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Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4083-4094, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921489


Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) is a highly specific vascular endothelial growth factor that can be used to treat many cardiovascular diseases. The development of anti-tumor drugs and disease detection reagents requires highly pure VEGF165 (at least 95% purity). To date, the methods for heterologous expression and purification of VEGF165 require multiple purification steps, but the product purity remains to be low. In this study, we optimized the codons of the human VEGF165 gene (vegf165) according to the yeast codon preference. Based on the Pichia pastoris BBPB vector, we used the Biobrick method to construct a five-copy rhVEGF165 recombinant expression vector using Pgap as the promoter. In addition, a histidine tag was added to the vector. Facilitated by the His tag and the heparin-binding domain of VEGF165, we were able to obtain highly pure rhVEGF165 (purity > 98%) protein using two-step affinity chromatography. The purified rhVEGF165 was biologically active, and reached a concentration of 0.45 mg/mL. The new design of the expression vector enables production of active and highly pure rhVEGF165 ) in a simplified purification process, the purity of the biologically active natural VEGF165 reached the highest reported to date.

Codon/genetics , Humans , Pichia/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Saccharomycetales , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2091-2101, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887631


BACKGROUND@#Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) actin filament-associated protein 1 antisense RNA 1 (AFAP1-AS1) functions as a competing endogenous RNA to regulate target genes expression by sponging microRNAs (miRs) to play cancer-promoting roles in cancer stem cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of AFAP1-AS1 in cervical cancer (CC) stem cells is unknown. The present study aimed to provide a new therapeutic target for the clinical treatment of CC.@*METHODS@#Hyaluronic acid receptor cluster of differentiation 44 variant exon 6 (CD44v6)(+) CC cells were isolated by flow cytometry (FCM). Small interfering RNAs of AFAP1-AS1 (siAFAP1-AS1) were transfected into the (CD44v6)(+) cells. The levels of AFAP1-AS1 were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Sphere formation assay, cell cycle analysis, and Western blotting were used to detect the effect of siAFAP1-AS1. RNA pull-down and luciferase reporter assay were used to verify the relationship between miR-27b-3p and AFAP1-AS1 or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C.@*RESULTS@#CD44v6(+) CC cells had remarkable stemness and a high level of AFAP1-AS1. However, AFAP1-AS1 knockdown with siAFAP1-AS1 suppressed the cell cycle transition of G(1)/S phase and inhibited self-renewal of CD44v6(+) CC cells, the levels of the stemness markers octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), osteopontin (OPN), and cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133), and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins Twist1, matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9, and VEGF-C. In the mechanism study, miR-27b-3p/VEGF-C signaling was demonstrated to be a key downstream of AFAP1-AS1 in the CD44v6(+) CC cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#LncRNA AFAP1-AS1 knockdown inhibits the CC cell stemness by upregulating miR-27b-3p to suppress VEGF-C.

Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1396-1401, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136166


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The relationship between the clinicopathological and sociodemographics characteristics of acral melanomas diagnosed at BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of VEGF gene insertion (I) / deletion (D) polymorphism (rs35569394) in patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and to compare with a control population to verify its association with the pathology. METHODS: 206 women participated in this study, 103 with PCOS (group of patients) and 103 without the disease (control group). After extraction of genomic DNA from the samples, molecular analysis was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and electrophoresis in polycrylamide. Descriptive analysis, univariate analysis and logistic regression model were used. Results were presented in odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI), considering the significance of p <0.05. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences between patients and controls for allele frequencies (χ2 = 1.16, p = 0.56). The genotypic frequency distribution was in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium for the patients (χ2 = 2.42; p <0.05), but not for the control group (χ2 = 7.26; p <0.05). Regarding risk factors for the syndrome, a history of familial PCOS is more frequent among women with the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, there is no association between VEGF gene I / D polymorphism and PCOS.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a frequência do polimorfismo de inserção (I)/ deleção (D) do gene VEGF (rs35569394) em pacientes com Síndrome dos Ovários Policísticos (SOP) e comparar com uma população controle para verificar sua associação com a patologia. MÉTODOS: Participaram desse estudo 206 mulheres sendo 103 com SOP (grupo de pacientes) e 103 sem a doença (grupo controle). Após extração do DNA genômico das amostras, a análise molecular foi realizada por Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. Utilizou-se análise descritiva, análise univariada e modelo de regressão logística. Os resultados foram apresentados em odds ratio (OR) e intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC-95%), considerando a significância de p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças estatísticas entre as pacientes e controles para as frequências alélicas (χ2 = 1,16, p = 0,56). A distribuição da frequência genotípica estava em equilíbrio de Hardy Weinberg para as pacientes (χ2= 2,42; p<0,12), mas não para o grupo controle (χ2= 7,26; p<0,05). Em relação aos fatores de risco para a síndrome, a história de SOP familiar é mais frequente entre as mulheres com a síndrome. CONCLUSÕES: Na casuística estudada, não há associação entre o polimorfismo I/D do gene da VEGF e a SOP.

Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Gene Frequency , Genotype
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(1): 40-47, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099144


Introducción: El factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular (VEGF) es una proteína involucrada en la proliferación y migración celular del endotelio vascular, en cuyo gen se ha reportado el polimorfismo +405G>C. Se reconoce que no existen reportes genéticos poblacionales de esta variante en Cuba, que permitan caracterizar los perfiles inmunogenéticos a nivel molecular, para su aplicación en estudios de asociación alélica. Objetivo: Describir las frecuencias génicas y genotípicas del polimorfismo VEGF (+405 G>C) en la población cubana. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal, entre octubre de 2017 y marzo de 2018 en 162 neonatos cubanos, de ambos sexos y sanos, para el pesquisaje neonatal de enfermedades metabólicas, cuyas muestras biológicas se conservaban en el banco de ADN del Centro Nacional de Genética Médica. La caracterización molecular de los genotipos fue realizada mediante un PCR-ARMS. Se utilizó el software GENEPOP 4.4 y el paquete estadístico STATISTICA 8.0 para los cálculos de las frecuencias génicas y genotípicas. Resultados: La población no se ajustó al modelo de equilibrio de Hardy Weinberg para el gen evaluado. Las frecuencias génicas estimadas para el polimorfismo VEGF (+405 G>C) fueron de 0,33 para el alelo G y de 0,67 para el alelo C. El cálculo de las frecuencias genotípicas resultó en 0,14, 0,37 y 0,49, para las variantes GG, GC y CC, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Las frecuencias alélicas VEGF.C fueron superiores a la del alelo VEGF.G, siendo el genotipo VEGF.GG el de menor representación en el conjunto estudiado(AU)

Introduction: The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a protein involved in the proliferation and cell migration of the vascular endothelium. In its gene, +405G>C Polymorphism has been reported. There are no population genetic reports of this variant in Cuba that allow the characterization of immunogenetic profiles at a molecular level for its application to allelic association studies. Objectives: To describe the genic and genotypic frequencies of the VEGF (+405 G>C) polymorphism in the Cuban population. Material and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study was carried out from October 2017 to March 2018 in 162 Cuban healthy newborns of both sexes for the neonatal screening for metabolic diseases, whose biological samples were conserved in the DNA bank of the National Center for Medical Genetics. The molecular characterization of the genotypes was carried out using a PCR-ARMS. The GENEPOP 4.4 software and the statistical software package STATISTICA 8.0 were used for the analysis of genic and genotypic frequencies. Results: The population did not adjust to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model for the gene evaluated. The estimated gene frequencies of VEGF +405 G> C polymorphism were 0.33 for the G allele and 0.67 for the C allele. The calculation of the genotypic frequencies resulted in 0.14, 0.37 and 0.49, for the variants GG, GC and CC, respectively. Conclusions: The allelic frequencies of VEGF.C were higher than the frequencies of the VEGF.G allele, being the VEGF GG the least represented genotype in the group studied(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Gene Frequency/genetics , Genetics, Population/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879930


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism of Chinese medicine Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) promoting neurogenesis and angiogenesis in ischemic stroke rats.@*METHODS@#Male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, BYHWD group, antagonist group and antagonist control group with 14 rats in each. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 90 min with intraluminal filament and reperfusion for 14 d in all groups except sham operation group. BYHWD (13 g/kg) was administrated by gastrogavage in BYHWD group, antagonist group and antagonist control group at 24 h after modeling respectively, and BrdU (50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally in all groups once a day for 14 consecutive days. miR-199a-5p antagomir or NC (10 nmol) was injected into the lateral ventricle at d5 after ischemia in antagonist and antagonist control groups, respectively. The neurological deficits were evaluated by the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and the corner test, and the infract volume was measured by toluidine blue staining. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis were detected by immunofluorescence double labeling method. The expression level of miR-199a-5p was tested by real-time RT-PCR, and the protein expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#BYHWD treatment significantly promoted the recovery of neurological function (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Buyang Huanwu decoction promotes neurogenesis and angiogenesis in rats with cerebral ischemia, which may be related to increased protein expression of VEGF and BDNF through upregulating miR-199a-5p.

