance (P>0.05). Reducing protein impaired feed conversion (P≤.05) up to 21 days. The results suggest that levels of valine used did not affect the broilers' performance, however, breast meat yield and reduced protein are not recommended during the first three weeks.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Amino Acids/administration & dosage , Diet/veterinary , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Dietary Proteins/analysis , Valine/administration & dosage , Enkephalin, Methionine/administration & dosage , Lysine/administration & dosage , Threonine/administration & dosage , Tryptophan/administration & dosage
10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1029-1037, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using macromolecular contrast agent (P792) for assessment of vascular disrupting drug effect in rabbit VX2 liver tumor models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. DCE-MRI was performed with 3-T scanner in 13 VX2 liver tumor-bearing rabbits, before, 4 hours after, and 24 hours after administration of vascular disrupting agent (VDA), using gadomelitol (P792, n = 7) or low molecular weight contrast agent (gadoterate meglumine [Gd-DOTA], n = 6). P792 was injected at a of dose 0.05 mmol/kg, while that of Gd-DOTA was 0.2 mmol/kg. DCE-MRI parameters including volume transfer coefficient (K(trans)) and initial area under the gadolinium concentration-time curve until 60 seconds (iAUC) of tumors were compared between the 2 groups at each time point. DCE-MRI parameters were correlated with tumor histopathology. Reproducibility in measurement of DCE-MRI parameters and image quality of source MR were compared between groups. RESULTS: P792 group showed a more prominent decrease in K(trans) and iAUC at 4 hours and 24 hours, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Changes in DCE-MRI parameters showed a weak correlation with histologic parameters (necrotic fraction and microvessel density) in both groups. Reproducibility of DCE-MRI parameters and overall image quality was not significantly better in the P792 group, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. CONCLUSION: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using a macromolecular contrast agent shows changes of hepatic perfusion more clearly after administration of the VDA. Gadolinium was required at smaller doses than a low molecular contrast agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzophenones/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Heterocyclic Compounds/administration & dosage , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Rabbits , Reproducibility of Results , Valine/analogs & derivatives
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 153-158, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-268347

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) antagonists are extensively used for blood pressure control in elderly patients with hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of AT 1 R antagonist valsartan on platelet aggregation and the occurrence of cardio-cerebral thrombotic events in elderly patients with hypertension.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Two-hundred and ten patients with hypertension and aged > 60 years were randomized to valsartan (n = 140) or amlodipine (n = 70) on admission. The primary endpoint was platelet aggregation rate (PAR) induced by arachidonic acid at discharge, and the secondary endpoint was the rate of thrombotic events including brain infarction and myocardial infarction during follow-up. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were stimulated by angiotensin II (Ang II, 100 nmol/L) with or without pretreatment of valsartan (100 nmol/L), and relative expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ) and both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) activities were assessed. Statistical analyses were performed by GraphPad Prism 5.0 software (GraphPad Software, Inc., California, USA).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>PAR was lower after treatment with valsartan (11.49 ± 0.69% vs. 18.71 ± 2.47%, P < 0.001), associated with more reduced plasma levels of COX-2 (76.94 ± 7.07 U/L vs. 116.4 ± 15.89 U/L, P < 0.001) and TXB 2 (1667 ± 56.50 pg/ml vs. 2207 ± 180.20 pg/ml) (all P < 0.001). Plasma COX-2 and TXB 2 levels correlated significantly with PAR in overall patients (r = 0.109, P < 0.001). During follow-up (median, 18 months), there was a significantly lower thrombotic event rate in patients treated with valsartan (14.3% vs. 32.8%, P = 0.002). Relative expression of COX-2 and secretion of TXB 2 with concordant phosphorylation of p38MAPK and NF-kB were increased in HAECs when stimulated by Ang II (100 nmol/L) but were significantly decreased by valsartan pretreatment (100 nmol/L).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>AT 1 R antagonist valsartan decreases platelet activity by attenuating COX-2/TXA 2 expression through p38MAPK and NF-kB pathways and reduces the occurrence of cardio-cerebral thrombotic events in elderly patients with hypertension.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Therapeutic Uses , Blood Platelets , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Blood , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Male , Platelet Aggregation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tetrazoles , Therapeutic Uses , Thrombosis , Blood , Drug Therapy , Thromboxane B2 , Blood , Valine , Therapeutic Uses , Valsartan
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(6): 985-987, Nov-Dec/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727625

