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2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1043-1051, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hypotension is a common complication caused by spinal anesthesia (SA), which may have adverse impacts on the condition of the parturient and fetus. Liquid infusion was found to be relatively effective for reducing the incidence of hypotension. However, the question of whether colloid preload can optimize hemodynamic variables in the cesarean section remains controversial. This study aims to determine the effects of colloid preload on the incidence of hypotension induced by SA in elective cesarean section.@*METHODS@#Related keywords were searched on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library from inception dates to May 2020. Studies included were evaluated for eligibility and quality. The primary outcome was the intra-operative incidence of hypotension and severe hypotension. The secondary outcomes included the lowest intra-operative systolic blood pressure, the maximal intra-operative heart rate, the intra-operative needs of ephedrine and phenylephrine, the incidence of maternal nausea and/or vomiting, and neonatal outcomes (umbilical artery pH and Apgar scores). Apart from the above, RevMan 5.3 was used for the data analysis.@*RESULTS@#Altogether nine randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There were no significant differences in the incidence of intra-operative hypotension, severe hypotension, or neonatal outcomes between the colloid preload group and control group, except for the umbilical artery pH.@*CONCLUSION@#This meta-analysis suggests that colloid preload does not significantly reduce the incidence of hypotension associated with SA in elective cesarean section.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Colloids , Female , Humans , Hypotension/etiology , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 792-799, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Norepinephrine infusion decreases hypotension after spinal anesthesia during cesarean section. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of norepinephrine infusion and ephedrine bolus against post-spinal hypotension in parturients.@*METHODS@#In this double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial, parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated to receive norepinephrine infusion (0.05 μg·kg-1·min-1) just before spinal anesthesia continuing for 30 min or ephedrine bolus (0.15 mg/kg) just before spinal anesthesia. A rescue bolus (5 μg norepinephrine for the norepinephrine group, and 5 mg ephedrine for the ephedrine group) was administered whenever hypotension occurred. Our primary outcome was the incidence of hypotension within 30 min of spinal anesthesia administration. Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal outcomes 30 min after spinal block, and neonatal cerebral oxygenation 10 min after birth.@*RESULTS@#In total, 190 patients were enrolled; of these patients, 177 were included in the final analysis. Fewer patients suffered hypotension in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (29.5% vs. 44.9%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28-0.95, P = 0.034). Moreover, the tachycardia frequency was lower in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.11-0.44, P < 0.001), and patients suffered less nausea and vomiting (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.11-0.70, P = 0.004). There was no difference in Apgar scores and umbilical arterial blood gas analysis between the two groups. However, neonatal cerebral regional saturations were significantly higher after birth in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (mean difference: 2.0%, 95% CI: 0.55%-3.45%, P = 0.008).@*CONCLUSION@#In patients undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia, norepinephrine infusion compared to ephedrine bolus resulted in less hypotension and tachycardia, and exhibited potential neonatal benefits.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02542748; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT02542748.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Hypotension/prevention & control , Infant, Newborn , Phenylephrine , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 23(4): e20190013, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1019852

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate nurses' knowledge about the definitions of Sepsis-3 and updates to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out from July to August 2018, with 30 nurses from four wards of a large university hospital. For data collection, we created, structured, and validated a questionnaire composed of socio-demographic/occupational data and knowledge test. Results: Only 16.6% of the professionals received in-service training on the subject. There was no implementation of sepsis protocols in the institution, although 96.6% of the participants considered their implementation necessary. Professionals aged ≥35 years old had a higher level of knowledge about the new definition of sepsis (p=0.042). The knowledge about volume resuscitation (p=0.001) and use of vasopressors (p=0.025) was greater in those with ≥10.5 years of experience in the profession. Nurses from the clinical units presented a higher level of knowledge about the organic dysfunctions caused by sepsis (p=0.025). Conclusion and implications for the practice: Nurses do not have satisfactory knowledge for the proper identification, treatment, and clinical management of sepsis. There is a need for greater professional, institutional, and political incentives to implement a permanent education and the sepsis protocol.


Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar el conocimiento de los enfermeros que actúan en enfermerías sobre las definiciones de Sepsis-3 y las actualizaciones de Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo realizado de julio a agosto de 2018 con 30 enfermeros de cuatro enfermerías de un hospital universitario de gran porte. Para la recolección de datos, creamos, estructuramos y validamos una encuesta compuesta de datos sociodemográficos/ocupacionales y tests de conocimiento. Resultados: Solo el 16,6% de los profesionales recibieron capacitación en servicio sobre la temática. En la institución no había protocolo de sepsis implantado, aunque el 96,6% de los participantes consideraron su implantación necesaria. Los profesionales con edad ≥35 años presentaron mayor nivel de conocimiento acerca de la nueva definición de sepsis (p=0,042). El conocimiento sobre la resucitación volémica (p=0,001) y el uso de vasopresores (p=0,025) fue mayor en aquellos con tiempo ≥10,5 años de ejercicio en la profesión. Los enfermeros de las unidades clínicas presentaron un mayor nivel de conocimiento de las disfunciones orgánicas causadas por la sepsis (p=0,025). Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: Los enfermeros no presentan un conocimiento satisfactorio para identificar, tratar y administrar clinicamente la sepsis de forma adecuada. Existe la necesidad de mayores incentivos profesionales, institucionales y políticos, con miras a implementar una educación permanente y un protocolo de sepsis.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar o conhecimento dos enfermeiros que atuam em enfermarias sobre as definições do Sepsis-3 e atualizações da Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Métodos: Estudo descritivo realizado de julho a agosto de 2018 com 30 enfermeiros de quatro enfermarias de um hospital universitário de grande porte. Para coleta de dados, criamos, estruturamos e validamos um questionário composto por dados sociodemográficos/ocupacionais e teste de conhecimento. Resultados: Apenas 16,6% dos profissionais receberam treinamento em serviço sobre o tema. Na instituição não havia protocolo de sepse implantado, embora 96,6% dos participantes tenham considerado sua implantação necessária. Profissionais com idade ≥35 anos apresentaram maior nível de conhecimento acerca da nova definição de sepse (p=0,042). O conhecimento sobre ressuscitação volêmica (p=0,001) e uso de vasopressores (p=0,025) foi maior naqueles com tempo ≥10,5 anos de exercício na profissão. Enfermeiros das unidades clínicas apresentaram maior nível de conhecimento das disfunções orgânicas causada pela sepse (p=0,025). Conclusão e implicações para a prática: Os enfermeiros não apresentam conhecimento satisfatório para identificação, tratamento e gerenciamento clínico da sepse de forma adequada. Existe a necessidade de maiores incentivos profissionais, institucionais e políticos, com vistas às implementações da educação permanente e do protocolo de sepse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sepsis/nursing , Employee Performance Appraisal/statistics & numerical data , Nurses , Resuscitation , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Clinical Protocols/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Sepsis/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Education, Nursing, Continuing , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Blood Culture
6.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 423-428, out.-dez. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977991

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a evolução em curto prazo de pacientes com choque séptico refratário à norepinefrina tratados com vasopressina em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital universitário. Métodos: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo não comparado (série de casos). Foram coletados dados clínicos, laboratoriais e antropométricos de pacientes que receberam infusão de vasopressina para tratamento de choque refratário a catecolaminas no período de dezembro de 2014 a junho de 2016. Para a avaliação de gravidade, foram utilizados o APACHE II e o SOFA. O desfecho principal foi mortalidade em 3 e em 30 dias. Resultados: Foram incluídos 80 pacientes, sendo 60% do sexo masculino. Em 86,3% dos casos, verificou-se APACHE II nas faixas mais altas (> 20). A mortalidade em 30 dias foi de 86,2%, sendo que 75% dos pacientes foram a óbito dentro de 72 horas após início do uso da vasopressina. Conclusão: A série avaliada apresentou alta mortalidade nas primeiras 72 horas de tratamento com vasopressina. O uso de vasopressina em pacientes refratários à norepinefrina teve pouco ou nenhum impacto na mortalidade. Não é possível excluir que a alta mortalidade no presente estudo esteja vinculada ao início relativamente tardio (após estabelecida refratariedade à norepinefrina) da vasopressina, devendo essa hipótese ser melhor avaliada por estudo randomizado.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the short-term evolution of patients with septic shock refractory to norepinephrine treated with vasopressin in an intensive care unit of a university hospital. Methods: An unmatched retrospective study (case series) was performed. Clinical, laboratory, and anthropometric data were collected from patients who received vasopressin infusion for treatment of catecholamine-refractory shock from December 2014 to June 2016. For the assessment of severity, APACHE II and SOFA scores were used. The main outcome was mortality at 3 and 30 days. Results: A total of 80 patients were included, of which 60% were male. In 86.3% of the cases, APACHE II was observed in the highest ranges (> 20). The 30-day mortality was 86.2%, and 75% of the patients died within 72 hours after starting vasopressin. Conclusion: The series evaluated had high mortality in the first 72 hours of treatment with vasopressin. The use of vasopressin in patients who are refractory to norepinephrine had little or no impact on mortality. It was not possible to exclude the possibility that the high mortality in the present study was linked to the relatively late onset (after established refractoriness of norepinephrine) of vasopressin; this hypothesis should be further evaluated in a randomized study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Vasopressins/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Shock, Septic/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Norepinephrine/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , APACHE , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Hospitals, University , Middle Aged
7.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(1): 39-50, ene.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054986

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El sistema cardiovascular es un sistema dinámico cuya función es asegurar un adecuado suministro de oxígeno, nutrientes y hormonas a los tejidos, necesarios para el metabolismo celular, además sintetiza y modifican los componentes vasoactivos los cuales regulan el tono vascular y la función miocárdica. Estos componentes vasoactivos son fundamentales en el manejo del paciente pediátrico en estado crítico con falla cardiaca y choque en los cuales se ha comprobado sus efectos benéficos, sin embargo, su uso y abuso trae consigo efectos nocivos, tales como mayor riesgo de arritmias, aumento el consumo miocárdico de oxígeno lo cual podría favorecer la presencia de isquemia. Por lo tanto, es preciso conocer el mecanismo de acción de los distintos tipos de agentes vasoactivos, así como las indicaciones de dichos fármacos para minimizar dichos efectos. El propósito de esta revisión es describir la farmacología y las aplicaciones clínicas de los agentes inotrópicos y Vasopresores en el paciente pediátrico en estado crítico. © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiolog´ıa Ignacio Cha´vez. Publicado por Masson Doyma Me´xico S.A. Este es un art´ıculo Open Access bajo la licencia CC BY-NC-ND (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).


Abstract: The cardiovascular system is a dynamic system, which is required to ensure adequate delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to the tissues that are necessary for cell metabolism. It also synthesises and modifies the vasoactive components that regulate vascular tone and myocardial function. These vasoactive components have demonstrated their beneficial effects in the management of paediatric patients in a critical condition with heart failure and shock. However, their use and abuse brings harmful effects, increases mortality, and is associated with arrhythmias. An increase in myocardial oxygen consumption favours the presence of ischaemia, therefore it is necessary to know the mechanism of action and indications of these drugs to minimise their harmful effects. The purpose of this review is to describe the pharmacology and clinical applications of inotropic and vasopressor agents in the paediatric patient in acritical condition. © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiologìa Ignacio Chàvez. Published by Masson Doyma Mèxico S.A. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(1): 121-126, jan.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899567

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A nicotina é uma substância perigosa, extraída das folhas de fumo. Quando absorvida em quantidade excessiva, ela pode levar à insuficiência respiratória e à parada cardíaca. A comercialização de cigarros eletrônicos (e-cigarros) permite que os usuários manuseiem diretamente o líquido, com consequente aumento do risco de exposição à nicotina líquida. Descrevemos nossa experiência no tratamento do caso de um paciente que ingeriu elevada concentração de nicotina líquida contida em líquido para e-cigarros. O paciente apresentava bradicardia e hipotensão, que são sintomas de estimulação parassimpática, além de comprometimento da consciência. O paciente teve recuperação após tratamento com atropina e vasopressor.


ABSTRACT Nicotine is a dangerous substance extracted from tobacco leaves. When nicotine is absorbed in excessive amounts, it can lead to respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. The commercialization of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has allowed users to directly handle e-cigarette liquid. Consequently, the risk of liquid nicotine exposure has increased. We describe our experience of managing the case of a patient who orally ingested a high concentration of liquid nicotine from e-cigarette liquid. The patient presented with bradycardia and hypotension, which are symptoms of parasympathetic stimulation, together with impaired consciousness. He recovered following treatment with atropine and a vasopressor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Bradycardia/etiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Nicotine/poisoning , Atropine/therapeutic use , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Hypotension/etiology , Hypotension/drug therapy , Middle Aged
9.
Clinics ; 73: e287, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of intra-operative immediate hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylaxis. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Department of Anesthesiology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil, from January to December 2010. We developed a specific questionnaire to be completed by anesthesiologists. This tool included questions about hypersensitivity reactions during anesthesia and provided treatments. We included patients with clinical signs compatible with immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Hhypersensitivity reactions were categorized according to severity (grades I-V). American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA 1-6) was analyzed and associated with the severity of hypersensitivity reactions. RESULTS: In 2010, 21,464 surgeries were performed under general anesthesia. Anesthesiologists answered questionnaires on 5,414 procedures (25.2%). Sixty cases of intra-operative hypersensitivity reactions were reported. The majority patients (45, 75%) had hypersensitivity reactions grade I reactions (incidence of 27.9:10,000). Fifteen patients (25%) had grade II, III or IV reactions (intra-operative anaphylaxis) (incidence of 7:10,000). No patients had grade V reactions. Thirty patients (50%) were classified as ASA 1. The frequency of cardiovascular shock was higher in patients classified as ASA 3 than in patients classified as ASA 1 or ASA 2. Epinephrine was administered in 20% of patients with grade III hypersensitivity reactions and in 50% of patients with grade II hypersensitivity reactions. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients had hypersensitivity reactions grade I reactions; however, the incidence of intra-operative anaphylaxis was higher than that previously reported in the literature. Patients with ASA 3 had more severe anaphylaxis; however, the use of epinephrine was not prescribed in all of these cases. Allergists and anesthesiologists should implement preventive measures to reduce the occurrence of anaphylaxis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Drug Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Anesthesiologists/statistics & numerical data , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Intraoperative Complications/diagnosis
10.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 70(3): 453-460, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-843673

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to validate the content of a Standard Operational Procedure, regarding nursing interventions in emergency patients treated with vasoactive drugs. Method: methodological study, carried out from December 2015 to January 2016. Content validity was determined by 16 experts (13 nurses, 2 pharmacists and one biomedical scientist), who judged it through a four-point Likert scale. The items were evaluated in terms of: feasibility, objectivity, simplicity, clearness, pertinence and accuracy. The Content Validity Index was applied, accepting the value ≥ 0.90. Results: two rounds of evaluation were required to achieve the minimum index. The items were reviewed regarding writing, dilution, indication and replacement interval. The instrument was validated with 33 items and with total Content Validity Index of 0.99. Conclusion: the instrument was considered appropriate, fractionally and globally, for nursing care for the patient treated with vasoactive drugs in emergency, in a safe and reliable way.


RESUMEN Objetivo: validar el contenido del Procedimiento Operacional Estándar para la intervención de la enfermería en el paciente que usa fármacos vasoactivos en la emergencia. Método: estudio metodológico, realizado entre diciembre de 2015 y enero de 2016. La validación del contenido fue determinada mediante la escala tipo Likert de cuatro puntos por 16 jueces, de los cuales 13 eran enfermeros, dos farmacéuticos y uno biomédico. Los apartados se clasificaron en: ejecutabilidad, objetividad, simplicidad, claridad, pertinencia y precisión. Se aplicó el Índice de Validez de Contenido con la aceptación del valor ≥ 0,90. Resultados: se necesitaron dos rondas de validación para alcanzar el índice. Los apartados se alteraron en la redacción, la dilución, la indicación y el intervalo de cambio. El instrumento se validó con 33 tópicos y con Índice de Validez del Contenido total de 0,99. Conclusión: los resultados se consideran adecuados separadamente, y de manera global, para que el enfermero cuide del paciente usuario de fármacos vasoactivos de forma segura y confiable en la emergencia.


RESUMO Objetivo: validar o conteúdo do Procedimento Operacional Padrão, para intervenção de enfermagem ao paciente em uso de fármacos vasoativos na emergência. Método: estudo metodológico, realizado de dezembro de 2015 a janeiro de 2016. A validação de conteúdo deu-se por 16 juízes, sendo 13 enfermeiros, dois farmacêuticos e um biomédico, que o julgaram por meio da escala tipo Likert de quatro pontos. Os itens foram avaliados em: exequibilidade, objetividade, simplicidade, clareza, pertinência e precisão. Aplicou-se o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo, aceitando-se o valor ≥ 0,90. Resultados: foram necessárias duas rodadas de validação para atingir o índice. Os itens foram alterados: na redação, diluição, indicação, intervalo de troca. O instrumento foi validado com 33 itens e com Índice de Validade de Conteúdo total de 0,99. Conclusão: considerou-se adequado, separadamente, e de maneira global, para que o enfermeiro possa cuidar do paciente em uso de fármacos vasoativos na emergência, de forma segura e confiável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Evidence-Based Nursing/methods , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Validation Studies as Topic , Patient Safety/standards , Administration, Intravenous , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Middle Aged
16.
Arch. med. interna (Montevideo) ; 36(1): 17-27, mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-768418

ABSTRACT

El síndrome hepatorrenal (SHR) se define como el desarrollo de injuria renalen un paciente cirrótico en ausencia de una causa identificable que la explique. De acuerdo con la velocidad de instalación y la severidad de la fallarenal, se describen 2 tipos (tipo I y tipo II). El SHR tipo I se caracteriza por un rápido y progresivo deterioro de la función renal con un pronóstico ominoso, mientras que en el SHR tipo II el desarrollo de la falla renal es de instalación más insidiosa y de menor gravedad, pero de todas formas con un mal pronóstico a corto plazo. La media de sobrevida global de esta entidad es deaproximadamente 3 meses (2 semanas para el SHR tipo I vs. 4 a 6 meses para el SHR tipo II), aunque la implementación de estrategias terapéuticas tiene un claro impacto en el pronóstico. Dado que no existen pruebas de laboratorio específicas para su diagnóstico, éste se basa en datos clínico-analíticos y en la exclusión de otras causas de injuria renal en este contexto. El tratamiento definitivo de esta entidad es el trasplante hepático, siendo los fármacos vasoconstrictores sistémicos análogos de la vasopresina en combinación con albúmina la terapéutica puente de elección a él


Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as the onset of renal failure without an identifiable cause in a cirrhotic patient. According with the installation speed and the severity of the renal failure, two types are described: type I and type II. Type I is characterized by a rapid and progressive deterioration of renal function with an ominous prognosis. Type II, presents with an insidious and less severe development of renal failure, but always bears a poor short-term prognosis. Although the implementation of therapeutic strategies has a clear impact on the prognosis, the median overall survival of these patients is approximately 3 months (2 weeks for type I HRS vs. 4 to 6 months for type II HRS). Since there are no specific tests for the diagnosis, it is based on a combination of clinical and laboratory data as well as the exclusion of other kinds of renal injury. Systemic vasoconstrictors drugs analogues of vasopressin combined with albumin are the treatment of choice before liver transplantation, which constitutes the definitive treatment of this entity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatorenal Syndrome/diagnosis , Hepatorenal Syndrome/physiopathology , Hepatorenal Syndrome/therapy , Hepatorenal Syndrome/etiology , Hepatorenal Syndrome/prevention & control , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 665-669, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192662

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although penile duplex Doppler ultrasonography (PDDU) is a common and integral procedure in a Peyronie's disease workup, the intracavernosal injection of vasoactive agents can carry a serious risk of priapism. Risk factors include young age, good baseline erectile function, and no coronary artery disease. In addition, patients with Peyronie's disease undergoing PDDU in an outpatient setting are at increased risk given the inability to predict optimal dosing. The present study was conducted to provide support for a standard protocol of early administration of phenylephrine in patients with a sustained erection after diagnostic intracavernosal injection of vasoactive agents to prevent the deleterious effects of iatrogenic priapism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of Peyronie's disease patients who received phenylephrine reversal after intracavernosal alprostadil (prostaglandin E1) administration to look at the priapism rate. Safety was determined on the basis of adverse events reported by subjects and efficacy was determined on the basis of the rate of priapism following intervention. RESULTS: Patients with Peyronie's disease only had better hemodynamic values on PDDU than did patients with Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction. All of the patients receiving prophylactic phenylephrine had complete detumescence of erections without adverse events, including no priapism cases. CONCLUSIONS: The reversal of erections with phenylephrine after intracavernosal injections of alprostadil to prevent iatrogenic priapism can be effective without increased adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Alprostadil/adverse effects , Drug Evaluation/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Penile Erection , Penile Induration/diagnostic imaging , Phenylephrine/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Priapism/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/adverse effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects
18.
J. bras. med ; 101(02): 19-24, mar.-abr. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-686289

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares são responsáveis por 34% de todas as causas de morte no Brasil. De acordo com o Ministério da Saúde, foram registrados 500 mil casos de infarto agudo do miocárdio em 1998, com 56 mil óbitos (1). A incidência de choque cardiogênico não sofreu alterações significativas nas últimas três décadas. Ocorre em 5% a 15% dos pacientes com IAM e constitui a principal causa de morte na fase de tratamento hospitalar dos pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio


Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for 34% of all causes of deaths in Brazil. According to Department of Health, five hundred thousand of acute myocardial infarction cases in 1998 were registered, resulting in fifty-six thousand deaths related to the disease. The incidence of cardiogenic shock has not meaningful changing in the last three decades. It happens in 5% to 15% with IAM and it's the main cause of deaths with acute myocardial infarction in hospitalar treatment stage


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Hypoxia/etiology , Cardiotonic Agents/administration & dosage , Dobutamine/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal , Respiration, Artificial , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Rev. HCPA & Fac. Med. Univ. Fed. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 33(1): 26-31, jan.-mar. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-687607

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Sangramento de varizes esofágicas e síndrome hepatorrenal são complicações com altas taxas de morbidade e são comuns em pacientes cirróticos.A terlipressina é um fármaco com atividade vasoconstritora utilizado para melhorar as condições clínicas dessas complicações tanto no pré quanto no pós-operatório.Objetivo: Descrever o perfil dos pacientes submetidos ao tratamento com terlipressina, bem como avaliar a situação clínica após o tratamento e seu desfecho.Método: Estudo transversal, descritivo, com análise de prontuários eletrônicos de pacientes que receberam terlipressina em um hospital do sul do Brasil. Osdados analisados foram idade, sexo, período de internação, quantidade de doses administradas ao paciente durante o tratamento com terlipressina, duração dotratamento, causa da internação hospitalar, indicação da terlipressina, se seu usofoi conforme o Protocolo Assistencial de Hemorragia Digestiva (no caso de varizesesofágicas) e condição do paciente na alta.Resultados: Foram avaliados 37 prontuários. Observou-se que 18 (48,7%)pacientes tinham idade superior a 60 anos; 25 (67,6%) eram do sexo masculino;para 18 (48,7%) o tempo de internação ficou em torno de 7 dias; 14 (37,8%) foram internados por sangramento digestivo, sendo que, desses, 11 (78,6%) não puderamseguir as condutas do Protocolo Assistencial de Hemorragia Digestiva; 17 (45,9%)receberam mais de 12 doses de terlipressina, que, para 19 (51,3%), durou até dois dias.Conclusão: Considerando a gravidade dos pacientes, os resultados foram concordantes com os dados disponíveis na literatura. O uso de terlipressina justificase por melhorar as condições clínicas dos pacientes e por aumentar a sobrevida em casos mais críticos.


Background: Variceal bleeding and hepatorenal syndrome are complications with high morbidity and common in cirrhotic patients. Terlipressin is a vasoconstrictor drug used to both pre and postoperatively improve clinical conditions of these two complications.Aim: To describe the profile of patients undergoing treatment with terlipressin and to assess the clinical condition after treatment and its outcome Method: Cross-sectional, descriptive study with analysis of electronic medical records of patients receiving terlipressin in a hospital in the south of Brazil. The data analyzed were age, gender, length of stay, number of doses administered to thepatient during treatment with terlipressin, treatment duration, cause of hospitalization,indication of terlipressin, whether the use of this drug followed the Digestive BleedingCare Protocol (for esophageal varices), and the patient’s condition at discharge.Results: We evaluated 37 medical records. We observed that 18 (48.7%) patientswere aged over 60 years; 25 (67.6%) were male; 18 (48.7%) were hospitalizedaround 7 days; 14 (37.8%) were hospitalized due to gastrointestinal bleeding, and11 of them (78.6%) were not able to follow the Digestive Bleeding Care Protocol;17 (45.9%) received more than 12 doses of terlipressin; and 19 (51.3%) patientsreceived terlipressin until two days.Conclusion: Considering the severity of the patients, the results were consistent with the data available in the literature. The use of terlipressin was justified by the improvement of the patients’ clinical conditions and by the increase in survival incritical cases.


Subject(s)
Male , Middle Aged , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hepatorenal Syndrome , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Acta gastroenterol. latinoam ; 43(2): 89-97, 2013 Jun.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1157372

ABSTRACT

UNLABELLED: Vasoactive agents plus endoscopic treatment was recommended in esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). However, the use according to severity on admission has been poorly evaluated OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic versus endoscopic plus octreotide treatment in patients with EVB according to severity on admission. METHODS: Between June 2001 and December 2011, 247 patients with EVB were treated using endoscopic or combined endoscopic plus octreotide treatment. Patients were analyzed according to the following cohorts: all patients, those with and without active bleeding, and by Child classes. Initial hemostatic failure, in-hospital rebleeding and in-hospital mortality were compared with both treatments. RESULTS: All patients with combined treatment had less initial hemostatic failure (P = 0.0157) and rebleeding (P = 0.0011) when compared to endoscopic treatment. Active bleeding patients and Child C patients had a significant reduction of initial hemostatic failure when receiving combined treatment vs endoscopic treatment (P = 0.0479 and P = 0.0222, respectively). Child C patients and patients without active bleeding significantly decreased rebleeding with combined treatment (P = 0.0139 and P = 0.0056, respectively). Global mortality was 17


, and did not differ between treatments. None patient in Child A died. CONCLUSIONS: Combined endoscopic plus octreotide treatment in patients with EVB resulted in a reduction of initial hemostatic failure and rebleeding. Moreover, the most relevant effect of combined treatment in decreasing initial hemostatic failure was seen in Child C and active bleeding patients, and for in-hospital rebleeding the same effect was seen in Child C and in patients without active bleeding. Mortality did not differ with both mentioned treatments.


Subject(s)
Esophagoscopy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Octreotide/therapeutic use , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Severity of Illness Index
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