Animals , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neurogenesis/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
Biol. Res ; 53: 41, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131885


BACKGROUND: Tumor angiogenesis is an essential event for tumor growth and metastasis. It has been showed that REC8, a component of the meiotic cohesion complex, played a vital role in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in gastric cancer. However, the role of REC8 in gastric cancer angiogenesis remains to be identified. RESULTS: Inhibition of REC8 expression in gastric cancer cells contributed to tumor angiogenesis in the gastric cancer microenvironment. The clinical analysis demonstrated that the loss of REC8 in gastric cancer with enrichment of MVD. Depletion of REC8 expression in gastric cancer cells significantly increased tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which is attributed to enhancement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion caused by REC8 slicing. While addition of neutralizing antibody targeted VEGF into supernatant drastically reversed the effect of REC8 loss in gastric cancer cells on tube formation. Mechanistic analyses indicated that ablation of REC8 promotes nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 activity and its downstream gene VEGF expression, leading to tube formation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated a novel REC8 function that suppressed tumor angiogenesis and progression by attenuation of VEGF in gastric cancer microenvironment.

Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , NF-kappa B/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Neovascularization, Pathologic/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/blood supply , Cell Line, Tumor , Tumor Microenvironment , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 584-591, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002262


Following the success of the highly active antiretroviral therapy, the potential of multidrug combination regimen for the management of cancer is intensely researched. The anticancer effects of curcumin on some human cell lines have been documented. Lopinavir is a FDA approved protease inhibitor with known apoptotic activities. Dysregulated apoptosis is important for the initiation of cancer while angiogenesis is required for cancer growth and development, this study therefore investigated the effects of the combination of lopinavir and curcumin on cell viability, apoptosis and the mRNA expression levels of key apoptotic and angiogenic genes; BAX, BCL2 and VEGF165b in two human cervical cell lines; human squamous cell carcinoma cells - uterine cervix (HCS-2) and transformed normal human cervical cells (NCE16IIA). The two human cervical cell lines were treated with physiologically relevant concentrations of the agents for 120 h following which BAX, BCL2 and VEGF165b mRNA expression were determined by Real Time qPCR. The Acridine Orange staining for the morphological evaluation of apoptotic cells was also performed. The combination of lopinavir and curcumin up-regulated pro-apoptotic BAX and antiangiogenic VEGF165b but down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-apoptotic BCL2 mRNA in the human squamous cell carcinoma (HCS-2) cells only. The fold changes were statistically significant. Micrographs from Acridine Orange staining showed characteristic evidence of apoptosis in the human squamous cell carcinoma (HCS-2) cells only. The findings reported here suggest that the combination of curcumin and the FDA approved drug-lopinavir modulate the apoptotic and angiogenic pathway towards the inhibition of cervical cancer.

Tras el éxito de la terapia antirretroviral altamente activa, se investiga intensamente el potencial del régimen de combinación de múltiples fármacos para el tratamiento del cáncer. Se han documentado los efectos anticancerígenos de la curcumina en algunas líneas celulares humanas. Lopinavir es un inhibidor de proteasa aprobado por la FDA con actividades apoptóticas conocidas. La apoptosis disrregulada es importante para el inicio del cáncer, mientras que la angiogénesis es necesaria para el crecimiento y desarrollo del cáncer. Por lo tanto, este estudio investigó los efectos de la combinación de lopinavir y curcumina sobre la viabilidad celular, la apoptosis y los niveles de expresión del ARNm de genes apoptóticos y angiogénicos clave: BAX, BCL2 y VEGF165b en dos líneas celulares cervicales humanas; células de carcinoma de células escamosas humanas: cérvix uterino (HCS-2) y células cervicales humanas transformadas (NCE16IIA). Las dos líneas celulares cervicales humanas se trataron con concentraciones fisiológicamente relevantes de los agentes durante 120 horas, después de lo cual la expresión de ARNm de BAX, BCL2 y VEGF165b se determinó mediante qPCR en tiempo real. También se realizó la tinción con naranja de acridina para la evaluación morfológica de células apoptóticas. La combinación de lopinavir y curcumina reguló incrementando BAX proapoptósicos y VEGF165b antiangiogénicos, pero reguló a la baja los niveles de ARNm del BCL2 antiapoptótico en células de carcinoma de células escamosas humanas (HCS-2) únicamente. Los cambios en el pliegue fueron estadísticamente significativos. Las micrografías de la tinción con naranja de acridina mostraron evidencia característica de apoptosis solo en las células del carcinoma de células escamosas humanas (HCS-2). Los hallazgos reportados aquí sugieren que la combinación de curcumina y el fármaco aprobado por la FDA lopinavir modulan la vía apoptótica y angiogénica hacia la inhibición del cáncer cervical.

Humans , Female , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/drug effects , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(2): 149-153, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844225


Abstract Aim: To investigate the relation between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphism in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and lupus related neuropsychiatric manifestations. Patients and methods: Sixty adult SLE patients recruited from the Rheumatology and Neurology departments of Cairo University hospitals were classified into two groups; Group A: 30 patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations (NPSLE) and Group B: 30 patients without. For both groups the SNP G1612A (rs10434) of the VEGF gene was genotyped by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Statistically significant difference was found in genotype and allele frequencies between both groups (AA [70% vs 13.3%, p < 0.001] and GG [10% vs 66.7%, p < 0.001]). Conclusion: Polymorphism in the gene coding for VEGF may be associated with increased incidence of neuropsychiatric lupus in SLE patients.

Resumo Objetivo: Investigar a relação entre o polimorfismo genético do fator de crescimento vascular endotelial (VEGF) em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) e manifestações neuropsiquiátricas relacionadas com o lúpus. Pacientes e métodos: Foram recrutados 60 pacientes adultos com LES nos departamentos de Reumatologia e Neurologia de hospitais universitários do Cairo e classificados em dois grupos; grupo A: 30 pacientes com manifestações neuropsiquiátricas (LESNP) e grupo B: 30 pacientes sem manifestações neuropsiquiátricas. Genotipou-se o SNP G1612A (rs10434) do gene VEGF em ambos os grupos por reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (RT-PCR). Resultados: Foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significativa nas frequências genotípicas e alélicas entre os dois grupos (AA [70% vs. 13,3%, p < 0,001] e GG [10% vs. 66,7%, p < 0,001]). Conclusão: O polimorfismo no gene que codifica o VEGF pode estar associado ao aumento na incidência de lúpus neuropsiquiátrico em pacientes com LES.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/genetics , Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/psychology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/diagnosis , Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System/physiopathology , Gene Expression Profiling , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Genotype , Middle Aged
Braz. j. biol ; 76(1): 59-65, Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774508


Abstract Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell bone marrow neoplasia characterized by inflammation with an intense secretion of growth factors that promote tumor growth, cell survival, migration and invasion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pravastatin, a drug used to reduce cholesterol, in a MM cell line.Cell cycle and viability were determinate by Trypan Blue and Propidium Iodide. IL6, VEGF, bFGF and TGFβ were quantified by ELISA and qRT-PCR including here de HMG CoA reductase. It was observed reduction of cell viability, increase of cells in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and reducing the factors VEGF and bFGF without influence on 3-Methyl-Glutaryl Coenzyme A reductase expression.The results demonstrated that pravastatin induces cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and decreased production of growth factors in Multiple Myeloma cell line.

Resumo O Mieloma Múltiplo é uma neoplasia de linfócitos B da medula óssea, caracterizada por inflamação com uma intensa secreção de fatores de crescimento que promovem o aumento do volume do tumor, sobrevivência celular, migração e invasão. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da pravastatina, uma droga usada para reduzir o colesterol, em um linhagem de MM. O ciclo celular e viabilidade foram determinadas por Trypan Blue e iodeto de propídio. IL6, VEGF, bFGF e TGF foram quantificadas por ELISA e qRT-PCR, incluindo aqui de HMG CoA redutase. Observou-se a redução da viabilidade das células, aumento de células na fase G0/G1 do ciclo celular e redução no VEGF e bFGF, sem influência na expressão da enzima 3-Metil-Glutaril Coenzima A redutase. Os resultados demonstraram que a pravastatina induz parada no ciclo celular em G0/G1 e diminuição da produção de fatores de crescimento em várias linhas de células de Mieloma.

Humans , Fibroblast Growth Factors/genetics , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Pravastatin/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Anticholesteremic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Cholesterol/metabolism , Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(5): 290-294, Sep.-Oct. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761525


ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the association between the VEGF-C936T polymorphism and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, lifestyle, and demographic parameters in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD).Methods:A total of 183 individuals were enrolled in the present study, including 88 patients with AMD receiving clinical and pharmacological treatment (study group, SG) and 95 individuals without AMD as controls (control group, CG). The presence of the VEGF-C936T polymorphism and serum VEGF levels were determined using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Significance was set at P<0.05 for all statistical analyses.Results:The homozygous wild-type genotype (CC) and the C allele were predominant in both groups (P=0.934 and P=0.938, respectively). Serum VEGF levels (assessed in 57% and 31% of patients in the SG and CG, respectively) were comparable between groups (SG, 307.9 ± 223.6 pg/mL; CG, 305.1 ± 212.3 pg/mL; P=0.955). A significantly higher prevalence of smoking (44% vs 25%; P=0.01) and hypertension (66% vs 48%; P=0.025) was observed in the SG than in the CG. The distribution of alcohol consumption and dyslipidemia was similar between groups (P>0.05).Conclusions:In the present study group of Brazilian patients, the VEGF-C936T polymorphism was not found to be associated with age-related macular degeneration. However, smoking and systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) were found to be potential independent risk factors for the development of age-related macular degeneration. Comparable serum VEGF levels in both study groups may reflect the efficacy of pharmacological treatment of AMD.

