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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(1): 33-36, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771904

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prostaglandin analogs on blood flow in the ophthalmic artery of clinically healthy rabbits. Methods: Fifty-five clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were divided into six groups, and the left eyes were treated for four weeks with the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK) only or a topical formulation of different prostaglandin analogs (bimatoprost BAK, tafluprost BAK-free, travoprost BAK, travoprost POLYQUAD, and latanoprost BAK). Color Doppler imaging was performed before and after the treatments. The mean values of the peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity and the resistive index (RI) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the differences pre- and post-treatment for each drug and post-treatment among the drugs. Results: The prostaglandin analogs did not affect PSV. Bimatoprost BAK, travoprost POLYQUAD, and latanoprost BAK did not change RI. Tafluprost BAK-free and travoprost BAK therapy resulted in similar reductions in RI. No significant differences pre- and post-treatment were found when BAK was administered alone. Conclusion: The prostaglandin analogs tafluprost BAK-free and travoprost BAK improved blood flow in the ophthalmic artery in healthy New Zealand white rabbits, which suggests that these drugs enhance the prevention of the progression the progression of glaucoma.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos dos análogos da prostaglandina (PGAs) no fluxo sanguíneo da artéria oftálmica em coelhos. Métodos: Cinquenta e cinco coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia clinicamente saudáveis foram divididos em seis grupos para tratamento com formulação tópica de diferentes APGs (bimatoprosta BAK, tafluprosta BAK-free, travoprosta BAK, travoprosta POLYQUAD e latanoprosta BAK) e formulações contendo apenas o conservante cloreto de benzalcônio (BAK). Foi realizada ultrassonografia com Doppler antes e após os tratamentos. Os valores do pico da velocidade sistólica (PSV) e da velocidade diastólica final foram obtidos e o índice de resistência (RI) foi então calculado. A análise estatística foi realizada para comparar as diferenças entre cada droga no pré e pós-tratamento, além das diferenças no pós-tratamento entre as drogas. Resultados: Estes colírios PGAs não afetaram o PSV. A bimatoprosta com o conservante BAK, travoprosta com o conservante POLYQUAD e latanoprosta com o conservante BAK não alteraram o RI. Já o tratamento com tafluprosta sem conservante (BAK-free) e travoprosta com o conservante BAK promoveram redução similar dos valores do RI. Não houve diferença significativa na comparação entre valores pré e pós-tratamento quando BAK foi administrado isoladamente. Conclusão: Os PGAs tafluprosta BAK-free e travoprosta BAK melhoraram o fluxo sanguíneo na artéria oftálmica em coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia sugerindo que estes medicamentos possam contribuir na prevenção da progressão do glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rabbits , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Ophthalmic Artery/drug effects , Preservatives, Pharmaceutical/pharmacology , Prostaglandins F, Synthetic/pharmacology , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Bimatoprost/pharmacology , Blood Flow Velocity/drug effects , Glaucoma/prevention & control , Ophthalmic Artery , Prostaglandins F/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Travoprost/pharmacology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(2): 87-93, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741030

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the hemodynamic changes following two different lipid emulsion therapies after bupivacaine intoxication in swines. METHODS: Large White pigs were anesthetized with thiopental, tracheal intubation performed and mechanical ventilation instituted. Hemodynamic variables were recorded with invasive pressure monitoring and pulmonary artery catheterization (Swan-Ganz catheter). After a 30-minute resting period, 5 mg.kg-1 of bupivacaine by intravenous injection was administered and new hemodynamic measures were performed 1 minute later; the animals were than randomly divided into three groups and received 4 ml.kg-1 of one of the two different lipid emulsion with standard long-chaim triglyceride, or mixture of long and medium-chain triglyceride, or saline solution. Hemodynamic changes were then re-evaluated at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes. RESULTS: Bupivacaine intoxication caused fall in arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, ventricular systolic work index mainly and no important changes in vascular resistances. Both emulsion improved arterial blood pressure mainly increasing vascular resistance since the cardiac index had no significant improvement. On the systemic circulation the hemodynamic results were similar with both lipid emulsions. CONCLUSION: Both lipid emulsions were efficient and similar options to reverse hypotension in cases of bupivacaine toxicity. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Anesthetics, Local/toxicity , Bupivacaine/toxicity , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Swine , Soybean Oil/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Triglycerides/therapeutic use , Vascular Resistance/drug effects
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 119-124, 02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741172

ABSTRACT

Neurological diseases are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, but their exact prevalence is unknown. Method We prospectively evaluated the presence of neurological disorders in 121 patients with IBD [51 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 70 with ulcerative colitis (UC)] and 50 controls (gastritis and dyspepsia) over 3 years. Results Our standard neurological evaluation (that included electrodiagnostic testing) revealed that CD patients were 7.4 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy than controls (p = 0.045), 7.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.001) and 5.1 times more likely to develop autonomic complaints (p = 0.027). UC patients were 5 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy (p = 0.027) and 3.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.015). Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to prospectively establish that both CD and UC patients are more prone to neuromuscular diseases than patients with gastritis and dyspepsia. .


