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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 26-30, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178336

ABSTRACT

El pioderma gangrenoso ampollar es una variedad infrecuente de pioderma gangrenoso, que se asocia en el 50-70% de los casos con trastornos oncohematológicos. Se comunica el caso de una paciente de 59 años, que consultó por fiebre y ampollas purpúricas de rápida progresión, con compromiso cutáneo mucoso. Con sospecha de una enfermedad neutrofílica, ampollar, o infección por gérmenes oportunistas, se realizó biopsia de piel para estudio histopatológico, inmunofluorescencia directa y cultivo. Los cultivos y la inmunofluorescencia directa fueron negativos, y la anatomía patológica reveló un denso infiltrado inflamatorio con predominio neutrofílico en dermis. Ante el diagnóstico de pioderma gangrenoso ampollar, se realizó una punción-aspiración de médula ósea cuyo resultado fue compatible con leucemia mieloide aguda. Se instauró tratamiento con corticosteroides sistémicos, a pesar de lo cual la paciente evolucionó desfavorablemente y falleció a los 15 días de su ingreso hospitalario. Este caso ilustra la asociación de esta enfermedad cutánea con trastornos oncohematológicos y el mal pronóstico que esto implica a corto plazo. (AU)


Bullous pyoderma gangrenosum is an infrequent type of pyoderma gangrenosum, associated with onco hematological diseases in 50-70% of cases. We present the case of a 59-year-old patient with fever and mucocutaneous hemorrhagic bullous of rapid progression. A biopsy for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and skin culture was made, considering the possibility of neutrophilic dermatoses, bullous dermatosis or an opportunistic infection. The results of both the culture and the DIF were negative. The histopathological examination of the specimen revealed a dense dermal polymorphic infiltrate composed primarily of neutrophils. Considering bullous pyoderma gangrenosum as a potential diagnosis, a bone-marrow biopsy was performed. This study revealed an acute myeloid leukemia. Although systemic corticosteroid therapy was begun, the patient presented an unfavorable evolution that led to her death 15 days after her admission at the hospital. This case shows the association between bullous pyoderma gangrenosum and onco hematological diseases. In addition, it highlights the poor prognosis related to these diseases in the short term. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/diagnosis , Paraneoplastic Syndromes/pathology , Respiration, Artificial , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , Acyclovir/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftazidime/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Imipenem/administration & dosage , Sweet Syndrome/etiology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/etiology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/pathology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Meropenem/administration & dosage
2.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 391-397, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138519

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a efetividade da vancomicina contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L em pacientes pediátricos com base na razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima > 400. Métodos: População de 22 pacientes pediátricos (13 meninos) internados no centro de terapia intensiva pediátrica, com função renal preservada, que foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G1 < 7 anos e G2 ≥ 7 anos). Após a quarta dose de vancomicina (10 - 15mg/kg a cada 6 horas), duas amostras de sangue foram colhidas (terceira e quinta horas), seguidas da dosagem sérica por imunoensaios para investigação da farmacocinética e da cobertura do antimicrobiano. Resultados: Não se registrou diferença entre os grupos com relação à dose, ao nível de vale ou ainda na área sob a curva. A cobertura contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L ocorreu em apenas 46% dos pacientes em ambos os grupos. A farmacocinética se mostrou alterada nos dois grupos diante dos valores de referência, mas a diferença entre grupos foi registrada pelo aumento da depuração total corporal e pelo encurtamento da meia-vida biológica, mais pronunciados nos pacientes mais novos. Conclusão: A dose empírica mínima de 60mg/kg ao dia deve ser prescrita ao paciente pediátrico de unidade de terapia intensiva com função renal preservada. A utilização da razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima na avaliação da cobertura da vancomicina é recomendada para se atingir o desfecho desejado, uma vez que a farmacocinética está alterada nesses pacientes, podendo impactar na efetividade do antimicrobiano.


