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Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 58-69, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362088


Introduction Vasospasm is a common and potentially devastating complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, causing high morbidity and mortality. There is no effective and consistent way to prevent or treat cerebral vasospasm capable of altering the morbidity and mortality of this complication. Animal and human studies have attempted to show improvement in aneurysmal vasospasm. Some sought their prevention; others, the treatment of already installed vasospasm. Some achieved only angiographic improvement without clinical correlation, others achieved both, but with ephemeral duration or at the expense of very harmful associated effects. Endovascular techniques allow immediate and aggressive treatment of cerebral vasospasm and include methods such as mechanical and chemical angioplasty. These methods have risks and benefits. Objectives To analyze the results of chemical angioplasty using nitroglycerin (GTN). In addition, to performa comprehensive review and analysis of aneurysmal vasospasm. Methods We describe our series of 77 patients treated for 8 years with angioplasty for vasospasm, either mechanical (with balloon), chemical (with GTN) or both. Results Eleven patients received only balloon; 37 received only GTN; 29 received both. Forty-four patients (70.1%) evolved with delayed cerebral ischemia and 19 died (mortality of 24.7%). Two deaths were causally related to the rupture of the vessel by the balloon. The only predictors of poor outcome were the need for external ventricular drainage in the first hours of admission, and isolated mechanical angioplasty. Conclusions Balloon angioplasty has excellent results, but it is restricted to proximal vessels and is not without complications. Chemical angioplasty using nitroglycerin has reasonable but short-lived results and further research is needed about it. It is restricted to vasospasm angioplasties only in hospitals, like ours, where better and more potent vasodilator agents are not available.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Nitroglycerin/therapeutic use , Angioplasty, Balloon/methods , Vasospasm, Intracranial/diagnosis , Vasospasm, Intracranial/physiopathology , Vasospasm, Intracranial/therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Chi-Square Distribution , Survival Analysis , Regression Analysis , Data Interpretation, Statistical
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191010, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384021


To compare global endothelial function assessed by pulse wave analysis (PWA) using the ratio of endothelium dependent vasodilatation (EDV) to endothelium independent vasodilatation (EIV) in patients with hypercholesterolemia and controls. 92 subjects [46 hypercholesterolemics, 46 controls] were studied at standardized conditions. Baseline augmentation index (AIx) was assessed followed by the administration of 0.5 mg sublingual nitroglycerine, an endothelium independent vasodilator. AIx was assessed and the maximum change in AIx after nitroglycerine was recorded as EIV. After a washout period of 30 minutes, 400 µg of inhaled salbutamol, an endothelium dependent vasodilator was administered. AIx was assessed again and the maximum change in AIx after salbutamol was recorded as EDV. Global endothelial function was calculated as EDV:EIV ratio. EDV and EIV in patients with hypercholesterolemia compared to controls were 2.97 ± 3.95 and 6.65 ± 3.80 (p<0.001); and 13.41 ± 4.57 and 15.88 ± 4.78 (p=0.01) respectively. EDV:EIV ratio was significantly reduced in patients with hypercholesterolemia compared to controls; 0.21 ± 0.38 and 0.44 ± 0.24 (p<0.001) respectively. EDV:EIV ratio was significantly reduced in patients with hypercholesterolemia compared to controls. PWA is a potential clinical tool to assess global endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterole

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Endothelium/metabolism , Pulse Wave Analysis/methods , Hypercholesterolemia , Patients , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 134-137, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280057


ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of substances to enhance sports performance among professional and amateur athletes is increasing. Such substances may either be included in the group of dietary supplements or fall into pharmacological classes. Every substance used for this purpose is called an ergogenic agent. The number of ergogenic options available increases every day, favoring overuse and use without proper guidance. Among the dietary supplements, we highlight the use of creatine, a substance widespread in sports. Among the pharmacological groups, many drugs are used. Recently the use of sildenafil citrate by professional athletes from various predominantly aerobic sports modalities was reported in the media. Objective: To compare and demonstrate the responses caused by physical training associated with the use of creatine and sildenafil citrate in mice. Methods: A swim training protocol was applied and then an electrophysiograph was used in order to obtain parameters related to contraction intensity, the area under the curve and the percentage drop. Results: The responses obtained demonstrated the ergogenic action of creatine because it altered the parameters used for measurement. The use of sildenafil citrate did not yield satisfactory results to frame the drug as an ergogenic agent. Conclusion: Creatine has an ergogenic effect, reducing the percentage drop after 10 seconds, while sildenafil demonstrated no ergogenic potential and, interestingly, resulted in weaker responses when compared to the exercise groups. Evidence level II; Comparative prospective study .

