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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878359

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to use an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system to simulate the inhalation exposure of motorcycle exhaust particulates (MEPs) and then investigate the benchmark dose (BMD) of MEPs by evaluating cell relative viability (CRV) in lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells.@*Methods@#The MEPs dose was characterized by measuring the number concentration (NC), surface area concentration (SAC), and mass concentration (MC). BEAS-2B cells were exposed to MEPs at different concentrations @*Results@#Our results reveal that BMD of NC and SAC were estimated by the best-fitting Hill model, while MC was estimated by Polynomial model. The BMDL for CRV following ALI exposure to MEPs were as follows: 364.2#/cm @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that MEPs exposure


Subject(s)
Benchmarking/statistics & numerical data , Bronchi/physiology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/physiology , Humans , Motorcycles , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 118 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-882833

ABSTRACT

Ocorrem anualmente aproximadamente 600.000 mortes de crianças com até cinco anos, no mundo. Pneumonia é a principal causa e mais de 50 por cento destas mortes são atribuídas à poluição do ar. Ela ainda é responsável pelo aumento do risco de infecções respiratórias, asma, condições neonatais adversas e anomalias congênitas. A poluição do ar também afeta o desenvolvimento cognitivo de crianças e induz o desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas na idade adulta. Entre 70 e 80 por cento da poluição do ar em nações em desenvolvimento são de origem veicular. Objetivando definir critérios baseados em medições com sensoriamento remoto para identificação de veículos automotores leves do ciclo Otto com elevadas emissões de monóxido de carbono, hidrocarbonetos ou óxido nítrico, foram utilizados os dados secundários gerados pela Remote Sensing do Brasil Ltda dos quais foram selecionados 179.142 veículos em uso da frota circulante da cidade de São Paulo com medições completas dos índices de emissão dos poluentes monóxido de carbono (CO), hidrocarbonetos (HC) e óxido nítrico (NO) e ainda velocidade e aceleração do veículo quando da medição e inclinação da pista no local escolhido para as medições. Foram ajustados modelos estatísticos da classe Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) visando testar a influência do Tipo de Combustível, da Potência Específica do Veículo (VSP) e das Fases do Programa de Controle da Poluição do Ar por Veículos Automotores (Proconve) sobre as emissões de CO, HC e NO, medidos usando o Remote Sensing Device (RSD). As emissões foram então conceitualmente subdivididas em dois grupos: veículos com emissões normais e com emissões anormais, isso para os diversos poluentes em veículos das Fases L3, L4 e L5 que são as fases de interesse para o gerenciamento da qualidade do ar. Variáveis latentes foram definidas para indicarem as distribuições dos veículos em relação a esses grupos e Fases. O algoritmo Expectation-Maximization (EM) foi empregado para identificação dos parâmetros das distribuições. Para determinação dos valores associados aos veículos com elevadas emissões de determinado poluente e fase do Proconve, foi empregado o percentil 98 por cento da distribuição ajustada para os veículos dos grupos com emissões normais. Assim sendo, o Erro de Tipo I foi fixado em 2 por cento sendo que esse percentual foi estabelecido considerando o Erro de Tipo II, de apontar o veículo como tendo emissão normal quando na realidade trata-se de um high emitter. Através desta abordagem foram determinados os valores indicativos de veículos com elevadas emissões segundo o poluente e a Fase do Proconve. Os resultados apontaram decréscimo nas emissões de CO e de HC segundo as Fases do Proconve. Para o NO, o comportamento das emissões não acompanhou as reduções impostas pelas Fases do Proconve. Foi constatado que os veículos de 2005 a 2009, movidos exclusivamente a gasool, foram os que apresentaram as maiores emissões de NO. Diversos possíveis fatores causadores deste comportamento diferenciado do NO foram discutidos neste trabalho. Os dados de qualidade do ar detectaram aumento significativo nas concentrações ambientais de Óxidos de Nitrogênio (NOx) em 2007, quando foi monitorado este parâmetro no período de inverno, o que pode indicar a influência dos high emitters, mas necessita de estudos mais aprofundados para confirmação da causa deste comportamento


Approximately 600,000 deaths occur worldwide annually for children up to five years of age. Pneumonia is the leading cause and more than 50 per cent of these deaths are attributed to air pollution. It is still responsible for increased risk of respiratory infections, asthma, adverse neonatal conditions and congenital anomalies. Air pollution also affects the cognitive development of children and induces future development of chronic diseases in adulthood. In order to define criteria based on remote sensing measurements to identify Otto cycle light duty vehicles (LDV) with high emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons or nitric oxide it was used secondary data produced by Remote Sensing do Brasil Ltda, from which 179,142 inuse vehicles were selected, that belongs to the city of São Paulos current fleet. All those vehicles had complete measurements of emission of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitric oxide (NO), and also speed and acceleration of the vehicle during measurements, and slope of the track at the place chosen for the measurements. Statistical models of the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) class were adjusted to test the influence of fuel type, Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) and of the Brazilian Vehicle Emission Control Program [Proconve] phases on CO, HC and NO emissions, measured using Remote Sensing Device (RSD). The emissions were then conceptually subdivided into two groups: vehicles with normal and abnormal emission, for the various pollutants in vehicles of L3, L4 and L5 phases of Proconve, which were of interest for the air quality management. Latent variables were defined to indicate the distribution of vehicles in relation to those groups and phases. The algorithm Expectation Maximization (EM) was employed to identify all parameters of the distributions. We use the 98 per cent percentiles of the statistical distribution set, for vehicles of groups with normal emissions to determine the limit values for vehicles with high emissions of pollutants and Proconve Phase. Therefore, the Type I Error was set at 2 per cent and this percentage was established considering the Type II Error to point the vehicle as having normal emission when in fact it is a high emitter. Through this approach, the indicative values of vehicles with high emissions according to the pollutant and the Proconve Phase were determined. Results of emissions measured with the RSD technique indicated a decrease in CO and HC emissions according to the Proconve Phase. For the NO, the emissions behavior did not follow the reductions imposed by the Proconve Phases. It was found that newer vehicles year model from 2005 to 2009 exclusively gasohol-powered vehicles, were the ones that presented the highest NO emissions. Several possible causative factors of this differential behavior of NO were discussed in this study. A significant increase in the environmental concentrations of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) was detected in 2007, when this parameter was monitored in the winter period. This may indicate the influence of the high emitter vehicles, but it requires a more in-depth cause-effect study for confirmation of this behavio


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/prevention & control , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Carbon Monoxide , Hydrocarbons , Nitric Oxide
3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 698-713, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21843

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The study aims to classify schools based on traffic pollutants and their complex sources, to assess the environment, to determine the state of allergic diseases among students using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in children (ISAAC) questionnaire, and to assess their connection to air pollutants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of seven schools were divided into three categories according to the characteristics of their surrounding environments: three schools in traffic-related zones, two schools in complex source zones I (urban), and two schools in complex source zones II (industrial complex). ISAAC questionnaires were administered and the 4404 completed questionnaires were analyzed. RESULTS: The frequency of asthma treatment during the past 12 months showed a significant increase (p<0.05) with exposure to NO2 [1.67, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.03-2.71] in the complex source zones. The frequency of allergic rhinitis treatment during the past 12 months increased significantly with exposure to Black Carbon (1.60, 95% CIs 1.36-1.90) (p<0.001), SO2 (1.09, 95% CIs 1.01-1.17) (p<0.05), NO2 (1.18, 95% CIs 1.07-1.30) (p<0.01) for all subjects. CONCLUSION: In terms of supporting children's health, care, and prevention related to major spaces for children, such as school zones, spaces used in coming to and leaving school, playgrounds, and classrooms are essential to ensuring not only the safety of children from traffic accidents but also their protection from local traffic pollutants and various hazardous environmental factors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Asthma/chemically induced , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Exposure , Female , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/chemically induced , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
4.
Salud pública Méx ; 55(2): 155-161, mar.-abr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-669721

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 at various distances from heavy traffic roads and diesel vehicle counts in Mexico City. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PM2.5 samples were obtained from June 2003-June 2005 in three MCMA regions. Light absorption (b abs) in a subset of PM2.5 samples was determined. We evaluated the effect of distance and diesel vehicle counts to heavy traffic roads on PM2.5 b abs using generalized estimating equation models. RESULTS: Median PM2.5 b abs measurements significantly decrease as distance from heavy traffic roads increases (p<0.002); levels decreased by 7% (CI95% 0.9-14) for each 100 additional meters from heavy traffic roads. Our model predicts that PM2.5 b abs measurements would increase by 20% (CI95% 3-38) as the hourly heavy diesel vehicle count increases by 150 per hour. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 b abs measurements are significantly associated with distance from motorways and traffic density and therefore can be used to assess human exposure to traffic-related emissions.


OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación entre las mediciones de absorción de luz de las PM2.5 a diferentes distancias de vías de tráfico y el aforo vehicular de diesel en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron mediciones de PM2.5 y su análisis de b abs en tres zonas de la Ciudad de México. Se usaron modelos GEE para evaluar el efecto de la distancia y el aforo vehicular de tráfico pesado sobre PM2.5 b abs. RESULTADOS: Se observó una tendencia decreciente en la mediana de PM2.5 b abs conforme se incrementó la distancia a las avenidas de alto tráfico (p<0.002); los niveles decrecen en 7% (CI95% 0.9-14) por cada 100 metros de incremento. Las mediciones de PM2.5 b abs se incrementan en 20% (CI95% 3-38) cuando el aforo vehicular a diesel es mayor de 150 en una hora. CONCLUSIONES: Las mediciones de PM2.5 b abs están significativamente asociadas con la distancia de avenidas con alto tránsito vehicular y con vehículos de diesel.


Subject(s)
Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Cities , Light , Mexico , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data
5.
Rev. saúde pública ; 46(1): 26-33, fev. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-611796

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre indicadores de exposição à poluição por tráfego veicular e mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório em homens adultos. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas informações sobre vias e volume de tráfego no ano de 2007 fornecidas pela companhia de engenharia de tráfego local. Mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório no ano de 2005 entre homens > 40 anos foram obtidas do registro de mortalidade do Programa de Aprimoramento de Informações de Mortalidade do Município de São Paulo, SP. Dados socioeconômicos do Censo 2000 e informações sobre a localização dos serviços de saúde também foram coletados. A exposição foi avaliada pela densidade de vias e volume de tráfego para cada distrito administrativo. Foi calculada regressão (α = 5 por cento) entre esses indicadores de exposição e as taxas de mortalidade padronizadas, ajustando os modelos para variáveis socioeconômicas, número de serviços de saúde nos distritos e autocorrelação espacial. RESULTADOS: A correlação entre densidade de vias e volume de tráfego foi modesta (r² = 0,28). Os distritos do centro apresentaram os maiores valores de densidade de vias. O modelo de regressão espacial de densidade de vias indicou associação com mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório (p = 0,017). Não se observou associação no modelo de volume de tráfego. Em ambos os modelos - vias e volume de tráfego (veículos leves/pesados) - a variável socioeconômica foi estatisticamente significante. CONCLUSÕES: A associação entre mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório e densidade de vias converge com a literatura e encoraja a realização de mais estudos epidemiológicos em nível individual e com métodos mais acurados de avaliação da exposição.


OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between indicators of exposure to motor vehicle-related air pollution and cardiovascular mortality in male adults. METHODS: Information on roads and traffic volume for the year 2007 in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, was obtained from the local Traffic Engineering Division. Data on mortality from cardiovascular diseases among men aged >40 years in 2005 were obtained from the mortality database of the city of São Paulo. Socioeconomic data from the 2000 Population Census and information on location of health care units were also collected. Exposure was assessed by road density and traffic volume for each geographic unit (administrative districts). Spatial regression (α= 5 percent) between these indicators of exposure and standardized mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases were estimated. The models were adjusted for socioeconomic variables, number of health care units in the districts and spatial autocorrelation. RESULTS: It was found a modest correlation between road density and traffic volume (r² = 0.28). The central districts had the highest road densities. The spatial regression model of road density showed an association with mortality from cardiovascular diseases (p = 0.017). No association was found in the model of traffic volume. The socioeconomic variable was statistically significant in both models of road and traffic volume. CONCLUSIONS: The association between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and road density is consistent with literature data. Further individual-level epidemiological studies should be performed using more accurate methods for the assessment of exposure.


OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación entre indicadores de exposición a la contaminación por tráfico vehicular y mortalidad por enfermedades del aparato circulatorio en hombres adultos. MéTODOS: Se analizaron informaciones sobre vía y volumen de tráfico para 2007 suministradas por la compañía de ingeniería de tráfico local. La mortalidad por enfermedades del aparato circulatorio en 2005 entre hombres = 40 años fue obtenida del registro de mortalidad del Programa de Mejoramiento de Informaciones de Mortalidad del Municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil. Datos socioeconómicos del Ceso 2000 e informaciones de la localización de los servicios de salud también fueron colectados. La exposición fue evaluada por la densidad de las vías y volumen de tráfico para cada distrito administrativo. Se calculó la regresión (a=5 por ciento) entre estos indicadores de exposición y las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas, ajustando los modelos para variables socioeconómicas, número de servicios de salud en los distritos y autocorrelación espacial. RESULTADOS: La correlación entre densidad de vías y volumen de tráfico fue modesta (r2=0,28). Los distritos del centro presentaron los mayores valores de densidad de vías. El modelo de regresión espacial de densidad de vías indicó asociación con mortalidad por enfermedades del aparato circulatorio (p=0,017). No se observó asociación en el modelo de volumen de tráfico En ambos modelos - vías y volumen de tráfico (vehículos livianos/pesados) - la variable socioeconómica fue estadísticamente significativa. CONCLUSIONES: La asociación entre mortalidad por enfermedades del aparato circulatorio y densidad de vías converge con la literatura y anima a la realización de más estudios epidemiológicos a nivel individual y con métodos más adecuados de evaluación de la exposición.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Regression Analysis , Risk , Urban Population , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34642

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze gaseous organic chemicals (GOCs) of high traffic (Nishinomiya City: 979,987 vehicles/day) and low traffic areas (Miki City: 29,338 vehicles/day) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate general environment exposure by PAHs in GOCs. After air sampling using an OMNIPORE membrane filter (< 0.45 microm) and Porapak-QS, sorbents were extracted with solvent (dichloromethane: acetone (4:1 v/v), and analysis was carried out by GC-MS. Oxidative derivatives of diethylbenzene, such as diacethylbenzene and ethylacetophenone, were detected in GOCs. PAHs and phthalates in GOCs were measured. Pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene level were significantly higher in high traffic areas. The geometric mean of pyrene was 0.76 ng/m3 for low traffic areas and 1.96 ng/m3 for high traffic areas; benz[a]anthracene was found at 0.72 ng/m3 and 1.80 ng/m3 in low and high traffic areas, respectively; benzo[a]pyrene was found at 0.87 ng/m3 and 3.60 ng/m3 in low and high traffic areas, respectively and benzo[ghi]perylene was found at 0.57 ng/m3 and 3.04 ng/m3 in low and high traffic areas, respectively. The bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) level was the highest in the detected GOCs. The geometric mean of the DEHP levels in high traffic and low traffic areas were 484.85 and 387.26 ng/m3, respectively. Adult and child DEHP exposure levels were 145.32 and 300.33 ng/kg/day, respectively, in high traffic areas. In low traffic areas, adult and child DEHP exposure levels were 116.18 and 240.10 ng/kg/day, respectively.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gases/analysis , Japan , Motor Vehicles , Organic Chemicals/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 56(3): 1521-1529, sep. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637880

ABSTRACT

The North Eastern region of India is undergoing industrial development at a faster rate than expected. Roads form the main system of transportation and communication owing to the hilly topography of the region. Automobiles discharge a number of gaseous and trace metal contaminants. Human activities like stone grinding, road construction and sand milling also increase the atmospheric dust and heavy metal contaminant level. These contaminants get settled on leaf surfaces at roadsides and enter in contact with phylloplane microorganisms. This study compares microorganisms on leaf surfaces of alder (Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae)) on roadside and non-roadside environments. Two sites dominated by alder were selected. One at a busy road intersection on the National Highway no. 44 in Shillong with high traffic density (8 000-9 000 heavy vehicles/day), taken as the polluted site and the other one in a forest approximately 500 m away from the roadside considered as the unpolluted site. Analysis of phylloplane microorganisms, lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur was carried out from leaves. The bacterial population was higher at the unpolluted site. Bacterial population showed a significant negative correlation with lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur. Similarly, fungal population was higher at the unpolluted site. A total of 29 fungal species were isolated from the phylloplane of A. nepalensis (polluted site 16 species; unpolluted site 28 species). Some fungal forms like Mortierella sp., Fusarium oxysporum and Aureobasidium pollulans were dominant in the polluted site. Numbers of phylloplane fungi and bacteria were significantly reduced in the polluted site. The correlation coefficient indicated a detrimental effect of metals like lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur on the microbial community of leaf surfaces. The specificity of certain fungi to the unpolluted site may be attributed to their sensitivity to pollution. The predominance of Aureobasidium pollulans, Fusarium oxysporum and Mortierella sp. in the polluted site may be due to their resistance to pollutants in roadside conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3): 1521-1529. Epub 2008 September 30.


La región nororiental de la India está experimentando un rápido desarrollo industrial y debido a la topografía montañosa de la región, los automóviles descargan variedad de contaminantes. Actividades humanas como moler piedra y construir caminos también aumentan el polvo atmosférico y la contaminación con metales pesados. Este estudio compara microorganismos en superficies foliares del árbol Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae). Se estudió uno sitio en una intersección de Shillong, con alta densidad de tráfico (8 000-9 000 vehículos pesados/día), tomada como el sitio contaminado, y otro en un bosque aproximadamente a 500 m de la carretera (sitio no contaminado). Se contabilizaron bacterias, hongos, plomo, zinc, cobre, cadmio y sulfuro. La población bacteriana era más alta en el sitio no contaminado. La población bacteriana mostró una correlación negativa significativa con el contenido de plomo, cinc, cobre, cadmio y sulfuro foliares en el sitio contaminado, mientras que en el sitio no contaminado la correlación fue insignificante. La población de hongos también fue más alta en el sitio no contaminado. Un total de 29 especies de hongos fueron aislados A. nepalensis: 16 en el sitio contaminado y 28 en el no contaminado. Algunas especies de hongos como Mortierella sp., Fusarium oxysporum y Aureobasidium pollulans fueron dominantes en el sitio contaminado. El número de hongos y bacterias fue significativamente menor en el sitio contaminado. El coeficiente de correlación indicó un efecto perjudicial de metales como el plomo, el zinc, el cobre, el cadmio y el sulfuro en esta comunidad que habitan superficies de hojas. La especificidad de ciertos hongos al sitio no contaminado se puede atribuir a su sensibilidad a la contaminación. El predominio de Aureobasidium pollulans, Fusarium oxysporum y Mortierella sp. en el sitio contaminado puede ser debido a su resistencia a los agentes contaminadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants/pharmacology , Alnus/microbiology , Bacteria/drug effects , Fungi/drug effects , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Colony Count, Microbial , Fungi/classification , Fungi/isolation & purification , India , Motor Vehicles , Population Density , Seasons
8.
Cad. saúde pública ; 23(supl.4): S559-S569, 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-467340

ABSTRACT

In Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, fossil fuel combustion in the transportation system is a major cause of outdoor air pollution. Air quality improvement requires additional policies and technological upgrades in fuels and vehicle engines. The current study thus simulated the environmental and social impacts resulting from the use of a stabilized diesel/ethanol mixture in the bus and truck fleet in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo. The evaluation showed reductions in air pollutants, mainly PM10, which would help avert a number of disease events and deaths, as estimated through dose-response functions of epidemiological studies on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Valuation of the impacts using an environmental cost-benefit analysis considered operational installation, job generation, potential carbon credits, and health costs, with an overall positive balance of US$ 2.851 million. Adding the estimated qualitative benefits to the quantitative ones, the project's benefits far outweigh the measured costs. Greater Metropolitan São Paulo would benefit from any form of biodiesel use, producing environmental, health and socioeconomic gains, the three pillars of sustainability.


A poluição atmosférica na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil, é devida principalmente à queima de combustíveis fósseis utilizados no sistema de transportes. A fim de melhorar a qualidade do ar, são necessárias políticas e melhorias tecnológicas em combustíveis e motores veiculares. Neste sentido, foi realizada uma avaliação dos impactos ambientais e sociais da mistura estabilizada do uso de diesel/etanol na frota de ônibus e caminhões na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Essa avaliação mostrou reduções nos poluentes atmosféricos, especialmente o MP10, o que contribuiu para um número de eventos de morbidade e mortalidade evitáveis estimados por meio de funções dose-resposta de estudos epidemiológicos em termos de doenças respiratórias e cardiovasculares. A valoração dos impactos representada através de uma análise custo-benefício ambiental resultou positiva em US$ 2,851 milhões. Adicionando-se a essa quantia os benefícios estimados em termos qualitativos, pode-se concluir que os benefícios sócio-econômicos do projeto superam os custos mensurados. A Região Metropolitana de São Paulo se beneficiará de qualquer tipo de biodiesel produzindo ganhos em termos ambientais, de saúde e de inclusão sócio-econômica, os três pilares da sustentabilidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Automobiles , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Ethanol/economics , Gasoline/economics , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Bioelectric Energy Sources , Brazil/epidemiology , Conservation of Energy Resources , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Environmental Health , Ethanol/analysis , Feasibility Studies , Gasoline/analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Urban Health
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113987

ABSTRACT

Adulteration of automotive fuels, especially, gasoline with cheaper fuels is widespread throughout south Asia. Some adulterants decrease the performance and life of the engine and increase the emission of harmful pollutants causing environmental and health problems. The present investigation is carried out to study the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine with kerosene blended gasoline with different versions of the engine, such as conventional engine and catalytic coated engine with different proportions of the kerosene ranging from 0% to 40% by volume in steps of 10% in the kerosene-gasoline blend. The catalytic coated engine used in the study has copper coating of thickness 400 microns on piston and inner surface of the cylinder head. The pollutants in the exhaust, carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (UBHC) are measured with Netel Chromatograph CO and HC analyzer at peak load operation of the engine. The engine is provided with catalytic converter with sponge iron as a catalyst to control the pollutants from the exhaust of the engine. An air injection is also provided to the catalytic converter to further reduce the pollutants. The pollutants found to increase drastically with adulterated gasoline. Copper-coated engine with catalytic converter significantly reduced pollutants, when compared to conventional engine.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , Gasoline , Hydrocarbons/analysis , Kerosene , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
10.
Rev. salud pública ; 8(1): 108-117, mar. 2006.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-449566

ABSTRACT

El monóxido de carbono es considerado uno de los mayores contaminantes de la atmósfera terrestre. Sus principales fuentes productoras responsables de aproximadamente 80 por ciento de las emisiones, son los vehículos automotores que utilizan como combustible gasolina o diesel y los procesos industriales que utilizan compuestos del carbono. Esta sustancia es bien conocida por su toxicidad para el ser humano. Sus efectos tóxicos agudos incluida la muerte han sido estudiados ampliamente; sin embargo, sus potenciales efectos adversos a largo plazo son poco conocidos. En los últimos años, los estudios de investigación experimentales en animales y epidemiológicos en humanos han evidenciado relación entre población expuesta en forma crónica a niveles medios y bajos de monóxido de carbono en aire respirable y la aparición de efectos adversos en la salud humana especialmente en órganos de alto consumo de oxígeno como cerebro y corazón. Se han documentado efectos nocivos cardiovasculares y neuropsicológicos en presencia de concentraciones de monóxido de carbono en aire inferiores a 25 partes por millón y a niveles de carboxihemoglobina en sangre inferiores a 10 por ciento. Las alteraciones cardiovasculares que se han descrito son hipertensión arterial, aparición de arritmias y signos electrocardiográficos de isquemia. Déficit en memoria, atención, concentración y alteraciones del movimiento tipo parkinsonismo, son los cambios neuropsicológicos con mayor frecuencia asociados a exposición crónica a bajos niveles de monóxido de carbono y carboxihemoglobina.


Carbon monoxide is considered to be a major factor contaminating earths atmosphere. The main sources producing this contamination are cars using gasoline or diesel fuel and industrial processes using carbon compounds; these two are responsible for 80 percent of carbon monoxide being emitted to the atmosphere. This substance has a well-known toxic effect on human beings and its acute poisonous effects (including death) have been widely studied; however, its long-term chronic effects are still not known. During the last few years, experimental research on animals and studies of human epidemiology have established the relationship between chronic exposure to low and middle levels of carbon monoxide in breathable air and adverse effects on human health, especially on organs consuming large amounts of oxygen such as the heart and brain. Harmful cardiovascular and neuropsychological effects have been documented in carbon monoxide concentration in air of less than 25 ppm and in carboxyhaemoglobin levels in blood of less than 10 percent. The main cardiac damage described to date has been high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythm and electrocardiograph signs of ischemia. Lack of memory, attention, concentration and Parkinson-type altered movement are the neuropsychological changes most frequently associated with chronic exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide and carboxyhaemoglobin.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Air Pollutants/analysis , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Biomarkers , Breath Tests , Brain Chemistry/drug effects , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/etiology , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/psychology , Carbon Monoxide/adverse effects , Carbon Monoxide/pharmacology , Carboxyhemoglobin/analysis , Cerebroside-Sulfatase/blood , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Environmental Monitoring , Fossil Fuels , Heating , Hypoxia , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Industrial Waste/adverse effects , Industrial Waste/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation , Latin America/epidemiology , Movement Disorders/epidemiology , Movement Disorders/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Organ Specificity , Oxygen Consumption , Vehicle Emissions/adverse effects , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114088

ABSTRACT

The major pollutants emitted from compression ignition (CI) engine with diesel as fuel are smoke and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When the diesel engine is run with alternate fuels, there is need to check alcohols (methanol or ethanol) and aldehydes also. Alcohols cannot be used directly in diesel engine and hence engine modification is essential as alcohols have low cetane number and high latent hear of vaporization. Hence, for use of alcohol in diesel engine, it needs hot combustion chamber, which is provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine with an air gap insulated piston with superni crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert. In the present study, the pollution levels of aldehydes are reported with the use of methanol and ethanol as alternate fuels in LHR diesel engine with varying injection pressure, injection timings with different percentage of alcohol induction. The aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in the exhaust were estimated by wet chemical technique with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Aldehyde emissions increased with an increase in alcohol induction. The LHR engine showed a decrease in aldehyde emissions when compared to conventional engine. However, the variation of injection pressure showed a marginal effect in reducing aldehydes, while advancing the injection timing reduced aldehyde emissions.


Subject(s)
Acetaldehyde/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Ethanol , Formaldehyde/analysis , Gasoline , Methanol , Motor Vehicles , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114196

ABSTRACT

In the present study the dust pollution caused by vehicles in Aligarh city was estimated. Four major national roads viz. Anoopshahar road, Delhi road, Agra road and Kanpur road of Aligarh city were selected. The dust pollution was maximum on Kanpur road (46.44 gm/m2/ month) followed by Agra road (38.94 gm/m2/month) and Delhi road (34.52 gm/m2/month). The least dust pollution was recorded on Anoopshahar road (20.10gm/m2/month). In general, the dust fall rate per unit area was highest at 3 km inside city (38.66 gm/m2/month) closely followed by starting point (37.27gm/m2/month) and least at 3 km outside city (29.09 gm/m2/ month). The average dust fall rate per unit area was estimated to be about 35 gm/m2/month in Aligarh city.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Cities , Dust , Environmental Monitoring , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
13.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2005; 1 (4): 253-255
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-70910

ABSTRACT

Kerosene is common adulterant utilized for mixing with diesel. Five fuel-adulterant mixtures in different proportions by volume were prepared and individually tested for density and kinematic viscosity. The mixtures were administered to six light cargo vehicles and the tail pipe exhaust emission was tested for opacity value. No appreciable density variation at different levels of adulteration was observed. Density was within the prescribed value even at higher adulteration. Considerable decrease in kinematic viscosity, a departure from prescribed viscosity, was noted at higher adulteration level. The percent opacity value decreased sharply even at small level of adulteration. The probable amount of kerosene present as an adulterant in diesel dispensed at filling stations in Kathmandu city ranged between 35% and 50%. The observations suggest density test is not a good indicator of diesel adulteration. Kinematic viscosity and opacity value are useful diesel adulteration test parameters. Existing diesel adulteration warrants initiation of strict compliance regulation


Subject(s)
Kerosene , Gasoline , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Automobiles
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114190

ABSTRACT

The concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO,) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were measured at 13 important traffic intersections in Pune city. In order to study the contribution of these pollutants from motor vehicles, attention was focused on the roadside, street-level concentration. The statistical analysis of the sampling results indicates that there is not only high correlation between SPM and NO2 but the levels of these pollutants are above the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) laid down by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India. The SO, concentrations are found to be well below the NAAQS.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , India , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particle Size , Sulfur Dioxide/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
15.
J Environ Biol ; 2003 Jul; 24(3): 281-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113366

ABSTRACT

In industrialized regions like Bozüyük, generally density of settlement and traffic is also observed. As a result of this density, the metal pollution that results from either industrial activities or traffic shall affect the air quality negatively. In determining this effect and sources thereof inspection of the depositing of heavy metals, which cause pollution, on the tree leaves and in the soil, and making comments by comparing with the values in the same kinds of plants and soil in the clean region has been aimed. For this purpose, zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium, iron, nickel, lead analysis have been carried out in order to determine the accumulation of pollution in plants and soils resulting from heavy industry and vehicles around Bozüyük (Turkey) region which is close to highway. These analyses have been carried out on washed and unwashed tree leave samples and surface soil from ten locations. Data used in the results were the average values of a series of data obtained from the experimental studies.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Trees , Turkey , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
16.
J Environ Biol ; 2002 Oct; 23(4): 417-21
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113202

ABSTRACT

Ambient lead levels in air, soil and dust deposits on selected plant species at ten distinctly located sampling stations of Indore city are presented. The maximum lead level in air was recorded at Palasia, where the traffic density was found to be the highest. Out of the plant species studied, the maximum lead was recorded on Dalbergia sissoo leaves. A possible relationship between leaf morphology and dust accumulation tendency is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Dust , Environmental Monitoring , India , Lead/analysis , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
17.
Interciencia ; 26(12): 591-596, dic. 2001. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-341077

ABSTRACT

Se determinó el efecto de la composición del gas natural comprimido (GNC) en los contaminantes HC,CO y NOx comparando los niveles emitidos con aquellos límites establecidos por las normativas existentes. Para tal fin, se utilizó un banco de pruebas de motor, analizándose los gases de escape a las siguientes velocidades de rotación: vacío, 1500, 2000 y 2500 rpm. La composición del GNC varía en las estaciones de llenado en forma continua, por lo que se consideran dos parámetros representativos, el Número de Wobbe y el por ciento CH4/CH, para identificar cada una de las cinco muestras del combustible empleado, cuya caracterización fue efectuada a través de análisis cromatográficos. Los ensayos permiten constatar cómo la variación en la composición del GNC influye en la concentración de las emisiones contaminantes. Sin embargo, los parámetros representativos antes señalados no establecen una relación específica entre composición y emisiones. Los niveles de emisiones de HC,CO y NOx en ninguno de los casos superó los límites establecidos por la normativa nacional e internacional


Subject(s)
Fossil Fuels/analysis , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Tablets , Science , Venezuela
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 34(5): 639-643, May 2001. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-285868

ABSTRACT

The increasing use of alcohol as an alternative fuel to gasoline or diesel can increase emission of formaldehyde, an organic gas that is irritant to the mucous membranes. The respiratory system is the major target of air pollutants and its major defense mechanism depends on the continuous activity of the cilia and the resulting constant transportation of mucous secretion. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of formaldehyde on the ciliated epithelium through a relative large dose range around the threshold limit value adopted by the Brazilian legislation, namely 1.6 ppm (1.25 to 5 ppm). For this purpose, the isolated frog palate preparation was used as the target of toxic injury. Four groups of frog palates were exposed to diluted Ringer solution (control, N = 8) and formaldehyde diluted in Ringer solution at three different concentrations (1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 ppm, N = 10 for each group). Mucociliary clearance and ciliary beat frequency decreased significantly in contact with formaldehyde at the concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 ppm after 60 min of exposure (P<0.05). We conclude that relatively low concentrations of formaldehyde, which is even below the Brazilian threshold limit value, are sufficient to cause short-term mucociliary impairment


Subject(s)
Animals , Air Pollutants/analysis , Disinfectants/toxicity , Formaldehyde/toxicity , Mucociliary Clearance/drug effects , Palate/drug effects , Respiratory System/drug effects , Cilia/drug effects , Cilia/physiology , Disinfectants/analysis , Epithelium/drug effects , Formaldehyde/analysis , Models, Animal , Rana catesbeiana , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 3(4): 227-41, abr. 1998. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-215228

ABSTRACT

In recent decades traffic injuries have become a leading cause of death and disability the world over. In congested urban areas, the noise and emissions from vehicle engines cause discomfort and disease. More than one billion people are exposed daily to harmful levels of atmospheric contamination. Because internal combustion generates carbon dioxide (CO2), the automobile is a principal contributor to the greenhouse effect, which has significantly raised the temperature of the atmosphere. Scientists anticipate that in coming decades the greenhouse effect will produce alterations in climate that are very likely to be harmful and possibly catastrophic. Meanwhile, burgeoning traffic and rural and urban highway infrastructures are already among the principal causes of environmental degradation. Urban development, because it is nearly always "planned" to accommodate automobiles rather than people, reduces the quality of life and tears the social fabric. In contrast to private automobiles, public transportation, bicycles, and walking produce little environmental contamination or injury-related morbidity and mortality. These modes of transport involve more physical activity, with its positive health effects, and avoid contributing to the greenhouse effect. The reduction of automobile traffic and substitution of alternative modes of transport are essential policies for health promotion. They should be incorporated in "healthy cities" programs and general economic policies


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Automobiles , Cities , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Greenhouse Effect , Health Policy , Health Promotion , Transportation
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 3(3): 137-51, mar. 1998. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-214928

ABSTRACT

En las últimas décadas, las lesiones de tráfico se han convertido en una de las primeras causas de muerte y discapacidad en todo el mundo. En las zonas urbanas la congestión, el ruido y las emisiones de los motores de los vehículos causan molestias subjetivas y efectos patológicos detectables. Más de mil millones de personas están expuestas a niveles de contaminación atmosférica nocivos. Por su motor de combustión que genera dióxido de carbono (CO2), el automóvil es una de las fuentes principales de gases inductores del efecto invernadero. Este efecto ha generado ya un incremento de la temperatura media atmosférica y se estima que producirá en los próximos decenios alteraciones climáticas significativas de consecuencias inciertas, pero muy probablemente nocivas y posiblemente catastróficas. Independientemente del efecto invernadero, el crecimiento constante del parque automovilístico, del tráfico y de la infraestructura viaria urbana y rural es hoy una de las causas principales de la degradación del ambiente. El desarrollo urbano, casi siempre "planificado" en función del tráfico y no de las personas, hace que empeore significativamente la calidad de la vida, a la vez que fractura el tejido social. Frente al automóvil privado, el transporte público o en bicicleta y el desplazamiento a pie contribuyen a reducir la contaminación, la congestión y el volumen de tráfico, así como la morbilidad y mortalidad por lesiones y por enfermedades relacionadas con la contaminación. El transporte no automovilístico promueve también la actividad física - con un efecto de mejora general de la salud - y contribuye a aminorar el efecto invernadero. La reducción del volumen de tráfico y el impulso de métodos alternativos de transporte son así una política integral de promoción de la salud que ha de incorporarse en el movimiento de ciudades saludables, así como en las políticas de transporte y en la política económica en general


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Automobiles , Cities , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Greenhouse Effect , Health Policy , Health Promotion , Transportation
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