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1.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 17(2): 206-215, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440346

ABSTRACT

The aim of this systematic review is to assess the safety of local anaesthetics (LA) combined with vasoconstrictors (VC) for patients with controlled hypertension undergoing dental procedures. A comprehensive search strategy were used to identify all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effect of LA combined with VC. All searches covered the period from 1990 to February 2021. We performed a meta-analysis using random-effect models and assessed overall certainty in evidence using GRADE approach. Our search strategy yielded 1262 references. Finally, seven randomised trials were included, but only three were included in the meta-analysis. The use of LA with VC may result in little to no difference in the heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), but the certainty of the evidence was assessed as low. Death, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, need for hospitalization, pain and bleeding were not reported by the included studies. The hemodynamic changes using VC do not imply an increased risk of occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events. The use of VC could even be recommendable considering their multiple advantages.


El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática es evaluar la seguridad del uso de anestésicos locales (AL) combinados con vasoconstrictor (VC) en pacientes con hipertensión controlada durante procedimientos dentales. Se realizó una estrategia de búsqueda para identificar todos los estudios clínicos aleatorizados (ECA) relevantes que evaluaban el efecto del AL combinado con VC. Todos los estudios fueron del periodo entre 1990 a febrero del 2021. Se realizó un meta-análisis usando modelos de efecto aleatorizado y una revisión de la certeza de la evidencia usando el método GRADE. Nuestra estrategia de búsqueda arrojó 1262 referencias. Finalmente, siete estudios clínicos aleatorizados fueron incluidos, de los cuales tres fueron incluidos en el meta-análisis. El uso de AL con VC produce una pequeña a ninguna diferencia en el pulso cardiaco, presión sistólica y diastólica, pero la certeza de la evidencia fue baja. Muerte, infarto agudo al miocardio, accidente cerebrovascular, necesidad de hospitalización, dolor y hemorragia no fueron reportados en los estudios incluidos. Los cambios hemodinámicos en el uso de VC no implican un aumento de riesgo de ocurrencia de efectos adversos cardiovasculares. El uso de VC puede ser recomendable considerando sus múltiples ventajas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Care , Hypertension/surgery , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Hemodynamics/drug effects
2.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 905, 30 Junio 2023. tabs., grafs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451755

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La paradoja de la obesidad propone que, en determinadas enfermedades, los enfermos con obesidad tienen menor mortalidad. OBJETIVO. Asociar el índice de masa corporal con la mortalidad a 30 días en adultos con choque séptico. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio observacional, analítico, retrospectivo, multicéntrico. Se analizaron 673 pacientes con choque séptico, ingresados en terapia intensiva de dos hospitales de la ciudad de la ciudad de Quito ­ Ecuador, durante enero 2017 - diciembre 2019. Criterios de inclusión: Mayores a 18 años, choque séptico, registro de peso, talla y condición vital al día 30. Criterios de exclusión: Orden de no reanimación, embarazadas, protocolo de donación de órganos, cuidados paliativos. Las variables se recolectaron a partir de las historias clínicas digitales y físicas de los centros participantes. Las estimaciones de riesgo calculadas se presentaron como OR (Odds Ratio) en el análisis bivariado y OR Adj (OR ajustado) para el análisis multivariado. Un valor de p <0.05 se consideró estadísticamente significativo. Todos los análisis estadísticos se realizaron usando el software estadístico R® (Versión 4.1.2). RESULTADOS. La edad promedio fue de 65 años, índice de masa corporal promedio 25,9 Kg/m2 (+4,9 Kg/m2). El 54,3% tuvo índice de masa corporal > 25 Kg/m2. La mortalidad general fue 49.2%. Sujetos con sobrepeso y obesidad tuvieron menor mortalidad, OR: 0,48 (IC 95%: 0.34, 0.68; p <0.0001) y OR 0.45 (IC 95 %: 0.28, 0.70; p =0.001) respectivamente, con similar tendencia en el análisis multivariado. Los sujetos con peso bajo tuvieron la mayor mortalidad (OR: 2.12. IC 95%: 0.91 - 5.54. p: 0.097). DISCUSIÓN. Los resultados obtenidos apoyan la teoría de paradoja de obesidad, sin embargo, no se realizó evaluación según los niveles de obesidad. CONCLUSIÓN. La mortalidad en choque séptico es menor en sujetos con sobrepeso y obesidad comparada con sujetos con peso normal o bajo peso.


The obesity paradox proposes that, in certain diseases, patients with obesity have lower mortality. OBJECTIVE. To associate body mass index with 30-day mortality in adults with septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Observational, analytical, retrospective, multicenter, retrospective study. We analyzed 673 patients with septic shock, admitted to intensive care in two hospitals in the city of Quito - Ecuador, during January 2017 - December 2019. Inclusion criteria: older than 18 years, septic shock, weight, height and vital condition at day 30. Exclusion criteria: Do not resuscitate order, pregnant women, organ donation protocol, palliative care. Variables were collected from the digital and physical medical records of the participating centers. Calculated risk estimates were presented as OR (Odds Ratio) in bivariate analysis and OR Adj (adjusted OR) for multivariate analysis. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using R® statistical software (Version 4.1.2). RESULTS. The mean age was 65 years, mean body mass index 25.9 kg/m2 (+4.9 kg/m2). Body mass index > 25 kg/m2 was 54.3%. Overall mortality was 49.2%. Overweight and obese subjects had lower mortality, OR: 0.48 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.68; p<0.0001) and OR 0.45 (95 % CI: 0.28, 0.70; p=0.001) respectively, with similar trend in multivariate analysis. Underweight subjects had the highest mortality (OR: 2.12. 95% CI: 0.91 - 5.54. p: 0.097). DISCUSSION. The results obtained support the obesity paradox theory, however, assessment according to obesity levels was not performed. CONCLUSIONS. Mortality in septic shock is lower in overweight and obese subjects compared to normal weight or underweight subjects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Shock, Septic , Body Mass Index , Mortality , Critical Care , Focal Infection , Obesity , Bacterial Infections , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Tertiary Healthcare , APACHE , Ecuador , Overweight , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Protective Factors , Obesity Paradox , Intensive Care Units
3.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 952023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1515294