Abstract Objective: To investigate the vancomycin effectiveness against gram-positive pathogens with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L in pediatric patients based on the area under the curve and the minimum inhibitory concentration ratio > 400. Methods: A population of 22 pediatric patients (13 boys) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with preserved renal function was stratified in two groups (G1 < 7 years and G2 ≥ 7 years). After the fourth dose administered of vancomycin (10 - 15mg/kg every 6 hours) was administered, two blood samples were collected (third and fifth hours), followed by serum measurement by immunoassays to investigate the pharmacokinetics and antimicrobial coverage. Results: There was no difference between the groups regarding dose, trough level or area under the curve. Coverage against gram-positive pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L occurred in only 46% of patients in both groups. The pharmacokinetics in both groups were altered relative to the reference values, and the groups differed in regard to increased total body clearance and shortening of the biological half-life, which were more pronounced in younger patients. Conclusion: A minimum empirical dose of 60mg/kg per day should be prescribed for pediatric patients in intensive care units with preserved renal function. The use of the ratio between the area under the curve and minimum inhibitory concentration in the evaluation of vancomycin coverage is recommended to achieve the desired outcome, since the pharmacokinetics are altered in these patients, which may impact the effectiveness of the antimicrobial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pilot Projects , Age Factors , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Half-Life
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(2): 99-105, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126095

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Vancomicina es un antimicrobiano ampliamente utilizado para infecciones por Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa en neonatos; sin embargo, no existe claridad sobre la dosis empírica que asegure su eficacia terapéutica. Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre las dosis iniciales de vancomicina utilizadas en una Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal (UCIN) con la eventualidad de alcanzar el objetivo terapéutico de área bajo la curva sobre concentración inhibitoria mínima (ABC/CIM) mayor a 400 µg/h/mL. Materiales y Método: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo, realizado entre febrero 2016 y marzo 2018. Se incluyeron neonatos en tratamiento con vancomicina por sospecha/confirmación de infección por cocáceas grampositivas y medición de concentraciones plasmáticas de vancomicina al inicio del tratamiento. La probabilidad de alcanzar el objetivo terapéutico se evaluó mediante re-muestreo de valores de ABC y CIM. Resultados: Se incluyeron 38 pacientes con 49 concentraciones plasmáticas de vancomicina. Los aislados microbiológicos se confirmaron en 94,7% de los pacientes (n = 36). Los valores de ABC/CIM en dos grupos (según niveles valle de vancomicina < 10 µg/mL y ≥ 10 µg/mL), fueron de una mediana de 327 (IQ 25-75 = 174-395) y 494 (IQ 25-75 = 318-631), respectivamente (p = 0,035). Las dosis empíricas utilizadas logran logran un objetivo terapéutico (ABC/CIM > 400) de sólo 47,7% considerando CIMs en nuestra institución. Conclusiones: Teniendo en cuenta las sensibilidades institucionales, no es posible asegurar alcanzar ABC/CIM > 400 µg/h/mL. Se debe seguir investigando para replantear las actuales estrategias de dosificación y así determinar la más apropiada para neonatos.


Abstract Background: Vancomycin is used for treating coagulase-negative staphylococcus infections in neonates. However, concerns about the appropriate empirical dosing required for optimal efficacy, still remain. Aim: To assess the relationship between the initial doses of vancomycin used in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) with the possibility of achieving therapeutic target of AUC024h/MIC > 400 µg/h/mL. Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study carried out between February 2016 and March 2018. All neonates treated with vancomycin for suspected/proven Gram-positive infection and with at least one trough serum concentration level were included. Probability of target attainment (PTA) was evaluated through resampling of AUC and MIC values. Results: Final dataset included 38 patients and 49 trough vancomycin levels; 94.7% of these cases (n = 36) were confirmed Gram-positive infections. The median AUC/MIC values for the trough values vancomycin < 10 µg/mL group and for the ≥ 10 µg/mL group were 327 (IQR 174-395) and 494 (IQR 318-631) respectively (p = 0.035). Current empirical dosing strategy has a 47.7% PTA (AUC/MIC > 400) when taking institutional MICs into account. Conclusions: It is not possible to assure achieving a AUC/MIC > 400 µg/h/mL when considering institutional sensibilities. Current empiric dosing strategies should be reconsidered and further investigation needs to be done to help determine the appropriate empirical dosing required for optimal efficacy in neonates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Staphylococcal Infections , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Area Under Curve , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 33(3): [rev01], 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117806

