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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(6): 1126-1133, dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350039

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A rigidez arterial é um importante preditor de aortopatia e remodelamento miocárdico em pacientes com válvula aórtica bicúspide, podendo estar aumentada na infância. Objetivo: Avaliar a rigidez arterial e a função miocárdica do ventrículo esquerdo em crianças com válvula aórtica bicúspide funcional. Métodos: Quarenta e quatro crianças com válvula aórtica bicúspide e 41 pares saudáveis com válvula aórtica tricúspide foram incluídos neste estudo caso-controle. Foram obtidos os diâmetros e os escores-z relacionados da raiz aórtica e da aorta ascendente. Quanto à função miocárdica do ventrículo esquerdo, juntamente com as velocidades de fluxo mitral e parâmetros do Modo M, as velocidades miocárdicas e os intervalos de tempo foram avaliados com Doppler tecidual. A análise da onda de pulso foi realizada por aparelho oscilométrico (Mobil-o-Graph). Um valor de p<0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: O índice da massa ventricular esquerda, a velocidade A do fluxo mitral, o diâmetro e o escore z da aorta ascendente e o índice de desempenho miocárdico estavam significativamente maiores nos pacientes (p = 0,04, p = 0,02, p = 0,04, p <0,001 e p <0,001 respectivamente). O índice de desempenho miocárdico correlacionou-se positivamente com o diâmetro da aorta ascendente e a velocidade A (r=0,272; p=0,01, r=356; p=0,001, respectivamente). A análise multivariada revelou que o índice de desempenho miocárdico estava relacionado ao diâmetro da aorta ascendente (p = 0,01). O índice de aumento e a velocidade da onda de pulso foram semelhantes entre os grupos (p> 0,05). Conclusão: De acordo com a análise da onda de pulso oscilométrico, as crianças com válvula aórtica bicúspide funcional apresentam rigidez arterial semelhante a seus pares saudáveis. O diâmetro da aorta ascendente foi estabelecido como preditor independente da função miocárdica do ventrículo esquerdo. A rigidez arterial pode não ser um fator de risco grave em pacientes pediátricos sem dilatação acentuada da aorta ascendente.


Abstract Background: Arterial stiffness is an important predictor factor of aortopathy and myocardial remodeling in patients with a bicuspid aortic valve and it might be increased in childhood. Objective: To assess the arterial stiffness and left ventricular myocardial function in children with a well-functioning bicuspid aortic valve. Methods: Forty-four children with a bicuspid aortic valve and 41 healthy peers with a tricuspid aortic valve were included in this case-control study. Diameters and the related z-scores of the aortic root and ascending aorta were obtained. As for the left ventricular myocardial function, along with the mitral inflow velocities and M-Mode parameters, myocardial velocities and time intervals were assessed with tissue Doppler imaging. A pulse wave analysis was performed by oscillometric device (Mobil-o-Graph). A p value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The left ventricular mass index, mitral inflow A velocity, diameter and z-score of the ascending aorta, and myocardial performance index were significantly higher in patients (p=0.04, p=0.02,p=0.04, p<0.001,and p<0.001 respectively). The myocardial performance index was positively correlated with the diameter of the ascending aorta and A velocity (r=0.272;p=0.01, r=356;p=0.001, respectively). The multivariate analysis revealed that the myocardial performance index was related to the ascending aorta diameter (p=0.01). The augmentation index and pulse wave velocity were similar between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: According to the oscillometric pulse wave analysis, the children with a well-functioning bicuspid aortic valve had similar arterial stiffness to that of the healthy peers. The ascending aorta diameter was established as an independent predictor of left ventricular myocardial function. Arterial stiffness may not be a severe risk factor in pediatric patients without marked ascending aorta dilation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Vascular Stiffness , Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease , Heart Valve Diseases , Case-Control Studies , Pulse Wave Analysis
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 457-462, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339194

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Pouco se conhece sobre a relação entre sarcopenia e hemodinâmica central em idosos longevos. Objetivo Estudar a relação da rigidez arterial com a composição corporal em idosos longevos. Métodos A composição corporal foi avaliada por meio da absortometria de Raio X de dupla energia (DEXA) e dos parâmetros de circulação central (PCC) obtidos por método oscilométrico não invasivo, com o Mobil-O-Graph 24h PWA Monitor®. Os parâmetros centrais avaliados foram: velocidade da onda de pulso (VOP), augmentation index (AIx), índice de amplificação da pressão de pulso (iAPP) e pressão de pulso central (PPc). Estes foram correlacionados com massa magra total (MM) e apendicular (MA), percentual de gordura corporal e índice de Baumgartner (IB). Aceitou-se nível de significância de 5%. Resultados Participaram 124 longevos, com idade média de 87,1 anos (DP±4,3 anos), sendo 74,2% mulheres e 57,3% brancos. Houve correlação inversa do AIx com as variáveis MM (r = - 0,391, p < 0,001), MA (r= -0,378, p< 0,001) e IB (r = -0,258, p 0,004). A PPc apresentou associação inversa com MM (r= -0,268, p =0,003), MA (r=-0,288, p= 0,001) e IB (r= -0,265, p = 0,003). Houve relação direta apenas entre AIx e percentual de gordura corporal (r= 0,197, p= 0,029). Conclusão Em idosos longevos, o percentual de gordura corporal se associa diretamente com a rigidez arterial e tem associação inversa com a quantidade de MM. Esses achados podem estar associados ao maior risco cardiovascular.