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La insuficiencia adrenal hipotálamo hipofisaria usualmente se manifiesta secundaria a tumores y, cuando resulta congénita se asocia, con frecuencia, con otras deficiencias hormonales. La crisis adrenal suele presentarse en su debut y puede resultar potencialmente mortal. Objetivo: Examinar el caso de una paciente con insuficiencia adrenal central que debutó con una crisis adrenal congénita. Presentación del caso: Recién nacida a término, padres no consanguíneos, hospitalizada a los 9 días de vida por clínica de una semana con múltiples episodios eméticos y apnea. Ingresó con deshidratación severa, hipotensa y estuporosa. Además, se encontró acidosis metabólica severa, hipoglucemia persistente, hiponatremia e insuficiencia prerrenal. Ante la no mejoría de su estado hemodinámico, a pesar del uso de cristaloides y vasopresores, finalmente mejoró con la administración de dosis altas de hidrocortisona. El diagnóstico de deficiencia de cortisol de origen central se realizó con un test dinámico de insulina y la resonancia magnética nuclear hipofisaria. Conclusiones: La crisis adrenal se debe tener presente como diagnóstico diferencial en episodios agudos con inestabilidad hemodinámica persistente e hipoglucemia de difícil manejo. Adicionalmente, hay que considerar que existen otras causas menos comunes de insuficiencia adrenal en neonatos como la hipoplasia hipofisaria(AU)


Introduction: Hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal insufficiency usually manifests secondary to tumors and, when congenital, is often associated with other hormonal deficiencies. Adrenal crisis usually occurs at its onset and can be life threatening. Objective: To review the case of a patient with central adrenal insufficiency who had an onset with a congenital adrenal crisis. Case presentation: Term newborn, non-consanguineous parents, hospitalized at 9 days of life for a week-long clinical presentation with multiple emetic episodes and apnea. She was admitted with severe dehydration, hypotensive and stuporous. In addition, severe metabolic acidosis, persistent hypoglycemia, hyponatremia and prerenal failure were found. Given the lack of improvement of her hemodynamic status, despite the use of crystalloids and vasopressors, she finally improved with the administration of high doses of hydrocortisone. The diagnosis of cortisol deficiency of central origin was made with a dynamic insulin test and pituitary nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusions: Adrenal crisis should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in acute episodes with persistent hemodynamic instability and difficult-to-manage hypoglycemia. Additionally, other less common causes of adrenal insufficiency in neonates, such as pituitary hypoplasia, should be considered(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Insufficiency/etiology , Milrinone/therapeutic use , Dobutamine/therapeutic use , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
4.
Natal; s.n; 31 ago. 2022. 50 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1532452

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Um ensaio clínico controlado, cego e randomizado foi desenvolvido para avaliar os efeitos cardiovasculares em pacientes saudáveis e com hipertensão submetidos à exodontia por via alveolar utilizando lidocaína com epinefrina 1:100.000. Materiais e métodos: Vinte pacientes foram divididos em grupos experimental (GE ­ pacientes hipertensos) e controle (GC ­ pacientes normotensos). As variáveis analisadas foram a frequência cardíaca (FC), saturação de oxigênio (SO2), pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica (PAsis e PAdias), concentração sérica de catecolaminas (dopamina, epinefrina e norepinefrina), extrassístoles ventriculares e supraventriculares (ESV e ESSV respectivamente) e depressão do segmento do ST. Os dados foram colhidos em três momentos distintos: inicial, transoperatório (trans) e final. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para a mensuração das catecolaminas, e um aparelho de Holter foi utilizado para coleta de dados do eletrocardiograma incluindo um período de avaliação de 24 horas pós-operatório. Foram utilizados o teste de Mann-Whitney para identificar diferenças entre os grupos e o teste de Friedman com o pós-teste de Wilcoxon ajustado para a avaliação intragrupos das amostras repetidas. Resultados: O GE apresentou menor SO2 no momento inicial (p = 0,001) enquanto a PAsis apresentou diferença estatística para os três momentos de avaliação com o GE apresentando os maiores valores. As ESV foram maiores para o GE no período de avaliação pós-operatória de 24 horas (p = 0,041). As ESSV e as catecolaminas séricas foram similares nos dois grupos. A análise intragrupo revelou diferença significativa na avaliação da PAsis para o GE com o período trans operatório apresentando os maiores valores. Já avaliação das extrassístoles demonstrou que o período pós-operatório de 24 horas teve a maioria dos eventos sendo que apenas o GC não apresentou diferença significativa para a variável ESV durante esse período (p = 0,112). Não houve depressão do segmento ST para nenhum dos grupos, ou seja, a isquemia do miocárdio não foi observada durante o estudo. Conclusões: As exodontias por via alveolar, com o uso de ALVC com epinefrina podem ser realizadas de forma segura em pacientes hipertensos. A pressão arterial sistêmica deve ser monitorada durante todo o procedimento, sobretudo nos pacientes hipertensos, devido à tendência de aumento da pressão arterial nesses pacientes. Já o nível sérico de catecolaminas não sofre alteração nas condições estudadas assim como o uso de ALVC parecem não influenciar os padrões cardiovasculares nesse tipo de cirurgia (AU).