ABSTRACT

Nas últimas décadas, o aumento das indicações para dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis tem sido acompanhado pela elevação dos casos de complicações relacionadas ao seu uso, dentre elas a endocardite infecciosa. Apesar dos avanços diagnósticos e terapêuticos da doença, esta mantém elevada morbimortalidade. Os casos relacionados aos dispositivos apresentam importantes limitações referentes aos critérios e aos métodos diagnósticos que implicam na tomada de decisão terapêutica sobre retirada do dispositivo, com risco de morte e outras complicações. Ainda assim, o ecocardiograma mantém um grande valor no diagnóstico da endocardite infecciosa relacionada a dispositivos cardíacos e de suas complicações. O entendimento das limitações e dos desafios acerca do diagnóstico reforça a necessidade de mais estudos sobre do tema. O presente artigo visa descrever a epidemiologia, a microbiologia, os fatores de risco, a patogenia, o diagnóstico e o tratamento da endocardite infecciosa associada aos dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis, visando demonstrar, principalmente, o valor dos exames de imagem na abordagem dessa condição clínica, com ênfase nos achados ao ecocardiograma.


In recent decades, the increase in indications for implantable electronic cardiac devices has been accompanied by an increase in cases of complications related to their use, including infectious endocarditis. Despite the diagnostic and therapeutic advances of the disease, it maintains high morbidity and mortality. The cases related to the devices have important limitations regarding the criteria and diagnostic methods that imply in making a therapeutic decision about removing the device, with risk of death and other complications. Still, echocardiography remains of great value in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis related to cardiac devices and their complications. Understanding the limitations and challenges regarding diagnosis reinforces the need for further studies on the topic. This article aims to describe the epidemiology, microbiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis associated with implantable electronic cardiac devices, aiming to demonstrate, mainly, the value of imaging tests in addressing this clinical condition , with emphasis on echocardiogram findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Infections/therapy , Pacemaker, Artificial , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Defibrillators, Implantable , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices , Floxacillin/administration & dosage , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(1): eAO4396, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984360

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Analyze the microbiological effectiveness, based on the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics correlation of vancomycin in pediatric patients, and to propose dose adjustment. Methods This is an observational, cross-sectional study, conducted in a pediatric hospital, over a 1-year period (2016 to 2017). Children of both sexes, aged 2 to 12 years, were included in the study; burn children, and children in renal replacement therapy were excluded. For the pharmacokinetic analysis, two samples of 2mL of whole blood were collected, respecting the 2-hour interval between each withdrawal. Results Ten pediatric patients with median age of 5.5 years and interquartile range (IQR) of 3.2-9.0 years, median weight of 21kg (IQR: 15.5-24.0kg) and median height of 112.5cm (IQR: 95-133cm), were included. Only one child achieved trough concentrations between 10µg/mL and 15µg/mL. Conclusion The empirical use of vancomycin in the children studied did not achieve the therapeutic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target for minimum inhibitory concentration of 1µg/mL.


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a efetividade microbiológica considerando a correlação farmacocinética/farmacodinâmica de vancomicina em crianças e propor uma estimativa de ajuste na dose. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo observacional, transversal, realizado em hospital pediátrico, no período de 1 ano (2016 a 2017). Foram incluídas crianças de 2 a 12 anos de ambos os sexos, tendo sido excluídas crianças queimadas ou submetidas à terapia renal substitutiva. Para análise farmacocinética, foram coletadas duas amostras de 2mL de sangue total, respeitando o intervalo de 2 horas entre cada coleta. Resultados Foram incluídos dez pacientes pediátricos com idade de 5,5 anos (mediana) e intervalo interquartil (IQ) de 3,2-9,0 anos, peso de 21kg (mediana; IQ: 15,5-24,0kg) e altura de 112,5cm (mediana; IQ: 95-133cm). Apenas uma criança alcançou concentrações mínimas entre 10µg/mL e 15µg/mL. Conclusão A utilização empírica de vancomicina na população de crianças não alcançou o alvo farmacocinético/farmacodinâmico terapêutico para concentração inibitória mínima de 1μg/mL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Time Factors , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Monitoring/methods , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 22-28, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899773

ABSTRACT

Resumen La presente revisión resume la evidencia sobre la monitorización terapéutica de tres antimicrobianos basada en datos regionales: vancomicina, amikacina y voriconazol en la población pediátrica. Estos datos coinciden con la literatura internacional en relación al requerimiento de dosis mayores que 40 mg/kg/día de vancomicina, la posibilidad de usar monodosis diarias de amikacina y el requerimiento de dosis mayores de voriconazol en relación a las iniciales recomendadas de 8 mg/kg/día. Contar con datos locales sobre el comportamiento farmacocinético/farmacodinámico de diversos antimicrobianos en la pediatría es de gran valor para adecuar la dosificación de los mismos en nuestra población. Se deberían incrementar los estudios de monitorización terapéutica en el uso de antimicrobianos en pediatría que permitan generar pautas de tratamiento adecuadas para este grupo etario.