Abstract Background Arterial stiffness, obesity and sarcopenia correlate with each other and with cardiac outcomes in younger adults. However, there is little evidence of the association between body composition and markers of central arteries stiffness in long-lived people. Objective To evaluate the relationship between arterial stiffness and body composition in functionally independent long-lived individuals. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of the association between markers of arterial stiffness and body composition among participants in a longitudinal cohort of elderly individuals aged 80 years or older who were functionally independent and lived in the community . Body composition measurements were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and central circulation parameters (CCP) obtained by a non-invasive oscillometric method through the Mobil-O-Graph 24h PWA Monitor® device. The central parameters evaluated were: pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation Index (AIx), pulse pressure amplification index (PPAi) and central pulse pressure (cPP). These were correlated to total lean mass (LM) and appendicular lean mass (aLM), body fat percentage, and Baumgartner's Index (BI). The level of significance was set at 5% for all tests. Results Data from 124 elderly people with a mean age of 87.1 years (SD ± 4.3 years) were analyzed, with 74.2% of women and 57.3% of white. There was a statistically significant inverse correlation of AIx with LM (r = -0.391, p <0.001), aLM (r = -0.378, p <0.001), and BI (r = -0.258, p = 0.004). Also, cPP had an inversely proportional association with LM (r = -0.268, p = 0.003), aLM (r = -0.288, p = 0.001), and BI (r = -0.265, p = 0.003). When assessing the relationship between fat mass and CCP, a statistically significant direct relationship was observed only between AIx and body fat percentage (r = 0.197, p = 0.029). Conclusion In long-lived people, body fat percentage is directly associated with arterial stiffness and inversely associated with the amount of LM. These findings may be associated with increased cardiovascular risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vascular Stiffness , Blood Pressure , Body Composition , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pulse Wave Analysis
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(4): 806-811, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285197

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) é a doença endócrino-metabólica mais comum em mulheres em idade reprodutiva, e ocorre em uma a cada 10 mulheres. A doença inclui irregularidade menstrual e excesso de hormônios masculinos e é a causa mais comum de infertilidade em mulheres. A dispneia é um sintoma frequente e muitas vezes acredita-se que seja decorrente da obesidade, mas não se sabe se é decorrente de disfunção cardíaca. Objetivo: Avaliar o acoplamento ventrículo-arterial (VDAP) e a rigidez arterial pulmonar em pacientes com SOP. Métodos: Foram incluídos 44 pacientes com SOP e 60 controles; amostras de sangue venoso foram coletadas para exames laboratoriais e ecocardiograma transtorácico 2-D, Modo-M e com Doppler tecidual foram realizados em todos os participantes. Um valor de p<0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: Quando comparadas ao grupo controle, as pacientes com SOP apresentaram valores maiores de rigidez da artéria pulmonar (p = 0,001), que se correlacionaram positivamente com o índice HOMA-IR (r = 0,545 e p <0,001). O acoplamento VDAP também estava comprometido em 34% dos pacientes do estudo. Conclusão: A rigidez da artéria pulmonar está aumentada e o acoplamento VDAP está comprometido em pacientes com SOP. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(4):806-811)


Abstract Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine-metabolic disease in women in reproductive age, and occurs in one of 10 women. The disease includes menstrual irregularity and excess of male hormones and is the most common cause of female infertility. Dyspnea is a frequent symptom and is often thought to be due to obesity, and whether it is due to cardiac dysfunction is unknown. Objective: To evaluate right ventricle-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) coupling and pulmonary arterial stiffness in patients with PCOS. Methods: 44 PCOS patients and 60 controls were included; venous blood samples were taken for laboratory tests and 2-D, m-mode and tissue doppler transthoracic echocardiography were performed for all the participants. P<0,05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: When compared to the control group, PCOS patients had higher pulmonary artery stiffness values (p=0,001), which were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0,545 and p<0,001). RV-PA coupling was also impaired in 34% of the study patients. Conclusion: Pulmonary artery stiffness is increased and RV-PA coupling is impaired in patients with PCOS. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(4):806-811)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Vascular Stiffness , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Obesity
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(3): 475-482, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248871

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Pouco se sabe sobre o impacto da estenose aórtica (EA) grave na rigidez aórtica e se ocorre alguma alteração após a remoção da barreira de EA com a cirurgia de substituição da válvula aórtica (SVA). Objetivo: Estimar as mudanças na velocidade de onda de pulso carotídeo-femoral (VOP) após a cirurgia de SVA e definir os preditores de VOP alta em pacientes com EA grave. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo unicêntrico, incluindo pacientes com EA grave submetidos à cirurgia de SVA com bioprótese, entre fevereiro de 2017 e janeiro de 2019, e medições da VOP (Complior®) antes e depois do procedimento (2±1 meses). Antes e depois da SVA, os valores da VOP foram comparados por meio de testes pareados. foram analisadas as associações de VOP com dados clínicos, bem como aplicados modelos de regressão linear multivariada para estimar os preditores independentes da VOP pré- e pós-operatória. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em 5%. Resultados: Foram incluídos na amostra 150 pacientes, com média de idade de 72±8 anos, sendo 51% deles do sexo masculino. Identificamos um aumento estatisticamente significativo nos valores de VOP após a cirurgia (9,0 ± 2,1 m/s vs. 9,9 ± 2,2, p<0,001, antes e depois da SVA, respectivamente) e uma associação inversa com as variáveis de gravidade da EA. No modelo de regressão linear multivariada, idade e pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) foram estabelecidas como preditores independentes da VOP pré- e pós-operatória mais alta, enquanto o gradiente valvar médio mais alto foi considerado um determinante da VOP pré-SVA mais baixa. Conclusão: Identificamos uma correlação inversa da rigidez arterial com a gravidade da EA em pacientes acometidos, e um aumento significativo nos valores da VOP após a cirurgia de SVA. Idade avançada e PAS elevada foram associadas a valores mais altos da VOP, embora as medidas de função arterial estivessem dentro da normalidade. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(3):475-476)