ABSTRACT

Herpes zoster-associated urinary retention is an uncommon event related to virus infection of the S2-S4 dermatome. The possible major reasons are ipsilateral hemicystitis, neuritis-induced or myelitis-associated virus infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompetent female patient who presented an acute urinary retention after four days under treatment with valacyclovir for gluteal herpes zoster. The patient had to use a vesical catheter, was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids and fully recovered after eight weeks.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Exanthema/virology , Herpes Zoster/complications , Immunocompetence , Urinary Retention/virology , Acyclovir/analogs & derivatives , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Exanthema/drug therapy , Herpes Zoster/drug therapy , Herpes Zoster/immunology , Immunocompetence/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Valine/analogs & derivatives , Valine/therapeutic use
13.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (6): 1799-1804
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-148821

ABSTRACT

Valsartan [VAL] shows poor oral bioavailability mainly as a result of its low water solubility at low pH. This study is designed to investigate the dissolution properties and physicochemical characteristics of novel PVP-based solid dispersions [SDs] containing VAL. The SDs were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP-K30] as a hydrophilic polymer, sodium hydroxide [NaOH] as an alkalizer, and poloxamer 188 [F68] as a surfactant, without using any organic solvents by a freeze-drying method. The dissolution study was carried out and the physicochemical properties of SDs were also characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry [DSC], fourier transform-infrared [FT-IR] spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry [XRD] and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]. The dissolution rates of SDs were significantly improved at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 compared to that of pure drug. The results of physicochemical properties suggested that some interactions between VAL and carriers had occurred in the molecular level and the drug presented in the SDs was amorphous. It was concluded that the novel PVP-based SDs has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method, resulting in significant dissolution improvement of VAL


Subject(s)
Valine/analogs & derivatives , Freeze Drying , Drug Liberation , In Vitro Techniques , Povidone , Chemical Phenomena
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-644587

ABSTRACT

SLC26A4 mutations are common cause of congenital hearing loss in East Asia. The carrier frequency of SLC26A4 mutations is 1 in 75 in Korean populations. The SLC26A4 mutation spectrum varies according to the population. The most common mutation in Korean is replacement of histidine by arginine at codon 723 followed by exchange of guanine for adenine at the consensus acceptor splice site of intron 7, adenine to guanine change at position +3 transition donor splice site of intron 9, methionine to valine at position 147, and frameshift mutation by insertion T at N-terminal 2. Recent studies analyzed the genotype-phenotype correlation of SLC26A4 mutation and suggested that surface expression ratio of pendrin and residual anion exchange activity was related to the genotype of SLC26A4 mutations. The targeted drug to Korean SLC26A4 mutations would be helpful in preserving hearing in patients with SLC26A4 mutations.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Arginine , Codon , Consensus , Far East , Frameshift Mutation , Genetic Association Studies , Genotype , Guanine , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Histidine , Humans , Introns , Methionine , Phenotype , Tissue Donors , Valine
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-632929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The EXforge Clinical evaluation of amlodlpine and valsarTan in hypErtension (EXCITE) study was designed to evaluate the real-world effectiveness and safety of amlodipine/valsartan (Aml/Val) and amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (Aml/Val/HCT) single-pill combination (SPC) in patients with hypertension.METHODOLOGY: This 26-week observational, multicenter, prospective, open-label study included patients aged ? 18 years of age with established diagnosis of hypertension. The change in mean sitting systolic BP (msSBP), diastolic BP (msDBP) from baseline to Week 26, proportion of patients achieving BP goal (msSBP/msDBP RESULTS: Of the total 1,054 patients in the full analysis set (Aml/Val, n=928; Aml/Val/HCTZ, n=126), 923 (87.6%) patients completed the study. The baseline BP was 158.5/96.5 and 167.0/99.5 mmHg in the Aml/Val and Aml/Val/HCTZ groups,respectively. Significant reductions in msSBP and msDBP from baseline to week 26 were observed with both Aml/Val (-31.9/-19.2 mmHg). Adverse events were reported by 8.8% of the patients.CONCLUSION: The Aml/Val and Aml/Val/HCTZ SPCs were effective in controlling BP and were generally well tolerated in patients with hypertension from the Philippines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Young Adult , Amlodipine , Amlodipine, Valsartan Drug Combination , Diabetes Mellitus , Hydrochlorothiazide , Hypertension , Philippines , Tetrazoles , Valine , Valsartan
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7132