Objectives: A blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was developed to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of local anesthetics with vasoconstrictors (LAVC) containing epinephrine in healthy and hypertensive patients undergoing teeth extraction with lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:100.000. Materials and methods: 20 patients were divided into control (CG ­ normotensive patients) and experimental groups (EG ­ hypertensive patients). The variables analyzed were heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (O2S), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (sysBP and diasBP), serum catecholamines concentration (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), ventricular and supraventricular extrasystoles (VES and SVES respectively), and ST segment depression. Data was obtained in three different moments (initial, trans and final). Blood samples were taken to measure the catecholamines and a Holter device was used to measure data from the electrocardiogram including a 24-hour postoperative evaluation period. The Mann-Whitney test was used to identify differences between the two groups and the Friedman test with the adjusted Wilcoxon post-test were used for intragroup evaluation for repeated measures. Results: The EG presented a lower O2S in the initial period (p = 0,001) while the sysBP showed a statistical difference for the three evaluation periods with the EG presenting the highest values. The VES where higher for the EG during the 24-hour postoperative evaluation period (p = 0,041). The SVES and the serum catecholamines showed were similar between the groups. The intragroup analysis revealed significant statistical difference for the sysBP in the EG with the trans period presenting the highest measurements. The extrasystoles evaluation showed that the 24- hour postoperative period presented most events with only the CG not presenting statistical difference for the variable VES during this period (p = 0,112). No ST segment depression was noticed for both groups, ie, Myocardial ischemia was not observed. Conclusions: Teeth extraction with LAVC containing epinephrine can be safely executed in hypertensive patients. Blood pressure should be monitored during the entire procedure, especially in hypertensive patients due to a tendency to high blood pressure within these patients. Serum catecholamines concentration levels are not altered in the conditions seen in this study and the use of LAVC seem not to influence cardiovascular changes in this type of surgery (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vasoconstrictor Agents/adverse effects , Epinephrine/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Heart Diseases
5.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e200, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341236

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Vasopressors are essential in the management of various types of shock. Objective To establish the trend of vasopressors use in the intensive care units (ICU) in a population of patients affiliated with the Colombian Health System, 2010-2017. Methods Observational trial using a population database of patients hospitalized in eleven ICUs in various cities in Colombia. The drugs dispensed to hospitalized patients over 18 years old, from January 2010 until December 2017 were considered. A review and analysis of the vasopressors dispensed per month was conducted, taking into account sociodemographic and pharmacological variables (vasopressor used and daily doses defined per 100/beds/day (DBD). Results 81,348 dispensations of vasopressors, equivalent to 26,414 treatments in 19,186 patients receiving care in 11 hospitals from 7 cities were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 66.3±18.1 years and 52.6 % were males. Of the total number of treatments recorded, 17,658 (66.8 %) were with just one vasopressor. Norepinephrine was the most frequently prescribed drug (75.9 % of the prescriptions dispensed; 60.5 DBD), followed by adrenaline (26.6 %; 41.6 DBD), dopamine (19.4%), dobutamine (16.0 %), vasopressin (8.5 %) and phenylephrine (0.9 %). The use of norepinephrine increased from 2010 to 2017 (+6.19 DBD), whilst the use of other drugs decreased, particularly the use of adrenaline (-60.6 DBD) and dopamine (-10.8 DBD). Conclusions Norepinephrine is the most widely used vasopressor showing a growing trend in terms of its use during the study period, which is supported by evidence in favor of its effectiveness and safety in patients with shock.


Resumen Introducción Los fármacos vasopresores son fundamentales en el manejo de los diferentes tipos de choque. Objetivo Determinar la tendencia de utilización de fármacos vasopresores en unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) en una población de pacientes afiliados al Sistema de Salud de Colombia, 2010-2017. Métodos Estudio observacional, a partir de una base de datos poblacional con pacientes hospitalizados en once UCI de diferentes ciudades de Colombia. Se obtuvieron las dispensaciones de pacientes mayores de 18 años hospitalizados desde enero de 2010 hasta diciembre de 2017. Se hizo revisión y análisis de la dispensación mensual de vasopresores. Se consideraron variables sociodemográficas y farmacológicas (medicamento vasopresor usado y dosis diarias definidas por 100 camas/día [DCD]). Resultados Se revisaron 81.348 dispensaciones de vasopresores, equivalentes a 26.414 terapias en 19.186 pacientes atendidos en 11 hospitales de 7 ciudades, cuya edad promedio fue 66,3±18,1 años y el 52,6 % eran hombres. Del total de terapias registradas, 17.658 (66,8 %) fueron con un solo vasopresor. La norepinefrina fue el más comúnmente prescrito (75,9 % de las dispensaciones; 60,5 DCD), seguido por adrenalina (26,6 %; 41,6 DCD), dopamina (19,4 %), dobutamina (16,0 %), vasopresina (8,5 %) y fenilefrina (0,9 %). El uso de norepinefrina se incrementó de 2010 a 2017 (+6,19 DCD), mientras que el de otros fármacos disminuyó, especialmente adrenalina (-60,6 DCD) y dopamina (-10,8 DCD). Conclusiones La norepinefrina es el fármaco vasopresor más utilizado y el que ha demostrado una tendencia de uso incremental durante el periodo de estudio, lo cual está respaldado por evidencia a favor de su efectividad y seguridad en pacientes con choque.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Shock , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Vasopressins , Intensive Care Units , Phenylephrine , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Dopamine , Epinephrine , Norepinephrine , Dobutamine , Drug Utilization , Dosage , Prescriptions
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(2): 201-211, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251093