Abstract Background: Little is known about the impact of severe aortic stenosis (AS) in aortic stiffness and if there is any change after removing AS barrier with aortic valve replacement (AVR) surgery. Objective: To estimate carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) changes after AVR surgery and to define PWV predictors in severe AS patients. Methods: Single-center retrospective cohort, including patients with severe AS who underwent AVR surgery with bioprostheses, between February 2017 and January 2019 and performed PWV measurements (Complior®) before and after the procedure (2±1 months). Before and after AVR, PWV values were compared through paired tests. The associations of PWV with clinical data were studied and linear regression models were applied to estimate pre and postoperative PWV independent predictors. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: We included 150 patients in the sample, with mean age of 72±8 years, and 51% being males. We found a statistically significant increase in PWV values after surgery (9.0±2.1 m/s vs. 9.9±2.2, p<0.001, before and after AVR, respectively) and an inverse association with AS severity variables. In the linear regression model, age and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were established as independent predictors of higher pre- and postoperative PWV, while higher mean valvular gradient emerged as a determinant of lower pre-AVR PWV. Conclusion: We documented an inverse correlation of arterial stiffness with the severity of AS in patients with AS, and a significant increase in PWV values after AVR surgery. Advanced age and higher SBP were associated with higher PWV values, although arterial function measurements were within the normal range. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(3):475-482)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Vascular Stiffness , Aortic Valve/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Pulse Wave Analysis , Middle Aged
7.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(1): 26-29, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156110

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this study was to examine arterial stiffness in elite basketball and soccer athletes by pulse wave velocity. Methods The cohort comprised 35 healthy male volunteers aged 17 to 26 years. All the subjects were either basketball players (n=9), soccer players (n=12) or sedentary controls (n=14). Arterial stiffness was measured by the Pulse Trace System (Micro Medical Ltd., Rochester, UK) and echocardiographic images were taken using a commercially available machine (Vivid 7 GE-Vingmed, Horten, Norway) with a 2.5 MHz transducer. Results The basketball players had significantly higher heights and body weights as compared to both the soccer players and the controls. The aortic elastic properties derived from the echocardiographic measurements did not differ between the groups. The peripheral pulse wave velocity measurements showed significantly lower values both in the basketball and soccer players compared to the controls, whereas the central pulse wave velocity measurement was significantly lower only in the basketball players as compared to the controls. No significant difference was seen between the basketball and soccer players. Conclusions The results of this study show that football and basketball exercises comprised of aerobic, anaerobic, endurance balance-coordination and sport-specific training play a role in reducing arterial stiffness. Level of evidence I; type of study: prognostic study.


RESUMO Objetivo O propósito deste estudo foi examinar a rigidez arterial em atletas de basquetebol e futebol medindo a velocidade da onda do pulso. Métodos A coorte foi composta por 35 voluntários saudáveis do sexo masculino, com idade entre 17 a 26 anos. Os participantes eram jogadores de basquetebol (n = 9), jogadores de futebol (n = 12) e controles sedentários (n = 14). A rigidez arterial foi medida com o Pulse Trace System (Micro Medical Ltd., Rochester, Reino Unido) e as imagens ecocardiográficas foram obtidas com um aparelho disponível no mercado, com transdutor de 2,5 MHz (Vivid 7 GE-Vingmed, Horten, Noruega). Resultados Os jogadores de basquetebol tinham estatura e peso corporal consideravelmente superiores aos dos jogadores de futebol e aos controles. As propriedades elásticas aórticas derivadas das medicas ecocardiográficas não diferiram entre os grupos. A velocidade da onda de pulso periférico foi significativamente menor nos jogadores de basquetebol e futebol em comparação com os controles, enquanto os jogadores de basquetebol tiveram velocidade da onda do pulso central consideravelmente menor que os controles. Não se observou diferença significativa entre os jogadores de basquetebol e os de futebol. Conclusões Os resultados deste estudo mostram que os exercícios de treinamento de futebol e basquetebol: aeróbicos, anaeróbicos, de resistência, de coordenação e equilíbrio e os treinamentos específicos de cada esporte têm um papel importante na redução da rigidez arterial. Nível de Evidência I, Estudo prognóstico.


RESUMEN Objetivo El propósito de este estudio fue examinar la rigidez arterial en atletas de básquetbol y fútbol midiendo la velocidad de onda de pulso. Métodos La cohorte fue compuesta por 35 voluntarios saludables del sexo masculino, con edad entre 17 y 26 años. Los participantes eran jugadores de básquetbol (n=9), jugadores de fútbol (n=12) y controles sedentarios (n=14). La rigidez arterial fue medida con Pulse Trace System (Micro Medical Ltd., Rochester, Reino Unido) y las imágenes ecocardiográficas fueron obtenidas con un aparato disponible en el mercado, con transductor de 2,5 MHz (Vivid 7 GE-Vingmed, Horten, Noruega). Resultados Los jugadores de básquetbol tenían estatura y peso corporal considerablemente superiores a los de los jugadores de fútbol y a los de los controles. Las propiedades elásticas aórticas derivadas de las medidas ecocardiográficas no difirieron entre los grupos. La velocidad de onda de pulso periférico fue significativamente menor en los jugadores de básquetbol y fútbol en comparación con los controles, mientras que los jugadores de básquetbol tuvieron velocidad de onda de pulso central considerablemente menor que los controles. No se observó diferencia significativa entre los jugadores de básquetbol y los de fútbol. Conclusiones Los resultados de este estudio muestran que los ejercicios de entrenamiento de fútbol y básquetbol: aeróbicos, anaeróbicos, de resistencia, de coordinación y equilibrio y los entrenamientos específicos de cada deporte tienen un papel importante en la reducción de la rigidez arterial. Nivel de Evidencia I, Estudio pronóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Soccer/physiology , Basketball/physiology , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Pulse Wave Analysis/methods , Cohort Studies
8.
Clinics ; 76: e2350, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate predictors and propose reference equations for the augmentation index normalized to 75 bpm heart rate (AIx@75) in healthy children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, observational study involving 134 healthy children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old. Participants were categorized into child (n=53) and adolescent (n=81) groups, as well as into male (n=69) and female (n=65) groups. We evaluated AIx@75, vascular and hemodynamic parameters, anthropometric data, physical activity profile, and quality of life (Peds-QL4.0; physical, emotional, social and school domains). RESULTS: The predictors of AIx@75 in the whole sample were age, peripheral diastolic blood pressure (pDBP), mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure amplification (PPA), systolic volume (SV), cardiac index (CI), and pulse wave velocity (PWV; R2=80.47%). In the male group, the predictors of AIx@75 were SV, CI, total vascular resistence (TVR), and PWV (R2=78.56%), while in the female group, they were pDBP, PPA, SV, and PWV (R2=82.45%). In the children, they were pDBP, PPA, SV, and PWV (R2=79.17%), while in the adolescents, they were body mass index, pDBP, PPA, SV, TVR, and PWV (R2=81.57%). CONCLUSION: In the present study, we used a representative sample from Belo Horizonte to establish normality values of AIx@75. We also identified, for the first time, independent predictors of AIx@75 in healthy children and adolescents categorized by sex and age. Determining AIx@75 reference equations may facilitate the early diagnosis of preclinical atherosclerosis and allow an objective measure of the vascular effects of therapeutic interventions aimed at modifying cardiovascular risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Vascular Stiffness , Quality of Life , Blood Pressure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Pulse Wave Analysis
9.
Clinics ; 76: e2172, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify the clinical discriminative value and determinants of arterial stiffness in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 51 individuals (53.57±9.35 years) diagnosed with T2DM (stage glucose≥126 mg/dL; diagnostic time: 87.4±69.8 months). All participants underwent an initial evaluation of personal habits, medications, and history; arterial stiffness assessment by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) using SphygmoCor; and blood laboratory analysis. A statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, and values of p≤0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: A cut-off cfPWV value of 7.9 m/s was identified for T2DM [Sensitivity (SE): 90% and Specificity (SP): 80%]. A subgroup analysis revealed higher glycated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac) (p=0.006), obesity (p=0.036), and dyslipidemia (p=0.013) than those with cfPWV ≥7.9 m/s. Multivariate analysis identified higher stage glucose (p=0.04), Hb1Ac (p=0.04), hypertension (p=0.001), and dyslipidemia (p=0.01) as determinant factors of cfPWV; positive and significant correlation between cfPWV and glucose (r=0.62; p=0.0003) and Hb1Ac (r=0.55; p=0.0031). CONCLUSIONS: In T2DM, an indicator of the discriminative value of arterial stiffness was cfPWV of 7.9 m/s. Clinical findings and comorbidities, such as hypertension, glucose, poor glycemic control, and dyslipidemia, were associated with and were determinants of arterial stiffness in T2DM. Reinforcement of monitoring risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and glycemic control, seems to be essential to the process of arterial stiffening. Confirmation of this discriminative value in larger populations is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Vascular Stiffness , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Pulse Wave Analysis
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(4): 496-499, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127090

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), derived from 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can be a good indicator of arterial stiffness. Aim To assess the correlation between AASI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), ankle-brachial index (ABI) and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without hypertension. Material and Methods Cross sectional study in 28 diabetic patients aged 49 ± 7 years (40% women). AASI was calculated as 1 minus the regression slope of diastolic on systolic blood pressure, using ABPM data. ABPM was measured in the arm using an oscillometric device. ABI was calculated as the ratio between ankle and brachial systolic blood pressure. CAVI was derived from pulse wave velocity using the Vasera VS-1000 device. Correlations were calculated using a bivariate Spearman correlation. Results The mean values for AASI, ABI, baPWV and CAVI were 0.39 ± 0.14, 1.14 ± 0.09, 15.15 ± 2.71 m/s and 7.60 ± 1.90, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between AASI and ABI (r = -0.491, p < 0.01). Conclusions In these diabetic patients, there was an association between AASI, an arterial stiffness marker and ABI, an indicator for the presence of atherosclerosis.


Antecedentes El índice de rigidez arterial ambulatorio (AASI), derivado del monitoreo ambulatorio de presión arterial de 24 h (MAPA), puede ser un buen indicador de rigidez arterial. Objetivo Evaluar la correlación entre el AASI y la velocidad de onda de pulso braquial (VOP), el índice tobillo-brazo (ITB) y el índice vascular cardio-tobillo (CAVI) en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 sin hipertensión arterial. Material y Métodos Estudio transversal en 28 pacientes con diabetes de 49 ± 7 años (40% mujeres). El AASI se calculó como 1 menos la pendiente de regresión de la presión arterial diastólica sobre la sistólica, usando datos del MAPA de 24 h, el cual se midió en el brazo, usando un dispositivo oscilométrico. El ITB se calculó como la razón entre la presión arterial sistólica del tobillo sobre la del brazo. El CAVI se derivó de la velocidad de onda de pulso medida con el dispositivo Vasera VS-1000. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación bivariada de Spearman. Resultados Los valores de AASI, VOP, ITB y CAVI fueron 0.39 ± 0.14, 1.14 ± 0.09, 15.15 ± 2.71 m/s y 7.60 ± 1.90, respectivamente. Hubo una correlación negativa significativa entre AASI e ITB (r = -0.491, p < 0.01). Conclusiones Hay una asociación entre AASI, un marcador de rigidez arterial e ITB, un indicador de aterosclerosis, en estos pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arteries/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Brachial Artery/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Ankle/blood supply , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Ankle Brachial Index , Pulse Wave Analysis
12.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 17-23, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131001