This review summarizes recommendations of therapeutic monitoring of three antimicrobials based in regional data: vancomycin, amikacin and voriconazole in pediatric population. Regional evidence agrees with international literature regarding the requirement of higher daily doses than 40 mg/kg/day of vancomycin, as well as with the possibility of use one daily doses of amikacin and to recommend higher doses of voriconazole compared to the initially recommended doses of 8 mg/kg/day. Local data on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic behavior of various antimicrobials in pediatrics are of great value for dosing adjustment in our pediatric population. More studies in therapeutic monitoring in the use of antimicrobials in pediatrics should be performed in order to allow the generation of adequate treatment guidelines for this age group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amikacin/administration & dosage , Amikacin/pharmacokinetics , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Drug Monitoring/trends , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Voriconazole/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Latin America
9.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(supl.1): S63-S67, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117866

ABSTRACT

The management of Clostridium difficile (CD) infection has changed in recent years. The latest clinical guidelines and systematic reviews suggest the use of vancomycin orally as the first line of treatment regardless the severity of the crisis (main difference compared to previous recommendations), this is due to changes in its epidemiology, the decrease in effectiveness and the increase of recurrences with the use of metronidazole, particularly in severe crisis. In addition, the use of new agents such as fidaxomicin has been approved. Fulminant crisis require an aggressive management combining oral treatment, enemas and intravenous therapy in addition to a collaborative management with the surgery team. With respect to recurrences, the use of vancomycin in pulses and with extended therapy schemes is suggested; fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is also an attractive therapy for patients with multiple recurrences. The following is a summary of the latest recommendations and available evidence regarding the management of CD infection in the most frequent situations, both in first crisis and in its recurrences.


El manejo de la infección por Clostridium difficile (CD) ha tenido modificaciones los últimos años. Las últimas guías clínicas y revisiones sistemáticas sugieren el uso de vancomicina vía oral como primera línea de tratamiento independiente de la severidad de la crisis (diferencia principal con recomendaciones previas), esto debido a cambios en su epidemiología, la disminución de la efectividad y al aumento de las recurrencias con el uso de metronidazol, particularmente en crisis severas. Además, han sido aprobados el uso de nuevos agentes como la fidaxomicina. Las crisis de carácter fulminante requieren un manejo agresivo combinando terapia oral, vía enemas e intravenosa, además de un manejo en conjunto con el equipo de cirugía. Respecto a las recurrencias se sugiere el uso de vancomicina en pulsos y con esquemas de terapia extendida siendo además, el trasplante de microbiota fecal (FMT) una terapia atractiva para pacientes con múltiples recurrencias. A continuación se resumen las últimas recomendaciones y evidencia disponible respecto del manejo de la infección por CD en las situaciones más frecuentes, tanto en la primera crisis como en sus recurrencias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Fidaxomicin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Recurrence , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Clostridioides difficile/drug effects , Clostridium Infections/complications , Diarrhea/microbiology , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Fidaxomicin/administration & dosage , Rifaximin/therapeutic use , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
10.
In. Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Rios, Isabel Cristina; Takaoka, Flávio. Anestesia e bioética / Anesthesia and bioethics. São Paulo, Atheneu, 8; 2017. p.2333-2348.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847983
11.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da condutas da emergência do InCor: cardiopneumologia / IInCor Emergency Conduct Manual: Cardiopneumology. São Paulo, Manole, 2ª revisada e atualizada; 2017. p.1026-1032.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-848541
12.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 28(4): 380-386, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-844270