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Heart preservation benefits cardiac performance after operations decreasing morbidity but the contribution of the vascular reactivity has been neglected. Objective: We evaluated whether cardioprotective solutions, Krebs-Henseleit (KH), Bretschneider-HTK (BHTK), St. Thomas No. 1 (STH-1), and Celsior (CEL), affect vascular reactivity. Methods: Aortic rings from Wistar rats were used in two protocols. First, the rings were exposed to BHTK, STH-1 or CEL for 1 hour of hypoxia at 37 °C. Second, the rings were exposed to 10 °C or 20 °C for 1 hour under hypoxia. After treatment, the rings were immersed in KH at 37 °C, endothelial integrity was tested and concentration-response curves to phenylephrine were performed. Results: In the first protocol, the solutions did not damage the endothelium; CEL and BHTK reduced KCl-induced contractions but not STH-1; only CEL and BHTK reduced vascular reactivity; there was a positive correlation between Rmax and KCl concentration. At 20 °C, 1 hour under hypoxia, the solutions produced similar KCl-induced contractions without endothelial damage. CEL, BHTK and STH-1 decreased vascular reactivity. At 10 °C, STH-1 increased reactivity but CEL and BHTK decreased. After 1 hour under hypoxia in CEL or BHTK solutions, reactivity was similar at different temperatures. At 20 °C, endothelial damage after exposure to STH-1 produced more vasoconstriction than CEL and BHTK. However, at 10 °C, endothelial damage after CEL and BHTK exposure elicited more vasoconstriction while STH-1 showed a small vasoconstrictor response, suggesting endothelial damage. Conclusion: STH-1 decreased reactivity at 20 °C and increased at 10 °C. CEL promoted greater endothelial modulation at 10 °C than at 20 °C, while STH-1 promoted higher modulation at 20 °C than at 10 °C. Vascular tone was reduced by CEL and BHTK exposure, also depending on the KCl concentration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Hypoxia , Phenylephrine , Temperature , Endothelium, Vascular , Rats, Wistar
8.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 18(1): 33-44, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369717

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO. Comparar la gravedad de las infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas (IRAb) producidas por Adenovirus (ADV) entre los años 2015 y 2016, en el Hospital de Niños Roberto del Río. MÉTODOS. Se identificó a pacientes hospitalizados por IRAb por ADV, y se registró edad, sexo, días de hospitalización, ingreso a unidad de paciente crítico (UPC), necesidad de ventilación mecánica (VM), entre otros. Se comparó la evolución de los pacientes, y se analizó la relación entre gravedad y presencia de infecciones asociadas a atención de salud (IAAS). RESULTADOS. Se identificó 158 pacientes hospitalizados por IRAb por ADV. La relación hombre: mujer fue 6:4, con una edad promedio de 17.4 meses. La media de días de hospitalización fue de 9.88 el 2015 y 16.06 el 2016 (p=0.01). El promedio de días de oxigenoterapia fue de 5.86 el 2015 y 8.76 el 2016. Un 22.8% (n:36) de los pacientes ingresó a UPC, y el 20.25% (n:32) requirió VM. Un 41.8% de los casos (n:66) correspondió a IAAS. 3 pacientes fallecieron. CONCLUSIONES. Durante el 2016 hubo hospitalizaciones más prolongadas en comparación al 2015, sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas en relación a requerimientos de oxigenoterapia, VM y fallecimiento. La prolongación de la hospitalización se podría asociar a mayor presencia de IAAS.


OBJETIVE. To compare the severity of lower respiratory infections produced by Adenovirus between 2015 and 2016 at the Hospital de Niños Roberto del Río. METHODS. We identified patients hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection for ADV and we recorded age, sex, days of hospitalization, admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation (MV), among others. The evolution of the patients between the two years were compared. The relationship between severity and the presence of nosocomial infections was also analyzed. RESULTS. We identified 158 hospitalized patients for ADV. The male:female ratio was 6:4, with an average age of 17.4 months. The mean of hospitalization days was 9.88 days in 2015 and 16.06 days in 2016 (p = 0.01). The average number of oxygen therapy days was 5.86 in 2015 and 8.76 in 2016. The 22.8% (n: 36) of cases required admission in the ICU, and 20.25% (n: 32) required MV. The 41.8% (n: 66) of cases corresponded to nosocomial infections. 3 patients died. CONCLUSIONS. During 2016, there were longer hospitalizations for adenovirus infections compared to 2015, without significant differences in relation to oxygen therapy, MV requirements and death. The prolongation of the hospitalization could be associated by the greater presence of nosocomial infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Cross Infection , Community-Acquired Infections , Adenoviridae Infections/complications , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Adenoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Adenoviridae Infections/therapy , Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Length of Stay
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1043-1051, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hypotension is a common complication caused by spinal anesthesia (SA), which may have adverse impacts on the condition of the parturient and fetus. Liquid infusion was found to be relatively effective for reducing the incidence of hypotension. However, the question of whether colloid preload can optimize hemodynamic variables in the cesarean section remains controversial. This study aims to determine the effects of colloid preload on the incidence of hypotension induced by SA in elective cesarean section.@*METHODS@#Related keywords were searched on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library from inception dates to May 2020. Studies included were evaluated for eligibility and quality. The primary outcome was the intra-operative incidence of hypotension and severe hypotension. The secondary outcomes included the lowest intra-operative systolic blood pressure, the maximal intra-operative heart rate, the intra-operative needs of ephedrine and phenylephrine, the incidence of maternal nausea and/or vomiting, and neonatal outcomes (umbilical artery pH and Apgar scores). Apart from the above, RevMan 5.3 was used for the data analysis.@*RESULTS@#Altogether nine randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There were no significant differences in the incidence of intra-operative hypotension, severe hypotension, or neonatal outcomes between the colloid preload group and control group, except for the umbilical artery pH.@*CONCLUSION@#This meta-analysis suggests that colloid preload does not significantly reduce the incidence of hypotension associated with SA in elective cesarean section.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Colloids , Hypotension/etiology , Incidence , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 792-799, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Norepinephrine infusion decreases hypotension after spinal anesthesia during cesarean section. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of norepinephrine infusion and ephedrine bolus against post-spinal hypotension in parturients.@*METHODS@#In this double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial, parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated to receive norepinephrine infusion (0.05 μg·kg-1·min-1) just before spinal anesthesia continuing for 30 min or ephedrine bolus (0.15 mg/kg) just before spinal anesthesia. A rescue bolus (5 μg norepinephrine for the norepinephrine group, and 5 mg ephedrine for the ephedrine group) was administered whenever hypotension occurred. Our primary outcome was the incidence of hypotension within 30 min of spinal anesthesia administration. Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal outcomes 30 min after spinal block, and neonatal cerebral oxygenation 10 min after birth.@*RESULTS@#In total, 190 patients were enrolled; of these patients, 177 were included in the final analysis. Fewer patients suffered hypotension in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (29.5% vs. 44.9%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28-0.95, P = 0.034). Moreover, the tachycardia frequency was lower in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.11-0.44, P < 0.001), and patients suffered less nausea and vomiting (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.11-0.70, P = 0.004). There was no difference in Apgar scores and umbilical arterial blood gas analysis between the two groups. However, neonatal cerebral regional saturations were significantly higher after birth in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (mean difference: 2.0%, 95% CI: 0.55%-3.45%, P = 0.008).@*CONCLUSION@#In patients undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia, norepinephrine infusion compared to ephedrine bolus resulted in less hypotension and tachycardia, and exhibited potential neonatal benefits.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02542748; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT02542748.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Hypotension/prevention & control , Phenylephrine , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Rev Chil Anest ; 50(4): 588-592, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Anesthetic management in DIEP-flap breast reconstruction surgery may influence the appearance of postoperative complications. Fluid therapy, vasopressor use, and blood management are controversial. The aim was to audit hemodynamic management and to assess its impact on perioperative outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-seven cases of DIEP-flap breast reconstruction were reviewed. Data collected: anthropometric data; ASA score; comorbidities; timing of reconstruction (immediate/delayed), type of reconstruction (unilateral/bilateral); length of surgery; per-operative complications; per-operative fluid therapy, use of vasopressors, transfusion rate; re-intervention requirements; surgical success rate; hospital stay, and readmission rate. RESULTS: Median crystalloid infusion rate was 3.18 (2.63-3.76) ml/kg/h in the first 24 hours. Intraoperatively, colloids were administered in 35 (52%) patients at a median infusion rate of 1.40 (1.08-1.86) ml/Kg/h; 21 (60%) of them presented some postoperative complication. Hypotensive events were registered in 13 (19%) patients; 9 (69%) suffered some postoperative complication. The only vasopressor used was Ephedrine in 14 (21%) patients, at a median dose of 0 (0-6) mg. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion was required in 18 (27%) patients. All of the patients who were transfused, 11 (61%) presented some postoperative complication. Hospital stay was 7 (7-9) days. Surgery was successful in 46 (69%) patients and readmission was necessary in 11 (16%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Colloids administration, intraoperative hypotensive events, RBC transfusion, and delayed surgery are variables that could increase the risk of postoperative complications in our series.