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Central blood pressure (CBP) is considered a measure of prognostic value for cardiovascular risk. In turn, the aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVAo) and augmentation index (Aix) have been related to arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk. Controversies exist regarding the reference values in different ethnic groups, ages, and anthropometrics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the CBP and arterial stiffness parameters in a Mexican population by age, gender, and anthropometry. Methods: Between 2015 and 2016, 1009 apparently healthy subjects were recruited in the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Using the Arteriograph (TensioMed) equipment with an oscillometric technique, CBP, central pulse pressure (cPP), PWVAo, and Aix were acquired. All results were automatically obtained by computer software version 3.0.0.4. Results: Female sex was prevalent (72%), mean age was 47 ± 12 years; 26% had normal weight, 43% were overweight, and 30% had obesity. The reference values were higher than those reported in other populations. PWVAo and Aix were always found to be higher in females. A central-brachial pressure gradient was observed in < 40 years with lower CBP. Body mass index (BMI) presented a direct and positive correlation with CBP (p < 0.001); however, PWVAo and Aix were not modified. Conclusion: CBP, cPP, PWVAo, and Aix parameters should be considered based on age, gender, and BMI. In Mexican population, CBP and cPP values were higher compared with other previously reported values, especially in women, the elderly, and obese. PWVAo and Aix are higher in older women; however, they are not modified by BMI.


Resumen Introducción: La presión central aórtica (PCA) se considera una medida del valor pronóstico. A su vez, la velocidad de la onda del pulso aórtico (VOPA) y el índice de aumento (IA) se han relacionado con la rigidez arterial y riesgo cardiovascular. Existen controversias sobre los valores de referencia en diferentes grupos. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar estos parámetros en una población mexicana por edad, género y antropometría. Métodos: Entre 2015 y 2016 se reclutaron 1,009 sujetos aparentemente sanos en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Usando el equipo de Arteriograph (TensioMed) con técnica oscilométrica, se adquirieron: PCA, presión de pulso central, VOPA e IA. Todos los resultados fueron obtenidos automáticamente. Resultados: El sexo femenino fue prevalente (72%), edad de 47 ± 12 años; 26% con peso normal, 43% con sobrepeso y 30% con obesidad. Todos los valores fueron superiores a los reportados en otras poblaciones. VOPA e IA siempre fueron más altos en mujeres. Se observó un gradiente de presión central-braquial en < 40 años, con menor PCA. El IMC presentó una correlación directa y positiva con la PCA (p < 0,001), sin embargo, VOPA e IA no se modificaron. Conclusión: Los parámetros de PCA, VOPA e IA deben considerarse en función de edad, género e IMC. En una población mexicana, los valores de PCA fueron más altos en comparación con informados previamente (Europa y Asia), especialmente en mujeres, ancianos y obesos. VOPA e IA son más altos en mujeres mayores; sin embargo, no son modificados por el IMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Blood Pressure/physiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Reference Values , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Mexico
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(2): 180-186, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130838

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. Recent studies have suggested that it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular comorbidities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess and compare arterial stiffness and cardiovascular hemodynamics in patients with lichen planus and a healthy control group. Methods: Fifty-five patients with lichen planus and 42 healthy controls were enrolled. All patients underwent echocardiographic examination, and arterial stiffness was measured using applanation tonometry. Results: No statistically significant difference was determined between the patient and control groups in terms of arterial stiffness, but stiffness was markedly higher in patients with erosive lichen planus compared to the control group and other patients (p = 0.006, and p = 0.023, respectively). Moderate positive correlation was determined between duration of disease and arterial stiffness. Impairment of systolic and diastolic functions was also determined in patients with lichen planus compared to the control group (p < 0.001, and p = 0.005, respectively). Study limitations: Relatively low number of patients. Conclusion: The positive correlation observed between duration of disease and arterial stiffness in patients with lichen planus suggests that these patients should be followed-up in terms of cardiovascular risk in the presence of resistant and long-term disease, particularly in case of erosive lichen planus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Lichen Planus/physiopathology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Echocardiography , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Statistics, Nonparametric , Heart/physiopathology , Lichen Planus/complications , Manometry/methods , Middle Aged
14.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5227, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056054

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the efficacy of a behavior change program named Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients. Methods Ninety hypertensive patients aged over 40 years were randomly allocated to one of two groups: Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde or Control (n=45 respectively). Patients in the Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde group took part in a behavior change program aimed to encourage changes in physical activity levels and eating habits, according to the Social Cognitive Theory. The program consisted of 90-minute weekly group meetings conducted by a physical therapist and a dietitian. One chapter of the educational material (workbook) provided was discussed per meeting. Participants in the Control Group attended a single educative lecture on lifestyle changes. Brachial and central blood pressure, arterial stiffness and endothelial function parameters were measured pre- and post-intervention. Results Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde led to reduction of brachial (131.3±15.8mmHg to 125.1±17.3mmHg; p<0.01) and central (123.6±16.3mmHg to 119.0±20.6mmHg; p=0.02) systolic and brachial diastolic (123.6±16.3mmHg to 119.0±20.6mmHg; p<0.01) blood pressure values, and improvement of post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (from 5.7±2.5mL·100mL−1 to 6.5±2.1mL·100mL−1 tissue·min−1; p=0.04). No changes in body composition, heart rate and arterial stiffness parameters were detected in both groups (p>0.05). Conclusion Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde program improved blood pressure and microvascular reactivity in hypertensive patients. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02257268