ABSTRACT

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder that involves the metabolism of branched chain amino acids, arising from a defect in branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. Mutations have been identified in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, or DBT genes, which encode different subunits of the BCKDH complex. Although encephalopathy and progressive neurodegeneration are its major manifestations, the severity of the disease may range from the severe classic type to milder intermediate variants. We report two Korean siblings with the milder intermediate MSUD who were diagnosed with MSUD by a combination of newborn screening tests using tandem mass spectrometry and family genetic screening for MSUD. At diagnosis, the patients' plasma levels were elevated for leucine, isoleucine, valine, and alloisoleucine, and branched-chain alpha-keto acids and branched-chain alpha-hydroxy acids were detected in their urine. BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT analysis was performed, and two novel mutations were identified in BCKDHB. Our patients were thought to have the milder intermediate variant of MSUD, rather than the classic form. Although MSUD is a typical metabolic disease with poor prognosis, better outcomes can be expected if early diagnosis and prompt management are provided, particularly for milder forms of the disease.


Subject(s)
3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide) , Amino Acids , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Genetic Testing , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Isoleucine , Leucine , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Mass Screening , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolism , Plasma , Prognosis , Siblings , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Valine
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the plasma amino acid metabolism of "same symptom for different diseases" in different cancer patients in Uyghur medicine.@*METHODS@#Plasma amino acid concentration was tested by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in cancer patients with different symptom, and the spectral profiles were subjected to a t-test for statistical significance.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the healthy group, lung cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer and gastric cancer patients with abnormal Savda had lower concentration of plasma amino acids except some amino acids. Lung cancer patients with abnormal Savda had higher concentration of plasma phenylalanine, serine, cystine, valine, isoleucine, leucine and aspartic acid than Unsavda patients (P<0.05). Cervical cancer patients with abnormal Savda had low concentration of plasma arginine, but higher concentration of plasma cystine than Unsavda patients (P<0.05). Breast cancer patients with abnormal Savda had higher concentration of plasma leucine, serine, taurine, cystine, tyrosine, valine, isoleucine and asparagine than Unsavda patients (P<0.05). Gastric cancer patients with abnormal Savda had high concentration of plasma cystine but lower concentration of plasma phenylalanine, threonine and arginine than Unsavda patients (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Different tumor patients with abnormal Savda have common characteristics and significant differences.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Blood , Arginine , Aspartic Acid , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cystine , Humans , Isoleucine , Leucine , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms , Blood , Serine , Tyrosine , Valine
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336724

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the contents of L-enantiomer impurity in valaciclovir hydrochloride.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Valaciclovir enantiomers were separated and determined by using chiral high performance liquid chromatography. Chromatographic conditions were as follows:CROWNPAK(®) CR(+) chiral column (4 mm×150 mm, 5 μm), detection wavelength:254 nm, mobile phase:water-methanol-perchloric acid (19:1:0.1), flow rate:0.75 ml/min, sample injection volume:10 μl.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>D-valaciclovir was completely separated from L-enantiomer impurity. The contents of L-enantiomer impurity were 0.65%-2.62% on average in 8 batches of valaciclovir hydrochloride.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Enantiomeric impurity contents in each batch of products were all meet criteria of United States Pharmacopeia, which can be used in criteria of Chinese Pharmacopeia as references.</p>


Subject(s)
Acyclovir , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Stereoisomerism , Valine
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-358125