RESUMOObjetivo:Avaliar a associação entre o polimorfismo VEGF-C936T, níveis séricos de VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), hábitos de vida e antecedentes pessoais em pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DRMI).Métodos:Foram estudados 183 indivíduos: 88 pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada à idade, em tratamento clínico e medicamentoso (Grupo Estudo - GE) e 95 indivíduos sem sinais clínicos da doença (Grupo Controle - GC). O polimorfismo VEGF-C936T e os níveis séricos de VEGF foram analisados por PCR/RFLP e ELISA, respectivamente. Admitiu-se nível de significância para P<0.05.Resultados:O genótipo homozigoto selvagem (CC) prevaleceu em ambos os grupos (P=0,934), assim como o alelo C (P=0,938). Os níveis séricos de VEGF, analisados em 57% de SG e em 31% de CG, apresentaram valores semelhantes entre pacientes e controles (GE=307,9 ± 223,6 pg/mL; GC=305,1 ± 212,3 pg/mL; P=0,955). Notou-se maior frequência de tabagismo (44%) e hipertensão arterial sistêmica (66%) em GE versus GC (25%; 48%; P=0,01; P=0,025, respectivamente). A distribuição de etilismo e dislipidemia foi semelhante entre os grupos (P>0,05).Conclusões:Em nosso estudo com pacientes brasileiros, o polimorfismo VEGF-C936T não se associa com degeneração macular relacionada à idade, por outro lado, tabagismo e HAS são potencialmente fatores de risco independentes para a doença, enquanto níveis de VEGF semelhantes em ambos os grupos podem refletir o sucesso do tratamento farmacológico.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Life Style , Macular Degeneration/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Dyslipidemias/complications , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Genetic Association Studies , Hypertension/complications , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Tomography, Optical Coherence
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(6): 509-514, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748223


We measured circulating endothelial precursor cells (EPCs), activated circulating endothelial cells (aCECs), and mature circulating endothelial cells (mCECs) using four-color multiparametric flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 84 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients and 65 healthy controls; and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by quantitative real-time PCR in 50 CML patients and 32 healthy controls. Because of an increase in mCECs, the median percentage of CECs in CML blast crisis (0.0146%) was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (0.0059%, P<0.01) and in the accelerated phase (0.0059%, P=0.01). There were no significant differences in the percentages of CECs in chronic- or active-phase patients and healthy subjects (P>0.05). In addition, VEGF gene expression was significantly higher in all phases of CML: 0.245 in blast crisis, 0.320 in the active phase, and 0.330 in chronic phase patients than it was in healthy subjects (0.145). In conclusion, CML in blast crisis had increased levels of CECs and VEGF gene expression, which may serve as markers of disease progression and may become targets for the management of CML.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Blast Crisis/pathology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/pathology , Neoplastic Cells, Circulating/pathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Blast Crisis/blood , Blast Crisis/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Cell Count , Flow Cytometry/methods , Gene Expression/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/blood , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2015 Apr; 52 (2): 209-212
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158225


Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent multi-functional cytokine which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of DN. In this study, we evaluated the possible association of the VEGF gene (I/D) polymorphisms with DN in type 2 diabetes patients in West Indian population. Genotyping (I/D) of the VEGF gene polymorphism was done by the polymerase chain reaction. A total of 103 patients with type 2 diabetes, 102 patients with DN, 108 patients with non-diabetic nephropathy and 143 healthy controls were genotyped. The frequency of VEGF genotype distribution and biochemical parameters like creatinine and HbA1c were compared in diabetic, diabetic nephropathy, non diabetic nephropathy and control groups. We found significant difference in creatinine level in DN and NDN groups on comparison with control group. Our study suggests that I/D polymorphism in the promoter region of the VEGF gene is not associated with DN in type 2 diabetes patients, but might have a role in development of non-diabetic nephropathy.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetic Nephropathies/epidemiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Gene Deletion , Genotyping Techniques/methods , Humans , India , Mutagenesis, Insertional/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(1): 89-95, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745883


Objective Evaluate the effects of VEGF165 gene transfer in the process of remodeling of the extracellular matrix after an acute myocardial infarct. Methods Wistar rats were submitted to myocardial infarction, after the ligation of the left descending artery, and the left ventricle ejection fraction was used to classify the infarcts into large and small. The animals were divided into groups of ten, according to the size of infarcted area (large or small), and received or not VEGF165 treatment. Evaluation of different markers was performed using immunohistochemistry and digital quantification. The primary antibodies used in the analysis were anti-fibronectin, anti-vimentin, anti-CD44, anti-E-cadherin, anti-CD24, anti-alpha-1-actin, and anti-PCNA. The results were expressed as mean and standard error, and analyzed by ANOVA, considering statistically significant if p≤0.05. Results There was a significant increase in the expression of undifferentiated cell markers, such as fibronectin (protein present in the extracellular matrix) and CD44 (glycoprotein present in the endothelial cells). However, there was decreased expression of vimentin and PCNA, indicating a possible decrease in the process of cell proliferation after treatment with VEGF165. Markers of differentiated cells, E-cadherin (adhesion protein between myocardial cells), CD24 (protein present in the blood vessels), and alpha-1-actin (specific myocyte marker), showed higher expression in the groups submitted to gene therapy, compared to non-treated group. The value obtained by the relation between alpha-1-actin and vimentin was approximately three times higher in the groups treated with VEGF165, suggesting greater tissue differentiation. Conclusion The results demonstrated the important role of myocytes in the process of tissue remodeling, confirming that VEGF165 seems to provide a protective effect in the treatment of acute myocardial infarct. .

Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos da transferência gênica do VEGF165 no processo de remodelamento da matriz extracelular após infarto agudo do miocárdio. Métodos Ratos Wistar foram submetidos ao infarto do miocárdio por ligação da artéria coronária descendente esquerda, e a fração de ejeção de ventrículo esquerdo foi utilizada para classificar os infartos em grandes e pequenos. Os animais foram divididos em grupos de dez animais, de acordo com o tamanho do infarto (grande ou pequeno), e receberam ou não tratamento com o VEGF165. A avaliação dos diferentes marcadores foi realizada por imuno-histoquímica e quantificação digital. Os anticorpos primários utilizados foram antifibronectina, antivimentina, anti- CD44, anti-E-caderina, anti-CD24, anti-alfa-1-actina e anti-PCNA. Os resultados foram representados como média e erro padrão, e analisados por ANOVA, sendo considerado estatisticamente significativo se p≤0,05. Resultados Houve aumento significativo da expressão de marcadores de células indiferenciadas, como fibronectina (proteína presente na matriz extracelular) e CD44 (glicoproteína presente nas células endoteliais). Entretanto, houve diminuição da expressão de vimentina e PCNA, indicando possível diminuição do processo de proliferação celular após o tratamento com VEGF165. Os marcadores de células diferenciadas, E-caderina (proteína de adesão entre as células do miocárdio), CD24 (proteína presente nos vasos sanguíneos) e alfa-1-actina (marcador especifico de miócitos) também apresentaram maior expressão nos grupos submetidos à terapia gênica, comparativamente com o grupo não tratado. O valor obtido pela relação entre alfa-1-actina e vimentina foi aproximadamente três vezes maior nos grupos tratados com VEGF165, indicando maior diferenciação tecidual. Conclusão O papel dos miócitos se mostrou importante no processo de remodelamento tecidual, confirmando que o VEGF165 parece conferir um efeito protetor no tratamento do infarto agudo do miocárdio. .

Animals , Female , Extracellular Matrix/physiology , Gene Transfer Techniques , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/therapeutic use , Actins/analysis , /analysis , /analysis , Cadherins/analysis , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Fibronectins/analysis , Genetic Therapy/methods , Immunohistochemistry , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Vimentin/analysis
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 12(4): 524-526, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-732446


O presente artigo faz uma abordagem de questões atuais sobre os polimorfismos genéticos, que têm sido objeto de estudo translacional no contexto do carcinoma de pulmão de células não pequenas. Além disso, discute os novos potenciais biomarcadores de risco e prognóstico.

This article addresses some current issues about genetic polymorphisms studied in the non-small-cell lung cancer translational field. Furthermore, it discusses about new potential biomarkers regarding lung cancer risk and prognosis.

Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Epidermal Growth Factor/genetics , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56433


The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of silymarin on experimental liver toxication induced by Fumonisin B1 (FB1) in BALB/c mice. The mice were divided into six groups (n = 15). Group 1 served as the control. Group 2 was the silymarin control (100 mg/kg by gavage). Groups 3 and 4 were treated with FB1 (Group 3, 1.5 mg/kg FB1, intraperitoneally; and Group 4, 4.5 mg/kg FB1). Group 5 received FB1 (1.5 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg), and Group 6 was given a higher dose of FB1 (4.5 mg/kg FB1) with silymarin (100 mg/kg). Silymarin treatment significantly decreased (p < 0.0001) the apoptotic rate. FB1 administration significantly increased (p < 0.0001) proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 expression. Furthermore, FB1 elevated the levels of caspase-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediators while silymarin significantly reduced (p < 0.0001) the expression of these factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expressions were significantly elevated in Group 4 (p < 0.0001). Silymarin administration alleviated increased VEGF and FGF-2 expression levels (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, silymarin ameliorated toxic liver damage caused by FB1 in BALB/c mice.

Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Female , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/genetics , Fumonisins/toxicity , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mycotoxins/toxicity , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/metabolism , Silymarin/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36641


This study was performed to evaluate the contribution of adiponectin to the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-13 in human endothelial cells and osteoblasts in arthritic joints. Cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and osteoblasts were stimulated with adiponectin (1 or 10 mug ml-1) or IL-1beta (0.1 ng ml-1) in the presence or absence of hypoxia for 24 h. The protein expression patterns were examined by analyzing culture supernatants using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Adiponectin significantly stimulated the production of VEGF, MMP-1 and MMP-13 in osteoblasts but not in endothelial cells, whereas it significantly stimulated the production of IL-6 and IL-8 in both endothelial cells and osteoblasts. The increase in VEGF production induced by adiponectin was significantly greater than that induced by IL-1beta. The production of IL-6 and IL-8 in adiponectin-stimulated endothelial cells was approximately 10-fold higher than that in IL-1beta-stimulated endothelial cells; in osteoblasts, adiponectin-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion was approximately twofold higher than that induced by IL-1beta. In addition, IL-8 production in endothelial cells was approximately sevenfold higher than in osteoblasts. However, IL-6 levels were similar between the two cell types, suggesting that adiponectin may be involved in the production of IL-8 in endothelial cells, which may have an important role in neutrophil recruitment to arthritic joints. Furthermore, the increases in protein expression induced by adiponectin were differentially regulated by hypoxia. In conclusion, adiponectin has a more important role than does IL-1beta in the production of mediators that drive synovitis and joint destruction in endothelial cells and osteoblasts at physiological concentrations.

Adiponectin/pharmacology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/genetics , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-15, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950766


BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the growth of new blood vessels that feed tumors and kinesin spindle protein (KSP) plays a critical role in mitosis involving in cell proliferation. Simultaneous silencing of VEGF and KSP, an attractive and viable approach in cancer, leads on restricting cancer progression. The purpose of this study is to examine the therapeutic potential of dual gene targeted siRNA cocktail on human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. RESULTS: The predesigned siRNAs could inhibit VEGF and KSP at mRNA level. siRNA cocktail showed a further downregulation on KSP mRNA and protein levels compared to KSP-siRNA or VEGF-siRNA, but not on VEGF expression. It also exhibited greater suppression on cell proliferation as well as cell migration or invasion capabilities and induction of apoptosis in Hep3B cells than single siRNA simultaneously. This could be explained by the significant downregulation of Cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and Survivin. However, no sigificant difference in the mRNA and protein levels of ANG2, involving inhibition of angiogenesis was found in HUVECs cultured with supernatant of Hep3B cells treated with siRNA cocktail, compared to that of VEGF-siRNA. CONCLUSION: Silencing of VEGF and KSP plays a key role in inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, invasion and inducing apoptosis of Hep3B cells. Simultaneous silencing of VEGF and KSP using siRNA cocktail yields promising results for eradicating hepatocellular carcinoma cells, a new direction for liver cancer treatment.

Humans , Kinesin/genetics , Apoptosis/genetics , Gene Silencing , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Tetrazolium Salts , Transfection , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Cell Movement , Blotting, Western , Kinesin/metabolism , Annexin A5 , Genes, bcl-2 , Cyclin D1/metabolism , Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , Survivin , Mitosis/genetics
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(8): 650-658, ago. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684524


Cisplatin resistance remains one of the major obstacles when treating epithelial ovarian cancer. Because oxaliplatin and nedaplatin are effective against cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer in clinical trials and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is associated with cisplatin resistance, we investigated whether overcoming cisplatin resistance by oxaliplatin and nedaplatin was associated with the STAT3 pathway in ovarian cancer. Alamar blue, clonogenic, and wound healing assays, and Western blot analysis were used to compare the effects of platinum drugs in SKOV-3 cells. At an equitoxic dose, oxaliplatin and nedaplatin exhibited similar inhibitory effects on colony-forming ability and greater inhibition on cell motility than cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Early in the time course of drug administration, cisplatin increased the expression of pSTAT3 (Tyr705), STAT3α, VEGF, survivin, and Bcl-XL, while oxaliplatin and nedaplatin exhibited the opposite effects, and upregulated pSTAT3 (Ser727) and STAT3β. The STAT3 pathway responded early to platinum drugs associated with cisplatin resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer and provided a rationale for new therapeutic strategies to reverse cisplatin resistance.

Animals , Humans , Rats , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/physiology , Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , /metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Migration Assays/methods , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Gene Expression/drug effects , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins/genetics , Organoplatinum Compounds/administration & dosage , Oxazines/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Xanthenes/pharmacology , bcl-X Protein/genetics
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(2): 141-148, ago. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-685389


FUNDAMENTO: O fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF - vascular endothelial growth factor) induz a mobilização de células progenitoras endoteliais (CPEs) com capacidade de proliferação e diferenciação em células endoteliais, contribuindo, dessa forma, para o processo angiogênico. OBJETIVO: Buscamos avaliar o comportamento de CPEs em pacientes com doença cardíaca isquêmica e angina refratária que receberam injeções intramiocardicas de 2000 µg de VEGF165 como terapia única. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi uma subanálise de um ensaio clínico. Pacientes com doença cardíaca isquêmica avançada e angina refratária foram avaliados para inclusão no estudo. Os critérios de inclusão foram: sinais e sintomas de angina e/ou insuficiência cardíaca apesar de tratamento medicamentoso máximo e área de isquemia miocárdica de, no mínimo, 5% conforme avaliado por uma tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (TCEFU). Os critérios de exclusão foram: idade > 65 anos, fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo < 25% e cancer diagnosticado. Os pacientes cujos níveis de CPE foram avaliados foram incluídos. A intervenção consistiu na administração de 2000 µg de VEGF 165 de plasmídeo injetado no miocárdio isquêmico. A frequência de células CD34+/KDR+ foi analisada por citometria de fluxo antes e 3, 9, e 27 dias após a intervenção. RESULTADOS: Um total de 9 pacientes foram incluídos, 8 homens, média de idade de 59,4 anos, fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda de 59,3%, e classe de angina predominante III. Observou-se um aumento significativo dos níveis de CPEs no terceiro dia após a intervenção. Todavia, 9 e 27 dias após a intervenção, os níveis de CPEs foram similares aos basais. CONCLUSÃO: Identificamos uma mobilização transitória de CPE, com pico no terceiro dia após a intervenção com VEGF 165 em pacientes com angina refratária. Todavia, os níveis de CPEs apresentaram-se semelhantes aos basais 9 e 27 dias após a intervenção.

BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) with the capacity for proliferation and differentiation into mature endothelial cells, thus contributing to the angiogenic process. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the behavior of EPCs in patients with ischemic heart disease and refractory angina who received an intramyocardial injections of 2000 µg of VEGF 165 as the sole therapy. METHODS: The study was a subanalysis of a clinical trial. Patients with advanced ischemic heart disease and refractory angina were assessed for eligibility. Inclusion criteria were as follows: signs and symptoms of angina and/or heart failure despite maximum medical treatment and a myocardial ischemic area of at least 5% as assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Exclusion criteria were as follows: age > 65 years, left ventricular ejection fraction < 25%, and a diagnosis of cancer. Patients whose EPC levels were assessed were included. The intervention was 2000 µg of VEGF 165 plasmid injected into the ischemic myocardium. The frequency of CD34+/KDR+ cells was analyzed by flow cytometry before and 3, 9, and 27 days after the intervention. RESULTS: A total of 9 patients were included, 8 males, mean age 59.4 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 59.3% and predominant class III angina. The number of EPCs on day 3 was significantly higher than that at baseline (p = 0.03); however, that on days 9 and 27 was comparable to that at baseline. CONCLUSION: We identified a transient mobilization of EPCs, which peaked on the 3th day after VEGF 165 gene therapy in patients with refractory angina and returned to near baseline levels on days 9 and 27.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angina Pectoris/therapy , Cell Movement/genetics , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Genetic Therapy/methods , Multipotent Stem Cells/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Cell Movement/physiology , Multipotent Stem Cells/cytology , Myocardial Ischemia/therapy , Neovascularization, Physiologic/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104697


To evaluate radiosensitivity and the effects of radiation on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptors in the canine oral melanoma cell line, TLM 1, cells were irradiated with doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gray (Gy). Survival rates were then determined by a MTT assay, while vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1 and -2 expression was measured by flow cytometry and apoptotic cell death rates were investigated using an Annexin assay. Additionally, a commercially available canine VEGF ELISA kit was used to measure VEGF. Radiosensitivity was detected in TLM 1 cells, and mitotic and apoptotic cell death was found to occur in a radiation dose dependent manner. VEGF was secreted constitutively and significant up-regulation was observed in the 8 and 10 Gy irradiated cells. In addition, a minor portion of TLM 1 cells expressed vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1 intracellularly. VEGFR-2 was detected in the cytoplasm and was down-regulated following radiation with increasing dosages. In TLM 1 cells, apoptosis plays an important role in radiation induced cell death. It has also been suggested that the significantly higher VEGF production in the 8 and 10 Gy group could lead to tumour resistance.

Animals , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Cell Line, Tumor/radiation effects , Dogs , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Melanoma/genetics , Mouth Neoplasms/genetics , Radiation Tolerance , Tetrazolium Salts/metabolism , Thiazoles/metabolism , Up-Regulation/radiation effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/genetics