RESUMEN Introducción: El uso de sustancias con el objetivo de aumentar el rendimiento deportivo entre atletas profesionales y amateurs es creciente. Tales sustancias pueden formar parte del grupo de suplementos alimentarios o integrar clases farmacológicas. Toda sustancia empleada para ese fin es denominada agente ergogénico. El número de opciones entre los agentes ergogénicos aumenta cada día, favoreciendo así su uso excesivo y sin la debida orientación. Entre los suplementos alimentarios, se destaca el uso de creatina, sustancia muy difundida en el medio deportivo. Ya entre los grupos farmacológicos, muchas sustancias son usadas. Recientemente, fue divulgado entre los medios de comunicación el uso de citrato de sildenafil por atletas profesionales, de varias modalidades deportivas, predominantemente las aeróbicas. Objetivos: Comparar y demostrar las respuestas ocasionadas por el entrenamiento físico, asociadas al uso de creatina y citrato de sildenafil en ratones. Métodos: Se aplicó un protocolo de entrenamiento de natación y, a continuación, se usó un electrofisiógrafo con el objetivo de obtener parámetros referentes a la intensidad de contracción, al área bajo la curva y a la caída porcentual. Resultados: Las respuestas obtenidas demuestran acción ergogénica de la creatina, visto que alteraron los parámetros empleados para la medición. Ya el uso de citrato de sildenafil no presentó resultados satisfactorios para encuadrar al fármaco como agente ergogénico. Conclusión: La creatina presenta efecto ergogénico porque reduce la caída porcentual después de 10 segundos, mientras que el sildenafil no presentó potencial ergogénico y, curiosamente, demostró respuestas inferiores cuando comparado a los grupos de ejercicio. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudio prospectivo comparativo .

RESUMO Introdução: O uso de substâncias com o objetivo de aumentar o rendimento esportivo entre atletas profissionais e amadores é crescente. Tais substâncias podem fazer parte do grupo de suplementos alimentares ou integrar classes farmacológicas. Toda substância empregada para esse fim é denominada de agente ergogênico. O número de opções entre os agentes ergogênicos aumenta a cada dia, favorecendo assim o uso em demasia e sem a devida orientação. Entre os suplementos alimentares, salientamos a utilização de creatina, substância muito difundida no meio esportivo. Já entre os grupos farmacológicos, muitas substâncias são utilizadas. Recentemente, foi divulgado entre os meios de comunicação o uso de citrato de sildenafila por atletas profissionais de várias modalidades esportivas, predominantemente as aeróbicas. Objetivos: Comparar e demonstrar as repostas ocasionadas pelo treinamento físico, associadas ao uso de creatina e citrato de sildenafila em camundongos. Métodos: Aplicou-se um protocolo de treinamento de natação e, a seguir, empregou-se um eletrofisiógrafo com objetivo de obter parâmetros referentes à intensidade de contração, à área sob a curva e à queda percentual. Resultados: As respostas obtidas demonstram ação ergogênica da creatina, visto que alteraram os parâmetros empregados para a mensuração. Já a utilização de citrato de sildenafila não apresentou resultados satisfatórios para enquadrar o fármaco como agente ergogênico. Conclusão: A creatina apresenta efeito ergogênico porque reduz a queda percentual após 10 segundos, já a sildenafila não apresentou potencial ergogênico e, curiosamente, demonstrou respostas inferiores quando comparado aos grupos de exercício. Nível de evidência II; Estudo prospectivo comparativo .

Animals , Male , Mice , Swimming , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Muscle Fatigue/drug effects , Creatine/pharmacology , Sildenafil Citrate/pharmacology , Physical Functional Performance , Sciatic Nerve/surgery , Tendons/surgery , Models, Animal , Electrophysiology/instrumentation
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10577, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285665