OBJETIVO: El manejo anestésico en la cirugía de reconstrucción mamaria con colgajo DIEP podría influir en la aparición de complicaciones posoperatorias. La fluidoterapia, el uso de vasopresores y la tasa transfusional son motivo de controversia. Nuestro objetivo fue auditar el manejo hemodinámico y valorar su impacto en los resultados perioperatorios. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Analizamos 67 pacientes programadas para reconstrucción mamaria con colgajo DIEP. Datos registrados: antropométricos; ASA; comorbilidades; momento de la reconstrucción (inmediata/diferida); tipo de reconstrucción (unilateral/bilateral); duración quirúrgica; complicaciones perioperatorias; fluidoterapia, vasopresores y tasa transfusional peroperatorios; tasa de reintervención, reingresos y éxito de la cirugía; estancia hospitalaria. RESULTADOS: La velocidad promedio de infusión de cristaloides fue de 3,18 (2,63-3,76) ml/kg/h en las primeras 24 h. Intraoperatoriamente se administraron coloides en 35 (52%) pacientes a una velocidad promedio de infusión de 1,40 (1,08-1,86) ml/kg/h, presentando complicaciones posoperatorias en 21 (60%) casos. Trece (19%) pacientes presentaron eventos hipotensivos intraoperatorios, registrándose complicaciones en 9 (69%). El único vasopresor utilizado fue la efedrina en 14 (21%) pacientes, a una dosis mediana de 0 (0-6) mg. Requirieron transfusión sanguínea 18 (27%) pacientes. Del total de pacientes transfundidos, 11 (61%) habían presentado alguna complicación posoperatoria. La cirugía fue un éxito en 46 (69%) casos. La estancia hospitalaria fue de 7 (7-9) días y el reingreso fue necesario en 11 (16%) casos. CONCLUSIONES: La administración de coloides, los eventos hipotensivos intraoperatorios, la transfusión de hemoderivados y la cirugía con reconstrucción tardía son variables que podrían incrementar el riesgo de complicaciones posoperatorias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Mammaplasty/adverse effects , Perforator Flap/blood supply , Anesthesia , Postoperative Complications , Vasoconstrictor Agents/adverse effects , Colloids/adverse effects , Transfusion Reaction , Fluid Therapy/adverse effects , Hemodynamics
13.
In. Fernández, Anabela. Manejo de la embarazada crítica y potencialmente grave. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.627-632.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1377904
14.
Acta méd. costarric ; 62(4)dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1383342

ABSTRACT

Resumen Justificación: La mayor cantidad de cirugías cardiacas realizadas a nivel mundial se efectúa con circulación extracorpórea y pinzamiento de la aorta, lo que conlleva una serie de alteraciones fisiopatológicas que deben ser reconocidas por el personal de salud que participa en la atención de estos pacientes. Objetivo: Describir el perfil y los factores de riesgo presentes en los pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardiaca con circulación extracorpórea, y analizar la existencia de una potencial relación entre el tiempo de circulación extracorpórea y el pinzamiento aórtico, con la aplicación de desfibrilaciones tras al pinzado de la aorta, la necesidad de soporte cardiovascular farmacológico, el comportamiento del nivel de lactato plasmático y la mortalidad. Métodos: Se desarrolló un estudio observacional y descriptivo con una muestra de 104 pacientes electivos, sometidos a intervención quirúrgica y circulación extracorpórea, en el Hospital México, desde octubre de 2016 a noviembre de 2017. Se caracterizó la población en estudio, se analizaron los factores de riesgo incluido el EuroSCORE I y II, el tiempo de circulación extracorpórea, el tiempo de pinzamiento aórtico, las desfibrilaciones posteriores al pinzamiento aórtico, e lactato inmediatamente postcirculación extracorpórea, y a las 2, 6, 24 h postquirúrgicas, el uso de soporte cardiovascular farmacológico en infusión continua posterior a la circulación extracorpórea y mortalidad a los 30 días. Resultados: La edad media fue 56,4 años, predominó el sexo masculino (69 %) y la hipertensión arterial fue el factor de riesgo más frecuente (76,07 %). Se registró un tiempo de pinzado aórtico menor a 100 min en 61 pacientes (58,65 %) y superior a ese tiempo en 43 pacientes (41,35 %). El EuroSCORE I promedio fue del 4,21 % (DE: 4,80), mientras que el EuroSCORE II fue del 2,37 % (DE: 2,41). El tiempo promedio de circulación extracorpórea fue de 129 minutos (DE: 36,88) y el de pinzado aórtico, de 94 minutos (DE:32,04). Hubo un pico de lactato a las 6 horas postquirúrgicas (5,13 mmol/L, DE:2,89); un 8,65 % de los pacientes fueron desfibrilados después del retiro de la pinza en la aorta; se utilizó soporte cardiovascular en el 16,35 % y la mortalidad quirúrgica fue del 1,92 %. Conclusiones: En el estudio, el tiempo de circulación extracorpórea y el pinzado aórtico junto con el uso de inotrópicos, vasoconstrictores, hiperlactatemia y mortalidad quirúrgica, no alcanzó una relación significativa.


Abstract Justification: Currently, the largest number of cardiac surgeries performed worldwide are performed with cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamp, which leads to a series of pathophysiological alterations that are important for health personnel involved in the care of these patients. Objective: To describe the profile and risk factors present in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and the existence of a potential relationship between the cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross clamping time, with the use of post clamp defibrillations, pharmacological cardiovascular support, plasma lactate behavior and mortality. Methods: An observational and descriptive study was carried out with a sample of 104 elective patients, undergoing surgical intervention and cardiopulmonary bypass at Hospital México, from October 2016 to November 2017. The study population was characterized, risk factors were analyzed including EuroSCORE I and II, CPB time, aortic cross clamping time, post-aortic clamping defibrillation, lactate immediately after extracorporeal circulation and at 2, 6, 24 hours postoperatively, use of pharmacological cardiovascular support in continuous infusion after extracorporeal circulation and mortality at 30 days. Results: The mean age was 56.4 years, the male sex predominated (69%) and arterial hypertension was the most frequent risk factor (76.07%). Aortic cross clamp time of less than 100 min was recorded in 61 patients (58.65%) and greater than that time in 43 patients (41.35%). The average EuroSCORE I was 4.21% (SD: 4.80), while the EuroSCORE II was 2.37% (SD: 2.41). The average cardiopulmonary bypass time was 129 minutes (SD: 36.88) and aortic cross clamp time was 94 minutes (SD: 32.04). There was a lactate peak at 6 postoperative hours (5.13 mmol/L, SD: 2.89); 8.65% of patients were defibrillated after removal the clamp in the aorta; pharmacological cardiovascular support was used in 16.35% and surgical mortality was 1.92%. Conclusions: In this study, cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross clamp time together with the use of inotropics, vasoconstrictors, hyperlactatemia and surgical mortality did not reach a significant relationship.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Extracorporeal Circulation/statistics & numerical data , Hyperlactatemia/diagnosis , Costa Rica
15.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 588-594, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155777

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: In shoulder arthroscopy, on an outpatient basis, the patient needs a good control of the postoperative pain that can be achieved through regional blocks. Perineural dexamethasone may prolong the effect of these blocks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of perineural dexamethasone on the prolongation of the sensory block in the postoperative period for arthroscopic shoulder surgery in outpatient setting. Methods: After approval by the Research Ethics Committee and informed consent, patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia and ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block were randomized into Group D - blockade performed with 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with vasoconstrictor and 6 mg (1.5 mL) of dexamethasone and Group C - 30 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with vasoconstrictor and 1.5 mL of 0.9% saline. The duration of the sensory block was evaluated in 4 postoperative moments (0, 4, 12 and 24 hours) as well as the need for rescue analgesia, nausea and vomiting incidence, and Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAS). Results: Seventy-four patients were recruited and 71 completed the study (Group C, n = 37; Group D, n = 34). Our findings showed a prolongation of the mean time of the sensitive blockade in Group D (1440 ± 0 min vs. 1267 ± 164 min, p < 0.001). It was observed that Group C had a higher mean pain score according to VAS (2.08 ± 1.72 vs. 0.02 ± 0.17, p < 0.001) and a greater number of patients (68.4% vs. 0%, p < 0.001) required rescue analgesia in the first 24 hours. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Perineural dexamethasone significantly prolonged the sensory blockade promoted by levobupivacaine in interscalene brachial plexus block, reduced pain intensity and rescue analgesia needs in the postoperative period.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Na artroscopia de ombro em regime ambulatorial, o paciente necessita de um bom controle da dor pós-operatória, que pode ser conseguido por meio de bloqueios regionais. A dexametasona perineural pode prolongar o efeito desses bloqueios. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dexametasona perineural quanto ao prolongamento do bloqueio sensitivo no período pós-operatório para cirurgia artroscópica de ombro em regime ambulatorial. Métodos: Após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa e consentimento informado, foram incluídos no estudo pacientes submetidos a cirurgia artroscópica de ombro sob anestesia geral e bloqueio de plexo braquial interescalênico guiado por ultrassonografia. Eles foram randomizados nos Grupo D - bloqueio com 30 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5% com vasoconstritor e 6 mg (1,5 mL) de dexametasona, e Grupo C - bloqueio com 30 mL de levobupivacaína 0,5% com vasoconstritor e 1,5 mL solução salina. A duração do bloqueio sensitivo foi avaliada em quatro momentos pós-operatórios (0, 4, 12 e 24 horas), assim como a necessidade de analgesia de resgate, incidência de náuseas e vômitos e Escala Visual Analógica de Dor (EVA). Resultados: Setenta e quatro pacientes foram randomizados e 71 completaram o estudo (Grupo C, n = 37; Grupo D, n = 34). Observou-se um prolongamento do tempo médio de bloqueio sensitivo no Grupo D (1440 ± 0 min vs. 1267 ± 164 min; p< 0,001). Pacientes do Grupo C apresentaram maior média de escore de dor de acordo com a EVA (2,08 ± 1,72vs. 0,02 ± 0,17; p< 0,001) e um maior número de pacientes solicitou analgesia de resgate nas primeiras 24 horas (68,4%vs.0%; p< 0,001). A incidência de náuseas e vômitos não foi estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: A dexametasona perineural prolongou significativamente o bloqueio sensitivo da levobupivacaína no bloqueio de plexo braquial interescalênico, reduziu a intensidade de dor e a necessidade de analgesia de resgate pelo paciente no período pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arthroscopy/methods , Shoulder Joint/surgery , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroscopy/adverse effects , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Pain Measurement , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Saline Solution/administration & dosage , Levobupivacaine , Analgesia , Anesthetics, Local , Middle Aged
16.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 500-507, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143955

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Limited data are present on safety and efficiency of epinephrine for the prophylaxis and treatment of spinal-hypotension. This study was conducted to compare the effect of epinephrine with norepinephrine and phenylephrine on the treatment of spinal-hypotension and ephedrine requirement during cesarean delivery. Methods: One hundred and sixty parturients with uncomplicated pregnancies undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were recruited. They were allocated randomly to receive norepinephrine 5 µg.mL−1 (n = 40), epinephrine 5 µg.mL−1 (n = 40), phenylephrine 100 µg.mL−1 (n = 40) or 0.9% saline infusions (n = 40) immediately after induction of spinal anesthesia. Whenever systolic blood pressure drops to less than 80% of baseline, 5 mg of intravenous ephedrine was administered as rescue vasopressor. The incidence of hypotension, total number of hypotension episodes, the number of patients requiring ephedrine, the mean amount of ephedrine consumption and side effects were recorded. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in incidence of maternal hypotension between groups. The number of patients requiring ephedrine was significantly greater in group saline than in group phenylephrine (p< 0.001). However, it was similar between phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine groups. The mean ephedrine consumption was significantly higher in group saline than in norepinephrine, epinephrine, phenylephrine groups (p= 0.001). Conclusion: There is no statistically significant difference in incidence of hypotension and ephedrine consumption during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery with the use of epinephrine when compared to norepinephrine or phenylephrine. Epinephrine can be considered an alternative agent for management of spinal hypotension.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Existem dados limitados sobre segurança e eficiência da epinefrina na profilaxia e tratamento da hipotensão arterial associada à raquianestesia. O presente estudo foi realizado para comparar o efeito da epinefrina com norepinefrina e fenilefrina no tratamento da hipotensão após raquianestesia e necessidade de efedrina durante o parto cesáreo. Método: Foram recrutadas 160 parturientes com gestações não complicadas, submetidas a cesariana eletiva sob raquianestesia. Elas foram alocadas aleatoriamente para receber norepinefrina 5 µg.mL-1 (n = 40), epinefrina 5 µg.mL-1 (n = 40), fenilefrina 100 µg.mL-1 (n = 40) ou infusão de solução fisiológica NaCl a 0,9% (n = 40) imediatamente após a indução da raquianestesia. Sempre que houvesse redução da pressão arterial sistólica para valor inferior a 80% da linha de base, 5 mg de efedrina iv eram administrados como vasopressor de resgate. A incidência de hipotensão, o número total de episódios de hipotensão, o número de pacientes que necessitaram de efedrina, o consumo médio de efedrina e os efeitos colaterais foram registrados. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de hipotensão materna entre os grupos. O número de pacientes que necessitaram de efedrina foi significantemente maior no grupo solução fisiológica do que no grupo fenilefrina (p< 0,001). No entanto, foi semelhante entre os grupos fenilefrina, norepinefrina e epinefrina. O consumo médio de efedrina foi significantemente maior no grupo solução fisiológica do que nos grupos norepinefrina, epinefrina e fenilefrina (p = 0,001). Conclusão: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na incidência de hipotensão e consumo de efedrina durante raquianestesia para parto cesáreo com uso de epinefrina quando comparada à norepinefrina ou fenilefrina. A epinefrina pode ser considerada como agente alternativo para o tratamento da hipotensão após raquianestesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Phenylephrine/administration & dosage , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Ephedrine/administration & dosage , Hypotension/prevention & control , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/methods , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Hypotension/etiology , Hypotension/epidemiology , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods
17.
Cambios rev. méd ; 19(1): 121-131, 30/06/2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122694

ABSTRACT

En el mundo actual las perspectivas de abordaje, y las estrategias terapéuticas en cuanto a pacientes que se presenten con Insuficiencia Cardiaca (IC) de reciente diagnóstico "de novo", o que presentan una descompensación de su patología, han tenido un avance claro dándonos una gran diversidad de opciones terapéuticas para el cuidado y acompañamiento de dicha patología; así como en la perspectiva de un seguimiento crónico, no solo cardiológico, sino que se ha convertido en un verdadero desafío multidisciplinario, en busca de la mejor opción terapéutica y concluir con el cuidado paliativo de nuestro paciente.


In the current world, the perspectives of approach, and the therapeutic strategies regarding patients who present with Heart Failure (HF) of recent diagnosis "de novo", or who present a decompensation of their pathology, have had a clear advance giving us a great diversity of therapeutic options for the care and accompaniment of said pathology; as well as in the perspective of chronic follow-up, not only cardiological, but it has become a true multidisciplinary challenge, looking for the best therapeutic option and concluding with the palliative care of our patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Vasodilator Agents , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction , Palliative Care , Pathology , Therapeutics , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Fatigue
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 295-303, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088850

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cigarette smoking is usually associated with hypertension and may modify vasoconstrictor response. Objective: The present study aimed to analyze and compare the interaction of passive cigarette smoking and hypertension on epinephrine and felypressin blood pressure effects after intravascular injection. Method: 45-day male Wistar rats had the main left renal artery partially constricted and the right kidney removed (1K1C model). Rats were placed in the chamber for exposition to passive cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes) during 10 min (6 days a week). Hypertensive rats received atenolol (90 mg/kg/day) by gavage for two weeks. Hypotensive and hypertensive response, response duration and heart rate were recorded from direct blood pressure values. The significance level was 5%. Results: Passive cigarette smoking increased maximal hypertensive response to epinephrine in normotensive and 1K1C-atenolol treated rats and to felypressin only in 1K1C-atenolol treated rats; it also reduced epinephrine hypotensive response. Epinephrine increased heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive passive smokers or non-smoker rats. Comparing the two vasoconstrictors, epinephrine showed greater hypertensive response in normotensive smokers, 1K1C-atenolol treated smokers and non-smokers. However, in normotensive-nonsmoker rats, felypressin showed a greater and longer hypertensive effect. Conclusions: Our results suggest that passive cigarette smoking may reduce epinephrine vasodilation and increase hypertensive response when compared to felypressin. Therefore, felypressin may be safe for hypertensive patients to avoid tachycardia and atenolol interaction, but for normotensive and non-smoker patients, epinephrine may be safer than felypressin.


Resumo Fundamento: O tabagismo geralmente está associado à hipertensão e pode modificar a resposta vasoconstritora. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a interação do tabagismo passivo e hipertensão sobre os efeitos da epinefrina e felipressina na pressão arterial após injeção intravascular. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos de 45 dias tiveram a artéria renal principal esquerda parcialmente obstruída e o rim direito removido (modelo 1K1C). Os ratos foram colocados na câmara para exposição ao tabagismo passivo (10 cigarros) durante 10 minutos (6 dias por semana). Ratos hipertensos receberam atenolol (90 mg/kg/dia) por gavagem durante duas semanas. A resposta hipotensora e hipertensiva, a duração da resposta e a frequência cardíaca foram registradas a partir da medida dos valores diretos da pressão arterial. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: O tabagismo passivo aumentou a resposta hipertensiva máxima à epinefrina em ratos normotensos e ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol e à felipressina apenas em ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol; também reduziu a resposta hipotensiva à epinefrina. A epinefrina aumentou a frequência cardíaca em ratos fumantes passivos ou não-fumantes, normotensos e hipertensos. Comparando os dois vasoconstritores, a epinefrina apresentou maior resposta hipertensiva em fumantes normotensos, ratos 1K1C fumantes e não fumantes tratados com atenolol. No entanto, em ratos normotensos e não fumantes, a felipressina apresentou um efeito hipertensivo maior e mais prolongado. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo passivo pode reduzir a vasodilatação da epinefrina e aumentar a resposta hipertensiva quando comparado à felipressina. Portanto, a felipressina pode ser segura para pacientes hipertensos, com o objetivo de evitar a interação entre taquicardia e atenolol, mas para pacientes normotensos e não-fumantes, a epinefrina pode ser mais segura que a felipressina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Atenolol/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Felypressin/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypotension
19.
Philippine Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 143-145, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886630

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: Septic shock causes life threatening organ dysfunction needing vasopressor despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Numerous studies and meta-analysis have proven norepinephrine as the initial vasopressor of choice in septic shock with vasopressin as add-on. Although guidelines have established the goal monitoring response in septic shock, optimal approach in discontinuation of the vasopressors in the recovery phase of septic shock remains limited. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies comparing incidence of hypotension within 24 hours of discontinuing norepinephrine first versus vasopressin. Three reviewers independently selected studies, assessed their quality, and extracted the following data: the number and characteristics of patients enrolled, inclusion and exclusion criteria for each study, the description of interventions (discontinuing norepinephrine first versus discontinuing vasopressin first) and outcomes (incidence of hypotension within 24 hours). RESULTS: Seven retrospective cohort studies and one prospective randomized control trial were included. Compared with norepinephrine, risk of hypotension is higher when vasopressin is discontinued first among patients in the recovery phase of septic shock (RR 2.06; 95% CI [1.11,3.82]; I 2 91%). Results were consistent in the subgroup analysis after excluding abstract-only and poor-quality studies (RR 1.73; 95% CI [0.74, 4.03]; I 2 93%). There is no difference in ICU (RR 0.97; 95% CI [0.71, 1.32]; I 2 38%) and in-hospital mortality (RR 0.88; 95% CI [0.66, 1.16]; I 2 41%) between the two vasopressor weaning strategies. Finally ICU length of stay was reported on 5 studies with no significant difference between the two strategies. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, there is increased risk of hypotension when vasopressin is discontinued first versus norepinephrine.


Subject(s)
Norepinephrine , Shock, Septic , Vasopressins , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Neurophysins
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