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se a posologia atualmente utilizada de vancomicina para tratamento de infecções bacterianas graves causadas por microrganismos Gram-positivos em pacientes admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva proporcionam níveis plasmáticos de vale de vancomicina em nível terapêutico, e examinar possíveis fatores associados com níveis de vale de vancomicina adequados nesses pacientes. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo descritivo com amostra de conveniência. Os pacientes que cumpriam os critérios de inclusão tiveram seus dados coletados a partir das anotações da enfermagem e dos registros médicos entre setembro de 2013 e julho de 2014. Incluíram-se 83 pacientes. Os níveis plasmáticos de vale iniciais de vancomicina foram obtidos imediatamente antes da quarta dose de vancomicina. Definiu-se lesão renal aguda como um aumento de, pelo menos, 0,3mg/dL na creatinina sérica dentro de 48 horas. Resultados: Considerando os níveis de vale plasmáticos de vancomicina recomendados para o tratamento de infecções graves por Gram-positivos (15 - 20µg/mL), os pacientes foram categorizados em grupos como níveis de vale de vancomicina baixos, adequados e elevados, respectivamente divididos em 35 (42,2%), 18 (21,7%), e 30 (36,1%) pacientes. Os pacientes com lesão renal aguda tiveram níveis plasmáticos de vale de vancomicina significantemente mais elevados (p = 0,0055, com significância para tendência, p = 0,0023). Conclusão: Preocupantemente, mais de 40% dos pacientes não obtiveram níveis plasmáticos de vale de vancomicina considerados eficazes. São necessários estudos de farmacocinética e de regimes posológicos de vancomicina em pacientes admitidos em unidades de terapia intensiva, para contornar esta elevada proporção de falhas na obtenção de níveis de vale iniciais adequados de vancomicina. Deve ser desencorajado o uso de vancomicina sem monitoramento dos níveis de vale plasmáticos.


ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to assess whether currently used dosages of vancomycin for treatment of serious gram-positive bacterial infections in intensive care unit patients provided initial therapeutic vancomycin trough levels and to examine possible factors associated with the presence of adequate initial vancomycin trough levels in these patients. Methods: A prospective descriptive study with convenience sampling was performed. Nursing note and medical record data were collected from September 2013 to July 2014 for patients who met inclusion criteria. Eighty-three patients were included. Initial vancomycin trough levels were obtained immediately before vancomycin fourth dose. Acute kidney injury was defined as an increase of at least 0.3mg/dL in serum creatinine within 48 hours. Results: Considering vancomycin trough levels recommended for serious gram-positive infection treatment (15 - 20µg/mL), patients were categorized as presenting with low, adequate, and high vancomycin trough levels (35 [42.2%], 18 [21.7%], and 30 [36.1%] patients, respectively). Acute kidney injury patients had significantly greater vancomycin trough levels (p = 0.0055, with significance for a trend, p = 0.0023). Conclusion: Surprisingly, more than 40% of the patients did not reach an effective initial vancomycin trough level. Studies on pharmacokinetic and dosage regimens of vancomycin in intensive care unit patients are necessary to circumvent this high proportion of failures to obtain adequate initial vancomycin trough levels. Vancomycin use without trough serum level monitoring in critically ill patients should be discouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Prospective Studies , Drug Monitoring/methods , Creatinine/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics
13.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(5): 451-456, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828135

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus has been identified as the main nosocomial agent of neonatal late-onset sepsis. However, based on the pharmacokinetics and erratic distribution of vancomycin, recommended empirical dose is not ideal, due to the inappropriate serum levels that have been measured in neonates. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of vancomycin used in newborns and compare the prediction of adequate serum levels based on doses calculated according to mg/kg/day and m2/day. This is an observational reprospective cohort at a referral neonatal unit, from 2011 to 2013. Newborns treated with vancomycin for the first episode of late-onset sepsis were included. Total dose in mg/kg/day, dose/m2/day, age, weight, body surface and gestational age were identified as independent variables. For predictive analysis of adequate serum levels, multiple linear regressions were performed. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve for proper serum vancomycin levels was also obtained. A total of 98 patients received 169 serum dosages of the drug, 41 (24.3%) of the doses had serum levels that were defined as appropriate. Doses prescribed in mg/kg/day and dose/m2/day predicted serum levels in only 9% and 4% of cases, respectively. Statistical significance was observed with higher doses when the serum levels were considered as appropriate (p < 0.001). A dose of 27 mg/kg/day had a sensitivity of 82.9% to achieve correct serum levels of vancomycin. Although vancomycin has erratic serum levels and empirical doses cannot properly predict the target levels, highest doses in mg/kg/day were associated with adequate serum levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/blood , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/blood , Reference Values , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Linear Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Gestational Age , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Neonatal Sepsis/blood
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(6): 585-589, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769631