Doenças neurológicas são comuns em pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal (DII), mas sua prevalência exata é desconhecida. Métodos Nós estudamos prospectivamente a presença de distúrbios neurológicos em 121 pacientes com DII [51 com doença de Crohn (DC) e 70 com colite ulcerativa (RCU)] e 50 controles (gastrite e dispepsia) ao longo de 3 anos. Resultados A avaliação neurológica padronizada (que incluiu testes eletrodiagnósticos) demonstrou que pacientes com DC foram 7,4 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver neuropatias de fibras grossas do que os controles (p = 0,045), 7,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver qualquer tipo de condição neuromuscular (p = 0,001) e 5,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver queixas autonômicas (p = 0,027). Pacientes com RCU foram 5 vezes mais propensos de desenvolver neuropatia de fibras grossas (p = 0,027) e 3,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver qualquer tipo de condição neuromuscular (p = 0,015). Conclusão Em resumo, este é o primeiro estudo prospectivo a estabelecer que os pacientes tanto com DC quanto de RCU são mais propensos a doenças neuromusculares do que os pacientes com gastrite e dispepsia. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Microcirculation/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Femoral Artery/drug effects , Femoral Artery/embryology , Microcirculation/embryology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Sheep , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110664

ABSTRACT

We aimed to identify a vasoreactive subset of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) in Korea and to show their clinical characteristics and prognosis. Data on patients who were diagnosed with IPAH at Asan Medical Center between January 1994 and March 2013 were retrospectively collected. Acute vasodilator testing was performed with inhaled nitric oxide during diagnostic right heart catheterization. A positive acute response was defined as a reduction in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) > or =10 mmHg to an absolute level of mean PAP <40 mmHg without a decrease in cardiac output. Among a total of 60 IPAH patients included for analysis, 9 (15%) showed a positive acute response to acute vasodilator testing. Acute responders showed significantly lower peak velocity of a tricuspid regurgitation jet on echocardiography (4.1+/-0.3 m/s vs. 4.6+/-0.6 m/s; P=0.01) and significantly lower mean PAP hemodynamically (47+/-10 mmHg vs. 63+/-17 mmHg; P=0.003) than non-responders at baseline. The survival rate of acute responders was 88% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 yr, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of non-responders (85%, 71%, 55%, and 40%, respectively; P=0.029). In conclusion, Korean IPAH patients with vasoreactivity showed better baseline hemodynamic features and survival than those without vasoreactivity.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Survival Rate , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents , Young Adult
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 99(3): 848-856, set. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-649264

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão pulmonar é associada ao pior prognóstico no pós-transplante cardíaco. O teste de reatividade pulmonar com Nitroprussiato de Sódio (NPS) está associado a elevados índices de hipotensão arterial sistêmica, disfunção ventricular do enxerto transplantado e elevadas taxas de desqualificação para o transplante. OBJETIVO: Neste estudo, objetivou-se comparar os efeitos do Sildenafil (SIL) e NPS sobre variáveis hemodinâmicas, neuro-hormonais e ecocardiográficas durante teste de reatividade pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes foram submetidos, simultaneamente, ao cateterismo cardíaco direito, ao ecocardiograma e à dosagem de BNP e gasometria venosa, antes e após administração de NPS (1 - 2 µg/Kg/min) ou SIL (100 mg, dose única). RESULTADOS: Ambos reduziram a hipertensão pulmonar, porém o nitrato promoveu hipotensão sistêmica significativa (Pressão Arterial Média - PAM: 85,2 vs. 69,8 mmHg, p < 0,001). Ambos reduziram as dimensões cardíacas e melhoraram a função cardíaca esquerda (NPS: 23,5 vs. 24,8 %, p = 0,02; SIL: 23,8 vs. 26 %, p < 0,001) e direita (SIL: 6,57 ± 2,08 vs. 8,11 ± 1,81 cm/s, p = 0,002; NPS: 6,64 ± 1,51 vs. 7,72 ± 1,44 cm/s, p = 0,003), medidas pela fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda e Doppler tecidual, respectivamente. O SIL, ao contrário do NPS, apresentou melhora no índice de saturação venosa de oxigênio, medido pela gasometria venosa. CONCLUSÃO: Sildenafil e NPS são vasodilatadores que reduzem, de forma significativa, a hipertensão pulmonar e a geometria cardíaca, além de melhorar a função biventricular. O NPS, ao contrário do SIL, esteve associado a hipotensão arterial sistêmica e piora da saturação venosa de oxigênio.


BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with a worse prognosis after cardiac transplantation. The pulmonary hypertension reversibility test with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is associated with a high rate of systemic arterial hypotension, ventricular dysfunction of the transplanted graft and high rates of disqualification from transplantation. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at comparing the effects of sildenafil (SIL) and SNP on hemodynamic, neurohormonal and echocardiographic variables during the pulmonary reversibility test. METHODS: The patients underwent simultaneously right cardiac catheterization, echocardiography, BNP measurement, and venous blood gas analysis before and after receiving either SNP (1 - 2 µg/kg/min) or SIL (100 mg, single dose). RESULTS: Both drugs reduced pulmonary hypertension, but SNP caused a significant systemic hypotension (mean blood pressure - MBP: 85.2 vs. 69.8 mm Hg; p < 0.001). Both drugs reduced cardiac dimensions and improved left cardiac function (SNP: 23.5 vs. 24.8%, p = 0.02; SIL: 23.8 vs. 26%, p < 0.001) and right cardiac function (SIL: 6.57 ± 2.08 vs. 8.11 ± 1.81 cm/s, p = 0.002; SNP: 6.64 ± 1.51 vs. 7.72 ± 1.44 cm/s, p = 0.003), measured through left ventricular ejection fraction and tissue Doppler, respectively. Sildenafil, contrary to SNP, improved venous oxygen saturation, measured on venous blood gas analysis. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil and SNP are vasodilators that significantly reduce pulmonary hypertension and cardiac geometry, in addition to improving biventricular function. Sodium nitroprusside, contrary to SIL, was associated with systemic arterial hypotension and worsening of venous oxygen saturation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypotension/chemically induced , Nitroprusside/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Sulfones/therapeutic use , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/radiation effects , Hemodynamics/physiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypotension/drug therapy , Nitroprusside/adverse effects , Preoperative Care , Purines/therapeutic use , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , Ventricular Function/drug effects
6.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2012 Apr; 15(2): 128-133
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139654

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate whether low-dose vasopressin administered to patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with preexisting mild to moderate systolic dysfunction can produce sustained improvement in cardiac function. This double-blind randomized study was conducted in a hospital where a single anesthetic and surgical team performed elective CABG. Twenty patients aged 32-61 years who underwent elective CABG between January 2007 and December 2007 were enrolled in this study. The patients randomly received either vasopressin 0.03 IU/min (Group A) or normal saline (Group B) in equal volume for 60 min after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume index, fractional area of contraction and systemic vascular resistance index were significantly higher in Group A than in Group B. Adrenaline (mean dose: 0.06 μg/kg•min-1) was required in seven patients from Group B but in none of the Group A patients on initial separation from CPB (P< 0.05). Of the 10 patients in Group B, five required phenylepherine to maintain the mean arterial pressure (MAP) >65 mmHg, whereas none of the Group A patients required phenylephrine for MAP regulation (P< 0.05). We conclude that Infusion of low-dose vasopressin for patients with mild to moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction during separation from CPB is beneficial for the postoperative hemodynamic profile, reduces the catecholamine doses required and improves left ventricular systolic function.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cardiac Catheterization , Cardiac Output/drug effects , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Double-Blind Method , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Female , Hemostatics/administration & dosage , Hemostatics/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Phenylephrine/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Vasopressins/administration & dosage , Vasopressins/therapeutic use , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(2): 163-171, Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614574

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to observe possible interactions between the renin-angiotensin and nitrergic systems in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. Thirteen chronically instrumented newborn piglets (6.3 ± 0.9 days; 2369 ± 491 g) were randomly assigned to receive saline (placebo, P) or the AT1 receptor (AT1-R) blocker L-158,809 (L) during 6 days of hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.12). During hypoxia, pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa; P < 0.0001), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR; P < 0.02) and the pulmonary to systemic vascular resistance ratio (PVR/SVR; P < 0.05) were significantly attenuated in the L (N = 7) group compared to the P group (N = 6). Western blot analysis of lung proteins showed a significant decrease of endothelial NOS (eNOS) in both P and L animals, and of AT1-R in P animals during hypoxia compared to normoxic animals (C group, N = 5; P < 0.01 for all groups). AT1-R tended to decrease in L animals. Inducible NOS (iNOS) did not differ among P, L, and C animals and iNOS immunohistochemical staining in macrophages was significantly more intense in L than in P animals (P < 0.01). The vascular endothelium showed moderate or strong eNOS and AT1-R staining. Macrophages and pneumocytes showed moderate or strong iNOS and AT1-R staining, but C animals showed weak iNOS and AT1-R staining. Macrophages of L and P animals showed moderate and weak AT2-R staining, respectively, but the endothelium of all groups only showed weak staining. In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia in newborn piglets is partially attenuated by AT1-R blockade. We suggest that AT1-R blockade might act through AT2-R and/or Mas receptors and the nitrergic system in the lungs of hypoxemic newborn piglets.


Subject(s)
Animals , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/complications , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Nitric Oxide Synthase/drug effects , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Animals, Newborn , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Pulmonary Artery/drug effects , Swine , Vascular Resistance/drug effects
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(6): 481-489, Nov.-Dec. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604198

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To verify if the methylene blue (MB) administration prevents and/or reverses the compound 48/80 (C48/80)-induced anaphylactic shock in pigs. METHODS: Female Dalland pigs were anesthetized and had the hemodynamic parameters recorded during the necessary time to administer some drugs and observe their effect. The animals were randomly assigned to one of the five groups: 1) control; 2) MB: the animals received a bolus injection of MB (2 mg/kg) followed by continuous infusion of MB (2.66 mg/Kg/h delivered by syringe infusion pump); 3) C48/80: the animals received a bolus injection of C48/80 (4 mg/kg); 4) C48/80+MB: the animals received a bolus injection of C48/80 (4 mg/kg) and 10 minutes after the C48/80 administration the animals received a bolus injection of MB (2 mg/kg) followed by continuous infusion of MB (2.66 mg/Kg/h delivered by syringe infusion pump); 5) MB+C48/80: the animals received a bolus injection of MB (2 mg/kg) and 3 minutes later they received a bolus injection of C48/80 (4 mg/kg). RESULTS: The intravenous infusion of MB alone caused no changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) showing that the administered MB dose was safe in this experimental model. The C48/80 was effective in producing experimental anaphylactic shock since it was observed a decrease in both MAP and cardiac output (CO) after its administration. The MB did not prevent or reverse the C48/80-induced anaphylactic shock in this model. In fact, the MAP of the animals with anaphylactic shock treated with MB decreased even more than the MAP of the animals from the C48/80 group. On the other hand, the C48/80-induced epidermal alterations disappeared after the MB infusion. CONCLUSION: Despite our data, the clinical manifestations improvement brings some optimism and does not allow excluding the MB as a possible therapeutic option in the anaphylactic shock.


OBJETIVO: Verificar se a administração de azul de metileno (AM) previne e/ou reverte o choque anafilático induzido por composto 48/80 (C48/80) em suínos. MÉTODOS: Porcos fêmeas Dalland foram anestesiados e tiveram os parâmetros hemodinâmicos registados durante o tempo necessário para administrar algumas drogas e observar seu efeito. Os animais foram aleatoriamente destribuídos em um dos cinco grupos: 1) controle, 2) AM: os animais receberam uma injeção em bolus de AM (2mg/kg), seguido de infusão contínua de AM (2,66mg/Kg /h por bomba de infusão de seringa); 3) C48/80: os animais receberam uma injeção em bolus de C48/80 (4mg/kg); 4) C48/80 + AM: os animais receberam uma injeção em bolus de C48/80 (4mg/kg) e 10 minutos após a administração de C48/80 os animais receberam uma injeção em bolus de AM (2mg/kg), seguido de infusão contínua de AM (2,66mg/kg/h por bomba de infusão de seringa); 5) AM+C48/80: os animais receberam uma injeção em bolus de AM (2mg/kg) e três minutos depois, receberam uma injeção em bolus de C48/80 (4mg/kg). RESULTADOS: A infusão intravenosa de AM não causou mudanças na pressão arterial média (PAM), mostrando que a dose de AM administrada foi segura neste modelo experimental. O C48/80 foi eficaz na indução do choque anafilático experimental, uma vez que foi observada redução na PAM e débito cardíaco (DC), após a sua administração. O AM não preveniu ou reverte o choque anafilático induzido por C48/80 neste modelo. Na verdade, a PAM dos animais com choque anafilático tratados com AM diminuiu mais do que o PAM dos animais do grupo C48/80. Por outro lado, as alterações epidérmicas induzidas pelo C48/80 desapareceu após a infusão do AM. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar dos resultados a melhora clínica das manifestações anafiláticas permite considerar a possibilidade do azul de metileno como opção terapêutica no tratamento do choque anafilático.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , p-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine/toxicity , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anaphylaxis/prevention & control , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cardiac Output/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Hemodynamics/physiology , Random Allocation , Swine , Time Factors , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , p-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine/antagonists & inhibitors
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(8): 767-777, Aug. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595722

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of drag reducer polymers (DRP) on arteries from normotensive (Wistar) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000 at 5000 ppm) was perfused in the tail arterial bed with (E+) and without endothelium (E-) from male, adult Wistar (N = 14) and SHR (N = 13) animals under basal conditions (constant flow at 2.5 mL/min). In these preparations, flow-pressure curves (1.5 to 10 mL/min) were constructed before and 1 h after PEG 4000 perfusion. Afterwards, the tail arterial bed was fixed and the internal diameters of the arteries were then measured by microscopy and drag reduction was assessed based on the values of wall shear stress (WSS) by computational simulation. In Wistar and SHR groups, perfusion of PEG 4000 significantly reduced pulsatile pressure (Wistar/E+: 17.5 ± 2.8; SHR/E+: 16.3 ± 2.7 percent), WSS (Wistar/E+: 36; SHR/E+: 40 percent) and the flow-pressure response. The E- reduced the effects of PEG 4000 on arteries from both groups, suggesting that endothelial damage decreased the effect of PEG 4000 as a DRP. Moreover, the effects of PEG 4000 were more pronounced in the tail arterial bed from SHR compared to Wistar rats. In conclusion, these data demonstrated for the first time that PEG 4000 was more effective in reducing the pressure-flow response as well as WSS in the tail arterial bed of hypertensive than of normotensive rats and these effects were amplified by, but not dependent on, endothelial integrity. Thus, these results show an additional mechanism of action of this polymer besides its mechanical effect through the release and/or bioavailability of endothelial factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Hypertension/physiopathology , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology , Tail/blood supply , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Arteries/drug effects , Arteries/physiology , Blood Flow Velocity/drug effects , Blood Viscosity/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Models, Animal , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Resistance/physiology
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(4): 390-396, Apr. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-543578

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce blood pressure and attenuate cardiac and vascular remodeling in hypertension. However, the kinetics of remodeling after discontinuation of the long-term use of these drugs are unknown. Our objective was to investigate the temporal changes occurring in blood pressure and vascular structure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Captopril treatment was started in the pre-hypertensive state. Rats (4 weeks) were assigned to three groups: SHR-Cap (N = 51) treated with captopril (1 g/L) in drinking water from the 4th to the 14th week; SHR-C (N = 48) untreated SHR; Wistar (N = 47) control rats. Subgroups of animals were studied at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after discontinuation of captopril. Direct blood pressure was recorded in freely moving animals after femoral artery catheterism. The animals were then killed to determine left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and the aorta fixed at the same pressure measured in vivo. Captopril prevented hypertension (105 ± 3 vs 136 ± 5 mmHg), LVH (2.17 ± 0.05 vs 2.97 ± 0.14 mg/g body weight) and the increase in cross-sectional area to luminal area ratio of the aorta (0.21 ± 0.01 vs 0.26 ± 0.02 ìm²) (SHR-Cap vs SHR-C). However, these parameters increased progressively after discontinuation of captopril (22nd week: 141 ± 2 mmHg, 2.50 ± 0.06 mg/g, 0.27 ± 0.02 ìm²). Prevention of the development of hypertension in SHR by using captopril during the prehypertensive period prevents the development of cardiac and vascular remodeling. Recovery of these processes follows the kinetic of hypertension development after discontinuation of captopril.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Captopril/administration & dosage , Hypertension/drug therapy , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Wistar , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Time Factors
11.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 44(1): 37-45, ene.-mar. 2010. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633107

ABSTRACT

Estudios clínicos y epidemiológicos sugieren que el danazol ha sido considerado como un factor de riesgo para desarrollar hipertensión. Para proporcionar información adicional acerca de este fenómeno, en este trabajo fue caracterizado el efecto inducido por el danazol y el hemisuccinato de danazol sobre la presión de perfusión y la resistencia vascular en corazón aislado de rata a flujo constante (modelo de Langendorff). Los resultados, mostraron que; 1) el hemisuccinato de danazol [10-9 M] incrementa la presión de perfusión en comparación con el danazol [10-9 M]; 2) los efectos del derivado de danazol [10-9 M - 10-4 M] sobre la presión de perfusión fueron inhibidos por flutamida [10-6 M]; 3) la nifedipina [10-6 M], bloqueó los efectos ejercidos por el hemisuccinato de danazol [10-9 M -10-4 M] sobre la presión de perfusión y 4) el efecto del derivado de danazol [10-9 M - 10-4 M] sobre la presión de perfusión en presencia del montelukast [10-6 M] fue inhibido significativamente (p=0,008). En conclusión, los efectos inducidos por el danazol y hemisuccinato de danazol sobre la presión de perfusión y la resistencia vascular podrían depender de su estructura química. Este fenómeno podría involucrar la interacción del receptor de andrógenos e indirectamente la activación de la síntesis de leucotrienos D4 (LTD4) y consecuentemente inducir variaciones en la presión de perfusión.


Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that danazol has been considered a risk factor for hypertension development. In order to provide additional information about this phenomenon, the effect induced by both danazol and hemisuccinate of danazol on perfusion pressure and vascular resistance was characterized in isolated rat heart at constant flow (Langendorff model) and it was evaluated in this work.The results showed that; 1) hemisuccinate of danazol [10-9 M] increases perfusion pressure and vascular resistance in comparison with danazol [10-9 M]; 2) the effects of danazol-derivative [10-9 M - 10-4 M] on perfusion pressure were inhibited by flutamide [10-6 M]; 3) nifedipine [10-6 M] blockaded the effects exerted by hemisuccinate of danazol [10-9 M -10-4 M] on perfusion pressure; and 4) the effect of danazol-derivative [10-9 M - 10-4 M] on perfusion pressure in presence of montelukast [10-6 M] was significantly inhibited (p=0.008). In conclusion, the effects induced by both danazol and hemisuccinate of danazol on perfusion pressure and vascular resistance could depend on their chemical structure. This phenomenon could involve the interaction of androgene steroid-receptor and indirect activation of leukotriene D4 (LTD4) synthesis and consequently, induce variations in the perfusion pressure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate/pharmacology , Danazol/adverse effects , Danazol/pharmacology , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Danazol/analysis , Isolated Heart Preparation
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 94(2): 229-234, fev. 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-544885

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: A arginina-vasopressina (AVP) tem sido amplamente utilizada no tratamento do choque vasodilatador. Entretanto, há muitas questões relativas ao seu uso clínico, especialmente em altas doses, pois sua utilização pode estar associada a efeitos cardíacos adversos. OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos cardiovasculares da AVP em infusão IV contínua nos parâmetros hemodinâmicos em cães. MÉTODOS: Dezesseis cães saudáveis sem raça definida, anestesiados com pentobarbital, receberam um cateter intravascular e foram aleatoriamente designados para dois grupos: controle (solução salina - placebo; n=8) e AVP (n=8). O grupo do estudo recebeu infusão de AVP por três períodos consecutivos de 10 minutos a doses logaritmicamente progressivas (0,01; 0,1 e 1,0 U/kg/min), a intervalos de 20 minutos. A frequência cardíaca (HR) e as pressões intravasculares foram continuamente registradas. O debito cardíaco foi medido através do método de termodiluição. RESULTADOS: Nenhum efeito hemodinâmico significante foi observado durante a infusão de 0,01 U/kg/min de AVP, mas com as doses mais altas, de 0,1 e 1,0U/kg/min, houve um aumento progressivo na pressão arterial média (PAM) e índice de resistência vascular sistêmica (IRVS), com significante diminuição na frequência cardíaca (FC) e índice cardíaco (IC). Com a dose de 1,0 U/kg/min, também foi observado um aumento significante no índice de resistência vascular pulmonar (IRVP), principalmente devido à diminuição no IC. CONCLUSÃO: A AVP em doses entre 0,1 e 1,0 U/kg/min resultou em significantes aumentos na PAM e no IRVS, com efeitos inotrópicos e cronotrópicos negativos em animais saudáveis. Embora essas doses sejam de 10 a 1.000 vezes maiores do que as rotineiramente utilizadas no tratamento do choque vasodilatador, nossos dados confirmam que a AVP deveria ser usada cuidadosamente e sob rígida monitoração hemodinâmica na prática clínica, especialmente se doses maiores do que 0,01 U/kg/min forem necessárias.


BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been broadly used in the management of vasodilatory shock. However, there are many concerns regarding its clinical use, especially in high doses, as it can be associated with adverse cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cardiovascular effects of AVP in continuous IV infusion on hemodynamic parameters in dogs. METHODS: Sixteen healthy mongrel dogs, anesthetized with pentobarbital were intravascularly catheterized, and randomly assigned to: control (saline-placebo; n=8) and AVP (n=8) groups. The study group was infused with AVP for three consecutive 10-minute periods at logarithmically increasing doses (0.01; 0.1 and 1.0U/kg/min), at them 20-min intervals. Heart rate (HR) and intravascular pressures were continuously recorded. Cardiac output was measured by the thermodilution method. RESULTS: No significant hemodynamic effects were observed during 0.01U/kg/min of AVP infusion, but at higher doses (0.1 and 1.0U/kg/min) a progressive increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) were observed, with a significant decrease in HR and the cardiac index (CI). A significant increase in the pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) was also observed with the 1.0U/kg/min dose, mainly due to the decrease in the CI. CONCLUSION: AVP, when administered at doses between 0.1 and 1.0U/kg/min, induced significant increases in MAP and SVRI, with negative inotropic and chronotropic effects in healthy animals. Although these doses are ten to thousand times greater than those routinely used for the management of vasodilatory shock, our data confirm that AVP might be used carefully and under strict hemodynamic monitoring in clinical practice, especially if doses higher than 0.01 U/kg/min are needed.


FUNDAMENTO: La arginina-vasopresina (AVP) ha sido ampliamente utilizada en el tratamiento del choque vasodilatador. No obstante, hay muchos aspectos relativos a su uso clínico, especialmente en altas dosis, pues su utilización puede estar asociada a efectos cardíacos adversos. OBJETIVO: Investigar los efectos cardiovasculares de la AVP en infusión IV continua en los parámetros hemodinámicos en canes. MÉTODOS: Dieciséis canes saludables sin raza definida, anestesiados con pentobarbital, recibieron un catéter intravascular y fueron aleatoriamente designados para dos grupos: control (solución salina - placebo; n=8) y AVP (n=8). El grupo del estudio recibió infusión de AVP por tres períodos consecutivos de 10 minutos a dosis logarítimicamente progresivas (0,01; 0,1 y 1,0 U/kg/min), a intervalos de 20 minutos La frecuencia cardíaca (HR) y las presiones intravasculares fueron registradas continuamente. El débito cardíaco fue medido a través del método de termodilución. RESULTADOS: No se observó ningún efecto hemodinámico significativo durante la infusión de 0,01 U/kg/min de AVP, pero con las dosis más altas, de 0,1 y 1,0 U/kg/min, hubo un aumento progresivo en la presión arterial media (PAM) y en el índice de resistencia vascular sistémica (IRVS), con significativa disminución en la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) e índice cardíaco (IC). Con la dosis 1,0 U/kg/min, también se observó un aumento significativo en el índice de resistencia vascular pulmonar (IRVP), principalmente debido a la disminución en el IC. CONCLUSIÓN: La AVP en dosis entre 0,1 y 1,0 U/kg/min resultó en significativos aumentos en la PAM y en el IRVS, con efectos inotrópicos y cronotrópicos negativos en animales saludables. Aunque estas dosis sean de 10 a 1.000 veces mayores que las rutinariamente utilizadas en el tratamiento del choque vasodilatador, nuestros datos confirman que la AVP debería ser usada cuidadosamente y bajo rígido monitoreo hemodinámico en la práctica clínica, especialmente ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Vasopressins/administration & dosage , Analysis of Variance , Anesthesia , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Infusions, Intravenous , Models, Animal , Random Allocation , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/adverse effects , Vasopressins/adverse effects
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(12): 1191-1195, Dec. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-532304

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of the immunosuppressant rapamycin (Rapamune®, Sirolimus) on both resistance vessel responsiveness and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient 8-week-old male mice fed a normal rodent diet. Norepinephrine (NE)-induced vasoconstriction, acetylcholine (ACh)- and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced vasorelaxation of isolated mesenteric bed, and atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated. After 12 weeks of orally administered rapamycin (5 mg·kg-1·day-1, N = 9) and compared with untreated (control, N = 9) animals, rapamycin treatment did not modify either NE-induced vasoconstriction (maximal response: 114 ± 4 vs 124 ± 10 mmHg, respectively) or ACh- (maximal response: 51 ± 8 vs 53 ± 5 percent, respectively) and SNP-induced vasorelaxation (maximal response: 73 ± 6 vs 74 ± 6 percent, respectively) of the isolated vascular mesenteric bed. Despite increased total cholesterol in treated mice (982 ± 59 vs 722 ± 49 mg/dL, P < 0.01), lipid deposition on the aorta wall vessel was significantly less in rapamycin-treated animals (37 ± 12 vs 68 ± 8 µm² x 10³). These results indicate that orally administered rapamycin is effective in attenuating the progression of atherosclerotic plaque without affecting the responsiveness of resistance vessels, supporting the idea that this immunosuppressant agent might be of potential benefit against atherosclerosis in patients undergoing therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Apolipoproteins E/deficiency , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Mice, Knockout , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(10): 902-911, Oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-526185

ABSTRACT

Myocardial infarction leads to compensatory ventricular remodeling. Disturbances in myocardial contractility depend on the active transport of Ca2+ and Na+, which are regulated by Na+-K+ ATPase. Inappropriate regulation of Na+-K+ ATPase activity leads to excessive loss of K+ and gain of Na+ by the cell. We determined the participation of Na+-K+ ATPase in ventricular performance early and late after myocardial infarction. Wistar rats (8-10 per group) underwent left coronary artery ligation (infarcted, Inf) or sham-operation (Sham). Ventricular performance was measured at 3 and 30 days after surgery using the Langendorff technique. Left ventricular systolic pressure was obtained under different ventricular diastolic pressures and increased extracellular Ca2+ concentrations (Ca2+e) and after low and high ouabain concentrations. The baseline coronary perfusion pressure increased 3 days after myocardial infarction and normalized by 30 days (Sham 3 = 88 ± 6; Inf 3 = 130 ± 9; Inf 30 = 92 ± 7 mmHg; P < 0.05). The inotropic response to Ca2+e and ouabain was reduced at 3 and 30 days after myocardial infarction (Ca2+ = 1.25 mM; Sham 3 = 70 ± 3; Inf 3 = 45 ± 2; Inf 30 = 29 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05), while the Frank-Starling mechanism was preserved. At 3 and 30 days after myocardial infarction, ventricular Na+-K+ ATPase activity and contractility were reduced. This Na+-K+ ATPase hypoactivity may modify the Na+, K+ and Ca2+ transport across the sarcolemma resulting in ventricular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Myocardial Infarction/enzymology , Ouabain/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(9): 824-830, Sept. 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-524318

ABSTRACT

The generation of bradykinin (BK; Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg) in blood and kallidin (Lys-BK) in tissues by the action of the kallikrein-kinin system has received little attention in non-mammalian vertebrates. In mammals, kallidin can be generated by the coronary endothelium and myocytes in response to ischemia, mediating cardioprotective events. The plasma of birds lacks two key components of the kallikrein-kinin system: the low molecular weight kininogen and a prekallikrein activator analogous to mammalian factor XII, but treatment with bovine plasma kallikrein generates ornitho-kinin [Thr6,Leu8]-BK. The possible cardioprotective effect of ornitho-kinin infusion was investigated in an anesthetized, open-chest chicken model of acute coronary occlusion. A branch of the left main coronary artery was reversibly ligated to produce ischemia followed by reperfusion, after which the degree of myocardial necrosis (infarct size as a percent of area at risk) was assessed by tetrazolium staining. The iv injection of a low dose of ornitho-kinin (4 µg/kg) reduced mean arterial pressure from 88 ± 12 to 42 ± 7 mmHg and increased heart rate from 335 ± 38 to 402 ± 45 bpm (N = 5). The size of the infarct was reduced by pretreatment with ornitho-kinin (500 µg/kg infused over a period of 5 min) from 35 ± 3 to 10 ± 2 percent of the area at risk. These results suggest that the physiological role of the kallikrein-kinin system is preserved in this animal model in spite of the absence of two key components, i.e., low molecular weight kininogen and factor XII.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Kinins/drug effects , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Bradykinin/therapeutic use , Chickens , Captopril/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial , Kinins/blood , Kinins/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Preoperative Care , Vascular Resistance/drug effects
16.
J. bras. pneumol ; 34(10): 838-844, out. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-496620

ABSTRACT

A hipertensão arterial pulmonar é classificada como idiopática ou secundária (associada a colagenoses, cardiopatias, hipertensão portal, tromboembolismo pulmonar e doenças da vasculatura pulmonar). O teste de vasorreatividade pulmonar é indicado para definir a melhor opção terapêutica. Muitas drogas têm sido utilizadas para a realização desse teste, sendo o óxido nítrico inalado a melhor opção, por apresentar ação específica pulmonar e meia vida muita curta (5-10 s). O resultado desse teste identifica candidatos à cirurgia cardíaca nas cardiopatias congênitas e candidatos ao uso de antagonista de cálcio nas outras formas de hipertensão pulmonar. A realização e interpretação do teste de vasorreatividade pulmonar exigem grande responsabilidade, e erros podem levar a decisões erradas e à ocorrência de óbitos.


Pulmonary arterial hypertension is classified as idiopathic or secondary (associated with collagenoses, heart disease, portal hypertension, pulmonary thromboembolism, and pulmonary vascular diseases). Pulmonary vasoreactivity should be tested in order to define the best treatment option. Of the many drugs that have been used to test pulmonary vasoreactivity, inhaled nitric oxide is the best choice, due its specific pulmonary effect and very short half-life (5-10 s). The results of this test identify candidates for heart surgery among patients with congenital heart disease and candidates for the use of calcium antagonists among patients with other forms of pulmonary hypertension. Performing and interpreting the results of such tests are a great responsibility, since mistakes can lead to incorrect treatment decisions, resulting in the death of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/physiopathology , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Nitric Oxide , Pulmonary Artery/drug effects , Reference Values
17.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2008 Jul-Dec; 11(2): 97-104
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-1556

ABSTRACT

In patients at risk for sudden ethanol (ETOH) intravascular absorption, prompt treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) will minimise the risk of cardiovascular decompensation. We investigated the haemodynamic effects of intravenous ETOH and the pulmonary vasodilatory effects of a sildenafil analogue (UK343-664) and nitroglycerin (NTG) during ETOH-induced PHTN in pigs. We studied pulmonary and systemic haemodynamics, and right ventricular rate or time derivate of pressure rise during ventricular contraction ( =dP/dT), as an index of contractility, in 23 pigs. ETOH was infused at a rate of 50 mg/kg/min, titrated to achieve a twofold increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), and then discontinued. The animals were randomised to receive an infusion of 2 ml/kg ( n = 7) normal saline, a 500-microg/kg bolus of UK343-664 ( n = 8), or NTG 1 microg/kg ( n = 8); each was given over 60 seconds. Following ETOH infusion, dP/dT decreased central venous pressure (CVP), and MPAP increased significantly, resulting in significantly increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Within 2 minutes after treatment with either drug, CVP, heart rate (HR), and the systemic vascular resistance-to-pulmonary vascular resistance (SVR/PVR) ratio returned to baseline. However, at that time, only in the UK343-664 group, MPAP and dP/dT partially recovered and were different from the respective values at PHTN stage. NTG and UK343-664 decreased PVR within 2 minutes, from 1241+/-579 and 1224+/-494 dyne . cm/sec 5 , which were threefold-to-fourfold increased baseline values, to 672+/-308 and 538+/-203 dyne . cm/sec 5 respectively. However, only in the UK343-664 group, changes from baseline PVR values after treatment were significant compared to the maximal change during target PHTN. Neither drug caused a significant change in SVR. In this model of ETOH-induced PHTN, both UK343-664 and NTG were effective pulmonary vasodilators with a high degree of selectivity. However, the changes from baseline values of PVR, and the partial recovery of systemic pressure and RV contractility compared to the maximal change during target PHTN, were significant only in the sildenafil analogue group.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Animals , Central Venous Pressure/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Hypertension, Pulmonary/chemically induced , Nitroglycerin/pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Pulmonary Artery/drug effects , Pulmonary Wedge Pressure/drug effects , Pyrimidinones/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Sus scrofa , Swine , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/chemically induced
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 54(3): 232-237, maio-jun. 2008. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-485606

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Comparar a relação da artéria umbilical e artéria cerebral média fetal através dos índices dopplervelocimétricos (índice de resistência, índice de pulsatilidade e relação S/D) antes e após a utilização do sulfato de magnésio nas gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia grave (pura ou superposta). MÉTODOS: Foi desenvolvido um estudo do tipo coorte prospectivo, no qual cada sujeito serviu como seu próprio controle. Foram selecionadas 40 gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia grave, submetidas ao exame dopplervelocimétrico antes e após 20 minutos da administração intravenosa de 6 g do sulfato de magnésio. As variáveis estudadas foram os índices dopplervelocimétricos da relação artéria umbilical e cerebral média fetal. A comparação das médias entre as duas medidas (antes e depois) de cada indivíduo foi realizada através do teste t student pareado. A comparação entre a distribuição de freqüência de diagnóstico fetal (normal, redução isolada na resistência da artéria cerebral média e centralizado) foi realizada através do teste Qui quadrado (c²) de Stuart-Maxwell. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa das médias da relação artéria umbilical/cerebral média nos índices dopplervelocimétricos antes e após o sulfato de magnésio. Verificou-se aumento da freqüência de redução isolada na resistência da artéria cerebral média após o sulfato de magnésio (25,0 por cento x 47,5 por cento; p = 0,01). CONCLUSÃO: A administração intravenosa do sulfato de magnésio nas gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia grave resultou em um aumento significativo na freqüência de fetos com diagnóstico de redução da resistência da artéria cerebral média na dopplervelocimetria.


BACKGROUND: To compare the ratio between the fetal middle cerebral artery and the umbilical artery using Doppler flow velocimetry indices (resistance index, pulsatility index and A/B relation) before and after administration of magnesium sulfate to pregnant women with severe preeclampsia (pure or superimposed). METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted with each pregnant woman representing her own control. Forty severe preeclamptic women were included and underwent Doppler sonography before and 20 minutes after administration of 6g of magnesium sulfate. Analysis variables were the Doppler flow velocimetry indices evaluating the ratio of the fetal middle cerebral artery to the umbilical artery. To compare the mean indices before and after magnesium sulfate for the same patient, the "t-paired" Student test was used. The Stuart-Maxwell c² was applied to determine the difference of fetal diagnosis (normal, brain-sparing or reduced middle cerebral artery resistance) before and after magnesium sulfate. RESULTS: No significant difference of the mean ratio between the middle cerebral artery and the umbilical artery, before and after administration of magnesium sulfate was observed. After magnesium sulfate (25.0 percent x 47.5 percent; p= 0.01), there was an increased frequency of isolated lower Doppler flow velocimetry indices in the middle cerebral artery. CONCLUSION: Intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate in patients with severe preeclampsia is associated with increased frequency of fetal Doppler diagnosis of reduced resistance in the middle cerebral artery.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Fetus/blood supply , Magnesium Sulfate/administration & dosage , Middle Cerebral Artery/physiopathology , Pre-Eclampsia/drug therapy , Umbilical Arteries/physiopathology , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Anticonvulsants/administration & dosage , Blood Pressure , Blood Flow Velocity/physiology , Fetus/drug effects , Infusions, Intravenous , Laser-Doppler Flowmetry , Middle Cerebral Artery/drug effects , Middle Cerebral Artery , Prospective Studies , Pre-Eclampsia , Pulsatile Flow/physiology , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Umbilical Arteries , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Young Adult
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 41(5): 416-423, May 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-484435

ABSTRACT

The investigation of resistance vessels is generally costly and difficult to execute. The present study investigated the diameters and the vascular reactivity of different segments of the rat tail artery (base, middle, and tail end) of 30 male Wister rats (EPM strain) to characterize a conductance or resistance vessel, using a low-cost simple technique. The diameters (mean ± SEM) of the base and middle segments were 471 ± 4.97 and 540 ± 8.39 µm, respectively, the tail end was 253 ± 2.58 µm. To test reactivity, the whole tail arteries or segments were perfused under constant flow and the reactivity to phenylephrine (PHE; 0.01-300 µg) was evaluated before and after removal of the endothelium or drug administration. The maximal response (Emax) and sensitivity (pED50) to PHE of the whole tail and the base segment increased after endothelium removal or treatment with 100 µM L-NAME, which suggests modulation by nitric oxide. Indomethacin (10 µM) and tetraethylammonium (5 mM) did not change the Emax or pED50 of these segments. PHE and L-NAME increased the pED50 of the middle and the tail end only and indomethacin did not change pED50 or Emax. Tetraethylammonium increased the sensitivity only at the tail end, which suggests a blockade of vasodilator release. Results indicate that the proximal segment of the tail artery possesses a diameter compatible with a conductance vessel, while the tail end has the diameter of a resistance vessel. In addition, the vascular reactivity to PHE in the proximal segment is nitric oxide-dependent, while the tail end is dependent on endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Pressure/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Tail/blood supply , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Arteries/anatomy & histology , Arteries/drug effects , Arteries/physiology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Models, Animal , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Regional Blood Flow/drug effects , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology
20.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 23(1): 78-92, jan.-mar. 2008. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-489703

ABSTRACT

A presente revisão tem por objetivo ressaltar alguns aspectos pouco discutidos da circulação extracorpórea (CEC), levando-se em consideração fisiologia, fisiopatologia e algumas novas tecnologias de perfusão. Assim, alguns aspectos, até certo ponto filosóficos, motivaram a elaboração dessa revisão: a) Preservar e atualizar os conhecimentos do cirurgião sobre a CEC, pelo simples fato de manter a sua liderança pedagógica sobre a sua equipe; b) Questionar se pacientes idosos e diabéticos pelas suas características individuais, assim como adotado para crianças, talvez merecessem protocolos mais apropriados; c) Questionar a reação inflamatória sistêmica causada pela exposição do sangue à superfície não endotelizada do circuito de CEC diante da importância crescente do contato do sangue com a ferida cirúrgica; d) Em relação ao tratamento da síndrome vasoplégica, o azul de metileno continua sendo a melhor opção terapêutica, embora, muitas vezes não seja eficiente pela existência de uma "janela terapêutica" embasada na dinâmica da ação da guanilato ciclase (saturação e síntese "de novo") e; finalmente, e) Razão da escolha do título, ressaltando que, em seus moldes atuais, a CEC seria conseqüência do empirismo, arte, ou da ciência? A mensagem final vem com a convicção de que tanto o empirismo, a arte e a ciência são muito fortes em se tratando da CEC.


The aim of the present review is to highlight some less discussed aspects of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), taking into consideration the physiology, physiopathology, and some new technologies of perfusion. Thus, some points, to a certain extent philosophical, have motivated this revision: a) To preserve and update the surgeon knowledge regarding CPB, even to keep his/her pedagogical leadership on his/her surgical team; b) To question if elderly and diabetic patients, as a result of their individual characteristics deserve more appropriate protocols similar to those adopted for children; c) One third aspect would be the questioning of the systemic inflammatory reaction caused by the blood exposure to CPB non-endothelized circuit surface, in face of the increasing importance of blood contact with the surgical wound; d) In relation to the treatment of the vasoplegic syndrome, methylene blue continues being the best therapeutical option, even so, many times are not efficient on account of a highly probable existence of a "therapeutical window" based on the guanylate cyclase dynamics of action (saturation and synthesis "de novo") and; finally, e) The reason of the title, highlighting that based on its current patterns, would the CPB be an outcome of empiricism, art, or science? The bottom line of this article carries the certainty of that as much as the empiricism, art, and science are highly related to CPB.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/adverse effects , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/instrumentation , Cardiopulmonary Bypass/methods , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/instrumentation , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Empiricism , Extracorporeal Circulation/adverse effects , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
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