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1.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e2029, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347519

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dengue es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el virus del dengue. Es un problema complejo tanto por su magnitud como por los elementos que hay que tener presentes para su control. En la situación actual de nuestra Región, esta realidad constituye un reto para el control del mosquito vector, y, por tanto, de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Caracterizar a esta enfermedad y demostrar la necesidad de realizar acciones comunitarias para control del dengue y su prevención. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de documentos de sociedades científicas dedicadas a la Epidemiologia en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud (BVS) con límite de fecha de abril de 2015 a abril de 2020, e incluyendo artículos tanto en inglés como en español. Se localizaron 262 estudios finalmente se seleccionaron 20. Conclusiones: En el futuro se espera la aparición de cepas productoras de una mayor viremia por la diversidad genética del virus, con casos clínicos más complicados; se está ante una enfermedad que ofrece un reto a los médicos, de ahí la importancia de trabajar en su prevención para evitar la propagación de la enfermedad en nuestra población(AU)


Introduction: Dengue is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus. It is a complex problem both because of its magnitude and because of the elements that must be taken into account to its control. In our region current situation, this reality constitutes a challenge for the control of the mosquito vector, and therefore, of the disease. Objective: To describe this disease and to demonstrate the need for community actions to control dengue and its prevention. Methods: A systematic review of documents from scientific societies dedicated to Epidemiology was carried out in the Virtual Health Library (VHL) with a date limit from April 2015 to April 2020, and including articles in both English and Spanish. Two hundred sixty-two studies were located, finally 20 were selected. Conclusions: In the future, the appearance of strains producing higher viremia due to the genetic diversity of the virus is expected, with more complicated clinical cases. We are facing a disease that offers a challenge to doctors, hence the importance of working on its prevention to avoid the spread of the disease in our population(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aedes , Vector Control , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue Virus
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 153-160, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249067

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. El programa de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores en México tiene una red establecida de ovitrampas para la vigilancia entomológica de Aedes spp. Los servicios de salud del estado de Yucatán, en respuesta a reportes de Aedes albopictus en la periferia de Mérida, capital del estado, incrementaron la especificidad de dicha vigilancia. Objetivo. Describir la presencia y distribución de Ae. albopictus en Mérida y su abundancia relativa comparada con Aedes aegypti, en ovitrampas del programa de control de vectores. Materiales y métodos. Durante octubre de 2019, se seleccionaron al azar 91 ovitrampas en 31 barrios de Mérida. Los mosquitos adultos se obtuvieron del insectario de la Unidad Colaborativa para Bioensayos Entomológicos de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán a partir de huevos recolectados en campo. Se determinó la abundancia relativa de individuos adultos de cada especie identificada y por barrios evaluados. Resultados. En el 32 % de los barrios muestreados, se detectó Ae. albopictus y, en todos ellos, Ae. aegypti. Se recolectaron 28 adultos de Ae. albopictus (10 hembras y 18 machos) en las ovitrampas. No se observó correlación entre la abundancia de adultos ni de hembras Ae. aegypti y Ae. albopictus por barrio (p>0,05). Conclusiones. Los resultados confirmaron que Ae. albopictus estaba coexistiendo con Ae.aegypti en Mérida en el momento del estudio. La baja abundancia relativa sugiere que Ae.albopictus se encontraba en la fase inicial de invasión.


Abstract | Introduction:The vector-borne diseases program in México has an established network of ovitraps for entomological surveillance of Aedes spp. In response to reports of Aedes albopictus in the periphery of Mérida, the state capital of Yucatán, the Ministry of Health increased the specificity of this surveillance. Objective: To describe the presence and distribution of Ae. albopictus in Mérida and its relative abundance compared to Aedesaegypti in ovitraps of the vector control program. Materials and methods: During October, 2019, 91 ovitraps were randomly selected from 31 neighborhoods of Mérida. Mosquitoes were reared at the insectary of the Collaborative Unit for Entomological Bioassays of the Autonomous University of Yucatán from eggs collected in the field. Relative abundance was determined for adult individuals of each identified species and neighborhood. Results: 32 % of the neighborhoods were positive for Ae. albopictus and 100 % for Ae. aegypti. A total of 28 adults of Ae. albopictus (10 females and 18 males) were obtained from ovitraps. No correlation was observed between the abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for both adults and females (p>0.05) at the neighborhood level. Conclusions: The results confirm that Ae. albopictus coexisted with Ae. aegypti in Mérida at the time of the study. The low relative abundance suggests that Ae. albopictus was in the initial phase of invasion.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Mexico , Vector Control , Mosquito Vectors , Vector Borne Diseases
3.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(1): 2784-2794, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156775

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el cáncer cérvico uterino constituye un problema de salud para la humanidad. El estudio de sus factores de riesgo representa prioridad para el sistema de salud cubano. Objetivo: conocer el comportamiento de los factores de riesgo del cáncer cérvico uterino, en estudiantes de las carreras de Higiene-Epidemiología-Vigilancia y Lucha Antivectorial de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas. Materiales y métodos: investigación descriptiva, transversal, retrospectiva que se insertó en el Programa Ramal Enfermedades Crónicas no Transmisibles. Se trabajó con el universo de 50 alumnos de las carreras de Higiene- Epidemiología-Vigilancia y Lucha Antivectorial de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas. Resultados: según edad de inicio de las relaciones sexuales, se observó mayor predominio a los 14 años de edad. Presencia de múltiples compañeros sexuales, relaciones sexuales desprotegidas, uso de tabletas anticonceptivas, hábito de fumar, manipulaciones ginecológicas, así como infecciones de transmisión sexual. Especial significación tuvo la evidencia de cifras significativas de múltiples compañeros sexuales y el uso de tabletas anticonceptivas. Entre la distribución de motivos que impulsaron al inicio de relaciones sexuales, se destacaron los de experimentar sensaciones nuevas con el 28 %, y búsqueda de placer con la pareja en 55 %. El 92 %, desconocían los factores de riesgo de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: los estudiantes presentaron factores de riesgo de considerable magnitud de padecer cáncer cérvico uterino (AU).


SUMMARY Introduction: cervical cancer is a health problem for the humankind. The study of its risk factors stands as a priority for the Cuban health system. Objective: to know the behavior of cervical cancer risk factors in students of the studies of Hygiene-Epidemiology-Vector Surveillance and Control of the Matanzas University of Medical Sciences. Materials and methods: retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive research inserted into the Branch Program of Chronic Non-communicable Diseases. It dealt with the universe of 50 students of the studies of Hygiene-Epidemiology-Vectorial Surveillance and Control of the Matanzas University of Medical Sciences. Results: in relation to the age of beginning to have sexual relationships, it was observed the predominance of the age of 14 years. The presence of multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, use of contraceptive tablets, smoking habit, gynecological manipulations, and sexually transmitted infections are other risk factors found. Special significance had the existence of multiple sexual partners and the use of contraceptive tables. Among the motivations leading to early beginning to have sexual relationships, experiencing new sensations with 28 % and seeking for pleasure with the couple with 55 % stood out. 92 % did not know the disease's risk factors. Conclusions: the students presented pronounced magnitude risk factors of suffering cervical cancer (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Uterine Neoplasms/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Chronic Disease , Risk Factors , Uterine Neoplasms/prevention & control , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Vector Control , Epidemiologic Surveillance Services
4.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 118-125, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1353017

ABSTRACT

En Guatemala en el 2015, el Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social (MSPAS) reportó nuevos casos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la región suroriental del país, siendo Santa Rosa uno de los departamentos endémicos en donde Triatoma dimidiata es el principal transmisor. Se estimó la infestación de T. dimidiata en la aldea Chuchuapa, municipio de Santa María Ixhuatán, de abril a junio de 2019, se calcularon los índices en-tomológicos y se caracterizaron intra y peridomiciliar 149 viviendas (79.67% de las viviendas habitadas). Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un cuestionario mixto, en entrevista cara a cara y evaluación de las viviendas, por un equipo profesional experimentado, mediante el método y protocolo estándar hombre-hora. Se capturaron 20 triatominos en 10 viviendas, con un índice de infestación de 6.71% (10/149), un índice de densidad de 13.42% (20/149), 19 triatominos intradomiciliares y uno peridomiciliar, con un índice de infección natural por Tr y pano-soma cruzi intradomiciliar de 26.3% (5/19), índice de infección natural por T. cr u z i peridomiciliar de 100.0% (1/1) e índice de infección natural por T. c r u z i en los triatominos capturados de 30.0 % (6/20). Las viviendas infestadas presentaron techo de lámina, pared de bajareque con grietas y sin repello, piso de tierra y afiches en la pared, acumulación de leña u otros materiales tanto intra como peridomiciliar, convivencia con animales domésticos y tenencia de animales de corral. Los resultados representan un alto riesgo para la transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas entre los habitantes de la aldea.


In Guatemala in 2015, the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance reported new cases of Chagas disease in the southeastern region of the country, with Santa Rosa being one of the endemic departments where Tr ia-toma dimidiata is the main transmitter. The infestation of T. dimidiata was estimated in the Chuchuapa village, municipality of Santa María Ixhuatán, from April to June 2019, the entomological indices were calculated and 149 dwellings were characterized intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary (79.67% of the inhabited dwellings). The data were obtained through a mixed questionnaire, in a face-to-face interview and evaluation of the dwellings, by an experienced professional team, using the standard man-hour method and protocol. 20 triatomines were captured in 10 homes, with an infestation index of 6.71% (10/149), a density index of 13.42% (20/149), 19 intradomiciliary triatomines and one peridomiciliary, with a natural infection index by intradomiciliary Trypanosomacruzi of 26.3% (5/19), natural infection index by peridomiciliary T. c r u z i of 100.0% (1/1) and natural infection index by T. c r u z i in captured triatomines of 30.0% (6/20). The infested dwellings have a sheet roof, awattle and daub wall with cracks and no wall plaster, dirt and posters on the wall, accumulation of firewood and other materials in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary, living with domestic animals and keeping poultry animals. The results represent a high risk for the transmission of Chagas disease among the villager.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Vector Control , Entomology , Housing , Poultry , Rural Population , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/parasitology , Lamins , Guatemala/epidemiology , Animals, Domestic
5.
Rio de Janeiro; Fiocruz; 2021. 172 p. (Temas em Saúde).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368588

ABSTRACT

Pretende refletir sobre a biologia e hábito de Aedes aegypti, discutir como ganhou a fama que tem hoje, que processos históricos e sociais geraram as condições para o aparecimento das arboviroses no Brasil. Apresenta iniciativas de prevenção vigilância e controle atualmente em vigor ou em avaliação, percorrendo a dimensão da comunicação sobre o mosquito.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections , Communicable Disease Control , Aedes/growth & development , Vector Control , Health Communication , Public Health Surveillance
6.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20201000. 17 p. tab.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1122778

ABSTRACT

El documento contiene las acciones necesarias para dar continuidad a la vigilancia y control vectorial del Aedes aegypti, en salvaguarda de la salud de las personas, en las regiones endémicas o en situación de alto riesgo, en el marco de la pandemia por la COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Risk , Coronavirus Infections , Vector Control , Surveillance , COVID-19 , Persons
7.
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(4)2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177494

ABSTRACT

The human species has an emotional connection with nature called "biophilia" (or, love for life). This connection goes from generation to generation, being one of the reasons why green spaces are present in large cities. Quinta da Boa Vista is a municipal park in Rio de Janeiro located in the São Cristóvão neighborhood in the northern part of the city. Its main attraction is the artificial lake system, a leisure attraction for the local community. This article reports the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata and Physa acuta snails around the main lake in the Quinta da Boa Vista Municipal Park in Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Seventy-one B. glabrata and twenty-seven P. acuta snails were collected. The snails were measured and examined for the presence of trematode larvae according to standardized procedures. The prevalence rate of B. glabrata was estimated at 15.5%. Rediae and cercariae resembling those of the species Typhlocoelum cucumerinum (Typhlocoelidae, Digenea) which parasitizes aquatic birds of the order Anseriformes were found. This study reinforces the importance of monitoring park lakes and ponds to better understand the risk of helminth transmission by molluscan vectors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosomiasis , Snails , Vector Control , Helminths
8.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2020. xv, 83 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128741

ABSTRACT

O estudo de características comportamentais e fisiológicas em mosquitos tem sido feito principalmente em fêmeas, já que os machos não são hematófagos e por isso não são vetores de parasitas que causam doenças na população humana. No entanto, o estudo do comportamento reprodutivo de machos é de grande importância, já que dele depende o sucesso reprodutivo e a perpetuação da espécie. O reconhecimento e a corte configuram a comunicação pré-cópula entre machos e fêmeas e são etapas essenciais para que a cópula seja bem-sucedida. Portanto, qualquer fator que altere o reconhecimento pré-cópula pode afetar o crescimento populacional dessas espécies. O conhecimento acerca desse tema tem potencial de gerar informações úteis para o avanço de estratégias de controle de vetores. Funções como reprodução, alimentação e oviposição estão associadas com a atividade locomotora, e algumas dessas funções ocorrem em ciclos rítmicos. Quando estes ciclos se mantêm em condições de claro/escuro e escuro constante, estão sob a regulação de um marca-passo endógeno, chamado de relógio circadiano. Em Araripe et al. (2018), nosso grupo estudou o comportamento de machos de Aedes aegypti e foi encontrado que os machos têm sua atividade locomotora significativamente alterada quando expostos a fêmeas virgens confinadas.


A partir disso, os objetivos deste projeto foram investigar se a alteração comportamental observada em machos expostos a fêmeas está associada com alterações em nível de expressão de alguns dos principais genes do relógio circadiano e genes envolvidos com a percepção olfativa e com o comportamento reprodutivo, ao longo de 24 horas (LD12:12). Reações de PCR Quantitativo em Tempo Real foram realizadas para os genes period, cycle, cryptocrhome 2, Orco e fruitless em amostras de cabeças, antenas e pontas de abdômen de machos nas seguintes condições: "machos sozinhos", "machos com fêmeas", "machos sem antenas sozinhos" e "machos sem antenas com fêmeas". O gene period apresentou um padrão de expressão conservado em todas os tecidos e condições. O gene cycle apresentou uma variação no pico de expressão, dentro da fase clara, em todos tecidos, enquanto o vale foi bem definido. O gene cryptochrome 2 apresentou diferenças entre as condições, sugerindo que a presença de fêmeas tem efeito sobre a expressão. Em cabeças, pontas de abdômen e antenas de machos com fêmeas, o perfil de expressão de cry2 apresentou uma maior diferença entre a amplitude da expressão no início da fase clara e o pico de expressão na fase escura, do que a diferença observada nos machos sozinhos. Já para os genes Orco e fruitless foram observados perfis arrítmicos. A ablação de antenas não afetou o perfil de expressão dos genes estudados, sugerindo que machos sem antenas conseguem perceber a presença de fêmeas por outros sentidos que não a audição e o olfato (ex: visão e tato). (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Circadian Rhythm , Aedes , Vector Control , Reproductive Behavior , Culicidae
9.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 10(2): 1047-1056, oct. 2019-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118516

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: El dengue es una enfermedad de presentación clínica variable, de manejo sencillo en la gran mayoría de las veces, ocasiona un enorme desafío al sistema de salud al presentarse en epidemias. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio de enfoque cuantitativo, no experimental, analítico de corte transversal, retrospectivo. Se analizaron el total de casos de dengue grave registrados en el Hospital Mario Catarino Rivas de enero a junio del año 2019 atendidos en las salas de observación, sala de dengue y UCIP (unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos). Se empleó muestreo por conveniencia, se registraron 5,000 casos de dengue, 287 con diagnóstico de dengue grave, constituyendo la muestra de estudio. Resultados: La edad promedio de 9.8 ± 3.4 años, El 57,5% de la muestra pertenece al género femenino, el restante 42,5% al masculino. En su totalidad el grupo estudiado presento fiebre, 70,03% dolor abdominal, 65,9% diarrea, 56,44% mialgias, 47,4% cefalea, 35,2% vómitos, 20,2% petequias y el 13,5% nauseas, entre sus complicaciones encontramos que el 94,07% presento estado de choque, 12,2% alteraciones ácido-base, y 6,6% mostro alteraciones neurológicas. Conclusiones: La principal prevención es interrumpir la cadena de transmisión, mediante el control de la infestación del vector, eliminando sus criaderos. Se requiere de educación sanitaria y reordenamiento ambiental, con participación comunitaria y multisectorial...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aedes , Dengue/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/complications , Vector Control
11.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 35(2): e831, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093498

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En los últimos años, debido a los movimientos migratorios, se ha desarrollado una expansión de nuevas enfermedades, como chikungunya, zika, oropuche y mayaro. Caso clínico: Paciente que manifestaba síntomas de fiebre, cefalea y artralgias persistente. Después de un arduo estudio y eliminación de otras patologías se llega al diagnóstico de virus mayaro. El paciente residía en una zona nororiental del Perú. Se brindó tratamiento de soporte junto con hidratación, paracetamol 500 mg cada 8 horas y se indicó cita diaria para evaluación. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente a los pocos días. Conclusiones: La vigilancia, las pruebas y el control vectorial siguen siendo claves para prevenir la propagación de este tipo de virus. La posibilidad de que el virus mayaro se urbanice aún más. Se debe tener siempre en cuenta el diagnóstico diferencial de virus mayaro(AU)


Introduction: In recent years, due to migratory movements, an expansion of new diseases has developed, such as chikungunya, zika, oropuche and mayaro. Clinical case: Patient with the following symptoms: fever, headache and persistent arthralgia. After an arduous study and ruling out other possible diseases, we diagnose mayaro virus. The patient resided in a northeastern part of Peru. Supportive treatment was provided along with hydration; paracetamol 500 mg every 8 hours and daily appointment for evaluation was indicated. The patient evolved favorably within a few days. Conclusions: Surveillance, testing and vector control are still key to monitoring and preventing the spread of this type of virus. The possibility of mayaro virus becoming more urbanized is worthy of attention. The differential diagnosis of mayaro virus should always be considered(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Alphavirus Infections/prevention & control , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Vector Control , Peru
12.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 45(2): e1301, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1043007

ABSTRACT

La emergencia y reemergencia de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (ETV) es un suceso de gran relevancia en la actualidad, debido al cambio climático, a la urbanización no planificada, y al incremento y variación de la temperatura global.1) El vector Aedes Aegypti, es el mayor responsable de algunas ETV como dengue, chikunguya, y zika.1 A nivel mundial, el virus del dengue provoca 390 millones de infecciones anuales,2 con un número estimado de 20 000 fallecidos.3 Latinoamérica, en los últimos años, viene experimentando un incremento dramático de casos y muerte por dengue.1 Esta situación, provoca que las personas intenten mantener las principales medidas de prevención contra estas enfermedades. La finalidad de los programas de prevención, vigilancia y control vectorial a nivel mundial, es controlar la proliferación del vector que causa el dengue y otras ETV. Las prácticas proporcionadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) incluyen el uso de espirales antimosquitos (EAM), que son ampliamente utilizados por la comunidad. Sin embargo, poco se dice sobre el riesgo para la salud que representan esos productos.1 Los EAM están compuestos por piretroides (pesticidas artificiales, eficaces contra diversos géneros de mosquitos) que, al hacer combustión, produce humo con partículas pequeñas (< 1 µm) que pueden ingresar hasta los alveolos y causar problemas pulmonares, vómitos, diarrea, convulsiones, parálisis, entre otros.4 El International Programme on Chemical Safety, en 1989, afirmó: si el uso de EAM se da bajo las condiciones de uso recomendadas, es poco probable que represente un peligro para la salud; de igual manera, la OMS clasifica a los piretroides como levemente peligrosos.5 Un estudio aplicado en ratas reveló que el uso del EAM está relacionado a un mayor riesgo de producir daño pulmonar severo,6 y otro estudio...(AU)


Subject(s)
Pesticide Utilization , Aedes/microbiology , Vector Control , Vector Borne Diseases/prevention & control
13.
BEPA, Bol. epidemiol. paul. (Impr.) ; 16(185/186): 1-13, 2019. map, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1023376

ABSTRACT

Com a transmissão de doenças pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti há um crescente número de estratégias de combate e controle deste vetor. Dentre as estratégias para o controle das doenças transmitidas por Aedes aegypti, destaca-se a legislação que impõe caráter punitivo, como a aplicação de multas. Neste sentido, as secretarias municipais de saúde elaboram legislação própria contemplando especificidades locais. A região do Grupo de Vigilância Epidemiológica (GVE) XX Piracicaba-SP reporta transmissão de dengue desde os anos 1990 e mais recentemente de outras arboviroses como as febres chikungunya e Zika. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as legislações aplicáveis, elaboradas pelas equipes municipais, na região do GVE XX no combate ao vetor Aedes aegypti e identificar avanços e dificuldades na sua aplicação. Identificou-se que dos 26 municípios da área de abrangência do GVE XX, 17 (65%) aprovaram legislação própria para autuação. O estudo permitiu identificar a situação dos municípios da região do GVE XX quanto à existência e aplicação de legislação própria no controle do vetor, que os municípios ainda enfrentam dificuldades para a aplicação dessas legislações e que o nível regional pode apoiar as equipes na elaboração e aplicação da legislação.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Legislation , Vector Control
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180544, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti populations in Brazil have been subjected to insecticide selection pressures with variable levels and sources since 1967. Therefore, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MoH) coordinated the activities of an Ae. aegypti insecticide resistance monitoring network (MoReNAa) from 1999 to 2012. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to consolidate all information available from between 1985 and 2017 regarding the resistance status and mechanisms of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations against the main insecticide compounds used at the national level, including the larvicide temephos (an organophosphate) and the adulticide deltamethrin (a pyrethroid). METHODS Data were gathered from two sources: a bibliographic review of studies published from 1985 to 2017, and unpublished data produced by our team within the MoReNAa between 1998 and 2012. A total of 146 municipalities were included, many of which were evaluated several times, totalling 457 evaluations for temephos and 274 for deltamethrin. Insecticide resistance data from the five Brazilian regions were examined separately using annual records of both the MoH supply of insecticides to each state and the dengue incidence in each evaluated municipality. FINDINGS Ae. aegypti resistance to temephos and deltamethrin, the main larvicide and adulticide, respectively, employed against mosquitoes in Brazil for a long time, was found to be widespread in the country, although with some regional variations. Comparisons between metabolic and target-site resistance mechanisms showed that one or another of these was the main component of pesticide resistance in each studied population. MAIN CONCLUSIONS (i) A robust dataset on the assessments of the insecticide resistance of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations performed since 1985 was made available through our study. (ii) Our findings call into question the efficacy of chemical control as the sole methodology of vector control. (iii) It is necessary to ensure that sustainable insecticide resistance monitoring is maintained as a key component of integrated vector management. (iv) Consideration of additional parameters, beyond the supply of insecticides distributed by the MoH or the diverse local dynamics of dengue incidence, is necessary to find consistent correlations with heterogeneous vector resistance profiles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insecticide Resistance/immunology , Temefos/analysis , Aedes , Vector Control , Brazil/epidemiology
15.
Rev. patol. trop ; 48(4): 225-232, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099560

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the larvicidal activity of Pterodon polygalaeflorus oil extract against the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. For this, crushed P. polygalaeflorus fruit underwent solvent extraction to obtain the oil extract. The chemical characterization was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. For the bioassays third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were utilized. Tests were carried out to determine the larvicidal activity and the residual effect under laboratory conditions, as well as field screening (small scale). The major components of P. polygalaeflorus oil extract were, respectively, E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and bicyclogermacrene. Lethal concentrations of 50% and 90% were 36.5 and 64.8 ?g/mL respectively. The solution presented a residual effect for seven days and the efficiency of the product was preserved under field conditions. The results encourage continuing studies with the oil extract of P. polygalaeflorus as a research target for bioinsecticides.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Vector Control , Polygala , Larvicides , Insecticides
16.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 24(2): 108-114, jul.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-985680

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Ante la presencia de un probable brote asociado a IRAG Inusitado -2 casos de mortalidad notificados el 17-05-17 procedentes del área rural de San Luis de Palenque- o a enfermedad de Chagas agudo según los signos/síntomas manifestados, la Secretaría de Salud de Casanare, como parte de las acciones de investigación de brote de evento desconocido, aplicó una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP) frente a las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (ETV). Métodos. Estudio descriptivo de encuesta transversal; variables a estudio: características sociodemográficas, conocimiento de las ETV, signos/síntomas, conocimiento y utilización de medidas de control vectorial (MCV), acciones de prevención. Análisis mediante el uso de estadística descriptiva con el programa EPi-Info®7.1.2. Resultados. El 86,8% (33/43) de las viviendas estaba habitada, en cada una de ellas se aplicó la CAP, eran hombres 17(51,5%), mediana de edad 48(±15,1; r=20-69) y tiempo de residencia 21(±18,7) años; agricultores 11(33,3%), profesionales 2(6,1%) y trabajadores no calificados 8(24,2%); trabajan actualmente 15(45,5%). Conocen: Chikungunya 6(18,2%), Zika y fiebre amarilla 5(15,2%), Chagas y dengue 3(9,1%), encefalitis equina 2(6,1%), malaria y leishmaniasis 1(3,0%) respectivamente. En promedio, conocen signos/síntomas 37,1%(r=15-71), MCV 43,9%(r=15-85), usan MCV 18,4%(r=3-30); todos somos responsables del control vectorial 21(63,6%); principal responsabilidad de la autoridad en salud, fumigar 19(57,6%). Conclusiones. Se evidencia un leve conocimiento de las ETV, de signos y síntomas, medidas de control y muy Bajo uso de las mismas, a pesar de asumir como responsabilidad de todos, el control de vectores. Se recomienda fortalecer las medidas de información, comunicación y educación orientadas a la comunidad.


Abstract. Introduction. Due to a probable outbreak related to Acute Grave Respiratory Disease (AGRD) - 2 fatalities reported on 2017-05-17 from a rural zone of San Luis de Palenque- or Chagas disease, Secretary of Health Casanare applied a survey of Knowledges, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) on Vector-Borne diseases (VBD), as part of its investigation on an outbreak of unknown origin. Methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional study, with study variables: sociodemographic features, awareness of VBD, symptoms/signs, use of vector control measures (VCM) and preventive actions. Analysis was done with Epi Info® 7.1.2 using descriptive statistics. Results. KAP was applied on 86,8% (33/43) inhabited houses. KAP was answered by 17 men (51,5%), median age 48 yr-old (r=20-69), mean dwelling time 21-yr ± 18,7. By job, there were 11 farmers (33,3%), 2 professionals (6,1%), 8 non-qualified workers (24,2%), 15 employed (45,5%). On awareness of VBD: Chikungungya 6 (18,2%), Zika & Yellow Fever 5 (15,2%), Chagas & Dengue 3 (9,1%), equine encephalitis 2 (6,1%), malaria & leishmaniasis 1 (3,0%), respectively. On average, dwellers knew about symptoms/signs 37,1% (r=15-71) or VCM 43,9% (r=15-85), use VCM 18,4% (r=3-30); "all of us are responsible of vector control" 21 (63,6%); "main responsibility of health authorities is fumigation" 19 (57,6%). Conclusions. A fair knowledge on VBD, symptoms/signs, VCM is evident; there is very low use of the latter, in spite of assuming it as common responsibility. It is recommended to strengthen measures of Information-Education-Communication (IEC) directed towards the community.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Rural Areas , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vector Control , Farmers , Vector Borne Diseases , Signs and Symptoms , Yellow Fever , Leishmaniasis , Fumigation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Chagas Disease , Colombia , Encephalomyelitis, Equine , Control , Chikungunya Fever , Health Authorities , Malaria
17.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 70(3): 1-9, set.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991100

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Aedes aegypti es vector de virus dengue, chikungunya y Zika en Costa Rica. Su alta incidencia y carencia de vacunas hacen del control vectorial, incluyendo el químico, la única alternativa para disminuir su transmisión. El uso reiterativo de insecticidas propicia su resistencia. Objetivo: Determinar la resistencia y mecanismos de detoxificación enzimática a temefós e insecticidas piretroides en cepas de Ae. aegypti de tres distritos de la Región Pacífico Central de Costa Rica. Métodos: La resistencia a temefós, deltametrina y cipermetrina fue determinada en tres cepas de Barranca, Jacó y Quepos mediante bioensayos en larvas. Para cada insecticida se calculó la concentración letal 50 por ciento (CL50) y un factor de resistencia 50 por ciento(FR50), empleando la cepa Rockefeller como control. Ante la ocurrencia de resistencia, se repitieron los bioensayos utilizando butóxido de piperonilo, S,S,S, tributilfosforotritioato y ácido etacrínico que inhiben monooxigenasas, esterasas y glutatión S transferasa, respectivamente. Resultados: Ninguna cepa mostró resistencia a temefós. Las cepas Barranca y Jacó fueron resistentes a deltametrina (FR50= 7,38; 28,23, respectivamente). La cepa Jacó mostró, adicionalmente, resistencia a cipermetrina (FR50= 7,70). La cepa Quepos no mostró resistencia a ningún piretroide. Solo la cepa Barranca mostró disminución de resistencia a deltametrina asociada al butóxido de piperonilo denotando vinculación con monooxigenasas (FR50: 10,10). Para los otros casos de resistencia, ninguno de los sinergistas disminuyó la resistencia. Conclusiones: Las larvas de Ae. aegypti de las localidades evaluadas no mostraron resistencia a temefós. Respecto a piretroides se evidenció la aparición de resistencia que posiblemente no es mediada por detoxificación enzimática(AU)


Introduction: Aedes aegypti is the vector of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses in Costa Rica. The high incidence and the lack of vaccines make vector control, including chemical control, the only measure to prevent transmission. The repetitive use of insecticides may induce resistance. Objective: To determine resistance and enzymatic detoxifying mechanisms to temephos and pyrethroids insecticides in strains of Ae. aegypti from three districts of the Central Pacific Region of Costa Rica. Methods: Resistance to temephos, deltamethrin, and cypermethrin was determined in three strains of Barranca, Jacó, and Quepos by larval bioassays. In each test, the lethal concentration 50 percent (LC50) and a factor of resistance 50 percent (FR50) were calculated, using the Rockefeller strain as control. When resistance was observed, the bioassays were repeated using piperonyl butoxide, S,S,S, tributylphosphorotritioate, and ethacrynic acid, that inhibit monoxygenases, esterases, and glutathione S- transfererase, respectively. Results: None of the strains were resistant to temephos. Resistance to deltamethrin (FR50= 7.38 and FR50= 28.23, respectively) was determined in the strains from Barranca and Jacó, while resistance to cypermethrin was detected only in Jacó (FR50= 7.70). The Quepos strain was not resistant to any pyrethroid. Only the Barranca strain showed a decrease in the resistance to deltamethrin when piperonyl butoxide was used, linking the resistance to monooxygenase enzymes (FR50: 10.10). For the other cases, none of the synergists decreased the resistance. Conclusions: Larvae of Ae. aegypti from the localities evaluated were not resistant to temephos. With respect to pyrethroids, results show an emergence of resistance that may not be mediated by enzymatic detoxification(AU)


Subject(s)
Vector Control , Pyrethrins/standards , Aedes/pathogenicity , Costa Rica , Vector Control
18.
Rev. patol. trop ; 47(3): 183-194, set. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-946908

ABSTRACT

This work investigated the insecticidal activity of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) extracted from the species Anacardium humile, a native plant in the Cerrado biome, against Aedes aegypti. A. humile fruits were collected and kept in a forced ventilation kiln at 40ºC for seven days for CNSL extraction. Mortality tests were performed on third stage larvae, pupae and adults. In addition, female oviposition behavior, egg viability, and the residual effect of the solution on 3rd stage larvae were observed. The CNSL was diluted in decreasing gradient concentrations to obtain the Lethal Concentration (LC). In oviposition LC99 was used for larvae. Residual effect and oviposition tests were performed with LC99, LC 50 and LC90 were respectively obtained, 6.63 and 11.23 ppm for larvae. No mortality was observed in adults. The residual effect of the CNSL was five days in LC99. A repellent effect of CNSL on the females was noted, with a significant reduction of egg numbers and a change in egg stratification patterns in the oviposition substrate. The larval hatching rate of the eggs exposed to the substrate moistened with CNSL was significantly lower when compared to the control. The results evidenced the insecticidal activity of A. humile CNSL, suggesting it as a promising product in the quest for new botanical insecticides.


Subject(s)
Insecticides , Vector Control , Grassland
19.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 86(1/2): 7-10, ene-. jul. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007044

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dengue es la enfermedad viral transmitida por mosquitos con la propagación más rápida en el mundo. En Honduras constituye un importante problema de salud pública debido a su alta incidencia. Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis (Bti) es un agente de control biológico aplicado en el control de vectores, se ha utilizado recientemente como parte de la estrategia contra el Aedes aegypti en Honduras. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la susceptibilidad de la larva de Ae. aegypti a Bti en Tegucigalpa, Honduras para el año 2014. Métodos: Una muestra de 960 larvas de Ae. aegypti se recogieron de recipientes de almacenamiento en viviendas de las colonias La Cañada y Nueva Suyapa, ubicados en Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Los bioensayos se realizaron de acuerdo con las directrices emitidas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y la Red Latinoamericana de Control de Vectores. Se llevaron a cabo 12 bioensayos por cada concentración estudiada. Se utilizaron cuatro concentraciones de Bti: 0,5 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 2,5 mg/L y 5 mg/L. La mortalidad se registró a las 24 h. Resultados: Se encontraron valores de mortalidad larvaria de 98.734 % para la dosis de 0.5 mg/L; 99.375 % para 1 mg/L; 100 % para 2,5 mg/L y 100 % para 5 mg/l. Conclusiones: Bti ha probado ser efectivo contra las larvas de Ae. aegytpi, se recomienda su evaluación sistemática y de manera periódica para mejorar su aplicación y posible desarrollo de resistencia...(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis , Aedes , Dengue/complications , Vector Control
20.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1 ed; 20180400. 63 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-970083

ABSTRACT

La publicación da a conocer los aspectos de la vigilancia entomológica y las acciones de prevención y control del Aedes Aegypti, ya que les permitirá conocer las metodologías de vigilancia para un mejor control vectorial lo que redundará en la protección de la salud de la población expuesta al riesgo de enfermar por Dengue, Chikungunya y Zika.


Subject(s)
Vector Control , Insect Vectors
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