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Appearance of isolated reports of resistance to anti-methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) drugs is worrisome underscoring the need to continuously monitor the susceptibility of clinical MRSA isolates to these drugs. Hence, the present study is conducted to determine the susceptibility of MRSA isolates to various classes of anti-MRSA drugs such as vancomycin (glycopeptide), daptomycin (lipopeptide), tigecycline (glycylcycline), and linezolid (oxazolidinone) to determine the MIC50 and MIC90 values, and to observe MIC creep over a three year period, if any, with respect to these drugs. METHODS: A total of 200 isolates of MRSA obtained from clinical specimens were included. MIC was determined by E-test for anti-MRSA antibiotics vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline. Non-parametric methods (Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square test) were used to assess MIC trends over time. In addition, MIC50 and MIC90 values were also calculated. RESULTS: No isolate was found resistant to vancomycin, daptomycin, or linezolid; five isolates were resistant to tigecycline. Seven VISA isolates were encountered with the MIC value for vancomycin of 4 µg/mL. MIC values for vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid showed a definite increase over a 3-year period which was statistically significant with p-values <0.0001, 0.0032, 0.0242, respectively. When the percentage of isolates with a median MIC value less than or equal to that of the index year was calculated, the change was most striking with vancomycin. The proportion of isolates with higher MIC values was greater in 2014 than 2012 and 2013. CONCLUSION: MIC creep was notably observed with vancomycin, and to some extent with tigecycline and linezolid. Selection pressure may result in creeping MICs, which may herald the emergence of resistant organisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Daptomycin/administration & dosage , Daptomycin/pharmacology , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methicillin/administration & dosage , Methicillin/pharmacology , Minocycline/administration & dosage , Minocycline/analogs & derivatives , Minocycline/pharmacology , Tertiary Care Centers , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacology
16.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; set. 2015. 112 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834104

ABSTRACT

Enterococos são ubíquos no ambiente e fazem parte da microbiota do trato gastrintestinal de humanos e animais. A importância dessas bactérias tem sido associada com infecções hospitalares e resistência a múltiplas drogas, principalmente à vancomicina. O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar a caracterização molecular de cepas de Enterococcus spp. resistentes à vancomicina (VRE) isoladas a partir de amostras coletadas de pacientes hospitalizados, água superficial de rios urbanos e carne de frango comercializada no Brasil. A presença do gene vanA foi confirmada em 20 cepas multirresitentes isoladas durante 1997-2011. Dentre os isolados VRE, 12 cepas foram identificadas como E. faecium e oito como E. faecalis. Cepas de E. faecium isoladas de amostras clínicas e águas foram classificadas como clonalmente relacionadas pelo PFGE, com perfil virulência predominante (acm+, esp+). Adicionalmente, enquanto cepas de E. faecium isoladas dos rios pertenceram aos ST203, ST412 e ST478 (previamente caracterizados como endêmicos em hospitais brasileiros), novos STs foram identificados entre as cepas de E. faecalis (ST614, ST615 e ST616) e E. faecium (ST953 e ST954) isoladas de alimentos. Sequências completas do transposon Tn1546 das cepas clínicas VREfm 320/07 (ST478) e ambiental VREfm 11 (ST412) mostraram Tn1546-like element de ~12800 pb, com um ponto de mutação no gene vanA na posição 7.698 (substituição do nucleotídeo T pelo C) e uma no gene vanX na posição 8.234 (G pelo T). Além disso, uma deleção na extremidade esquerda do Tn1546, e as sequências IS1251 e IS1216E na região intergênica vanHS e vanYX, respectivamente, também foram detectados. A este respeito, a IS1216E na região intergênica vanXY constitui um conjunto de genes previamente relatado em cepas clínicas de VREfm no Brasil, denotando uma característica regional. IS1216E tem sido associada com os genes tcrB e aadE que conferem resistência ao cobre e aminoglicosídeos, em E. faecium e Streptococcus agalactiae, respectivamente. Portanto, essa IS pode contribuir para a rápida aquisição de resistência antimicrobiana entre as espécies de cocos Gram-positivos clinicamente importantes. Os tipos de Tn1546 indistiguíveis que foram identificados no atual estudo isolados de humano e ambientes aquáticos sugerem uma comum partilha de um pool de genes de resistência à vancomicina


Enterococci are ubiquitous in the environment and in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. The importance of these bacteria has been associated with nosocomial infection and multiple resistance to antimicrobial agents, mainly vancomycin. The aim of the present study was to perform molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. strains (VRE) isolated from hospitalized patients, surface water of urban rivers and retail chicken meat in Brazil. The presence of the vanA gene was confirmed in 20 multidrug-resistant strains isolated in 1997-2011. Among these VRE isolates, (n = 12) were identified as E. faecium and (n = 8) as E. faecalis. E. faecium strains isolated from water and clinical samples were classified as clonally related by PFGE, the predominant virulence profile being (acm+, esp+). Additionally, while E. faecium strains isolated from rivers belonging to ST203, ST412 and ST478 (previously characterized as endemic in Brazilian hospitals), new STs were identified among strains of E. faecalis (ST614, ST615 and ST616) and E. faecium (ST953 and ST954) isolated from food. Complete sequences of transposon Tn1546 from VREfm clinical strain 320/07 (ST478) and environmental strain VREfm 11 (ST412) showed a Tn1546-like element of ~12800 bp, with T7698C vanA and G8234T vanX mutations. Moreover, deletion of the Tn1546 left extremity, and the IS1251 and IS1216E sequence inside the vanHS and vanYX intergenic region, respectively, were also detected. In this regard, the IS1216E sequence inside the vanXY intergenic region constitutes a gene array previously reported for Brazilian VREfm clinical strains alone, denoting a regional characteristic. IS1216E has been associated with tcrB and aadE genes, which confer resistance to copper and aminoglycosides, in E. faecium and Streptococcus agalactiae, respectively. Therefore, IS1216E should contribute to rapid acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among species of the clinically important Gram-positive cocci. On the other hand, Tn1546-like elements were identical among clinical and environmental VREfm isolates, suggesting sharing of a common vancomycin resistance gene pool


Subject(s)
Humans , Aquatic Environment/adverse effects , Enterococcus/cytology , Enterococcus/drug effects , Food/adverse effects , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Genes
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(5): 668-672, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-751712

ABSTRACT

A loop ileostomy with intraoperative anterograde colonic lavage has been described as an alternative to colectomy in the management of cases of Clostridium difficile infection refractory to medical treatment. We report a 69 years old diabetic women admitted with a septic shock. An abdominal CAT scan showed a pan-colitis that seemed to be infectious. A polymerase chain reaction was positive for Clostridium Difficile. Due to the failure to improve after full medical treatment, a derivative loop ileostomy and intra-operatory colonic lavage were performed, leaving a Foley catheter in the proximal colon. In the postoperative period, anterograde colonic instillations of Vancomycin flushes through the catheter were performed every 6 hours. Forty eight hours after surgery, the patient improved. A colonoscopy prior to discharge showed resolution of the pseudomembranous colitis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Female , Humans , Clostridioides difficile , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/therapy , Ileostomy/methods , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , Vancomycin/administration & dosage
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99232

ABSTRACT

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of ear infections. We attempted to evaluate the clinical usefulness of arbekacin in treating chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) by comparing its clinical efficacy and toxicity with those of vancomycin. Efficacy was classified according to bacterial elimination or bacteriologic failure and improved or failed clinical efficacy response. Ninety-five subjects were diagnosed with CSOM caused by MRSA. Twenty of these subjects were treated with arbekacin, and 36 with vancomycin. The bacteriological efficacy (bacterial elimination, arbekacin vs. vancomycin: 85.0% vs. 97.2%) and improved clinical efficacy (arbekacin vs. vancomycin; 90.0% vs. 97.2%) were not different between the two groups. However, the rate of complications was higher in the vancomycin group (33.3%) than in the arbekacin group (5.0%) (P=0.020). In addition, a total of 12 adverse reactions were observed in the vancomycin group; two for hepatotoxicity, one for nephrotoxicity, eight for leukopenia, two for skin rash, and one for drug fever. It is suggested that arbekacin be a good alternative drug to vancomycin in treatment of CSOM caused by MRSA.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Chronic Disease , Dibekacin/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Middle Aged , Otitis Media, Suppurative/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Young Adult
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 871-878, 11/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728793