ABSTRACT

Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is essential to odontogenesis. Its mutations in human subjects lead to dental problems such as dental deformities, hypomineralization and periodontal impairment. Primarily, DMP1 is considered as an extracellular matrix protein that promotes hydroxyapatite formation and activates intracellular signaling pathway via interacting with αvβ3 integrin. Recent in vitro studies suggested that DMP1 might also act as a transcription factor. In this study, we examined whether full-length DMP1 could function as a transcription factor in the nucleus and regulate odontogenesis in vivo. We first demonstrated that a patient with the DMP1 M1V mutation, which presumably causes a loss of the secretory DMP1 but does not affect the nuclear translocation of DMP1, shows a typical rachitic tooth defect. Furthermore, we generated transgenic mice expressing (NLS)DMP1, in which the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) entry signal sequence of DMP1 was replaced by a nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, under the control of a 3.6 kb rat type I collagen promoter plus a 1.6 kb intron 1. We then crossbred the (NLS)DMP1 transgenic mice with Dmp1 null mice to express the (NLS)DMP1 in Dmp1-deficient genetic background. Although immunohistochemistry demonstrated that (NLS)DMP1 was localized in the nuclei of the preodontoblasts and odontoblasts, the histological, morphological and biochemical analyses showed that it failed to rescue the dental and periodontal defects as well as the delayed tooth eruption in Dmp1 null mice. These data suggest that the full-length DMP1 plays no apparent role in the nucleus during odontogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Nucleus , Genetics , Codon, Initiator , Genetics , Collagen Type I , Genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , Genetics , Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets , Genetics , Gene Targeting , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Genetics , Humans , Introns , Genetics , Methionine , Genetics , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Mutation , Genetics , Odontoblasts , Cell Biology , Odontogenesis , Genetics , Periodontal Diseases , Genetics , Periodontal Ligament , Pathology , Phosphoproteins , Genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genetics , Tooth Abnormalities , Genetics , Tooth Eruption , Genetics , Transcription Factors , Genetics , Transgenes , Genetics , Valine , Genetics , Young Adult
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294348

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the efficacy and safety of Qizhi Jiangtang Capsule (QJC) in treating stage 3b diabetic kidney disease (DKD) patients with macroalbuminuria.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Patients who conformed to the diagnostic criteria of stage 3b DKD were randomly assigned to two groups according to random digital table, the experiment group and the control group, 84 in each group. All patients received a two-week elution period, and then were treated with basic Western therapy. Patients in the experiment group took QJC, 5 pills per time, 3 times a day, while those in the control group took Valsartan Capsule 160 mg each time, once daily. The observation period of follow-ups was limited within 6 months, and the time points were set as the baseline, 1st month, 3rd month, and 6th month. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBS), 24 h urine protein quantitative (24 h UPQ), plasma albumin (ALB), and serum creatinine (SCr) were detected and recorded, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. The occurrence of hypoglycemic reaction, coagulation disorder, gastrointestinal tract reaction, allergy, hyperkalemia, doubling of creatinine, and overall adverse events were observed and recorded at same time.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Finally 81 patients in the experiment group and 80 patients in the control group were effectively included. Compared with the baseline level, SBP and DBS obviously decreased in the control group at month 1 of treatment (P < 0.05), and more significantly decreased at month 6 of treatment (P < 0.01). SBP at month 1, 3, and 6 of follow-ups; DBS at month 6 of follow-ups was lower in the control group than in the experiment group (P < 0.05). At month 1, 3, and 6 of follow-ups, 24 h UPQ of the experiment group was significantly lower than the baseline level (P < 0.01). It was also significantly lower than the level of the control group at the same time point (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in 24 h UPQ at month 1, 3, and 6 of follow-ups between the control group and the baseline level (P > 0.05). ALB of the experiment group showed an increasing trend. It was significantly higher than the baseline level at month 6 (P < 0.05), which was also higher than that of the control group at same period (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the ALB level in the control group (P > 0.05). SCr of two groups showed an increasing trend. SCr of the experiment group was significantly higher at month 1, 3, and 6 follow-ups than the baseline level (P < 0.05). But the increment of SCr was higher in the control group than in the experimental group, and obviously higher than the baseline levels (P < 0.05). eGFR of both groups showed a decreasing trend. The decrement was higher in the control group than in the experimental group (P < 0.05). The proportion of progression of renal functions at month 1, 3, and 6 of follow-ups in the experimental group was 0.0% (0 case), 9.55% (8 cases), and 21.4% (18 cases), while they were 8.3% (7 cases), 21.4% (18 cases), and 40.5% (34 cases) in the control group. There was no statistical difference in the proportion of progression of renal functions between the two groups at month 3 and 6 of follow-ups (P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between two groups (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>QJC could effectively reduce urinary protein of patients with stage 3b DKD, and delay the progression of renal functions.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Albumins , Albuminuria , Drug Therapy , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Blood , Diabetic Nephropathies , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tetrazoles , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome , Valine , Therapeutic Uses , Valsartan
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