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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200062, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132243

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cilostazol (CLZ) is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor with antiplatelet and vasodilator properties. It has been recently verified that CLZ plays a significant role in the arteries by inhibiting the proliferation and growth of muscle cells, increasing the release of nitric oxide by the endothelium and promoting angiogenesis. Considering these promising effects, the use of nanocapsules may be an interesting strategy to optimize its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics at the vascular level for preventing atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cilostazol-loaded nanocapsules in the abdominal aortic tunics and on the lipid profile of Wistar rats in order to investigate its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thirty-two animals were divided into four groups of eight animals, with 30-day treatment. Group 1 received nanoencapsulated CLZ; Group 2, control nanocapsules with no drug; Group 3, propylene glycol and water; and Group 4, a solution of CLZ in propylene glycol and water. After 30 days, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the cellularity and thickness of the arterial tunics of the abdominal aorta. However, the group that received nanoencapsulated CLZ (Group 1) had an improvement in HDL-c and triglyceride values compared to unloaded nanocapsules (Group 2).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Nanocapsules/administration & dosage , Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cilostazol/administration & dosage , Aorta, Abdominal , Propylene Glycols , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide
2.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 185-192, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012527

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation is one of the main concerns in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and finding a strategy for increasing success rate and accelerating fistula maturation is valuable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of papaverine injection on AVF maturation and success rate. Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial that involved 110 patients with ESRD that were referred for AVF construction. Patients were allocated in papaverine group and control group with block randomization according to age and sex. In the case group, papaverine (0.1 or 0.2 cc) was injected locally within the subadventitia of artery and vein after proximal and distal control during AVF construction and in the control group, AVF construction was done routinely without papaverine injection. Results: Maturation time in case and control groups was 37.94 ± 11.49 and 44.23 ± 9.57 days, respectively (p=0.004). Hematoma was not seen in the case group but occurred in one patient in the control group. One patient of the case group developed venous hypertension. Four functional fistulas, 1 (1.8%) in the case group and 3 (5.5%) in the control group, failed to mature (p=0.618). Maturation rate did not differ between the two groups statistically (p=0.101). Conclusion: Local papaverine injection increased vessel diameter and blood flow, increasing shearing stress in both arterial and venous segment of recently created AVF. In this way, papaverine probably can decrease AVF maturation time without an increase in complications.


Resumo Introdução: A maturação da fístula arteriovenosa (FAV) é uma das principais preocupações em pacientes com doença renal terminal (DRT). Assim, é importante identificar estratégias para aumentar as taxas de sucesso e acelerar a maturação da fístula. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da infiltração de papaverina sobre a maturação da FAV e suas taxas de sucesso. Método: O presente ensaio clínico randomizado incluiu 110 pacientes com DRT encaminhados para colocação de FAV. Os pacientes foram randomizados em bloco em função de idade e sexo e alocados nos grupos caso ou controle. Os indivíduos no grupo caso receberam infiltração local de papaverina (0,1 ou 0,2 ml) no plano da sub-adventícia da artéria e veia após o controle proximal e distal durante a construção da FAV. No grupo controle, a construção da FAV foi realizada rotineiramente sem infiltração de papaverina. Resultados: Os tempos de maturação dos grupos caso e controle foram 37,94 ± 11,49 e 44,23 ± 9,57 dias, respectivamente (p = 0,004). Foi observado hematoma em apenas um paciente do grupo controle. Um paciente do grupo caso desenvolveu hipertensão venosa. Quatro fístulas funcionais, uma (1,8%) no grupo caso e três (5,5%) no grupo controle, não amadureceram (p = 0,618). A taxa de maturação não diferiu estatisticamente entre os dois grupos (p = 0,101). Conclusão: A infiltração local de papaverina aumentou o diâmetro do vaso e o fluxo sanguíneo, elevando a tensão de cisalhamento nos segmentos arterial e venoso da FAV recentemente criada. Desta forma, a papaverina provavelmente consegue reduzir o tempo de maturação da FAV sem aumentar as complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Papaverine/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Papaverine/administration & dosage , Thrombosis/etiology , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Venous Pressure , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Renal Dialysis , Treatment Outcome , Hematoma/etiology
3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(6): 553-558, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977479