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a eficácia do programa de mudança de comportamento Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde sobre parâmetros cardiovasculares em pacientes hipertensos. Métodos Noventa pacientes hipertensos ≥40 anos foram aleatoriamente randomizados em dois grupos: Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde (n=45) e Controle (n=45). O Grupo Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde participou de um programa de mudança de comportamento que objetiva motivar mudanças na atividade física e nos hábitos alimentares, de acordo com a teoria sociocognitiva. O programa foi conduzido em grupos, durante 12 semanas consecutivas, em encontros semanais (~90 minutos), conduzidos por um profissional de edução física e um nutricionista. Um capítulo do material didático era discutido em cada um desses encontros. O Grupo Controle participou de uma única palestra educativa sobre mudanças de estilo de vida. Medidas de pressão arterial braquial e central, rigidez arterial, e de função endotelial foram realizadas nos momentos pré e pós-intervenção. Resultados O Grupo Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde reduziu a pressão arterial sistólica braquial (de 131,3±15,8mmHg a 125,1±17,3mmHg; p<0,01) e central (de 123,6±16,3mmHg a 119,0±20,6mmHg; p=0,02) e a pressão arterial diastólica braquial (123,6±16,3mmHg a 119,0±20,6mmHg; p<0,01) e apresentou melhora na hiperemia reativa pós-oclusão (de 5,7±2,5mL·100mL−1a 6,5±2,1mL·100mL−1tecido·min−1; p=0,04). Não houve modificação na composição corporal, na frequência cardíaca e nem nos parâmetros de rigidez arterial em ambos os grupos (p>0,05). Conclusão O Programa Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde melhorou a pressão arterial e a reatividade microvascular em pacientes hipertensos. Registro do estudo: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02257268


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Health Behavior/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Composition , Exercise/physiology , Program Evaluation , Treatment Outcome , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Hyperemia/physiopathology , Hypertension/psychology , Life Style , Middle Aged
15.
Rev. cientif. cienc. med ; 23(1): 27-31, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126276

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La velocidad de la onda de pulso y la rigidez arterial se considera estándar de oro para evaluar daño a órganos diana que haya surgido subclinicamente. La disfunción endotelial es directamente proporcional al desarrollo de la aterosclerosis preclínica. Estos marcadores sustitutos mencionados anteriormente son relativamente más altos en pacientes con hipertensión no controlada o resistente. El objetivo fue evaluar si la rigidez arterial y la velocidad de la onda del pulso también son marcadores sustitutos del desarrollo de la aterosclerosis preclínica en pacientes con hipertensión resistente. Métodos y materiales: Se incluyeron en el estudio un total de 160 pacientes con hipertensión resistente de Croacia e India. La presión arterial central y otros valores clínicos se evaluaron utilizando un dispositivo no invasivo. Resultados: Las estadísticas del grupo se hicieron con perspectiva de género, los valores de la presión arterial sistólica (PA-S), la presión arterial diastólica (PA-D), la presión arterial media (PAM), la presión central sistólica (PC-S) ,la presión central diastólica ( PC-D), la presión de pulso central (cPP) y la velocidad de la onda de pulso (VOP) han sido descritas. Los valores de PA-S en hombres / mujeres fueron 147.26 ±22.12/ 144.10 ± 21.29; los valores de PA-D en hombres/mujeres fueron 94.98 ± 13.36 / 88.57 ± 12.25 respectivamente. Conclusiones: con los resultados obtenidos se puede concluir que la rigidez arterial es un marcador independiente que es directamente proporcional a la disfunción endotelial y al desarrollo de aterosclerosis preclínica.


Introduction: Pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness are considered a gold standard for evaluating target organ damage that has arisen subclinically. Endothelial dysfunction is directly proportional to the development of preclinical atherosclerosis. These surrogate markers mentioned above are relatively higher in patients with uncontrolled or resistant hypertension. The objective was to assess whether arterial stiffness and pulse wave velocity are also surrogate markers for the development of preclinical atherosclerosis in patients with resistant hypertension. Methods and materials: A total of 160 patients with resistant hypertension from Croatia and India were included in the study. Central blood pressure and other clinical values were evaluated using a non-invasive device. Results: The statistics of the group were made with gender perspective, the values of the systolic blood pressure (PA-S), the diastolic blood pressure (PA-D), the mean arterial pressure (MAP), the central systolic pressure (PC-S), central diastolic pressure (PC-D), central pulse pressure (cPP) and pulse wave velocity (VOP) have been described.The PA-S values in men / women were 147.26 ± 22.12 / 144.10 ± 21.29; PA-D values in men / women were 94.98 ± 13.36/88.57 ± 12.25 respectively. Conclusions: with the results obtained, it can be concluded that arterial stiffness is an independent marker that is directly proportional to endothelial dysfunction and the development of preclinical atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Atherosclerosis , Vascular Stiffness , Arterial Pressure
16.
Cardiovasc. j. Afr. (Online) ; 31(3): 123-129, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1260484

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to compare the cardiac effects and aortic arterial indices followingintravitreal aflibercept treatment or diode laser photocoagulation for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in infants.Methods:This single-centre, retrospective study was conducted in infants who were administered laser photocoagulation (LPC) or intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) treatment as initialtreatment and had completed at least one year of corrected age. The patients were evaluated in terms of aortic elastic parameters, right and left ventricular systolic and diastolic function using conventional, pulsed Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiographic parameters.Results:Fifteen infants were in the LPC group, 16 in the IVA group, and 20 in the control group. Although there were some statistically significant differences in terms of pulsed and TDI echocardiographic parameters between the treatmentand control groups, these values could not clearly be adoptedas a diastolic dysfunction and myocardial performance indices were not influenced. The aortic elastic parameters were impaired in both LPC and IVA groups compared to the control group. Consequently, we observed only minor differences between the treatment groups, which may suggest subtle changes due to the anti-angiogenictreatment.Conclusion:Although favourable and promising outcomes were obtained with intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents for the treatment of ROP,concerns have been raised about potential systemic side effects, including potential cardiovascular side effects caused by these agents. The small reduction in right ventricular Doppler velocities could probably be explained by the us of anti-angiogenic or laser treatment in infants


Subject(s)
Echocardiography , Retinopathy of Prematurity , Vascular Stiffness
17.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 24(2): e20190068, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1056153

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivos Analisar a adequação do tratamento hemodialítico em pacientes com rigidez arterial e associar os efeitos da doença renal com os fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos. Método Estudo epidemiológico, transversal realizado com 149 renais crônicos em tratamento de hemodiálise em hospital escola do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Utilizou-se para medida da rigidez arterial o aparelho de Dyna-MAPA®. Foram aplicados os testes de regressão linear multivariada, t Student e o qui-quadrado para os biomarcadores e a ocorrência de rigidez arterial. Resultados A maioria dos pacientes encontrava em idade produtiva, inativa profissionalmente, do sexo masculino, união estável, fazendo restrição hídrica e alimentar, com menos de 48 meses de tratamento dialítico; 36,9% dos pacientes apresentavam rigidez arterial. Os biomarcadores creatinina, ureia e fósforo estavam aumentados; hematócrito e hemoglobina estavam diminuídos, média de peso interdialítico de 2,34 ± 1,4 kg, e a maioria do Kt/V inadequado. Quanto aos efeitos da doença renal observou-se significância estatística com os inscritos na lista de transplantes, maior tempo de tratamento e aumento da creatinina. Conclusão Estes resultados podem proporcionar a diminuição da morbimortalidade cardiovascular nestes pacientes.


RESUMEN Objetivos Analizar la adecuación del tratamiento hemodialítico en pacientes con rigidez arterial y asociar los efectos de la enfermedad renal con los factores sociodemográficos y clínicos. Método Estudio epidemiológico, transversal realizado con 149 renales crónicos en tratamiento de hemodiálisis, en el interior del Estado de São Paulo. Utilizaron el instrumento para medir la rigidez arterial el aparato de Dyna-MAPA®. Se aplicaron los pruebas de Regresión Lineal Multivaria, t Student y el Chi-Cuadrado para los biomarcadores y la ocurrencia de rigidez arterial. Resultados La mayoría estaba en edad productiva, inactiva profesionalmente, del sexo masculino, en unión estable, haciendo restricción hídrica y alimentar y con menos de 48 meses de tratamiento dialítico y 36,9% de los pacientes presentaban rigidez arterial. Los biomarcadores creatinina, urea y fósforo estaban aumentados, hematocrito y hemoglobina estaban disminuidos, media de peso interdialítico de 2,34 ± 1,4 kg, y la mayoría del Kt / V inadecuado. En cuanto a los efectos de la enfermedad renal se observó significancia estadística con los inscritos en la lista de trasplantes, mayor tiempo de tratamiento y aumento de la creatinina. Conclusión: Se espera que estos resultados proporcionen la disminución de la morbimortalidad cardiovascular de estos pacientes.


ABSTRACT Objectives To analyze the adequacy of hemodialysis treatment in patients with arterial stiffness and to associate the effects of renal disease with sociodemographic and clinical factors. Method A cross-sectional epidemiological study with 149 chronic renal patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment, in the interior of the State of São Paulo. They used to measure arterial stiffness with the Dyna-MAPA® device. The tests statistical were multivariate linear regression, t Student and chi-square were applied to the biomarkers and the occurrence of arterial stiffness. Results Most were of productive age, professionally inactive, male, in a stable union, water, and food restriction, and with less than 48 months of dialysis treatment and 36.9% of patients had arterial stiffness. The biomarkers creatinine, urea, and phosphorus were increased, hematocrit and hemoglobin were decreased, mean interdialytic weight was 2.34 ± 1.4kg, and most of the Kt / V inadequate. The effects of renal disease were statistically significant with those enrolled in the transplant list, longer treatment time, and increased creatinine. Conclusion These results are expected to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Vascular Stiffness , Socioeconomic Factors , Chronic Disease/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies
18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(7): 992-997, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136298

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Our aim is to determine whether radiation affects the endothelial function of hospital staff working in the radiation unit for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We have evaluated endothelial function with vascular imaging parameters such as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and aortic stiffness index (ASI). METHODS A total of 75 employees, 35 of whom are exposed to radiation due to their profession and 40 as the control group, were included in our single-centered study. Demographic data, FMD, aortic stiffness, and echocardiographic findings of the two groups were compared. RESULTS There were no significant differences in demographic data. Median FMD values tended to be lower in the radiation exposure group [7.89 (2.17-21.88) vs. 11.69 (5.13-27.27) p=0.09]. The FMD value was significantly lower in the catheter laboratory group than in the radiation-exposed (p=0.034) and control (p=0.012) groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the non-catheter lab radiation exposed group and the control group (p=0.804). In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the ASI value between the groups (p=0.201). CONCLUSION We have found that FMD is decreased among hospital staff working in radiation-associated areas. This may be an early marker for radiation-induced endothelial dysfunction.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O nosso objetivo é determinar se a radiação afeta a função endotelial de funcionários do hospital que trabalham em unidades com exposição à radiação para fins diagnósticos e terapêuticos. Avaliamos a função endotelial com parâmetros de imagens vasculares, tais como dilatação fluxo-mediada (FMD) e o índice de rigidez aórtica (ASI). METODOLOGIA Um total de 75 funcionários, 35 expostos à radiação devido à sua ocupação e 40 como grupo de controle, foram incluídos em nosso estudo monocêntrico. Os dados demográficos, de FMD, rigidez aórtica e ecocardiográficos dos dois grupos foram comparados. RESULTADOS Não houve diferenças significativas nos dados demográficos. Os valores médios de FMD, em geral, foram mais baixos no grupo de exposição à radiação [7,89 (2,17-21,88) e 11,69 (5,13-27,27) p=0,09]. O valor de FMD foi significativamente menor no grupo laboratorial com cateter do que no exposto à radiação (p=0,034) e no de controle (p=0,012). No entanto, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o grupo laboratorial sem cateter e exposto à radiação e o grupo de controle (p=0,804). Além disso, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quanto ao valor de ASI entre os grupos (p=0,201). CONCLUSÃO Observamos que a FMD é menor entre funcionários que trabalham em setores hospitalares associados à radiação. Isso pode ser um marcador inicial de disfunção endotelial induzida por radiação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Injuries , Brachial Artery , Vascular Stiffness , Personnel, Hospital , Endothelium, Vascular , Echocardiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 361-369, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking has been reported to be associated with arterial stiffness. However, the clinical relevance of smoking cessation on arterial stiffness is debatable. Thus, we evaluated whether smoking cessation is associated with arterial stiffness.METHODS: A total of 1,169 male participants aged 30–64 years with absence of cardiovascular diseases in 2013–2017 were selected from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort study. The subjects were classified into the following 5 groups based on self-reporting: non-smokers, former smokers (<1, 1 to <10, and ≥10, years after cessation), and current smokers. Arterial stiffness was assessed using the augmentation index (AIx). The radial artery AIx was obtained from the peripheral artery waveform. The association was explored cross-sectionally.RESULTS: The AIx of former smokers did not differ from that of non-smokers (p=0.089). However, after former smokers were stratified by duration of smoking cessation, we noted a linear trend according to the smoking status (p<0.001). Men who quit smoking <1 year ago showed an elevated AIx (β=3.94, standard error=1.54, p=0.011) as much as ones of current smokers (β=4.39, standard error=0.74, p<0.001), while those who quit more than a decade ago showed an AIx similar to that of non-smokers (β=0.35, standard error=0.82, p=0.670) after controlling covariates.CONCLUSIONS: A dose-response association between smoking cessation and AIx was revealed, which implies the possibility of a reversible effect of smoking cessation on arterial stiffness. Therefore, our findings may motivate current smokers to modify their smoking habits to delay or reverse disease progression.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Metabolic Diseases , Radial Artery , Smoke , Smoking Cessation , Smoking , Vascular Stiffness
20.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(4,Supl): 387-392, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047320

ABSTRACT

A finalidade do sistema cardiovascular é manter uma perfusão adequada e, para tanto, conta com uma bomba eficiente (coração) e um sistema de condução apropriado, representado pelos vasos arteriais e venosos. Este artigo visa abordar os diferentes ajustes funcionais e estruturais decorrentes do treinamento físico no sistema vascular, que contribuem principalmente para melhorar a capacidade física dos indivíduos. Para tanto, o sistema conta com vários mecanismos, dentre eles neurais, hormonais e locais, que podem ser avaliados por meio de diferentes técnicas, tanto in vivo quanto in vitro. Após um período de treinamento físico, tem-se evidenciado uma melhor inter-relação entre sistema neural e local, promovendo menor atividade nervosa simpática acompanhada por simpatólise mais pronunciada. Além disso, o treinamento físico melhora a reatividade vascular de artérias, por melhorar a biodisponibilidade de óxido nítrico. Na parede vascular, o treinamento melhora o equilíbrio entre os componentes da matriz extracelular, favorecendo a redução da rigidez arterial em grandes artérias e a redução da razão parede-luz em arteríolas da musculatura locomotora e não locomotora, o que contribui para melhor distensibilidade dos vasos e redução da resistência periférica total, principalmente em casos patológicos. Por fim, o treinamento físico favorece a angiogênese na microcirculação, que contribui significativamente para nutrição tecidual


The purpose of the cardiovascular system is to maintain complete perfusion and, to this end, it has an efficient pump (the heart) and an appropriate conduction system, represented by arterial and venous vessels. This article addresses the different functional and structural adjustments resulting from physical training in the vascular system, which contribute mainly to improve the physical capacity of individuals. Therefore, the system has several mechanisms, including neural, hormonal and local mechanisms, which may be evaluated by different techniques, both in vivo and in vitro. After a period of physical training, a better interrelationship between neural and local systems has been evidenced, promoting less sympathetic nervous activity accompanied by more pronounced sympatholysis. In addition, physical training improves vascular reactivity of arteries by improving nitric oxide bioavailability. In the vascular wall, training improves balance between extracellular matrix components, favoring reduced of stiffness of the large arteries and reduced wall-to-lumen ratio in locomotor and non-locomotor muscle arterioles, which contributes to improving vessel distensibility and total peripheral resistance, especially in pathological cases. Finally, physical training favors microcirculatory angiogenesis, which contributes significantly to tissue nutrition


Subject(s)
Exercise , Vascular Stiffness , Arteries , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Endothelium , Microcirculation , Neovascularization, Pathologic
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