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Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 295-303, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088850


Abstract Background: Cigarette smoking is usually associated with hypertension and may modify vasoconstrictor response. Objective: The present study aimed to analyze and compare the interaction of passive cigarette smoking and hypertension on epinephrine and felypressin blood pressure effects after intravascular injection. Method: 45-day male Wistar rats had the main left renal artery partially constricted and the right kidney removed (1K1C model). Rats were placed in the chamber for exposition to passive cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes) during 10 min (6 days a week). Hypertensive rats received atenolol (90 mg/kg/day) by gavage for two weeks. Hypotensive and hypertensive response, response duration and heart rate were recorded from direct blood pressure values. The significance level was 5%. Results: Passive cigarette smoking increased maximal hypertensive response to epinephrine in normotensive and 1K1C-atenolol treated rats and to felypressin only in 1K1C-atenolol treated rats; it also reduced epinephrine hypotensive response. Epinephrine increased heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive passive smokers or non-smoker rats. Comparing the two vasoconstrictors, epinephrine showed greater hypertensive response in normotensive smokers, 1K1C-atenolol treated smokers and non-smokers. However, in normotensive-nonsmoker rats, felypressin showed a greater and longer hypertensive effect. Conclusions: Our results suggest that passive cigarette smoking may reduce epinephrine vasodilation and increase hypertensive response when compared to felypressin. Therefore, felypressin may be safe for hypertensive patients to avoid tachycardia and atenolol interaction, but for normotensive and non-smoker patients, epinephrine may be safer than felypressin.

Resumo Fundamento: O tabagismo geralmente está associado à hipertensão e pode modificar a resposta vasoconstritora. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar e comparar a interação do tabagismo passivo e hipertensão sobre os efeitos da epinefrina e felipressina na pressão arterial após injeção intravascular. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos de 45 dias tiveram a artéria renal principal esquerda parcialmente obstruída e o rim direito removido (modelo 1K1C). Os ratos foram colocados na câmara para exposição ao tabagismo passivo (10 cigarros) durante 10 minutos (6 dias por semana). Ratos hipertensos receberam atenolol (90 mg/kg/dia) por gavagem durante duas semanas. A resposta hipotensora e hipertensiva, a duração da resposta e a frequência cardíaca foram registradas a partir da medida dos valores diretos da pressão arterial. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: O tabagismo passivo aumentou a resposta hipertensiva máxima à epinefrina em ratos normotensos e ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol e à felipressina apenas em ratos 1K1C tratados com atenolol; também reduziu a resposta hipotensiva à epinefrina. A epinefrina aumentou a frequência cardíaca em ratos fumantes passivos ou não-fumantes, normotensos e hipertensos. Comparando os dois vasoconstritores, a epinefrina apresentou maior resposta hipertensiva em fumantes normotensos, ratos 1K1C fumantes e não fumantes tratados com atenolol. No entanto, em ratos normotensos e não fumantes, a felipressina apresentou um efeito hipertensivo maior e mais prolongado. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo passivo pode reduzir a vasodilatação da epinefrina e aumentar a resposta hipertensiva quando comparado à felipressina. Portanto, a felipressina pode ser segura para pacientes hipertensos, com o objetivo de evitar a interação entre taquicardia e atenolol, mas para pacientes normotensos e não-fumantes, a epinefrina pode ser mais segura que a felipressina.

Animals , Male , Atenolol/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Epinephrine/pharmacology , Felypressin/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypotension
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(2): e9304, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055489


Metabolic syndrome is a multifaceted condition associated with a greater risk of various disorders (e.g., diabetes and heart disease). In a rat model of metabolic syndrome, an acute in vitro application of rosuvastatin causes relaxation of aortic rings. Since the outcome of a subchronic rosuvastatin treatment is unknown, the present study explored its effect on acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of aortic rings from rats with metabolic syndrome. Animals were submitted to a 16-week treatment, including a standard diet, a cafeteria-style diet (CAF-diet), or a CAF-diet with daily rosuvastatin treatment (10 mg/kg). After confirming the development of metabolic syndrome in rats, aortic segments were extracted from these animals (those treated with rosuvastatin and untreated) and the acetylcholine-induced relaxant effect on the corresponding rings was evaluated. Concentration-response curves were constructed for this effect in the presence/absence of L-NAME, ODQ, KT 5823, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), apamin plus charybdotoxin, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, and cycloheximide pretreatment. Compared to rings from control rats, acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation decreased in rings from animals with metabolic syndrome, and was maintained at a normal level in animals with metabolic syndrome plus rosuvastatin treatment. The effect of rosuvastatin was inhibited by L-NAME, ODQ, KT 5823, TEA, apamin plus charybdotoxin, but unaffected by 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. In conclusion, the subchronic administration of rosuvastatin to rats with metabolic syndrome improved the acetylcholine-induced relaxant response, involving stimulation of the NO/cGMP/PKG/Ca2+-activated K+ channel pathway.

Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Rosuvastatin Calcium/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(3): 290-296, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013469


Abstract Objective: In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of amitriptyline, fluoxetine, tranylcypromine and venlafaxine on saphenous vein grafts in coronary artery bypass graft surgeries. Methods: 59 patients (40 males and 19 females; mean age 65.1 years, distribution: 45-84 years) who had coronary artery bypass graft surgery between February 2014 and May 2016 were included in the study. After the saphenous vein grafts with intact and denuded endothelium were precontracted with 3×10-6M phenylephrine, amitriptyline, fluoxetine and tranylcypromine were cumulatively added to isolated organ baths in the range of 10-11-3x10-5M, while venlafaxine was added in the range of 10-9-3×10-5M. Then, the antidepressant-induced relaxation responses were recorded isometrically. Results: While the relaxation response of amitriptyline at -6.42 (Log M) was 74.6%, the response at -6.32 (Log M) was 75.5%. While the relaxation response at -6.46 (Log M) of fluoxetine was 68.02%, the response at -6.02 (Log M) was 72.12%. While the relaxation response of tranylcypromine at -7.53 (Log M) was 61.13%, the response at -7.23 (Log M) was 65.53%. While the relaxation response of venlafaxine at -6.21 (Log M) was 29.98%, the response at -5.90 (Log M) was 32.96%. Conclusion: The maximum relaxation at minimum and maximum therapeutic concentrations was obtained with amitriptyline, fluoxetine and tranylcypromine, and the minimum relaxation was obtained with venlafaxine. The relaxation responses were independent of the endothelium.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Saphenous Vein/drug effects , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Tranylcypromine/pharmacology , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Amitriptyline/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Vasodilation/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Analysis of Variance , Transplants/drug effects , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 65-70, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990006


SUMMARY: Valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, has been demonstrated to damage histology and to change tyrosine phosphorylation patterns with increased oxidative stress in perirenal tissues. This study aimed to investigate the effect of VPA on microstructure, tyrosine phosphorylation, and lipid peroxidation of rat kidney. Adult male rats were divided into control and VPA-treated groups intraperitoneally injected with normal saline and VPA 500 mg/kgBW for 10 consecutive days, respectively (n = 7 each). The blood serum was examined for biochemical levels. The kidney tissues were routinely processed for histological observation. Total proteins from kidney were extracted to assay the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and phosphorylation expression. The results showed that VPA significantly decreased blood glucose levels while tend to increase urea nitrogen and creatinine. MDA levels in VPA group were significantly higher that of control. Renal cortex of VPA-treated animals revealed vasodilatations. Although the ratio of a renal phosphorylated 72 kDa protein/ beta actin expression seemed to be not different in both groups, VPA significantly decreased the intensity of beta actin. In conclusion, VPA dilates renal microvasculature with increasing of MDA but suppresses the actin expression.

RESUMEN: Se ha demostrado que el ácido valproico (AVP), un fármaco antiepiléptico, daña la histología y cambia los patrones de fosforilación de la tirosina con el aumento del estrés oxidativo en los tejidos perirrenales. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto del AVP en la microestructura, la fosforilación de la tirosina y la peroxidación lipídica del riñón de rata. Se dividieron ratas macho adultas en grupos control y tratados con AVP. Durante 10 días consecutivos fueron inyectadas por vía intraperitoneal con solución salina normal y 500 mg / kg de PC respectivamente (n = 7 cada uno). Se analizó el suero sanguíneo para determinar los niveles bioquímicos. Los tejidos renales se procesaron de forma rutinaria para la observación histológica. Las proteínas totales del riñón se extrajeron para analizar los niveles de malondialdehído (MDA) y la expresión de la fosforilación. Los resultados mostraron que el AVP disminuyó significativamente los niveles de glucosa en la sangre, mientras que tienden a aumentar el nitrógeno ureico y la creatinina. Los niveles de MDA en el grupo de AVP fueron significativamente más altos que los del control. La corteza renal de los animales tratados con AVP reveló vasodilataciones. Aunque la proporción de una expresión de proteína / actina de 72 kDa fosforilada renal no parece ser diferente en ambos grupos, el AVP disminuyó significativamente la intensidad de la actina beta. En conclusión, el AVP dilata la microvasculatura renal al aumentar el MDA, pero suprime la expresión de actina.

Animals , Male , Rats , Tyrosine/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Valproic Acid/pharmacology , Kidney/drug effects , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Organ Size , Phosphorylation , Vasodilation/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Malondialdehyde
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(6): 553-558, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977479


Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two different papaverine concentrations (0.5 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml) for vasospasm prevention and their impact on endothelium integrity. Methods: We have studied distal segments of radial arteries obtained by no-touch technique from coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients (n=10). The vasodilatory effect of papaverine (concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml) was assessed in vitro, in isometric tension studies using ex vivo myography (organ bath technique) and arterial rings precontracted with potassium chloride (KCl) and phenylephrine. The impact of papaverine on endothelial integrity was studied by measurement of the percentage of vessel's circumference revealing CD34 endothelial marker. Results: 2 mg/ml papaverine concentration showed stronger vasodilatatory effect than 0.5 mg/ml, but it caused significantly higher endothelial damage. Response to KCl was 7.35±3.33 mN for vessels protected with papaverine 0.5 mg/ml and 2.66±1.96 mN when papaverine in concentration of 2 mg/ml was used. The histological examination revealed a significant difference in the presence of undamaged endothelium between vessels incubated in papaverine 0.5 mg/ml (72.86±9.3%) and 2 mg/ml (50.23±13.42%), P=0.002. Conclusion: Papaverine 2 mg/ml caused the higher endothelial damage. Concentration of 0.5 mg/ml caused better preservation of the endothelial lining.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Papaverine/administration & dosage , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Radial Artery/drug effects , Coronary Vasospasm/prevention & control , Papaverine/adverse effects , Papaverine/pharmacology , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(2): 233-237, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887191


Abstract: Background: Several dermatoses are mediated by histamine, such as urticaria, angioedema, and papular urticaria. There are no Brazilian studies comparing the potency of antihistamines. Objectives: To evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of the main commercial brand and generic H1 antihistamines, regarding the suppression of the wheal and flare to the histamine test. Methods: A quasi-experimental, open study with 10 healthy adults submitted to the histamine test on the ventral aspect of the forearms. After 20 minutes, wheal and flares were measured. The tests were performed after two hours of intake of dexchlorpheniramine, hydroxyzine, levocetirizine, fexofenadine, cetirizine, loratadine, ebastine, desloratadine, epinastine and rupatadine, as well as generics of loratadine, cetirizine and fexofenadine. Results: All antihistamines presented a reduction in the wheal compared to the control (p <0.02), as well as in the flare, except for rupatadine (p = 0.70). In the internal comparison, cetirizine, fexofenadine, epinastine, levocetirizine, dexchlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine were the most potent, with no difference between them (p > 0.1). As for halo, cetirizine, epinastine, hydroxyzine and fexofenadine were the most potent, with no difference between them (p > 0.1). The most common adverse effect was drowsiness, which was more prevalent among first-generation drugs (p < 0.01). Generic loratadine, fexofenadine and cetirizine halos were higher than their controls (p <0.03).. Study limitations: A single-center study evaluating only aspects related to histamine. Conclusions: Brazilian commercial antihistamines presented different profiles of inhibition of wheal and flares in the histamine test, as well as adverse effects. Generic loratadine, fexofenadine and cetirizine presented larger flares than brand drugs.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Skin/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Histamine , Anti-Allergic Agents/pharmacology , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology , Reference Values , Skin/immunology , Time Factors , Brazil , Skin Tests/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Drug Hypersensitivity , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20180048, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954519


Abstract Objective: Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is clinically characterized by a reduction in endothelium-dependent relaxation. However, we have previously shown that impairment in endothelium-dependent relaxation is transient. Therefore, we evaluated which mediators are involved in endothelium-dependent relaxation recovery. Material and methods: Rats were subjected to ligature-induced experimental periodontitis. Twenty-one days after the procedure, the animals were prepared for blood pressure recording, and the responses to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside were obtained before and 30 minutes after injection of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Indomethacin, SC-550 and NS- 398), or calcium-dependent potassium channel blockers (apamin plus TRAM- 34). The maxilla and mandible were removed for bone loss analysis. Blood and gingivae were obtained for C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) measurement, respectively. Results: Experimental periodontitis induces bone loss and an increase in the gingival MPO and plasmatic CRP. Periodontitis also reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation, a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction, 14 days after the procedure. However, the response was restored at day 21. We found that endothelium-dependent vasodilation at day 21 in ligature animals was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels. Conclusions: Periodontitis induces impairment in endothelial-dependent relaxation; this impairment recovers, even in the presence of periodontitis. The recovery is mediated by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels in ligature animals. Although important for maintenance of vascular homeostasis, this effect could mask the lack of NO, which has other beneficial properties.

Animals , Male , Periodontitis/physiopathology , Periodontitis/metabolism , Vasodilation/physiology , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Time Factors , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Alveolar Bone Loss/physiopathology , Alveolar Bone Loss/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Ligation
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(5): 425-431, 2018. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978009


Resumen Introducción: Prolongar la permeabilidad de los injertos utilizados en bypass coronario es un desafío constante. Objetivo: Comparar anatomofuncionalmente venas safenas humanas (VSH) extraídas con técnica convencional (TC) vs técnica "no-touch" (NT). Material y Método: Estudio experimental. Se diseccionó VSH con TC y NT en el pabellón de cirugía cardiaca del Hospital Regional de Antofagasta. Las muestras de VSH fueron seccionadas en anillos de 3 mm y conservados en cámaras de órganos aislados con solución Ringer-Krebs. Para evaluar la vasomotilidad se administró norepinefrina (10-6M), papaverina (10-4M), acetilcolina (10-6M) y nitroprusiato de sodio (10-5M). Un segmento de las muestras fue fijado en formalina al 10%, procesado con técnica histológica y analizado bajo microscopía óptica. Las muestras fueron teñidas con hematoxilina-eosina, Verhoeff y orceína. El análisis estadístico fue realizado mediante el software Prism Graphad. Resultados: Reactividad vascular: La vasoconstricción inducida por noradrenalina fue significativamente superior en anillos del grupo NT vs TC (p < 0,0001). La vasodilatación producida por papaverina y acetilcolina fue superior en el grupo NT (p < 0,004) y (p < 0,0003), respectivamente. Estudio morfométrico: El grupo NT presentó túnica muscular (0,755 vs 0,680 mm), adventicia (0,5600 vs 0,4663 mm) y pared total (1,344 vs 0,962 mm) más gruesa que el grupo TC. No hubo diferencias significativas respecto el número de vasa vasorum. Conclusión: El grupo NT responde significativamente mejor a estímulos vasoconstrictores y vasodilatadores. Los resultados se asocian con las diferencias morfométricas.

Introduction: Prolonging of the grafts permeability used in coronary bypass is a constant challenge. Objective: To compare anatomical and functional human saphenous veins (VSH) extracted "No touch" (NT) technique vs conventional technique (TC). Materials and Methods: Experimental study. VSH dissected with CT and NT in the Regional Hospital of Antofagasta cardiac surgery ward. VSH samples were sectioned into 3 mm rings and preserved in isolated organs chambers with Krebs-Ringer solution. To evaluate the vasomotor activity, norepinephrine (10-6M), papaverine (10-4M), acetylcholine (10-6M) and sodium nitroprusside (10-5M) was administered. A segment of samples was fixed in 10% formalin, processed and histological analyzed under light microscopy technique with hematoxylin-eosin, Verhoeff and orceína. Statistical analysis was performed using the Prism software Graphad. Results: Vascular Reactivity: norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction was significantly higher in the group rings NT vs TC (p < 0.0001). Vasodilation was higher with papaverine and acetylcholine in the NT group (p < 0.004) and (p < 0.0003), respectively. Morphometric study: The NT group presented muscularis (0.755 vs 0.680 mm), adventitious (0.5600 vs 0.4663 mm), and total wall (1.344 vs 0.962 mm) thicker than the TC group. No significant differences in vasa vasorum number identified. Conclusion: The NT group vasoconstrictor and vasodilator responds significantly better. Results correlate with morphometric differences.

Humans , Saphenous Vein/drug effects , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Tissue and Organ Harvesting/methods , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Coronary Artery Bypass
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e6601, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889041


The primary aim of this study was to evaluate penile endothelial microvascular function in patients with primary arterial hypertension and age-matched normotensive subjects using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). Additionally, we analyzed the acute penile microvascular effects induced by oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (sildenafil; SIL) administration. Endothelium-dependent microvascular reactivity was evaluated in the penises and forearms of hypertensive patients (aged 58.8±6.6 years, n=34) and age-matched healthy volunteers (n=33) at rest and 60 min following oral SIL (100 mg) administration. LSCI was coupled with cutaneous acetylcholine (ACh) iontophoresis using increasing anodal currents. Basal penile cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) values were not significantly different between control subjects and hypertensive individuals. Penile CVC values increased significantly after SIL administration in control (P<0.0001) and hypertensive (P<0.0001) subjects. Peak CVC values were not different between the two groups during penile ACh iontophoresis before SIL administration (P=0.2052). Peak CVC values were higher in control subjects than in hypertensive subjects after SIL administration (P=0.0427). Penile endothelium-dependent microvascular function is, to some extent, preserved in patients presenting with primary arterial hypertension under effective anti-hypertensive treatment. LSCI may be a valuable non-invasive tool for the evaluation of penile vascular responses to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Penis/blood supply , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Sildenafil Citrate/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Laser-Doppler Flowmetry/methods , Microcirculation , Penis/drug effects , Regional Blood Flow , Vasodilation/drug effects
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(5): 436-442, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838740


Abstract Background: Resistance exercise (RE) has been recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that the intensity of a single bout of RE has an effect on endothelial adaptations to exercise. However, there is no data about the effects of different volumes of RE on endothelium function. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different volumes of RE in a single bout on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the mesenteric artery of healthy animals. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (Ct); low-volume RE (LV, 5 sets x 10 repetitions) and high-volume RE (HV, 15 sets x 10 repetitions). The established intensity was 70% of the maximal repetition test. After the exercise protocol, rings of mesenteric artery were used for assessment of vascular reactivity, and other mesenteric arteries were prepared for detection of measure NO production by DAF-FM fluorescence. Insulin responsiveness on NO synthesis was evaluated by stimulating the vascular rings with insulin (10 nM). Results: The maximal relaxation response to insulin increased in the HV group only as compared with the Ct group. Moreover, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (L-NAME) completely abolished the insulin-induced vasorelaxation in exercised rats. NO production showed a volume-dependent increase in the endothelial and smooth muscle layer. In endothelial layer, only Ct and LV groups showed a significant increase in NO synthesis when compared to their respective group under basal condition. On the other hand, in smooth muscle layer, NO fluorescence increased in all groups when compared to their respective group under basal condition. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a single bout of RE promotes vascular endothelium changes in a volume-dependent manner. The 15 sets x 10 repetitions exercise plan induced the greatest levels of NO synthesis.

Resumo Fundamentos: O exercício resistido (ER) tem sido recomendado para pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares. Recentemente, alguns estudos demonstraram que a intensidade de uma sessão de ER exerce um efeito sobre a disfunção endotelial. No entanto, não há dados sobre os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER sobre a função endotelial. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes volumes de ER, realizados em uma única sessão, sobre a vasodilatação dependente do endotélio e síntese de óxido nítrico (NO) em artéria mesentérica de animais saudáveis. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em três grupos: Controle (Ct); baixo volume (BV, 5 séries x 10 repetições) e alto volume de ER (AV, 15 séries x 10 repetições). Foi estabelecida a intensidade de 70% do teste de repetição máxima. Após o protocolo de exercício, anéis de artéria mesentérica foram utilizados na avaliação da reatividade vascular, e outras artérias mesentéricas foram preparadas para a detecção da produção de NO por fluorescência com para do DAF-FM. A resposta à insulina pela síntese de NO foi avaliada estimulando-se os anéis vasculares com insulina (10nM). Resultados: A resposta máxima do relaxamento induzido por insulina foi aumentada somente no grupo AV em comparação ao grupo Ct. Além disso, a inibição da síntese do NO (L-NAME), aboliu completamente o relaxamento vascular induzido por insulina em ratos exercitados. A produção de NO mostrou um aumento dependente do volume no endotélio e no músculo liso. No endotélio, apenas os grupos Ct e BV mostraram aumento significativo na síntese de NO quando comparado aos seus respectivos grupos sob condição basal. No entanto, no músculo liso, a fluorescência foi aumentada em todos os grupos quando comparados aos seus respectivos grupos sob a condição basal. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que uma única sessão de ER foi capaz de promover adaptações no endotélio vascular. Além disso, nós observamos que este efeito é volume-dependente e o volume de 15 séries x10 repetições induziu o maior aumento na síntese de NO.

Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/physiology , Resistance Training , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Mesenteric Arteries/drug effects , Mesenteric Arteries/physiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(4): e5520, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839279


This study investigated the influence of antihypertensive drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs), voltage-gated L-type calcium channel blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), on the effects of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] on aorta and coronary arteries from pressure-overloaded rats. Pressure overload was induced by abdominal aortic banding (AB). To evaluate the role of antihypertensive drugs on the effect of Ang-(1-7), AB male Wistar rats weighing 250–300 g were treated with vehicle or low doses (5 mg·kg-1·day-1, gavage) of losartan, captopril, amlodipine, or spironolactone. Isolated aortic rings and isolated perfused hearts under constant flow were used to evaluate the effect of Ang-(1-7) in thoracic aorta and coronary arteries, respectively. Ang-(1-7) induced a significant relaxation in the aorta of sham animals, but this effect was reduced in the aortas of AB rats. Chronic treatments with losartan, captopril or amlodipine, but not with spironolactone, restored the Ang-(1-7)-induced aorta relaxation in AB rats. The coronary vasodilatation evoked by Ang-(1-7) in sham rats was blunted in hypertrophic rats. Only the treatment with losartan restored the coronary vasodilatory effect of Ang-(1-7) in AB rat hearts. These data support a beneficial vascular effect of an association of Ang-(1-7) and some antihypertensive drugs. Thus, this association may have potential as a new therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases.

Animals , Male , Angiotensin I/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Aorta, Abdominal/drug effects , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Amlodipine/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Captopril/pharmacology , Losartan/pharmacology , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Spironolactone/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(3): 223-229, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796033


Abstract Background: Despite the important biological effects of jabuticaba, its actions on the cardiovascular system have not been clarified. Objectives: To determine the effects of jabuticaba hydroalcoholic extract (JHE) on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) of isolated arteries. Methods: Endothelium-denuded aortic rings of rats were mounted in isolated organ bath to record isometric tension. The relaxant effect of JHE and the influence of K+ channels and Ca2+ intra- and extracellular sources on JHE-stimulated response were assessed. Results: Arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine showed concentration-dependent relaxation (0.380 to 1.92 mg/mL). Treatment with K+ channel blockers (tetraethyl-ammonium, glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine) hindered relaxation due to JHE. In addition, phenylephrine-stimulated contraction was hindered by previous treatment with JHE. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase did not change relaxation due to JHE. In addition, JHE inhibited the contraction caused by Ca2+ influx stimulated by phenylephrine and KCl (75 mM). Conclusion: JHE induces endothelium-independent vasodilation. Activation of K+ channels and inhibition of Ca2+ influx through the membrane are involved in the JHE relaxant effect.

Resumo Fundamentos: Embora a jabuticaba apresente importantes efeitos biológicos, suas ações sobre o sistema cardiovascular ainda não foram esclarecidas. Objetivos: Determinar os efeitos do extrato de jabuticaba (EHJ) sobre o músculo liso vascular (MLV) em artérias isoladas. Métodos: Aortas (sem endotélio) de ratos foram montadas em banho de órgãos isolados para registro de tensão isométrica. Foram verificados o efeito relaxante, a influência dos canais de K+ e das fontes de Ca2+ intra- e extracelular sob a resposta estimulada pelo EHJ. Resultados: Artérias pré-contraídas com fenilefrina apresentaram relaxamento concentração-dependente (0,380 a 1,92 mg/mL). O tratamento com bloqueadores de canais de K+ (tetraetilamônio, glibenclamida, 4-aminopiridina) prejudicaram o relaxamento pelo EHJ. A contração estimulada com fenilefrina também foi prejudicada pelo tratamento prévio com EHJ. A inibição da Ca2+ATPase do reticulo sarcoplasmático não alterou o relaxamento pelo EHJ. Além disso, o EHJ inibiu a contração causada pelo influxo de Ca2+ estimulado por fenilefrina e KCl (75 mM). Conclusão: O EHJ induz vasodilatação independente do endotélio. Ativação dos canais de K+ e inibição do influxo de Ca2+ através da membrana estão envolvidas no efeito relaxante do EHJ.

Animals , Male , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(6): 481-490, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787323


Abstract Background: Labdane-type diterpenes induce lower blood pressure via relaxation of vascular smooth muscle; however, there are no studies describing the effects of labdanes in hypertensive rats. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the cardiovascular actions of the labdane-type diterpene ent-3-acetoxy-labda-8(17), 13-dien-15-oic acid (labda-15-oic acid) in two-kidney 1 clip (2K-1C) renal hypertension. Methods: Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in aortic rings isolated from 2K-1C and normotensive (2K) male Wistar rats. Nitrate/nitrite (NOx) measurement was performed in aortas by colorimetric assay. Blood pressure measurements were performed in conscious rats. Results: Labda-15-oic acid (0.1-300 µmol/l) and forskolin (0.1 nmol/l - 1 µmol/l) relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas from both 2K-1C and 2K rats. Labda-15-oic acid was more effective at inducing relaxation in endothelium-intact aortas from 2K pre-contracted with phenylephrine when compared to the endothelium-denuded ones. Forskolin was more potent than labda-15-oic acid at inducing vascular relaxation in arteries from both 2K and 2K-1C rats. Labda-15-oic acid-induced increase in NOx levels was lower in arteries from 2K-1C rats when compared to 2K rats. Intravenous administration of labda-15-oic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg) or forskolin (0.1-1 mg/kg) induced hypotension in conscious 2K-1C and 2K rats. Conclusion: The present findings show that labda-15-oic acid induces vascular relaxation and hypotension in hypertensive rats.

Resumo Fundamento: Diterpenos do tipo labdano induzem uma queda da pressão arterial por meio do relaxamento do músculo liso vascular; todavia, não há estudos que descrevam os efeitos de labdanos em ratos hipertensos. Objetivo: O presente estudo foi desenvolvido para investigar as ações cardiovasculares do labdano ácido ent-3-acetóxi-labda-8(17),13-dieno-15-óico (labda-15-óico) na hipertensão renal dois rins-1 clipe (2R-1C). Métodos: Foram feitos experimentos de reatividade vascular em anéis aórticos isolados de ratos machos 2R-1C e normotensos (2R). A medição de Nitrato/Nitrito (NOx) foi feita nas aortas por meio de ensaio colorimétrico. As medidas de pressão arterial foram feitas em ratos conscientes. Resultados: O ácido labda-15-óico (0,1 - 300 µmol/l) e a forscolina (0,1 nmol/l - 1 µmol/l) relaxaram as aortas com endotélio intacto e as aortas sem endotélio dos ratos 2R-1C e 2R. O labda-15-óico mostrou-se mais eficaz na indução do relaxamento em aortas com endotélio intacto de 2R pré-contraídas com fenilefrina em comparação àquelas sem endotélio. A forscolina mostrou-se mais potente do que o ácido labda-15-óico na indução do relaxamento vascular nas artérias tanto de ratos 2R-1C quanto de ratos 2R. O aumento dos níveis de NOx induzido pelo ácido labda-15-óico foi menor nas artérias de ratos 2R-1C em comparação a ratos 2R. A administração intravenosa de ácido labda-15-óico (0,3-3 mg/kg) ou forscolina (0,1-1 mg/kg) induziu hipertensão em ratos 2R-1C e 2R conscientes. Conclusão: Os presentes resultados mostram que o labda-15-óico induz relaxamento vascular e hipotensão em ratos hipertensos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Colforsin/pharmacology , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Hypertension, Renovascular/drug therapy , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Phenylephrine/antagonists & inhibitors , Vasoconstrictor Agents/antagonists & inhibitors , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/chemistry , Colforsin/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Diterpenes/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hypertension, Renovascular/physiopathology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/analysis
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(4): 279-288, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780798


Abstract Background: The effect of statins on the endothelial function in humans remains under discussion. Particularly, it is still unclear if the improvement in endothelial function is due to a reduction in LDL-cholesterol or to an arterial pleiotropic effect. Objective: To test the hypothesis that modulation of the endothelial function promoted by statins is primarily mediated by the degree of reduction in LDL-cholesterol, independent of the dose of statin administered. Methods: Randomized clinical trial with two groups of lipid-lowering treatment (16 patients/each) and one placebo group (14 patients). The two active groups were designed to promote a similar degree of reduction in LDL-cholesterol: the first used statin at a high dose (80 mg, simvastatin 80 group) and the second used statin at a low dose (10 mg) associated with ezetimibe (10 mg, simvastatin 10/ezetimibe group) to optimize the hypolipidemic effect. The endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMV) before and 8 weeks after treatment. Results: The decrease in LDL-cholesterol was similar between the groups simvastatin 80 and simvastatin 10/ezetimibe (27% ± 31% and 30% ± 29%, respectively, p = 0.75). The simvastatin 80 group presented an increase in FMV from 8.4% ± 4.3% at baseline to 11% ± 4.2% after 8 weeks (p = 0.02). Similarly, the group simvastatin 10/ezetimibe showed improvement in FMV from 7.3% ± 3.9% to 12% ± 4.4% (p = 0.001). The placebo group showed no variation in LDL-cholesterol level or endothelial function. Conclusion: The improvement in endothelial function with statin seems to depend more on a reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels, independent of the dose of statin administered, than on pleiotropic mechanisms.

Resumo Fundamento: O efeito das estatinas na função endotelial em seres humanos permanece em discussão. Particularmente, ainda carece resposta se a melhora na função endotelial deve-se à redução do LDL-colesterol ou a um efeito pleiotrópico arterial. Objetivo: Testar a hipótese de que a modulação da função endotelial promovida por estatinas é prioritariamente mediada pelo grau de redução do LDL-colesterol, independente da dose de estatina utilizada. Métodos: Ensaio clínico randomizado com dois grupos de tratamento hipolipemiante (16 pacientes/cada) e um grupo placebo (14 pacientes). Os dois grupos ativos foram desenhados para promover graus semelhantes de redução de LDL-colesterol: o primeiro utilizou estatina em alta dose (80 mg, grupo sinvastatina 80) e o segundo em baixa dose (10 mg) associada a ezetimiba (10 mg, grupo sinvastatina 10/ezetimiba) para otimizar o efeito hipolipemiante. A função endotelial foi analisada pela vasodilatação mediada por fluxo (VMF) antes e após 8 semanas de tratamento. Resultados: A redução no LDL-colesterol foi semelhante entre os grupos sinvastatina 80 e sinvastatina 10/ezetimiba (27% ± 31% e 30% ± 29%, respectivamente, p = 0,75). O grupo sinvastatina 80 apresentou incremento da VMF de 8,4% ± 4,3% no basal para 11% ± 4,2% após 8 semanas (p = 0,02). Da mesma forma, o grupo sinvastatina 10/ezetimiba apresentou melhora da VMF de 7,3% ± 3,9% para 12% ± 4,4% (p = 0,001). O grupo placebo não apresentou variação no nível de LDL-colesterol ou da função endotelial. Conclusão: A melhora da função endotelial com uso de estatina parece depender mais da redução do LDL-colesterol, independente da dose de estatina utilizada, do que de mecanismos pleiotrópicos.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Ezetimibe/administration & dosage , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage , Reference Values , Time Factors , Vasodilation/drug effects , Brachial Artery/drug effects , Brachial Artery/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Placebo Effect , Double-Blind Method , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/drug effects , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(7): e5285, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951689


Beta-adrenergic receptor (βAR)-dependent blood vessel relaxation is impaired in older animals and G protein activation has been suggested as the causative mechanism. Here, we investigated the role of βAR subtypes (β1AR, β2AR, and β3AR) and cAMP in maturation-dependent vasorelaxation impairment. Aortic rings from 15 Sprague-Dawley male rats (3 or 9 weeks old) were harvested and left intact or denuded of the endothelium. Vascular relaxation in aortic rings from younger and older groups was compared in the presence of βAR subtype agonists and antagonists along with cAMP and cGMP antagonists. Isolated aortic rings were used to evaluate relaxation responses, protein expression was evaluated by western blot or real time PCR, and metabolites were measured by ELISA. Expression of βAR subtypes and adenylyl cyclase was assessed, and cAMP activity was measured in vascular tissue from both groups. Isoproterenol- and BRL744-dependent relaxation in aortic rings with and without endothelium from 9-week-old rats was impaired compared with younger rats. The β1AR antagonist CGP20712A (10-7 M) did not affect isoproterenol or BRL744-dependent relaxation in arteries from either group. The β2AR antagonist ICI-118,551 (10-7 M) inhibited isoproterenol-dependent aortic relaxation in both groups. The β3AR antagonist SR59230A (10-7 M) inhibited isoproterenol- and BRL744-dependent aortic ring relaxation in younger but not in older rats. All βAR subtypes were expressed in both groups, although β3AR expression was lower in the older group. Adenylyl cyclase (SQ 22536) or protein kinase A (H89) inhibitors prevented isoproterenol-induced relaxation in younger but not in older rats. Production of cAMP was reduced in the older group. Adenylyl cyclase III and RyR3 protein expression was higher in the younger group. In conclusion, altered expression of β3AR and adenylyl cyclase III may be responsible for reduced cAMP production in the older group.

Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/physiopathology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilation/physiology , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Aorta, Thoracic/physiology , Time Factors , Gene Expression , Adenylyl Cyclases/physiology , Blotting, Western , Age Factors , Cyclic AMP/analysis , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Albuterol/pharmacology , Dobutamine/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(5): e5058, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951680


The relaxation of coronary arteries by estrogens in the coronary vascular beds of naive and hypertensive rats has been well described. However, little is known about this action in gonadectomized rats. We investigated the effect of 17-ß-estradiol (E2) in coronary arteries from gonadectomized rats, as well as the contributions of endothelium-derived factors and potassium channels. Eight-week-old female and male Wistar rats weighing 220-300 g were divided into sham-operated and gonadectomized groups (n=9−12 animals per group). The baseline coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was determined, and the vasoactive effects of 10 μM E2 were assessed by bolus administration before and after endothelium denudation or by perfusion with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), indomethacin, clotrimazole, L-NAME plus indomethacin, L-NAME plus clotrimazole or tetraethylammonium (TEA). The CPP differed significantly between the female and sham-operated male animals. Gonadectomy reduced the CPP only in female rats. Differences in E2-induced relaxation were observed between the female and male animals, but male castration did not alter this response. For both sexes, the relaxation response to E2 was, at least partly, endothelium-dependent. The response to E2 was reduced only in the sham-operated female rats treated with L-NAME. However, in the presence of indomethacin, clotrimazole, L-NAME plus indomethacin or L-NAME plus clotrimazole, or TEA, the E2 response was significantly reduced in all groups. These results highlight the importance of prostacyclin, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, and potassium channels in the relaxation response of coronary arteries to E2 in all groups, whereas nitric oxide may have had an important role only in the sham-operated female group.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/deficiency , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Estradiol/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Orchiectomy , Ovariectomy , Rats, Wistar , Coronary Vessels/physiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(8): e5304, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787383


A relationship between thyroid hormones and the cardiovascular system has been well established in the literature. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the vasodilator effect produced by the acute application of 10-8–10-4 M triiodothyronine (T3) to isolated rat aortic rings. Thoracic aortic rings from 80 adult male Wistar rats were isolated and mounted in tissue chambers filled with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer in order to analyze the influence of endothelial tissue, inhibitors and blockers on the vascular effect produced by T3. T3 induced a vasorelaxant response in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings at higher concentrations (10-4.5–10-4.0 M). This outcome was unaffected by 3.1×10-7 M glibenclamide, 10-3 M 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), 10-5 M indomethacin, or 10-5 M cycloheximide. Contrarily, vasorelaxant responses to T3 were significantly (P<0.05) attenuated by endothelium removal or the application of 10-6 M atropine, 10-5 M L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 10-7 M 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), 10-6 M (9S,10R,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-Hexahydro-10-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3′,2′,1′-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i](1,6)benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid, methyl ester KT 5823, 10-2 M tetraethylammonium (TEA), or 10-7 M apamin plus 10-7 M charybdotoxin. The results suggest the involvement of endothelial mechanisms in the vasodilator effect produced by the acute in vitro application of T3 to rat aortic rings. Possible mechanisms include the stimulation of muscarinic receptors, activation of the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway, and opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels.

Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Triiodothyronine/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Atropine/pharmacology , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/pharmacology , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Glyburide/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated/drug effects
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(1): 00601, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-765006


Drospirenone (DRSP) is a progestin with anti-aldosterone properties and it reduces blood pressure in hypertensive women. However, the effects of DRSP on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation have not been evaluated. This study investigated the effects of combined therapy with estrogen (E2) and DRSP on endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the coronary bed of ovariectomized (OVX) spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=87) at 12 weeks of age were randomly divided into sham operated (Sham), OVX, OVX treated with E2 (E2), and OVX treated with E2 and DRSP (E2+DRSP) groups. Hemodynamic parameters were directly evaluated by catheter insertion into the femoral artery. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to bradykinin in the coronary arterial bed was assessed using isolated hearts according to a modified Langendorff method. Coronary protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) was assessed by Western blotting. Histological slices of coronary arteries were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and morphometric parameters were analyzed. Oxidative stress was assessed in situ by dihydroethidium fluorescence. Ovariectomy increased systolic blood pressure, which was only prevented by E2+DRSP treatment. Estrogen deficiency caused endothelial dysfunction, which was prevented by both treatments. However, the vasodilator response in the E2+DRSP group was significantly higher at the three highest concentrations compared with the OVX group. Reduced ER-α expression in OVX rats was restored by both treatments. Morphometric parameters and oxidative stress were augmented by OVX and reduced by E2 and E2+DRSP treatments. Hormonal therapy with E2 and DRSP may be an important therapeutic option in the prevention of coronary heart disease in hypertensive post-menopausal women.

Animals , Female , Rats , Androstenes/administration & dosage , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Hypertension/drug therapy , Vasodilation/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Estrogen Receptor alpha/drug effects , Estrogens/administration & dosage , Ethidium/analogs & derivatives , Femoral Artery , Hemodynamics , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , Ovariectomy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Inbred SHR , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(6): 537-544, 06/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748218


Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels were involved in this effect.

Animals , Male , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Appetite Depressants/pharmacology , Diethylpropion/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Aorta, Thoracic/metabolism , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Tetraethylammonium/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects