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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10577, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285665

ABSTRACT

Endothelial dysfunction is a well-known component of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), with proven prognostic value. Dietary supplementation with whey protein (WP) has been widely used to increase skeletal muscle mass, but it also has vascular effects, which are less understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of WP supplementation on the systemic microvascular function of HF patients. This was a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effects of 12-week WP dietary supplementation on systemic microvascular function, in patients with HF New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes I/II. Cutaneous microvascular flow and reactivity were assessed using laser speckle contrast imaging, coupled with pharmacological local vasodilator stimuli. Fifteen patients (aged 64.5±6.2 years, 11 males) received WP supplementation and ten patients (aged 68.2±8.8 years, 8 males) received placebo (maltodextrin). The increase in endothelial-dependent microvascular vasodilation, induced by skin iontophoresis of acetylcholine, was improved after WP (P=0.03) but not placebo (P=0.37) supplementation. Moreover, endothelial-independent microvascular vasodilation induced by skin iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside, was also enhanced after WP (P=0.04) but not placebo (P=0.42) supplementation. The results suggested that dietary supplementation with WP improved systemic microvascular function in patients with HF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Vasodilation , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Skin , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular , Pilot Projects , Dietary Supplements , Whey Proteins/pharmacology , Microcirculation
2.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200098, 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1154770

ABSTRACT

Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a hematophagous insect and the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). In the present study, the authors investigated whether a serine protease activity from the saliva of T. infestans has a role in vasomotor modulation, and in the insect-blood feeding by cleaving and activating protease-activated receptors (PARs). Methods T. infestans saliva was chromatographed as previously reported for purification of triapsin, a serine protease. The cleavage activity of triapsin on PAR peptides was investigated based on FRET technology. Mass spectrometry was used to analyze the sites of PAR-2 peptide cleaved by triapsin. NO measurements were performed using the DAN assay (2,3-diaminonapthalene). The vasorelaxant activity of triapsin was measured in vessels with or without functional endothelium pre-contracted with phenylephrine (3 µM). Intravital microscopy was used to assess the effect of triapsin on mouse skin microcirculation. Results Triapsin was able to induce hydrolysis of PAR peptides and showed a higher preference for cleavage of the PAR-2 peptide. Analysis by mass spectrometry confirmed a single cleavage site, which corresponds to the activation site of the PAR-2 receptor. Triapsin induced dose-dependent NO release in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), reaching a maximum effect at 17.58 nM. Triapsin purified by gel-filtration chromatography (10-16 to 10-9 M) was applied cumulatively to mouse mesenteric artery rings and showed a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect (EC30 = 10-12 M). Nitric oxide seems to be partially responsible for this vasodilator effect because L-NAME (L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester 300 µM), a nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor, did not abrogate the vasodilation activated by triapsin. Anti-PAR-2 antibody completely inhibited vasodilation observed in the presence of triapsin activity. Triapsin activity also induced an increase in the mouse ear venular diameter. Conclusion Data from this study suggest a plausible association between triapsin activity mediated PAR-2 activation and vasodilation caused by T. infestans saliva.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Vasodilation , Chromatography , Receptor, PAR-2 , Nitric Oxide
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 669-677, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131333

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Diversos estudos têm mostrado que as classes de diterpenos exercem efeito significativo no sistema cardiovascular. Os diterpenos, em particular, estão entre os principais compostos associados às propriedades cardiovasculares, como a propriedade vasorrelaxante, inotrópica, diurética e a atividade hipotensora. Embora o mecanismo de vasorrelaxamento do manool seja visível, seu efeito sobre a pressão arterial (PA) ainda é desconhecido. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito hipotensor in vivo do manool e verificar o efeito de vasorrelaxamento ex vivo em anéis aórticos de ratos. Métodos: Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: normotensos e hipertensos. O grupo normotenso foi submetido à cirurgia sham e adotou-se o modelo 2R1C para o grupo hipertenso. Realizou-se monitoramento invasivo da PA para testes com manool em diferentes doses (10, 20 e 40 mg/kg). Foram obtidas curvas de concentração-resposta para o manool nos anéis aórticos, com endotélio pré-contraído com fenilefrina (Phe) após incubação com Nω-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) ou oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalina-1-ona (ODQ). Os níveis plasmáticos de óxido nítrico (NOx) foram medidos por ensaio de quimioluminescência. Resultados: Após a administração de manool, a PA se reduziu nos grupos normotenso e hipertenso, e esse efeito foi inibido pelo L-NAME em animais hipertensos apenas na dose de 10 mg/kg. O manool ex vivo promoveu vasorrelaxamento, inibido pela incubação de L-NAME e ODQ ou remoção do endotélio. Os níveis plasmáticos de NOx aumentaram no grupo hipertenso após a administração de manool. O manool induz o relaxamento vascular dependente do endotélio na aorta de ratos, mediado pela via de sinalização NO/cGMP e redução da PA, e também pelo aumento plasmático de NOx. Esses efeitos combinados podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno. Conclusão: Esses efeitos em conjunto podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno.


Abstract Background: Many studies have shown that the diterpenoid classes exert a significant effect on the cardiovascular system. Diterpenes, in particular, are among the main compound links to cardiovascular properties such as vasorelaxant, inotropic, diuretic and hypotensive activity. While the manool vasorelaxation mechanism is visible, its effect on blood pressure (BP) is still unknown. Objective: To evaluate the in vivo hypotensive effect of manool and check the ex vivo vasorelaxation effect in rat aortic rings. Methods: The animals were divided randomly into two groups: normotensive and hypertensive. The normotensive group was sham-operated, and the 2K1C model was adopted for the hypertensive group. Invasive BP monitoring was performed for manool tests at different doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg). Concentration-response curves for manool were obtained in the aorta rings, with endothelium, pre-contracted with phenylephrine (Phe) after incubation with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester(L-NAME) or oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Nitric oxide (NOx) plasma levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Results: After manool administration, BP was reduced in normotensive and hypertensive groups, and this effect was inhibited by L-NAME in hypertensive animals only in 10 mg/kg dose. Ex vivo manool promoted vasorelaxation, which was inhibited by L-NAME and ODQ incubation or endothelium removal. NOx plasma levels increased in the hypertensive group after manool administration. Manool elicits endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in rat aorta mediated by the NO/cGMP signaling pathway and BP reduction, also by NOx plasma increase. These combined effects could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene. Conclusion: These effects together could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Arterial Pressure , Hypertension/drug therapy , Aorta, Thoracic , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure , Endothelium, Vascular , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 295-303, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088850

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cigarette smoking is usually associated with hypertension and may modify vasoconstrictor response. Objective: The present study aimed to analyze and compare the interaction of passive cigarette smoking and hypertension on epinephrine and felypressin blood pressure effects after intravascular injection. Method: 45-day male Wistar rats had the main left renal artery partially constricted and the right kidney removed (1K1C model). Rats were placed in the chamber for exposition to passive cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes) during 10 min (6 days a week). Hypertensive rats received atenolol (90 mg/kg/day) by gavage for two weeks. Hypotensive and hypertensive response, response duration and heart rate were recorded from direct blood pressure values. The significance level was 5%. Results: Passive cigarette smoking increased maximal hypertensive response to epinephrine in normotensive and 1K1C-atenolol treated rats and to felypressin only in 1K1C-atenolol treated rats; it also reduced epinephrine hypotensive response. Epinephrine increased heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive passive smokers or non-smoker rats. Comparing the two vasoconstrictors, epinephrine showed greater hypertensive response in normotensive smokers, 1K1C-atenolol treated smokers and non-smokers. However, in normotensive-nonsmoker rats, felypressin showed a greater and longer hypertensive effect. Conclusions: Our results suggest that passive cigarette smoking may reduce epinephrine vasodilation and increase hypertensive response when compared to felypressin. Therefore, felypressin may be safe for hypertensive patients to avoid tachycardia and atenolol interaction, but for normotensive and non-smoker patients, epinephrine may be safer than felypressin.