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to correlate the presence of ica genes, biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance in 107 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from blood cultures. The isolates were analysed to determine their methicillin resistance, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, ica genes and biofilm formation and the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured for isolates and subpopulations growing on vancomycin screen agar. The mecA gene was detected in 81.3% of the S. epidermidis isolated and 48.2% carried SCCmec type III. The complete icaADBC operon was observed in 38.3% of the isolates; of these, 58.5% produced a biofilm. Furthermore, 47.7% of the isolates grew on vancomycin screen agar, with an increase in the MIC in 75.9% of the isolates. Determination of the MIC of subpopulations revealed that 64.7% had an MIC ≥ 4 μg mL-1, including 15.7% with an MIC of 8 μg mL-1 and 2% with an MIC of 16 μg mL-1. The presence of the icaADBC operon, biofilm production and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were associated with methicillin resistance. This study reveals a high level of methicillin resistance, biofilm formation and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in subpopulations of S. epidermidis. These findings may explain the selection of multidrug-resistant isolates in hospital settings and the consequent failure of antimicrobial treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Biofilms/growth & development , Methicillin Resistance/genetics , Operon/genetics , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcal Infections/blood , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics , Agar , Cross Infection , Culture Media , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Staphylococcus epidermidis/classification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/physiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Vancomycin/administration & dosage
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(3): 249-253, jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-716975

ABSTRACT

Background: In critically ill pediatric patients vancomycin distribution and elimination is altered underscoring the need for pharmacokinetic monitoring; however the therapeutic trough ranges have not been validated for children. Objective: To describe the pharmacokinetics of intravenous vancomycin in critically ill pediatric patients using plasmatic vancomycin monitoring. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive study performed in a paediatric critical care unit. Vancomycin serum levels (Cmin and Cpeak), t ½ and Vd were determined in 1 month to 12 year old patients receiving ≥ 40 mg per-kg-per day. Plasmatic levels were measured at therapy onset and during follow up, evaluating the proportion of trough level determinations within therapeutic range, the average trough concentration, and the Cpeak achieved. Results: A total of 65 plasmatic vancomycin monitorings were analysed in 45 patients. The average values for Ctrough, Cpeak, t1/2 and Vd were 10.4 μg/mL, 22.7 μg/mL, 3,1 h and 0.7 L/kg, respectively. An average dose of 47,1 mg/kg/day achieved initial Ctrough levels < 10 mg/mL in 60% of patients (n = 27), between 10 and 14,9 μg/mL in 22,2% (n = 10), between 15 to 20 μg/mL in 4% (n: 2), and > 20 μg/mL in 13,3% (n: 6). Conclusions: Vancomycin doses of 40 mg/kg/day are insufficient for critically ill paediatric patients without renal failure. A higher starting dose and monitoring of plasma levels must be considered in this population.


Introducción: Los pacientes críticos pediátricos presentan alteraciones en la distribución y eliminación de vancomicina, lo que hace necesaria su monitorización terapéutica; sin embargo, los rangos basales óptimos no han sido validados en niños. Objetivo: Describir el monitoreo terapéutico de vancomicina intravenosa en pacientes críticos pediátricos, a través de medición de concentraciones plasmáticas terapéuticas. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, en una Unidad de Paciente Crítico Pediátrica. Se analizaron concentraciones plasmáticas de vancomicina Cbasales y Cpico, en niños entre 1 mes y 12 años de edad, que recibieron dosis ≥ 40 mg/kg/día. Se registraron concentraciones plasmáticas iniciales y de seguimiento, evaluándose la proporción de concentraciones sanguíneas basales en rango terapéutico, la concentración basal promedio y el Cpeak alcanzado. Resultados. Se analizaron 65 monitoreos terapéuticos, correspondientes a 45 pacientes. Los valores promedio de Cbasal, Cpico, t1/2 Vd fueron 10,4 μg/mL, 22,7 μg/mL, 3,1 h y 0,7 L/kg, respectivamente. Las Cbasales iniciales de los 45 pacientes, usando dosis promedio de 47,1 mg/kg/ día, se encontraron en 60% (n: 27) de los casos < 10 μg/mL, entre 10 y 14,9 μg/mL en 22% (n: 10), en 46% entre 15 y 20 μg/mL (n: 2) y en 13,3% (n: 6) fueron > 20 μg/mL. Conclusión: Vancomicina en dosis de 40 mg/kg/día, es insuficiente para pacientes pediátricos críticos sin disfunción renal, por lo que parece recomendable comenzar con dosis mayores y realizar monitoreo terapéutico de concentraciones plasmáticas en estos casos.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Critical Illness , Drug Monitoring/methods , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Infusions, Intravenous , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Retrospective Studies , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/blood
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