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of two different papaverine concentrations (0.5 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml) for vasospasm prevention and their impact on endothelium integrity. Methods: We have studied distal segments of radial arteries obtained by no-touch technique from coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients (n=10). The vasodilatory effect of papaverine (concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml) was assessed in vitro, in isometric tension studies using ex vivo myography (organ bath technique) and arterial rings precontracted with potassium chloride (KCl) and phenylephrine. The impact of papaverine on endothelial integrity was studied by measurement of the percentage of vessel's circumference revealing CD34 endothelial marker. Results: 2 mg/ml papaverine concentration showed stronger vasodilatatory effect than 0.5 mg/ml, but it caused significantly higher endothelial damage. Response to KCl was 7.35±3.33 mN for vessels protected with papaverine 0.5 mg/ml and 2.66±1.96 mN when papaverine in concentration of 2 mg/ml was used. The histological examination revealed a significant difference in the presence of undamaged endothelium between vessels incubated in papaverine 0.5 mg/ml (72.86±9.3%) and 2 mg/ml (50.23±13.42%), P=0.002. Conclusion: Papaverine 2 mg/ml caused the higher endothelial damage. Concentration of 0.5 mg/ml caused better preservation of the endothelial lining.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Papaverine/administration & dosage , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Radial Artery/drug effects , Coronary Vasospasm/prevention & control , Papaverine/adverse effects , Papaverine/pharmacology , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods
4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(5): 1005-1013, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975634

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate protective effects of darbepoetin and tadalafil against ischemia-reperfusion injury in ipsilateral and contralateral testicle. Materials and Methods: Thirty 3-month-old adult male Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (A-E). Sham operation was performed in the first group. In Group B, rats did not received any medication after creating 720 degrees torsion of the left testis. The rats in Group C, D and E received darbepoetin, tadalafil, and darbepoetin/tadalafil combination 30 minutes after creating 720 degrees torsion of the left testis, respectively. The testes of rats in these three groups were detorsioned at 90 minutes after drug administration. Both testes were removed at 30 minutes after detorsion. Results: There were significant differences between the groups in terms of the degree of histopathological damage, Johnsen score, fibrosis score and caspase-3 immunoreactivity in the torsioned testes (p: 0.000). The results for each parameter in the left testes were significantly better in the darbepoetin / tadalafil combination group. Similarly, there were also significant differences in the contralateral testes (p: 0.000). Conclusion: The active substances darbepoetin and tadalafil that were used as a combination had protective effects on both testes and produced out better results in preserving testicular histology. Especially in cases where it is not possible to rescue the torsioned testis, this result was more noticeable in the contralateral testis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spermatic Cord Torsion/drug therapy , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Tadalafil/administration & dosage , Darbepoetin alfa/administration & dosage , Spermatic Cord Torsion/pathology , Xylazine/administration & dosage , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Ketamine/administration & dosage
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(3): 216-222, Mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886267

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of subcutaneous sildenafil on random flap survival. Methods: Fourteen Wistar rats, which were divided in to two groups, were used for this experimental study. Rats in the sildenafil group received subcutaneous sildenafil injections daily for seven days before flap elevation. At the end of the treatment period, 9x3 cm dorsal skin flaps were elevated and reinserted back into their place in all of the animals. Necrotic and whole flaps areas were recorded on graph papers. Seven days after the flap elevation samples for histological examination were taken and angiographies were performed to visualize the flap vascularization. Results: The calculated average percentage of necrotic flap areas were 18.29% and 42.26% in the sildenafil and control group respectively.(p=0.0233). In selected angiography images, vessels were found to be more prominent in the sildenafil group. The average number of capillary formations under light microscopy was higher in the sildenafil group (p= 0.0286). Conclusion: The subdermal high dose sildenafil has a positive effect on flap survival.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Surgical Flaps , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Sildenafil Citrate/pharmacology , Graft Survival/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Preoperative Care , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Sildenafil Citrate/administration & dosage , Injections, Subcutaneous
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(2): 130-134, Apr. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894447

ABSTRACT

Los protocolos que utilizan vasodilatadores para inducir isquemia en la centellografía de perfusión miocárdica han demostrado una exactitud diagnóstica elevada e incidencia muy baja de complicaciones graves. Sin embargo, el significado fisiológico y valor diagnóstico de diversas alteraciones electrocardiográficas asociadas al estrés vasodilatador ha sido escasamente evaluado más allá del segmento ST. Describimos cinco pacientes que presentan distorsión morfológica de la onda T en derivaciones electrocardiográficas torácicas asociada a diversos defectos de perfusión, discutiendo los potenciales aportes de estos cambios al diagnóstico y cuantificación de la isquemia miocárdica en los estudios de imagen que utilizan estrés con vasodilatadores.


The protocols using vasodilators to induce ischemia on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy have shown a high diagnostic accuracy and a very low incidence of serious complications. However, the physiological significance and diagnostic value of various electrocardiographic changes associated with vasodilator stress has not been deeply evaluated beyond the ST-segment. Five clinical cases presenting morphological distortion of the T-wave in electrocardiographic chest leads associated with varying degrees of perfusion defects are described, discussing potential contributions of these changes to the diagnosis and quantification of myocardial ischemia in imaging studies using vasodilator stress.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/chemically induced
7.
Clinics ; 72(2): 125-129, Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039536

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of diazoxide on the mortality, pancreatic injury, and inflammatory response in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (200-400 g) were divided randomly into two groups. Fifteen minutes before surgery, animals received physiological (0.9%) saline (3 mL/kg) (control group) or 45 mg/kg diazoxide (treatment group) via the intravenous route. Acute pancreatitis was induced by injection of 2.5% sodium taurocholate via the biliopancreatic duct. Mortality (n=38) was observed for 72 h and analyzed by the Mantel-Cox Log-rank test. To study pancreatic lesions and systemic inflammation, rats (10 from each group) were killed 3 h after acute pancreatitis induction; ascites volume was measured and blood as well as pancreases were collected. Pancreatic injury was assessed according to Schmidt's scale. Cytokine expression in plasma was evaluated by the multiplex method. RESULTS: Mortality at 72 h was 33% in the control group and 60% in the treatment group (p=0.07). Ascites volumes and plasma levels of cytokines between groups were similar. No difference was observed in edema or infiltration of inflammatory cells in pancreatic tissues from either group. However, necrosis of acinar cells was lower in the treatment group compared to the control group (3.5 vs. 3.75, p=0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with diazoxide can reduce necrosis of acinar cells in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis, but does not affect the inflammatory response or mortality after 72 h.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/drug therapy , Diazoxide/pharmacology , Taurocholic Acid , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Cholagogues and Choleretics , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/chemically induced , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/mortality , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/pathology , Diazoxide/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal
8.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 31(2): e16566, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-897461

ABSTRACT

Objetivo avaliar o conhecimento da equipe de enfermagem sobre a administração de drogas vasoativas. Método estudo descritivo, transversal e quantitativo, realizado com 119 profissionais de enfermagem em sete unidades de terapia intensiva. Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizada uma ficha para caracterização da amostra e foi desenvolvido um instrumento contendo 14 questões de múltipla escolha que avaliavam o conhecimento sobre o preparo, a instalação e a manutenção da infusão das drogas vasoativas. O instrumento foi aplicado nos meses de junho e julho de 2015. Na análise das médias das respostas obtidas nas avaliações, foi considerada satisfatória uma nota igual ou superior a 5,0. Resultados as médias foram de 6,6 (dp ±1,6) para os auxiliares de enfermagem, 6,7 (dp ± 1,6) para os técnicos de enfermagem e 7,8 (dp ± 1,0) para os enfermeiros. Conclusão a equipe de enfermagem das unidades estudadas possui conhecimento sobre a administração de drogas vasoativas.


Objetivo evaluar el conocimiento del equipo de enfermería sobre la administración de drogas vaso-activas. Método estudio descriptivo, transversal y cuantitativo, realizado con 119 profesionales de enfermería en siete unidades de terapia intensiva. Para la recolección de datos, fue utilizada una ficha para caracterización de la muestra y fue desarrollado un instrumento conteniendo 14 preguntas de múltiple elección que evaluaban el conocimiento sobre la preparación, la instalación y la manutención de la infusión de las drogas vaso-activas. El instrumento fue aplicado en los meses de junio y julio de 2015. En el análisis de las medias de las respuestas obtenidas en las evaluaciones, fue considerada satisfactoria una nota igual o superior a 5,0. Resultados las medias fueron de 6,6 (dp ±1,6) para los auxiliares de enfermería, 6,7 (dp ± 1,6) para los técnicos de enfermería y 7,8 (dp ± 1,0) para los enfermeros. Conclusión el equipo de enfermería de las unidades estudiadas posee conocimiento sobre la administración de drogas vaso-activas.


Objective to evaluate the knowledge of the nursing team about the administration of vasoactive drugs. Method descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study, carried out with 119 nursing professionals in seven intensive care units. A sample characterization card was used to collect data, and an instrument with 14 multiple-choice questions was developed to evaluate the knowledge about the preparation, installation and maintenance of vasoactive drug infusion. The instrument was applied in the months of June and July of 2015. In the analysis of the means of the answers obtained in the evaluations, a score equal or superior to 5.0 was considered satisfactory. Results the averages were 6.6 (± 1.6 SD) for nursing assistants, 6.7 (± 1.6 SD) for nursing technicians and 7.8 (± 1.0 SD) for nurses. Conclusion the nursing team of the studied units has knowledge about the administration of vasoactive drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Professional Competence , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Nursing, Team , Knowledge , Validation Study , Intensive Care Units
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(5): 1005-1009, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796900

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare the response to tiocolchicine and verapamil injection in the plaque of patients with Peyronie's disease. Materials and Methods: Prospective, single-blind, randomized study, selecting patients who have presented Peyronie's disease for less than 18 months. Thiocolchicine 4mg or verapamil 5mg were given in 7 injections (once a week). Patients who had received any treatment for Peyronie's disease in the past three months were excluded. The parameters used were the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) score, analysis of the curvature on pharmaco-induced erections and size of the plaque by ultrasonography. Results: Twenty-five patients were randomized, 13 received thiocolchicine and 12 were treated with verapamil. Both groups were statistically similar. The mean curvature was 46.7° and 36.2° before and after thiocolchicine, respectively (p=0.019) and 50.4° and 42.08° before and after verapamil, respectively (p=0.012). The curvature improved in 69% of patients treated with thiocolchicine and in 66% of those who received verapamil. Regarding sexual function, there was an increase in the IIEF-5 from 16.69 to 20.85 (p=0.23) in the thiocolchicine group. In the verapamil group the IIEF-5 score dropped from 17.50 to 16.25 (p=0.58). In the thiocolchicine group, the plaque was reduced in 61% of patients. In the verapamil group, 8% presented decreased plaque size. No adverse event was associated to thiocolchicine. Conclusion: The use of thiocolchicine in Peyronie's disease demonstrated improvement on penile curvature and reduction in plaque size. Thiocolchicine presented similar results to verapamil in curvature assessment. No significant side effects were observed with the use of tiocolchicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Penile Induration/drug therapy , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Verapamil/administration & dosage , Colchicine/analogs & derivatives , Time Factors , Penile Erection/drug effects , Injections, Intralesional , Single-Blind Method , Colchicine/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(7): 829-836, jul. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-793995

ABSTRACT

Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and progressive disease. Long-term survival remains poor despite of advances in specific vasodilator therapy. Aim: To describe the survival rate in a cohort of PAH patients in two referral centers in Chile. Patients and Methods: One hundred fifteen patients aged 43 ± 15.6 years (85% females) with PAH qualified for this study. Their median pulmonary artery pressure was 55.4 ± 14 mmHg and their six minutes walking capacity was 368 ± 119 m. They were followed for 58 ± 0.4 months and their actual survival rates were compared with the estimated survival using the equation proposed by the French registry of PAH. Results: One, two and three year survival rates were 97, 94 and 89%, respectively. The observed survival rates were greater than the estimated survival. Conclusions: The improvement in survival rates observed in this cohort of patients is similar to what has been described in literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Hypertension, Pulmonary/mortality , Chile , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy
11.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 26(1): 39-45, jan.-mar.2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-789775

ABSTRACT

A congestão pulmonar aguda no paciente com doença cardíaca é uma manifestação clínica de extrema gravidade, ocorrendo em aproximadamente 25% dos casosde insuficiência cardíaca aguda. O diagnóstico é essencialmente clínico, baseado na anamnese e exame físico. Os exames complementares não devem retardar o início do tratamento na sala de emergência. Descontrole pressórico, progressão da doença valvar, infarto do miocárdio e arritmias são fatores desencadeantes frequentes paraedema agudo de pulmão. O tratamento inicial fundamenta-se na suplementação de oxigênio e suporte ventilatório, administração de opioides, diuréticos e vasodilatadores endovenosos. Inotrópicos estão indicados na presença de instabilidade hemodinâmicacom disfunção orgânica...


Acute pulmonary congestion in patients with cardiac disease is a clinical manifestation of extreme severity, occurring in approximately 25% of cases of acute heart failure. Diagnosis is essentially clinical, based on history and physical examination. Complementarytests should not delay the start of treatment in the emergency room. Uncontrolled blood pressure, progression of valvular disease, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmias are common triggers for acute pulmonary edema. Initial treatment is based on supplemental oxygen and ventilatory support, administration of opioids, intravenous diuretics, andvasodilators. Inotropic agents are indicated in the presence of hemodynamic instability with organ dysfunction...


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Edema/complications , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Atria , Cardiotonic Agents , Dyspnea/complications , Diuretics/administration & dosage , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Risk Factors , Morphine/administration & dosage , Ultrafiltration/methods , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage
12.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci; Accorsi, Tarso augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. São Paulo, Manole, 2016. p.181-192.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971588
13.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2015 Jul; 18(3): 394-402
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162345

ABSTRACT

Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) are at high risk for complications in the perioperative setting and often receive vasodilators to control elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Administration of vasodilators via inhalation is an effective strategy for reducing PAP while avoiding systemic side effects, chiefly hypotension. The prototypical inhaled pulmonary‑specific vasodilator, nitric oxide (NO), has a proven track record but is expensive and cumbersome to implement. Alternatives to NO, including prostanoids (such as epoprostenol, iloprost, and treprostinil), NO‑donating drugs (sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, and nitrite), and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (milrinone, sildenafil) may be given via inhalation for the purpose of treating elevated PAP. This review will focus on the perioperative therapy of PH using inhaled vasodilators.


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Anesthetics, Inhalation , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Nitric Oxide Donors/administration & dosage , Perioperative Period , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 85(2): 136-144, abr.-jun. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-754936

ABSTRACT

El iloprost inhalado es uno de los fármacos más recientes del grupo de prostanoides en el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial pulmonar. No se ha definido su importancia en la hipertensión pulmonar en el perioperatorio de cirugía cardiovascular. En esta revisión se analizan los grupos con hipertensión pulmonar susceptibles de cirugía cardiaca, la importancia de la hipertensión pulmonar en cirugía cardiaca y, además, la evidencia clínica actual del uso del fármaco en este contexto.


Inhaled iloprost is one of the most recent drugs from prostanoids group's in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. His place in pulmonary hypertension seen in the perioperative cardiovascular surgery has not been defined. In this review we analyze pulmonary hypertension group's susceptibles of cardiac surgery and its importance, besides the current clinical evidence from drug use in this context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Iloprost/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Cardiac Surgical Procedures
16.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 34(2): 100-105, 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762610

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El efecto de prostanoides inhalatorios sobre la función auricular derecha (AD) en hipertensión arterial idiopática (HAP) no ha sido estudiado. Objetivo: Evaluar cambios agudos en la función AD y función diastólica del ventrículo derecho en pacientes con HAP post uso de Iloprost inhalatorio. Métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes con HAP sin uso previo de prostanoides. Se realizó un ecocardiograma transtorácico basal y 30 min posterior a la inhalación de iloprost. Se midió dimensión AD, relación E/e' y strain de la AD por speckle tracking, registrando la onda negativa de contracción auricular (SaAD) y la onda positiva de la fase de reservorio (SsAD). Se midió el tiempo de inicio de la fase de reservorio AD durante el sístole ventricular. Resultados: Se estudiaron 16 pacientes (15 mujeres), con edad promedio 44 ± 7,8 años. Post Iloprost disminuyó el volumen AD (basal: 140ml, post Iloprost: 109 ml; p 0,008) y las presiones de llenado (E/e’ basal: 13, post Iloprost: 9,8; p 0,028). No se registraron diferencias en el SaAD (basal: -8,4%, post Iloprost: -8,5%; p 0,834). El SsAD fue mayor post Iloprost (basal: 8,6%, post Iloprost: 11,7%; p 0,002) iniciándose antes durante el sístole ventricular (basal: 445ms, post Iloprost: 368ms; p 0,001). Conclusión: Con Iloprost inhalatorio en pacientes con HAP se observa una reducción aguda en el tamaño de la AD y en las presiones de llenado del VD. La deformación durante la fase de reservorio de la AD aumenta y se inicia significativamente antes. Esto sugiere que el Iloprost podría mejorar en forma aguda el trabajo mecánico de la AD en paciente con HAP.


Background: The effects of inhaled prostanoids on right atrial (RA) function in patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) have not been studied. We evaluated acute changes in RA function and right ventricular diastolic function after inhaled iloprost. Methods: We included PAH patients without prior prostanoid treatment. A surface echocardiogram was performed at baseline and 30 minutes after iloprost inhalation. Measurements included RA dimensions, right E/e’ ratio and RA strain by speckle tracking, registering a RA contraction wave (RASa) and RA reservoir wave (RASs). RA time to peak of deformation during the reservoir phase was also measured. Results: We included 16 patients (15 females, aged 44±7.8 years. Post iloprost there was a reduction in RA volume (baseline: 140ml, post iloprost: 109ml; p 0.008) and right ventricular filling pressure (baseline E/e’: 13, post iloprost: 9.8; p 0.028). There was no difference in the magnitude of the RASa wave (baseline: -8.4%, post iloprost: -8.5%; p 0.834). The RASs wave was larger post iloprost (baseline: 8.6%, post iloprost: 11.7%; p 0.002), and began earlier (baseline RA time to peak of deformation during reservoir phase: 445ms, post iloprost: 368ms; p 0.001). Conclusion: Inhaled iloprost acutely reduces RA size and right ventricular filling pressure in patients with HAP It also significantly increases the magnitude of RA systolic deformation as well as making it occur earlier in RA filling phase. This suggests that iloprost might improve RA mechanical performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Atrial Function, Right/drug effects , Iloprost/administration & dosage , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Echocardiography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology
17.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 84(3): 202-210, jul.-sep. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-732028

ABSTRACT

El iloprost inhalado es un fármaco del grupo de las prostaciclinas utilizado en el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial pulmonar. La eficacia y seguridad de su administración han permitido su uso como monoterapia y en terapia combinada. En esta revisión se describen las características del medicamento, los grupos susceptibles de tratamiento y la evidencia clínica actualizada del uso del fármaco.


Inhaled iloprost is a drug from the group of prostacyclins used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Its efficacy and safety have allowed its use as monotherapy and combination therapy. This review describes the product characteristics, amenable to treatment groups, and updated clinical evidence of drug use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Iloprost/administration & dosage , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Drug Therapy, Combination
18.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 64(4): 281-285, Jul-Aug/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720476

ABSTRACT

A 58-year-old female without cardiovascular risk factors, was going to be operated to repair the rotator cuff. Induction and interscalene brachial plexus block were uneventful, but after her placement for surgery the patient started with severe bronchospasm, hypotension, cutaneous allergic reaction and ST elevation on the electrocardiogram. An anaphylactic shock was suspected and treated but until the perfusion of nitroglycerina was started no electrocardiographic changes resolved. After necessary diagnostic test the final diagnosis was variant I of Kounis syndrome due to cefazolin and rocuronium. Ephinephrine is the cornerstone of treatment for anaphylaxis but should we use it if the anaphylactic reaction is also accompanied by myocardial ischemia? The answer is that we should not use it because myocardial ischemia in this syndrome is caused by vasospasm, so it would be more useful drugs such as nitroglycerin. But what if we do not know if it is a Kounis syndrome or not? In this article we report our experience that maybe could help you in a similar situation.


Paciente do sexo feminino, 58 anos, sem fator de risco cardiovascular, submetida a cirurgia para reparação do manguito rotador. A indução do bloqueio do plexo braquial interescalênico foi feita sem intercorrência, mas, após seu posicionamento para a cirurgia, a paciente apresentou broncoespasmo grave, hipotensão, reação alérgica cutânea e elevação do segmento ST ao eletrocardiograma. Houve suspeita de choque anafilático que foi tratado, mas até que a perfusão de nitroglicerina fosse iniciada não houve resolução das alterações eletrocardiográficas. Após teste diagnóstico necessário, o diagnóstico final foi de variante tipo I da síndrome de Kounis por causa de cefazolina e rocurônio. Epinefrina é a base sólida do tratamento para anafilaxia, mas devemos usá-la se a reação anafilática também for acompanhada de isquemia miocárdica? A resposta é que não devemos usá-la, porque a isquemia miocárdica nessa síndrome é causada por vasoespasmo; portanto, drogas como a nitroglicerina seriam mais úteis. Porém, e quando não sabemos se é ou não uma síndrome de Kounis? Neste artigo relatamos nossa experiência que, talvez, possa ajudar em uma situação similar.


Paciente del sexo femenino, 58 años de edad, sin factor de riesgo cardiovascular, sometida a cirugía para la reparación del manguito rotador. La inducción del bloqueo del plexo braquial interescalénico fue realizada sin intercurrencias, pero después de su posicionamiento para la cirugía, la paciente presentó broncoespasmo grave, hipotensión, reacción alérgica cutánea y elevación del segmento ST al electrocardiograma. Hubo sospecha de choque anafiláctico que fue tratado, pero hasta que la perfusión de nitroglicerina se iniciase no hubo resolución de las alteraciones electrocardiográficas. Después del test diagnóstico necesario, el diagnóstico final fue de variante tipo i del síndrome de Kounis debido a la cefazolina y al rocuronio. La epinefrina es la base sólida del tratamiento para la anafilaxia, pero ¿debemos usarla si la reacción anafiláctica también viene seguida de isquemia miocárdica? La respuesta es que no debemos usarla porque la isquemia miocárdica en ese síndrome está causada por el vasoespasmo; por tanto, fármacos como la nitroglicerina serían más útiles. Sin embargo, ¿y cuando no sabemos si es o no un síndrome de Kounis? En este artículo, relatamos nuestra experiencia que, tal vez, pueda ayudarle a usted a hacer frente a una situación similar.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Coronary Vasospasm/drug therapy , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , Nitroglycerin/administration & dosage , Androstanols/adverse effects , Cefazolin/adverse effects , Coronary Vasospasm/diagnosis , Coronary Vasospasm/etiology , Electrocardiography , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Rotator Cuff/surgery , Syndrome , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 72(6): 411-417, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712680

ABSTRACT

The effects of galantamine (GAL) on quality of life (QoL) and cognitive speed, as well its effects combined with nimodipine (NIM) in Alzheimer disease (AD) with cerebrovascular disease (mixed dementia), have not been explored. Method : Double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter Brazilian trial, studying the effects of GAL/NIM vs. GAL/placebo (PLA) in mild to moderate mixed dementia. Patients were randomized to receive GAL/NIM or GAL/PLA for 24 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were changes on a computerized neuropsychological battery (CNTB) and QoL Scale in Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) from baseline to week 24. Results : Twenty-one patients received at least one drug dose (9 GAL/NIM and 12 GAL/PLA). Groups were matched for age, sex, education, cognitive and QoL scores at baseline. No significant differences were observed between groups on primary or secondary measures. QoL and cognitive performance showed significant improvement (p<0.05) from baseline when all GAL-treated patients were analyzed. Adverse events were predominantly mild to moderate. Conclusion : GAL treatment improved QoL in mixed dementia, in addition to its previously known cognitive benefits. The combination GAL/NIM was not advantageous. However, the small sample size precludes any definitive conclusions. Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00814658 .


Os efeitos da galantamina (GAL) sobre qualidade de vida (QdV) e velocidade de processamento cognitivo, bem como da combinação com nimodipina (NIM) no tratamento da doença de Alzheimer (DA) com doença cerebrovascular (demência mista) ainda não foram investigados. Método : Estudo multicêntrico brasileiro, duplo-cego, controlado com placebo, avaliando os efeitos de GAL/NIM x GAL/placebo (PLA) na demência mista leve a moderada. Pacientes receberam tratamento com GAL/NIM ou GAL/PLA por 24 semanas. Medidas de eficácia primária foram as variações no desempenho em bateria de testes neuropsicológicos computadorizados e na escala QdV-DA ao final do estudo. Resultados : Vinte um pacientes receberam pelo menos uma dose da droga (9 GAL/NIM e 12 GAL/PLA). Os grupos foram emparelhados por idade, sexo, escolaridade, escores cognitivos e de QdV na linha de base. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos nas medidas de eficácia primária e secundária. Na avaliação de todos os pacientes que receberam GAL, houve melhora significativa (p<0,05) em QdV-DA e desempenho cognitivo. Os eventos adversos foram predominantemente leves a moderados. Conclusão : O tratamento com GAL proporcionou melhora da QdV na demência mista, além dos benefícios cognitivos previamente conhecidos. A combinação GAL/NIM não foi vantajosa. O reduzido tamanho amostral impede conclusões definitivas. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cognition/drug effects , Dementia/drug therapy , Galantamine/administration & dosage , Nimodipine/administration & dosage , Quality of Life , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/drug therapy , Cognition/physiology , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Neuropsychological Tests , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 33(1): 20-26, 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-713522

ABSTRACT

La angiografía coronaria permanece como "gold standard" para el diagnóstico y toma de decisiones en la enfermedad coronaria. Sin embargo, la significación de lesiones con estenosis de 50-70 por ciento es difícil. La medición de la reserva de flujo fraccional (FFR) es una herramienta útil para dilucidar esta interrogante. Generalmente se usa adenosina (A) en bolo intracoronario para inducir máxima vasodilatación y hay poca evidencia para drogas alternativas con este objeto. En este estudio evaluamos el uso de nitroprusiato (N) como droga alternativa. Métodos y Resultados: Se efectuó un estudio clínico aleatorizado. A (120 ug IC) y posteriormente N (50 ug IC), o vice-versa, se usaron para evaluar cada lesión. Se evaluaron 60 lesiones en 44 pacientes (24 hombres) de 63.5 +/- 9.6 años, con masa corporal 28.95 +/- 3.32 kg/m2. Las lesiones se localizaron en arteria descendente anterior en 46.7 por ciento, coronaria derecha en 26.7 por ciento, circunfleja en 11.7 por ciento y 13.9 por ciento en las otras arterias. La estenosis coronaria promedio evaluada por angiografía cuantitativa fue 49.5 por ciento (95 por ciento CI: 46.5 - 52.5 por ciento). La presión arterial media (PAM) basal fue similar en ambos grupos (pre - A: 106.5 +/- 18.2 mmHg, pre - N: 105.6 +/- 18.8 mmHg, NS) o después de A, pero se observó un descenso transitorio después de NP (descenso promedio de 12.5 mmHg, 95 por ciento CI: 9.2 a15.7 mmHg, 2p < 0.001). Este efecto estaba asociado a la hiperemia prolongada lograda con N. (duración de hiperemia con N: 39.2 +/- 8.7 s., y con A of 15.3 +/- 3.2 s. 2p < 0.001). Hubo excelente correlación entre los resultados de A y de N respecto de FFR (r 0.986)...


Abstract: Coronary angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosing coronary artery disease and making therapeutic decisions. However the significance of intermediate lesions (between 50-70%) is difficult to evaluate. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement is an important tool for the evaluation of these lesions. To achieve maximum vasodilatation, Intracoronary (IC) bolus or a continuous intravenous infusion of (A) is usually used. There is very little data for an alternative drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate Sodium nitroprusside (N) 50 IC bolus as an alternative to A for to determine FFR.Method and Results: A multicentric, randomized clinical trial was conducted. A, (120 IC) and subsequently N (50 IC) or vice versa was used for every lesion. 60 coronary lesions were evaluated in 44 patients (24 men and 20 women), mean age 63.5 ± 9.6 years and BMI 28.95 ± 3.32 kg/m2. The lesions were located in the left anterior descending artery in 46.7% of patients, the right coronary in 26.7%, the circumflex in 11.7% and others in 13.9%. Mean coronary artery stenosis as assessed by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) was 49.5% (95% CI: 46.5 - 52.5%).The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was similar in groups at baseline.(pre - A: 106.5 ± 18.2 mmHg, pre - N: 105.6 ± 18.8 mmHg, NS), or after A, but there was a transient decrease in MAP when N was administered (average decline of MAP: 12.5 mmHg, (95% CI: 9.2 to 15.7 mmHg, 2p < 0.001). This effect was due to the prolonged hypere-mia time achieved with the drug (hyperemia duration with nitroprusside 39.2 ± 8.7 sec. and with adenosine of 15.3 ± 3.2 sec. 2p < 0.001). We could demonstrate an excellent correlation between IC nitroprusside and IC adenosine with regard to FFR measurement, (correlation coefficient = 0.986, p < 0.001)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Nitroprusside/administration & dosage , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Adenosine/administration & dosage , Coronary Circulation/physiology , Hyperemia/chemically induced , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Time Factors , Vasodilation , Blood Flow Velocity , Blood Flow Velocity/physiology
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