Resumo Fundamento: O tabagismo geralmente está associado à hipertensão e pode modificar a resposta vasoconstritora. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a interação do tabagismo passivo e hipertensão sobre os efeitos da epinefrina e felipressina na pressão arterial após injeção intravascular. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos de 45 dias tiveram a artéria renal principal esquerda parcialmente obstruída e o rim direito removido (modelo 1K1C). Os ratos foram colocados na câmara para exposição ao tabagismo passivo (10 cigarros) durante 10 minutos (6 dias por semana). Ratos hipertensos receberam atenolol (90 mg/kg/dia) por gavagem durante duas semanas. A resposta hipotensora e hipertensiva, a duração da resposta e a frequência cardíaca foram registradas a partir da medida dos valores diretos da pressão arterial. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: O tabagismo passivo aumentou a resposta hipertensiva máxima à epinefrina em ratos normotensos e ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol e à felipressina apenas em ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol; também reduziu a resposta hipotensiva à epinefrina. A epinefrina aumentou a frequência cardíaca em ratos fumantes passivos ou não-fumantes, normotensos e hipertensos. Comparando os dois vasoconstritores, a epinefrina apresentou maior resposta hipertensiva em fumantes normotensos, ratos 1K1C fumantes e não fumantes tratados com atenolol. No entanto, em ratos normotensos e não fumantes, a felipressina apresentou um efeito hipertensivo maior e mais prolongado. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo passivo pode reduzir a vasodilatação da epinefrina e aumentar a resposta hipertensiva quando comparado à felipressina. Portanto, a felipressina pode ser segura para pacientes hipertensos, com o objetivo de evitar a interação entre taquicardia e atenolol, mas para pacientes normotensos e não-fumantes, a epinefrina pode ser mais segura que a felipressina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Atenolol/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Felypressin/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypotension
5.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 31: e3127, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134743

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate the acute behavior of the brachial artery resistance index (BARI) and popliteal artery resistance index (PARI) in response to low intensity strength exercises involving small (SMG) and large muscle groups (LMG) performed with and without blood flow restriction. Eleven men (age 23 ± 3.29 years) underwent a four-arm, randomized, cross-over experiment: Small muscle group exercise (SMG), small muscle groups with blood flow restriction (SMG+BFR), large muscle groups (LMG) and large muscle groups with blood flow restriction (LMG+BFR). The behavior of BARI and PARI was evaluated at rest, immediately after exercise, and at 15 and 30 minutes during recovery. Data analysis showed a significant reduction of the BARI from rest to post-exercise only in the protocols involving SMG, regardless of the BFR (p <0.05). Protocols involving LMG, with or without BFR, did not affect PARI (p> 0.05), but were efficient to promote significant increases in BARI (p <0.05) immediately after exercise. Our findings indicate that the exercises involving SMG, regardless of BFR, are efficient to promote local vasodilatation (brachial artery), but without systemic effects. None of the analyzed protocols affected the PARI behavior.


RESUMO O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o comportamento agudo do índice de resistência da artéria braquial (IRAB) e da artéria poplítea (IRAP) em resposta a exercícios de força de baixa intensidade envolvendo pequenos (PGM) e grandes grupos musculares (GGM), realizado com e sem restrição de fluxo sanguíneo. Onze homens (idade 23 ± 3,29 anos) realizaram um experimento randomizado, cruzado, com quatro braços: Exercício para pequenos grupos musculares (PGM), pequenos grupos musculares com restrição de fluxo sanguíneo (PGM+RFS), grandes grupos musculares (GGM) e grandes grupos musculares com restrição de fluxo sanguíneo (GGM+RFS). O comportamento de IRAB e IRAP foi avaliado em repouso, mediatamente após o exercício, e aos 15 e 30 minutos da recuperação. A análise dos dados mostrou uma redução significativa do IRAB do repouso para o pós-exercício apenas nos protocolos de PGM com ou sem RFS (p <0,05). Protocolos envolvendo GGM, independentemente do BFR, não afetaram o IRAP (p> 0,05), porém, foram eficientes para promover aumentos significativos do IRAB (p <0,05) imediatamente após o exercício. Nossos achados indicam que os exercícios envolvendo PGM, independentemente da BFR, são capazes de promover a vasodilatação local (artéria braquial), porém, sem efeitos sistêmicos. Nenhum dos protocolos analisados afetou o comportamento do IRAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Vasodilation , Muscle Strength , Physical Endurance , Popliteal Artery , Pulse/methods , Rest , Behavior , Brachial Artery , Protocols , Arterial Pressure
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(2): e9304, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055489

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome is a multifaceted condition associated with a greater risk of various disorders (e.g., diabetes and heart disease). In a rat model of metabolic syndrome, an acute in vitro application of rosuvastatin causes relaxation of aortic rings. Since the outcome of a subchronic rosuvastatin treatment is unknown, the present study explored its effect on acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of aortic rings from rats with metabolic syndrome. Animals were submitted to a 16-week treatment, including a standard diet, a cafeteria-style diet (CAF-diet), or a CAF-diet with daily rosuvastatin treatment (10 mg/kg). After confirming the development of metabolic syndrome in rats, aortic segments were extracted from these animals (those treated with rosuvastatin and untreated) and the acetylcholine-induced relaxant effect on the corresponding rings was evaluated. Concentration-response curves were constructed for this effect in the presence/absence of L-NAME, ODQ, KT 5823, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), apamin plus charybdotoxin, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, and cycloheximide pretreatment. Compared to rings from control rats, acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation decreased in rings from animals with metabolic syndrome, and was maintained at a normal level in animals with metabolic syndrome plus rosuvastatin treatment. The effect of rosuvastatin was inhibited by L-NAME, ODQ, KT 5823, TEA, apamin plus charybdotoxin, but unaffected by 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. In conclusion, the subchronic administration of rosuvastatin to rats with metabolic syndrome improved the acetylcholine-induced relaxant response, involving stimulation of the NO/cGMP/PKG/Ca2+-activated K+ channel pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Rosuvastatin Calcium/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200059, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132201

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hypoxia occurs in the splanchnic region during exercise associated with sympathetic activity. In the elderly, vascular insufficiency and low vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression are observed. Compared to young people, sympathetic signals of older individuals are blunted and more resistant to splanchnic blood flow alterations during exercise. VEGF induces vasodilation responses and hence may retain blood in the splanchnic vascular bed. We hypothesized that regular mild-intensity exercise triggers weak VEGF expression in the digestive tract of the elderly. The effects of exercise on the levels of VEGF, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the stomach, jejunum, ileum and colon tissues were evaluated. With exercise, the VEGF levels in the stomach and colon increased. Although the SOD, GPx, and MDA levels decreased in the stomach, they increased in the colon. T-AOC increased in the stomach and there was no change in the jejunum, ileum and colon. The hypoperfusion during exercise was not equal in all regions of the gastrointestinal tract in the aged subjects. Hypoxia and other exercise-related mechanisms could have led to this VEGF induction. The stomach, jejunum, and ileum might have developed resistance to ischemia. The induction of VEGF may be beneficial in aging-associated impaired gastrointestinal homeostasis and neovascularization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Superoxide Dismutase/blood , Exercise/physiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/blood , Malondialdehyde/blood , Vasodilation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Exercise Test
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787138

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic contribution to endothelial adaptation to exercise training. Vasoreactivity was assessed in aortas from four inbred mouse strains (129S1, B6, NON, and SJL) after 4 weeks of moderate intensity continuous exercise training (MOD), high intensity interval training (HIT) or in sedentary controls (SED). Intrinsic variations in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation (EDR) to acetylcholine (ACh) as well as vasocontractile responses were observed across SED groups. For responses to exercise training, there was a significant interaction between mouse strain and training intensity on EDR. Exercise training had no effect on EDR in aortas from 129S1 and B6 mice. In NON, EDR was improved in aortas from MOD and HIT compared with respective SED, accompanied by diminished responses to PE in those groups. Interestingly, EDR was impaired in aorta from SJL HIT compared with SED. The transcriptional activation of endothelial genes was also influenced by the interaction between mouse strain and training intensity. The number of genes altered by HIT was greater than MOD, and there was little overlap between genes altered by HIT and MOD. HIT was associated with gene pathways for inflammatory responses. NON MOD genes showed enrichment for vessel growth pathways. These findings indicate that exercise training has non-uniform effects on endothelial function and transcriptional activation of endothelial genes depending on the interaction between genetic background and training intensity.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Aorta , Endothelium , Gene Expression Profiling , Genetic Background , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Transcriptional Activation , Vasodilation
9.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 238-246, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002226

ABSTRACT

Grapes and its derivatives (wines and juices) are rich in polyphenols that have high antioxidant and vasodilator capacity. These biological activities may vary in the juices marketed and produced in different regions of Brazil. Objectives: To determine the antioxidant and vasorelaxant effects of grape juice samples produced in different regions of Brazil. Methods: The content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were evaluated by the methods of Folin-Ciocalteau, DPPH, ABTS and a new electroanalytical approach (differential pulse voltammetry - DPV). Vasodilator effects were analyzed in isolated aorta from rats in an organ bath. Results: The samples from RJ and SP presented respectively the higher and lower phenolic content and also antioxidant capacity by the methods used (ABTS and DPPH). The results of the electrochemical index corroborate to the other tests, with the best results to RJ (21.69 ± 3.15 µA/V) and worse to the SP sample (11.30 ± 0.52 µA/V). In the vascular reactivity studies, the relaxation induced by each sample presented more distinct differences, following the order: RJ (87.9 ± 4.8%) > RS1 (71.6 ± 8.6%) > GO (56.2 ± 7.2%) > SP (39.9 ± 7.8%) > PR (39.4 ± 9.5%) > RS2 (19.5 ± 6.2%). Inhibition of endothelial NO practically abolished (p < 0.001) the relaxation for all samples, except one. Conclusion: The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity vary greatly among samples. The results obtained for the order of antioxidant activity were: RJ > RS1 > GO > RS2 > PR > SP. The juices were able to induce vascular relaxation at quite varied levels, and the RJ sample the most effective. The L-NAME practically blocked all samples except one (RS2)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Vitis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Electrochemical Techniques , Polyphenols , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis , Hypertension , Neoplasms/prevention & control
10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 290-296, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013469

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of amitriptyline, fluoxetine, tranylcypromine and venlafaxine on saphenous vein grafts in coronary artery bypass graft surgeries. Methods: 59 patients (40 males and 19 females; mean age 65.1 years, distribution: 45-84 years) who had coronary artery bypass graft surgery between February 2014 and May 2016 were included in the study. After the saphenous vein grafts with intact and denuded endothelium were precontracted with 3×10-6M phenylephrine, amitriptyline, fluoxetine and tranylcypromine were cumulatively added to isolated organ baths in the range of 10-11-3x10-5M, while venlafaxine was added in the range of 10-9-3×10-5M. Then, the antidepressant-induced relaxation responses were recorded isometrically. Results: While the relaxation response of amitriptyline at -6.42 (Log M) was 74.6%, the response at -6.32 (Log M) was 75.5%. While the relaxation response at -6.46 (Log M) of fluoxetine was 68.02%, the response at -6.02 (Log M) was 72.12%. While the relaxation response of tranylcypromine at -7.53 (Log M) was 61.13%, the response at -7.23 (Log M) was 65.53%. While the relaxation response of venlafaxine at -6.21 (Log M) was 29.98%, the response at -5.90 (Log M) was 32.96%. Conclusion: The maximum relaxation at minimum and maximum therapeutic concentrations was obtained with amitriptyline, fluoxetine and tranylcypromine, and the minimum relaxation was obtained with venlafaxine. The relaxation responses were independent of the endothelium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Saphenous Vein/drug effects , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Tranylcypromine/pharmacology , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Amitriptyline/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Vasodilation/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Analysis of Variance , Transplants/drug effects , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects
11.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 783-791, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777132

ABSTRACT

Circadian rhythms widely exist in living organisms, and they are regulated by the biological clock. Growing evidence has shown that circadian rhythms are tightly related to the physiological function of the cardiovascular system, including blood pressure, heart rate, metabolism of cardiomyocytes, function of endothelial cells, and vasoconstriction and vasodilation. In addition, disruption of circadian rhythms has been considered as one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction. This review summarizes the recent research advances in the relationship between circadian clock and cardiovascular diseases, hoping to improve treatment strategies for patients with cardiovascular diseases according to the theory of biological clock.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Circadian Clocks , Circadian Rhythm , Endothelial Cells , Cell Biology , Heart Rate , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac , Metabolism , Vasoconstriction , Vasodilation
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785810

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This report presents a procedure for performing power Doppler ultrasound-guided sialography using the phenomenon of increased blood flow and illustrates its application to practical patient cases.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The salivary gland was scanned using ultrasound equipment (GE LOGIQ5 Expert® device; GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI, USA) to identify pathological findings related to the patient's chief complaint. To identify the orifice of the main duct, it should be cannulated using a lacrimal dilator. After inserting the catheter into the cannulated main duct, the position of the catheter within the duct was confirmed by ultrasound. A contrast agent was injected until the patient felt fullness, and ultrasound (B-mode) was used to confirm whether the contrast agent filled the main canal and secondary and tertiary ducts. Then, power Doppler ultrasound was performed to determine whether the salivary gland had increased blood flow.RESULTS: In 2 cases in this report, a power Doppler ultrasound scan showed a significant increase in blood flow after contrast medium injection, which was not observed on a preoperative scan.CONCLUSION: Power Doppler ultrasound was found to be a simple, safe, and effective tool for real-time sialography monitoring.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Humans , Salivary Glands , Sialography , Ultrasonography , Vasodilation
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microvascular anastomosis patency is adversely affected by local and systemic factors. Impaired intimal recovery and endothelial mechanisms promoting thrombus formation at the anastomotic site are common etiological factors of reduced anastomosis patency. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a catechin derivative belonging to the flavonoid subgroup and is present in green tea (Camellia sinensis). This study investigated the effects of EGCG on the structure of vessel tips used in microvascular anastomoses and evaluated its effects on thrombus formation at an anastomotic site. METHODS: Thirty-six adult male Wistar albino rats were used in the study. The right femoral artery was cut and reanastomosed. The rats were divided into two groups (18 per group) and were systemically administered either EGCG or saline. Each group were then subdivided into three groups, each with six rats. Axial histological sections were taken from segments 1 cm proximal and 1 cm distal to the microvascular anastomosis site on days 5, 10, and 14. RESULTS: Thrombus formation was significantly different between the EGCG and control groups on day 5 (P=0.015) but not on days 10 or 14. The mean luminal diameter was significantly greater in the EGCG group on days 5 (P=0.002), 10 (P=0.026), and 14 (P=0.002). Intimal thickening was significantly higher on days 5 (P=0.041) and 10 (P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: EGCG showed vasodilatory effects and led to reduced early thrombus formation after microvascular repair. Similar studies on venous anastomoses and random or axial pedunculated skin flaps would also contribute valuable findings relevant to this topic.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Catechin , Femoral Artery , Humans , Male , Microsurgery , Oxidants , Phenobarbital , Rats , Skin , Tea , Thrombosis , Vasodilation
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 65-70, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990006

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, has been demonstrated to damage histology and to change tyrosine phosphorylation patterns with increased oxidative stress in perirenal tissues. This study aimed to investigate the effect of VPA on microstructure, tyrosine phosphorylation, and lipid peroxidation of rat kidney. Adult male rats were divided into control and VPA-treated groups intraperitoneally injected with normal saline and VPA 500 mg/kgBW for 10 consecutive days, respectively (n = 7 each). The blood serum was examined for biochemical levels. The kidney tissues were routinely processed for histological observation. Total proteins from kidney were extracted to assay the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and phosphorylation expression. The results showed that VPA significantly decreased blood glucose levels while tend to increase urea nitrogen and creatinine. MDA levels in VPA group were significantly higher that of control. Renal cortex of VPA-treated animals revealed vasodilatations. Although the ratio of a renal phosphorylated 72 kDa protein/ beta actin expression seemed to be not different in both groups, VPA significantly decreased the intensity of beta actin. In conclusion, VPA dilates renal microvasculature with increasing of MDA but suppresses the actin expression.


RESUMEN: Se ha demostrado que el ácido valproico (AVP), un fármaco antiepiléptico, daña la histología y cambia los patrones de fosforilación de la tirosina con el aumento del estrés oxidativo en los tejidos perirrenales. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto del AVP en la microestructura, la fosforilación de la tirosina y la peroxidación lipídica del riñón de rata. Se dividieron ratas macho adultas en grupos control y tratados con AVP. Durante 10 días consecutivos fueron inyectadas por vía intraperitoneal con solución salina normal y 500 mg / kg de PC respectivamente (n = 7 cada uno). Se analizó el suero sanguíneo para determinar los niveles bioquímicos. Los tejidos renales se procesaron de forma rutinaria para la observación histológica. Las proteínas totales del riñón se extrajeron para analizar los niveles de malondialdehído (MDA) y la expresión de la fosforilación. Los resultados mostraron que el AVP disminuyó significativamente los niveles de glucosa en la sangre, mientras que tienden a aumentar el nitrógeno ureico y la creatinina. Los niveles de MDA en el grupo de AVP fueron significativamente más altos que los del control. La corteza renal de los animales tratados con AVP reveló vasodilataciones. Aunque la proporción de una expresión de proteína / actina de 72 kDa fosforilada renal no parece ser diferente en ambos grupos, el AVP disminuyó significativamente la intensidad de la actina beta. En conclusión, el AVP dilata la microvasculatura renal al aumentar el MDA, pero suprime la expresión de actina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tyrosine/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Valproic Acid/pharmacology , Kidney/drug effects , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Organ Size , Phosphorylation , Vasodilation/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Malondialdehyde
15.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 26(2): 78-83, 2019. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1021402

ABSTRACT

Background: accumulating evidence suggests that natural compounds and specifically monoterpenes exert a vasodilator action. Objetive: to investigate the vascular effects of isoespintanol (2-isopropil-3,6-dimetoxi-5-metilfenol, ISO) monoterpene isolated from the leaves of Oxandra cf xylopioides. Methods: thoracic aortic rings isolated from Wistar rats were contracted with KCl 80 mM and then relaxed by exposure to Ca2+-free solution in absence and in presence of ISO 0.6 mg/mL. The force/tissue ratio (F/W) and the time to obtain 50% of relaxation (T-50) were used to assess the maximal contractile response and the relaxation, respectively. To examine the participation of NO additional experiments were performed under inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L-NAME (L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester). Results: ISO significantly decreased the F/W ratio (257 ± 19 vs. 360 ± 18) and did not change T-50. In presence of L-NAME the effects of ISO on contractile response was abolished. Conclusions: these results demonstrate that ISO exerts a vasodilator effect through NO-dependent pathways and suggest that an inhibition of calcium influx could be the involved mechanism


Antecedentes: la evidencia acumulada sugiere que los compuestos naturales, especialmente monoterpenos, ejercen una acción vasodilatadora. Objetivo: investigar los efectos vasculares del monoterpeno isoespintanol (2-isopropil-3,6-dimetoxi-5-metilfenol, ISO) aislado de hojas de Oxandra cf xylopioides. Métodos: anillos de aorta torácica aislados de ratas Wistar fueron contraídas con cloruro de potasio 80 mM y luego relajadas por exposición a una solución libre de Ca2+ en ausencia y presencia de isoespintanol 0,6 µg/mL. El radio fuerza/tejido (F/T) y el tiempo para obtener 50% de relajación (T50) se usaron para lograr la máxima respuesta contráctil y de relajación, respectivamente. Para evaluar la participación del óxido nítrico, se realizaron experimentos adicionales bajo la inhibición de la óxido nítrico sintetasa con L-NAME (L-NG-éster metílico de nitroarginina). Resultados: Isoespintanol disminuyó el radio F/W significativamente (257 ± 19 vs. 360 ± 18) y no cambió T-50. En presencia de L-NAME, los efectos del isoespintanol en la respuesta contráctil fueron suprimidos. Conclusiones: Estos resultados demuestran que el isoespintanol ejerce un efecto vasodilatador a través de vías NO dependientes y sugiere que la inhibición de la entrada de calcio puede ser el mecanismo involucrado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vasodilation , Monoterpenes , Aorta, Thoracic , Nitric Oxide
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercapnia causes dilation of cerebral vessels and increases cerebral blood flow, resulting in increased intracranial pressure. Sevoflurane is reported to preserve cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity. However, the contribution of inhaled anesthetics to vasodilatory responses to hypercapnia has not been clarified. Moreover, the cerebrovascular response to desflurane under hypercapnia has not been reported. We examined the effects of sevoflurane and desflurane on vasodilatory responses to hypercapnia in rats. METHODS: A closed cranial window preparation was used to measure the changes in pial vessel diameters. To evaluate the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia and/or inhaled anesthetics, the pial vessel diameters were measured in the following states: without inhaled anesthetics at normocapnia (control values) and hypercapnia, with inhaled end-tidal minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of 0.5 or 1.0 of either sevoflurane or desflurane at normocapnia, and an MAC of 1.0 of sevoflurane or desflurane at hypercapnia. RESULTS: Under normocapnia, 1.0 MAC, but not 0.5 MAC, of sevoflurane or desflurane dilated the pial arterioles and venules. In addition, under both 1.0 MAC of sevoflurane and 1.0 MAC of desflurane, hypercapnia significantly dilated the pial arterioles and venules in comparison to their diameters without inhaled anesthetics. The degrees of vasodilation were similar for desflurane and sevoflurane under both normocapnia and hypercapnia. CONCLUSIONS: Desflurane induces cerebrovascular responses similar to those of sevoflurane. Desflurane can be used as safely as sevoflurane in neurosurgical anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthetics , Animals , Arterioles , Carbon Dioxide , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Hypercapnia , Intracranial Pressure , Rats , Vasodilation , Venules
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786656

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Isometric handgrip exercise (IHE) is an easy and accessible form of exercise that has beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP). However, it remains unclear whether IHE is similar benefits on arterial stiffness and endothelial function compared with aerobic exercise (AE) in elderly hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of IHE versus AE on arterial stiffness and endothelial function in elderly hypertensive patients.METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial with a three-arm design. Fifty-four elderly hypertensive patients (15 men; mean age, 69±6 years; systolic blood pressure, 131.2±14.7; diastolic blood pressure, 80.2±7.9 mm Hg) were randomized to IHE training (n=18), AE training (n=21), or non-exercise control group (n=21) for 12 weeks. Bilateral IHE training was performed four times of 2 minutes at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction with three times per week. AE training was performed brisk walking for 30 minutes at moderate intensity with three times per week. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index heart rate corrected (AIx@75 bpm) and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) as indices of arterial stiffness and endothelial function were measured at baseline and after the intervention.RESULTS: Following 12-week intervention, resting BP was significantly decreased in both IHE (p=0.001) and AE groups (p=0.002). AIx@75 bpm and FMD were unchanged in the all groups. However, PWV was significantly decreased in both IHE and AE groups (IHE, 10.9±2.3 to 9.9±2.1 m/s [p<0.001]; AE, 10.5±2.0 to 9.4±1.6 m/s [p=0.001]), without any change in the control group.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that both IHE and AE trainings were comparable effect in improving arterial stiffness in elderly hypertensive patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Blood Pressure , Brachial Artery , Exercise , Heart Rate , Humans , Hypertension , Isometric Contraction , Male , Pulse Wave Analysis , Vascular Stiffness , Vasodilation , Walking
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(6): 553-558, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977479

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two different papaverine concentrations (0.5 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml) for vasospasm prevention and their impact on endothelium integrity. Methods: We have studied distal segments of radial arteries obtained by no-touch technique from coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients (n=10). The vasodilatory effect of papaverine (concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml) was assessed in vitro, in isometric tension studies using ex vivo myography (organ bath technique) and arterial rings precontracted with potassium chloride (KCl) and phenylephrine. The impact of papaverine on endothelial integrity was studied by measurement of the percentage of vessel's circumference revealing CD34 endothelial marker. Results: 2 mg/ml papaverine concentration showed stronger vasodilatatory effect than 0.5 mg/ml, but it caused significantly higher endothelial damage. Response to KCl was 7.35±3.33 mN for vessels protected with papaverine 0.5 mg/ml and 2.66±1.96 mN when papaverine in concentration of 2 mg/ml was used. The histological examination revealed a significant difference in the presence of undamaged endothelium between vessels incubated in papaverine 0.5 mg/ml (72.86±9.3%) and 2 mg/ml (50.23±13.42%), P=0.002. Conclusion: Papaverine 2 mg/ml caused the higher endothelial damage. Concentration of 0.5 mg/ml caused better preservation of the endothelial lining.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Papaverine/administration & dosage , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Radial Artery/drug effects , Coronary Vasospasm/prevention & control , Papaverine/adverse effects , Papaverine/pharmacology , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 991-999, Nov. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973476

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To determine whether the absence of transglutaminase 2 enzyme (TG2) in TG2 knockout mice (TG2-/-) protect them against early age-related functional and histological arterial changes. Methods: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured using non-invasive Doppler and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured in awake mice using tail-cuff system. Thoracic aortas were excised for evaluation of endothelial dependent vasodilation (EDV) by wire myography, as well as histological analyses. Results: PWV and MAP were similar in TG2-/-mice to age-matched wild type (WT) control mice. Old WT mice exhibited a markedly attenuated EDV as compared to young WT animals. The TG2-/-young and old mice had enhanced EDV responses (p<0.01) as compared to WT mice. There was a significant increase in TG2 crosslinks by IHC in WT old group compared to Young, with no stain in the TG2-/-animals. Optical microscopy examination of Old WT mice aorta showed thinning and fragmentation of elastic laminae. Young WT mice, old and young TG2-/-mice presented regularly arranged and parallel elastic laminae of the tunica media. Conclusion: The genetic suppression of TG2 delays the age-induced endothelial dysfunction and histological modifications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/physiology , Aging/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Transglutaminases/physiology , GTP-Binding Proteins/physiology , Vasodilation/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Age Factors , Mice, Knockout , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Pulse Wave Analysis , Arterial Pressure/physiology
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