Endothelial dysfunction is a well-known component of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), with proven prognostic value. Dietary supplementation with whey protein (WP) has been widely used to increase skeletal muscle mass, but it also has vascular effects, which are less understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of WP supplementation on the systemic microvascular function of HF patients. This was a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effects of 12-week WP dietary supplementation on systemic microvascular function, in patients with HF New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes I/II. Cutaneous microvascular flow and reactivity were assessed using laser speckle contrast imaging, coupled with pharmacological local vasodilator stimuli. Fifteen patients (aged 64.5±6.2 years, 11 males) received WP supplementation and ten patients (aged 68.2±8.8 years, 8 males) received placebo (maltodextrin). The increase in endothelial-dependent microvascular vasodilation, induced by skin iontophoresis of acetylcholine, was improved after WP (P=0.03) but not placebo (P=0.37) supplementation. Moreover, endothelial-independent microvascular vasodilation induced by skin iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside, was also enhanced after WP (P=0.04) but not placebo (P=0.42) supplementation. The results suggested that dietary supplementation with WP improved systemic microvascular function in patients with HF.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Vasodilation , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Skin , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular , Pilot Projects , Dietary Supplements , Whey Proteins/pharmacology , Microcirculation
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(4): 592-602, out.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156240


RESUMO Objetivo: Revisar sistematicamente a evidência atual da eficácia de milrinona no tratamento do vasoespasmo cerebral após hemorragia subaracnóidea. Métodos: Triaram-se as bases de dados Pubmed®, Cochrane e Embase quanto a artigos publicados entre abril de 2001 e fevereiro de 2019. Dois revisores independentes realizaram uma triagem metodológica da qualidade e a extração dos dados dos estudos. Resultados: Encontraram-se 22 estudos considerados relevantes, sendo que apenas um deles era um ensaio randomizado controlado. Os estudos demonstraram acentuada heterogeneidade e debilidade de seus critérios metodológicos. A maioria dos pacientes apresentava vasoespasmo moderado a grave. O principal método para diagnóstico do vasoespasmo foi a angiografia. Em três estudos, realizou-se administração de milrinona por via intra-arterial; em nove estudos, a administração foi endovenosa, e, em seis estudos, utilizaram-se ambas as vias de administração. A via intratecal foi utilizada em dois estudos, em um estudo, a administração foi realizada via cisterna e, em um estudo, a via de administração foi a endovascular. Os efeitos colaterais de milrinona foram descritos em seis estudos. Vinte e um estudos indicaram a resolução do vasoespasmo. Conclusão: A evidência atual indica que o uso de milrinona teve um papel no tratamento do vasoespasmo após hemorragia subaracnóidea aneurismática. Contudo, só foi realizado um ensaio randomizado controlado, com baixo nível de qualidade. Nossos achados indicam a necessidade de futuros estudos randomizados controlados com desfechos centrados no paciente, com o fim de proporcionar recomendações definitivas.

ABSTRACT Objective: To systematically review the current evidence on the efficacy of milrinone in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: The Pubmed®, Cochrane and Embase databases were screened for articles published from April 2001 to February 2019. Two independent reviewers performed the methodological quality screening and data extraction of the studies. Results: Twenty-two studies were found to be relevant, and only one of these was a randomized control trial. Studies showed marked heterogeneity and weaknesses in key methodological criteria. Most patients presented with moderate to severe vasospasm. Angiography was the main method of diagnosing vasospasm. Intra-arterial administration of milrinone was performed in three studies, intravenous administration was performed in nine studies, and both routes of administration in six studies; the intrathecal route was used in two studies, the cisternal route in one study and endovascular administration in one study. The side effects of milrinone were described in six studies. Twenty-one studies indicated resolution of vasospasm. Conclusion: The current evidence indicates that milrinone may have a role in treatment of vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, only one randomized control trial was performed, with a low quality level. Our findings indicate the need for future randomized control trials with patient-centered outcomes to provide definitive recommendations.

Humans , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Vasospasm, Intracranial/etiology , Vasospasm, Intracranial/drug therapy , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , Infusions, Intravenous , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Milrinone/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 642-661, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155771


Abstract This second joint document, written by experts from the Brazilian Association of Allergy and Immunology (ASBAI) and Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA) concerned with perioperative anaphylaxis, aims to review the pathophysiological reaction mechanisms, triggering agents (in adults and children), and the approach for diagnosis during and after an episode of anaphylaxis. As anaphylaxis assessment is extensive, the identification of medications, antiseptics and other substances used at each setting, the comprehensive data documentation, and the use of standardized nomenclature are key points for obtaining more consistent epidemiological information on perioperative anaphylaxis.

Resumo Este segundo documento, escrito por especialistas da Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia (ASBAI) e da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) interessados no tema anafilaxia perioperatória, tem por objetivo revisar os mecanismos fisiopatológicos, agentes desencadeantes (em adultos e crianças), assim como a abordagem diagnóstica durante e após o episódio. Por se tratar de uma avaliação abrangente, a identificação das medicações, antissépticos e outras substâncias usadas em cada região, registros detalhados, e nomenclatura padronizada são pontos fundamentais para a obtenção de dados epidemiológicos mais fidedignos sobre a anafilaxia perioperatória.

Humans , Child , Adult , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Perioperative Period , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Societies, Medical , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques , Mastocytosis/complications , Brazil , Preoperative Care , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Bradykinin/adverse effects , Skin Tests/methods , Risk Factors , IgA Deficiency/complications , Drug Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Allergy and Immunology , Symptom Assessment , Anaphylaxis/physiopathology , Anesthesiology , Angioedema/chemically induced , Terminology as Topic
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 669-677, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131333


Resumo Fundamento: Diversos estudos têm mostrado que as classes de diterpenos exercem efeito significativo no sistema cardiovascular. Os diterpenos, em particular, estão entre os principais compostos associados às propriedades cardiovasculares, como a propriedade vasorrelaxante, inotrópica, diurética e a atividade hipotensora. Embora o mecanismo de vasorrelaxamento do manool seja visível, seu efeito sobre a pressão arterial (PA) ainda é desconhecido. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito hipotensor in vivo do manool e verificar o efeito de vasorrelaxamento ex vivo em anéis aórticos de ratos. Métodos: Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: normotensos e hipertensos. O grupo normotenso foi submetido à cirurgia sham e adotou-se o modelo 2R1C para o grupo hipertenso. Realizou-se monitoramento invasivo da PA para testes com manool em diferentes doses (10, 20 e 40 mg/kg). Foram obtidas curvas de concentração-resposta para o manool nos anéis aórticos, com endotélio pré-contraído com fenilefrina (Phe) após incubação com Nω-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) ou oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalina-1-ona (ODQ). Os níveis plasmáticos de óxido nítrico (NOx) foram medidos por ensaio de quimioluminescência. Resultados: Após a administração de manool, a PA se reduziu nos grupos normotenso e hipertenso, e esse efeito foi inibido pelo L-NAME em animais hipertensos apenas na dose de 10 mg/kg. O manool ex vivo promoveu vasorrelaxamento, inibido pela incubação de L-NAME e ODQ ou remoção do endotélio. Os níveis plasmáticos de NOx aumentaram no grupo hipertenso após a administração de manool. O manool induz o relaxamento vascular dependente do endotélio na aorta de ratos, mediado pela via de sinalização NO/cGMP e redução da PA, e também pelo aumento plasmático de NOx. Esses efeitos combinados podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno. Conclusão: Esses efeitos em conjunto podem estar envolvidos na modulação da resistência periférica, contribuindo para o efeito anti-hipertensivo do diterpeno.

Abstract Background: Many studies have shown that the diterpenoid classes exert a significant effect on the cardiovascular system. Diterpenes, in particular, are among the main compound links to cardiovascular properties such as vasorelaxant, inotropic, diuretic and hypotensive activity. While the manool vasorelaxation mechanism is visible, its effect on blood pressure (BP) is still unknown. Objective: To evaluate the in vivo hypotensive effect of manool and check the ex vivo vasorelaxation effect in rat aortic rings. Methods: The animals were divided randomly into two groups: normotensive and hypertensive. The normotensive group was sham-operated, and the 2K1C model was adopted for the hypertensive group. Invasive BP monitoring was performed for manool tests at different doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg). Concentration-response curves for manool were obtained in the aorta rings, with endothelium, pre-contracted with phenylephrine (Phe) after incubation with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester(L-NAME) or oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Nitric oxide (NOx) plasma levels were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Results: After manool administration, BP was reduced in normotensive and hypertensive groups, and this effect was inhibited by L-NAME in hypertensive animals only in 10 mg/kg dose. Ex vivo manool promoted vasorelaxation, which was inhibited by L-NAME and ODQ incubation or endothelium removal. NOx plasma levels increased in the hypertensive group after manool administration. Manool elicits endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in rat aorta mediated by the NO/cGMP signaling pathway and BP reduction, also by NOx plasma increase. These combined effects could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene. Conclusion: These effects together could be involved in modulating peripheral resistance, contributing to the antihypertensive effect of diterpene.

Animals , Rats , Arterial Pressure , Hypertension/drug therapy , Aorta, Thoracic , Vasodilation , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure , Endothelium, Vascular , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 626-633, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137321


Abstract Objective: To detect and to compare the apoptotic effects of intraoperatively topically applied diltiazem, papaverine, and nitroprusside. Methods: Internal thoracic artery segments of ten patients were obtained during coronary bypass grafting surgery. Each internal thoracic artery segment was divided into four pieces and immersed into four different solutions containing separately saline (Group S), diltiazem (Group D), papaverine (Group P), and nitroprusside (Group N). Each segment was examined with both hematoxylin-eosin and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method in order to determine and quantify apoptosis. Results: Apoptotic cells were counted in 50 microscopic areas of each segment. No significant difference was observed among the four groups according to hematoxylin-eosin staining. However, the TUNEL method revealed a significant increase in mean apoptotic cells in the diltiazem group when compared with the other three groups (Group S=4.25±1.4; Group D=13.31±2.8; Group N=9.48±2.09; Group P=10.75±2.37). The differences between groups were significant (P=0.0001). No difference was observed between the samples of the diabetic and non-diabetic patients in any of the study groups. Conclusion: The benefit of topically applied vasodilator drugs must outweigh the potential adverse effects. In terms of apoptosis, diltiazem was found to have the most deleterious effects on internal thoracic artery graft segments. Of the analyzed medical agents, nitroprusside was found to have the least apoptotic activity, followed by papaverine. Diabetes did not have significant effect on the occurrence of apoptosis in left internal thoracic artery grafts.

Humans , Papaverine/therapeutic use , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Nitroprusside/therapeutic use , Diltiazem/therapeutic use , Mammary Arteries , Papaverine/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Diltiazem/pharmacology
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 534-548, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143957


Abstract Experts from the Brazilian Association of Allergy and Immunology (ASBAI) and the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA) interested in the issue of perioperative anaphylaxis, and aiming to strengthen the collaboration between the two societies, combined efforts to study the topic and to prepare a joint document to guide specialists in both areas. The purpose of the present series of two articles was to report the most recent evidence based on the collaborative assessment between both societies. This first article will consider the updated definitions, treatment and guidelines after a perioperative crisis. The following article will discuss the major etiologic agents, how to proceed with the investigation, and the appropriate tests.

Resumo Especialistas da Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia (ASBAI) e da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) interessados no tema anafilaxia perioperatória reuniram-se com o objetivo de intensificar a colaboração entre as duas sociedades no estudo desse tema e elaborar um documento conjunto que possa guiar os especialistas de ambas as áreas. O objetivo desta série de dois artigos foi mostrar as evidências mais recentes alicerçadas na visão colaborativa entre as sociedades. Este primeiro artigo versará sobre as definições mais atuais, formas de tratamento e as orientações após a crise no perioperatório. No próximo artigo serão discutidos os principais agentes causais e a condução da investigação com testes apropriados.

Humans , Child , Adult , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Perioperative Period , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Societies, Medical , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques , Mastocytosis/complications , Brazil , Preoperative Care , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Bradykinin/adverse effects , Skin Tests/methods , Risk Factors , IgA Deficiency/complications , Drug Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Allergy and Immunology , Symptom Assessment , Anaphylaxis/physiopathology , Anesthesiology , Angioedema/chemically induced , Terminology as Topic
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 77(4): 202-206, Jul.-Aug. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131977


Resumen La hipertensión arterial pulmonar es una enfermedad multifactorial que incrementa la mortalidad en el neonato como consecuencia de falla cardiaca. Los vasodilatadores pulmonares son la piedra angular del tratamiento, de los cuales el sildenafil es el fármaco más empleado. A continuación, se resumen los resultados de una revisión sistemática Cochrane en la que se evaluaron la eficacia y la seguridad del sildenafil para el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial pulmonar en neonatos.

Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a multifactorial nosological entity that increases neonatal mortality as a result of heart failure. Pulmonary vasodilators are the cornerstone of treatment, of which sildenafil is the most commonly used drug. Therefore, the results of a recently updated Cochrane systematic review are summarized, in which the efficacy and safety of sildenafil for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in neonates was evaluated.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Sildenafil Citrate/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Hypertension, Pulmonary/mortality
Cambios rev. méd ; 19(1): 121-131, 30/06/2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122694


En el mundo actual las perspectivas de abordaje, y las estrategias terapéuticas en cuanto a pacientes que se presenten con Insuficiencia Cardiaca (IC) de reciente diagnóstico "de novo", o que presentan una descompensación de su patología, han tenido un avance claro dándonos una gran diversidad de opciones terapéuticas para el cuidado y acompañamiento de dicha patología; así como en la perspectiva de un seguimiento crónico, no solo cardiológico, sino que se ha convertido en un verdadero desafío multidisciplinario, en busca de la mejor opción terapéutica y concluir con el cuidado paliativo de nuestro paciente.

In the current world, the perspectives of approach, and the therapeutic strategies regarding patients who present with Heart Failure (HF) of recent diagnosis "de novo", or who present a decompensation of their pathology, have had a clear advance giving us a great diversity of therapeutic options for the care and accompaniment of said pathology; as well as in the perspective of chronic follow-up, not only cardiological, but it has become a true multidisciplinary challenge, looking for the best therapeutic option and concluding with the palliative care of our patient.

Humans , Male , Female , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Vasodilator Agents , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction , Palliative Care , Pathology , Therapeutics , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Fatigue
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(2): 163-172, Apr.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131026


Abstract Syncope in pediatrics represents an important cause of visits to the emergency units. For this reason, excluding a cardiac or malignant origin is essential at the time of the initial approach to determine what is the next step in management, or if they need to be referred to a pediatric cardiologist and/or electrophysiologist. Vasovagal syncope is the most frequent cause of syncope in pediatrics, in which a detailed clinical history is enough to make the diagnosis. If no diagnosis is concluded by the history, or if it is necessary to define the hemodynamic response of the patients, the head-up-tilt-test is indicated; this will trigger syncope due to an orthostatic stress caused by the angulated table (passive phase). If a negative response remains, it can be followed by a pharmacologic challenge to trigger the hemodynamic response, which is still controversial in pediatrics. The pharmacologic challenge increases the sensitivity with a slight reduction in test specificity. Although there is not a specific drug for the challenge in pediatric patients yet, the most commonly drugs used are nitrates and isoproterenol, the latter related to a great number of adverse effects. Sublingual administration of nitrates in the challenge has been proven to be ideal, effective, and safe in this specific age group. The aim of this article is to make a literature search to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of the pharmacologic challenge during the head-up-tilt-test in pediatrics, emphasizing a study conducted at the National Institute of Cardiology with isosorbide dinitrate.

Resumen El síncope en edades pediátricas representa una causa importante en las visitas a unidades de urgencias, por lo que excluir un origen cardíaco o maligno es fundamental al momento del abordaje inicial para determinar la conducta a seguir o la necesidad de derivar al cardiólogo pediatra o electrofisiólogo. El síncope vasovagal (SVV) es la causa más frecuente de síncope en pediatría, para cuyo diagnóstico basta una historia clínica detallada. Cuando ésta no es suficiente para determinar el diagnóstico de síncope reflejo o es necesario definir el tipo de respuesta que lo origina, está indicada una prueba de mesa inclinada que produce un estrés ortostático por la angulación y ello desencadena un síncope (fase pasiva). En pruebas no concluyentes está indicado un reto farmacológico para precipitar la respuesta hemodinámica, pero aún es un tema de controversia en edades pediátricas. El reto farmacológico incrementa la sensibilidad de la prueba, con una ligera reducción de la especificidad. Si bien no existe todavía un medicamento específico para la población pediátrica, los más empleados son los nitratos y el isoproterenol, este último relacionado con un mayor número de efectos adversos. La administración sublingual de los nitratos utilizados ha demostrado ser ideal, efectiva y segura en los pacientes pediátricos. El objetivo del artículo es realizar una revisión de las publicaciones médicas que demuestran la efectividad y seguridad del reto farmacológico durante la prueba de mesa inclinada en pacientes pediátricos, con énfasis en un estudio conducido en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología con dinitrato de isosorbida (DNIS).

Humans , Child , Syncope/diagnosis , Tilt-Table Test/methods , Syncope, Vasovagal/diagnosis , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Tilt-Table Test/adverse effects , Isoproterenol/adverse effects , Isoproterenol/pharmacology , Nitrates/adverse effects , Nitrates/pharmacology
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 41: [9], 01/01/2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128568


The substance 4-Aminobenzamidine dihydrochloride (4-AD) is one of the degradation products of diminazene aceturate and has demonstrated antiglaucomatous potential. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide; thus, new therapeutic alternatives must be studied, for example, the molecule 4-AD vehiculated into polymeric inserts for prolonged release. The present work aims to develop and validate an analytical method to quantify 4-AD in pharmaceutical ophthalmic forms. A HPLC was used with UV-Vis detector, at 290 ƞm and ACE® C18 column (125 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm), in which the mobile phase consists of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and triethylamine (30 mmol/L), under an isocratic flow of 1.0 mL/min. The retention time of 3.2 minutes was observed. The method was developed and validated in accordance with ANVISA recommendations and ICH guides. The linearity range was established between the concentrations 5 and 25 µg/mL (correlation coefficient r = 0.993). The accuracy, repeatability, and intermediate precision tests obtained a relative standard deviation less than or equal to 5%. In addition, the method was considered selective, exact. and robust, with pH being its critical factor. Therefore, the HPLC analysis method is robust and can be used to quantify 4-AD in pharmaceutical forms for ocular application.(AU)

Ophthalmic Solutions/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents , Benzamidines/pharmacology , Diminazene/analysis , Glaucoma , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Validation Studies as Topic
Acta cir. bras ; 35(4): e202000402, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130629


Abstract Purpose To investigate the effects of bradykinin on reperfusion injury in an experimental intestinal ischemia reperfusion model. Methods We used 32 Wistar-Albino rats. We composed 4 groups each containing 8 rats. Rats in sham group were sacrified at 100 minutes observation after laparotomy. Thirty minutes reperfusion was performed following 50 minutes ischaemia in control group after observing 20 minutes. Ischaemic preconditioning was performed in one group of the study. We performed the other study group pharmacologic preconditioning by infusional administration of 10 μg/kg/minute bradykinin intravenously. We sacrified all of the rats by taking blood samples to evaluate the lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after resection of jejunum for detecting tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Results Lactate and LDH levels were significantly higher in control and study groups than the sham group (P<0.001). There is no difference between the study groups statistically. (P>0.05). The results were the same for MPO levels. Although definitive cell damage was determinated in the control group by hystopatological evaluation, the damage in the study groups observed was lower in different levels. However, there was no significant difference between the study groups statistically (P>0.05). Conclusion Either ischeamic preconditioning or pharmacologic preconditioning made by bradykinin reduced the ischemia reperfusion injury at jejunum.

Animals , Female , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Reference Values , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , Laparotomy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827943


From 2001 to 2015, medical data of 16 856 elderly patients aged 65 years and over who used Suxiao Jiuxin Pills in the information system of 37 tertiary A-level hospitals were collected. After standardized analysis, it was found that the average age of 16 856 elderly patients was 72.48 years, and the main admission departments were department of cardiology(19.30%) and geriatric department(9.77%). Generally, 61.96% of the degree of illness is average, and the average hospitalized days were 16.16 days; 47.97% of the patients were diagnosed as coronary heart disease by Western medicine, and 5.86% of the patients were diagnosed as Qi deficiency and blood stasis; The more common combination of Western medicine was isosorbide nitrate(61.15%), Aspirin Enteric Coated Tablets(50.77%) and Gansu(36.88%), the combination of traditional Chinese medicine is Compound Danshen Dropping Pills/Tablets(19.13%), Xuesaitong Capsules/Injection(15.01%), Shexiang Baoxin Pills(12.29%); the commonly used Western medicine is vasodilator(78.39%), Chinese medicine is Huoxue Huayu(82.04%), and the commonly used Western medicine is Aaspirin Enteric Coated Tablets+Isosorbide Nitrate. The author intends to explore the valuable clinical characteristics and the clues of the combined medication scheme, and find that the application of Suxiao Jiuxin Pills basically conforms to the instructions, conforms to the characteristics of the elderly with many common diseases and complicated concurrent diseases; the combination of drugs and the indications-coronary heart disease guidelines are consistent, with certain rules to follow, and expand the recognition of the clinical application of Suxiao Jiuxin Pills, and provide clinical diagnosis and treatment ideas.

Aged , Humans , Aspirin , Coronary Disease , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Vasodilator Agents
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810964


BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and is associated with poor outcomes. This study was performed to determine the clinical efficacy of PH-specific therapeutic agents for IPF patients.METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register. We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) without language restriction until November 2018. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality to end of study.RESULTS: We analyzed 10 RCTs involving 2,124 patients, 1,274 of whom received PH-specific agents. In pooled estimates, the use of PH-specific agents was not significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality to end of study compared with controls (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92, 1.06; P = 0.71; I² = 30%). When we performed subgroup analyses according to the type of PH-specific agent, sample size, age, forced vital capacity, diffusion lung capacity, and the extent of honeycombing, PH-specific agents also showed no significant association with a reduction in all-cause mortality. A small but significant improvement in quality of life, measured using the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire total score, was found in the PH-specific agent group (mean difference, −3.16 points; 95% CI, −5.34, −0.97; P = 0.005; I² = 0%). We found no significant changes from baseline in lung function, dyspnea, or exercise capacity. Serious adverse events were similar between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Although PH-specific agents provided small health-related quality-of-life benefits, our meta-analysis provides insufficient evidence to support their use in IPF patients.

Humans , Diffusion , Dyspnea , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung , Lung Volume Measurements , Mortality , Quality of Life , Sample Size , Treatment Outcome , Vasodilator Agents , Vital Capacity
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(2): 181-184, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101483


Abstract Objective: To analyze two techniques of papaverine application, topical spray on the harvested left internal mammary artery (LIMA) and perivascular injection, to find out their ability to improve LIMA flow. Methods: Forty patients were randomized into two groups. In Group 1, papaverine was sprayed on the harvested pedunculated LIMA. In Group 2, papaverine was delivered into the perivascular plane. Drug dosage was the same for both groups. LIMA flow was measured 20 minutes after applying papaverine. Blood flow was recorded for 20 seconds and flow per minute was calculated. The systemic mean pressures were maintained at 70 mmHg during blood collection. The data collected was statistically evaluated and interpreted. Results: The LIMA blood flow before papaverine application in the Group 1 was 51.9±13.40 ml/min and in Group 2 it was 55.1±15.70 ml/min. Statistically, LIMA flows were identical in both groups before papaverine application. The LIMA blood flow, post papaverine application, in Group 1 was 87.20±13.46 ml/min and in Group 2 it was 104.7±20.19 ml/min. The Group 2 flows were statistically higher than Group 1 flows. Conclusion: Papaverine delivery to LIMA by the perivascular injection method provided statistically significant higher flows when compared to the topical spray method. Hence, the perivascular delivery of papaverine is more efficient than the spray method in improving LIMA blood flow.

Humans , Mammary Arteries , Papaverine , Vasodilator Agents , Injections
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200062, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132243


Abstract Cilostazol (CLZ) is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor with antiplatelet and vasodilator properties. It has been recently verified that CLZ plays a significant role in the arteries by inhibiting the proliferation and growth of muscle cells, increasing the release of nitric oxide by the endothelium and promoting angiogenesis. Considering these promising effects, the use of nanocapsules may be an interesting strategy to optimize its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics at the vascular level for preventing atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cilostazol-loaded nanocapsules in the abdominal aortic tunics and on the lipid profile of Wistar rats in order to investigate its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thirty-two animals were divided into four groups of eight animals, with 30-day treatment. Group 1 received nanoencapsulated CLZ; Group 2, control nanocapsules with no drug; Group 3, propylene glycol and water; and Group 4, a solution of CLZ in propylene glycol and water. After 30 days, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the cellularity and thickness of the arterial tunics of the abdominal aorta. However, the group that received nanoencapsulated CLZ (Group 1) had an improvement in HDL-c and triglyceride values compared to unloaded nanocapsules (Group 2).

Animals , Male , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Nanocapsules/administration & dosage , Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cilostazol/administration & dosage , Aorta, Abdominal , Propylene Glycols , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(2): e9304, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055489


Metabolic syndrome is a multifaceted condition associated with a greater risk of various disorders (e.g., diabetes and heart disease). In a rat model of metabolic syndrome, an acute in vitro application of rosuvastatin causes relaxation of aortic rings. Since the outcome of a subchronic rosuvastatin treatment is unknown, the present study explored its effect on acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of aortic rings from rats with metabolic syndrome. Animals were submitted to a 16-week treatment, including a standard diet, a cafeteria-style diet (CAF-diet), or a CAF-diet with daily rosuvastatin treatment (10 mg/kg). After confirming the development of metabolic syndrome in rats, aortic segments were extracted from these animals (those treated with rosuvastatin and untreated) and the acetylcholine-induced relaxant effect on the corresponding rings was evaluated. Concentration-response curves were constructed for this effect in the presence/absence of L-NAME, ODQ, KT 5823, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), apamin plus charybdotoxin, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, and cycloheximide pretreatment. Compared to rings from control rats, acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation decreased in rings from animals with metabolic syndrome, and was maintained at a normal level in animals with metabolic syndrome plus rosuvastatin treatment. The effect of rosuvastatin was inhibited by L-NAME, ODQ, KT 5823, TEA, apamin plus charybdotoxin, but unaffected by 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. In conclusion, the subchronic administration of rosuvastatin to rats with metabolic syndrome improved the acetylcholine-induced relaxant response, involving stimulation of the NO/cGMP/PKG/Ca2+-activated K+ channel pathway.

Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Rosuvastatin Calcium/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal