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Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442394


A hipoplasia da veia cava inferior é uma patologia rara que integra o conjunto de anomalias do desenvolvimento da veia cava inferior. A sua incidência situa-se entre 0,3%-0,5% na população saudável e 5% nos adultos jovens sem fatores de risco para trombose venosa profunda, sendo considerada um importante fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de trombose dos membros inferiores. O principal objetivo deste trabalho é reportar a conduta obstétrica de um caso clínico de uma grávida diagnosticada com hipoplasia da veia cava inferior, prévia à gravidez. Trata-se de um caso clínico, de uma grávida, primigesta, com 37 anos, com hipoplasia da veia cava inferior e heterozigotia para o gene MTHFR677 diagnosticadas, na sequência de uma trombose venosa bilateral dos membros inferiores e do segmento infrarrenal da veia cava inferior. A gravidez foi seguida em consulta hospitalar na nossa instituição, tendo a grávida sido medicada com enoxaparina em dose profilática e ácido acetilsalicílico, com um período pré natal que decorreu sem intercorrências. Às 37 semanas e 6 dias de gestação, deu entrada no Serviço de Urgência de Obstetrícia por rotura prematura de membranas. Intraparto foram utilizadas meias de compressão pneumática intermitente, tendo o parto ocorrido às 38 semanas de gestação por via vaginal (parto eutócico), do qual nasceu um recém-nascido do sexo feminino, com 2620g e índice de Apgar 9/10/10. O presente caso clínico demonstra que em situações de hipoplasia da veia cava inferior com um seguimento obstétrico adequado é possível a realização de um parto vaginal, possibilitando um desfecho obstétrico favorável (AU).

Hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava is a rare condition that belongs to the group of developmental anomalies of the inferior vena cava. It has an incidence between 0.3% and 0.5% in the healthy population and 5% in young adults without risk factors for deep venous thrombosis, being considered an important risk factor for the development of lower limb thrombosis. This study aims to report the obstetric conduct of a clinical case of a pregnant woman diagnosed with hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava prior to pregnancy. This is a clinical case of a pregnant woman, primigravid 37 years old, with hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava and heterozygosity for MTHFR677, diagnosed following a bilateral venous thrombosis of the lower limbs and the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava. The pregnancy was followed up in our institution. The pregnant woman was medicated with a prophylatic dose of low molecular weight heparin and acetylsalicylic acid with an uneventful prenatal period. At 37 weeks and 6 days of gestation, she was admitted to the Obstetrics Emergency Service due to premature rupture of membranes. Intermittent pneumatic compression sockings were used intrapartum, and at 38 weeks of gestation, a female newborn was vaginally delivered (eutocic delivery) with 2620g and an Apgar score of 9/10/10. The present clinical case demonstrates that in situations of hypoplasia of the inferior vena cava with an adequate obstetric follow-up, it is possible to perform a vaginal delivery, enabling a favourable obstetric outcome (AU).

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Thrombosis/therapy , Vena Cava, Inferior/abnormalities , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Parturition
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1566-1572, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980815


BACKGROUND@#After major liver resection, the volume status of patients is still undetermined. However, few concerns have been raised about postoperative fluid management. We aimed to compare gut function recovery and short-term prognosis of the patients after laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) with or without inferior vena cava (IVC) respiratory variability-directed fluid therapy in the anesthesia intensive care unit (AICU).@*METHODS@#This randomized controlled clinical trial enrolled 70 patients undergoing LLR. The IVC respiratory variability was used to optimize fluid management of the intervention group in AICU, while the standard practice of fluid management was used for the control group. The primary outcome was the time to flatus after surgery. The secondary outcomes included other indicators of gut function recovery after surgery, postoperative length of hospital stay (LOS), liver and kidney function, the severity of oxidative stress, and the incidence of severe complications associated with hepatectomy.@*RESULTS@#Compared with patients receiving standard fluid management, patients in the intervention group had a shorter time to anal exhaust after surgery (1.5 ± 0.6 days vs. 2.0 ± 0.8 days) and lower C-reactive protein activity (21.4 [95% confidence interval (CI): 11.9-36.7] mg/L vs. 44.8 [95%CI: 26.9-63.1] mg/L) 24 h after surgery. There were no significant differences in the time to defecation, serum concentrations of D -lactic acid, malondialdehyde, renal function, and frequency of severe postoperative complications as well as the LOS between the groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Postoperative IVC respiratory variability-directed fluid therapy in AICU was facilitated in bowel movement but elicited a negligible beneficial effect on the short-term prognosis of patients undergoing LLR.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ChiCTR-INR-17013093.

Humans , Hepatectomy , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Liver , Laparoscopy , Fluid Therapy
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 28-32, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970442


Objective To investigate the value of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the diagnosis and treatment of renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. Methods Ten patients of renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus treated in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from January 2017 to January 2021 were selected.TEE was employed to locate the position of the tumor thrombus,determine the occlusion point of the inferior vena cava,count the intraoperative tumor thrombus shedding rate,examine the tumor thrombus resection integrity,and measure blood loss and other indicators,on the basis of which the application value of TEE in the operation of renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus was evaluated. Results All the 10 patients had completed the operations successfully,including 8 patients of open operation and 2 patients of laparoscopic operation.TEE showed tumor thrombi clearly,and all the tumor thrombi were completely removed.There was no tumor thrombus shedding during the operation.The blood loss varied within the range of 300-800 ml,with the mean of (520.0±193.2) ml.The grade III tumor thrombi in 2 patients and the grade I tumor thrombus in 1 patient diagnosed before operation were reduced to grade Ⅱ and upgraded to grade Ⅱ,respectively,by TEE.One patient had no floating tumor thrombus at the end of tumor thrombus before operation,and the blocking position was adjusted in time with the assistance of TEE to avoid the shedding of the floating tumor thrombus. Conclusion TEE can accurately determine and dynamically monitor the location and shape of inferior vena cava tumor thrombus,which provides an important reference and has a significant clinical value in the operation of renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus.

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Vena Cava, Inferior , Echocardiography , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 385-392, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447614


Abstract Background Post-spinal anesthesia hypotension is of common occurrence, and it hampers tissue perfusion. Several preoperative factors determine patient susceptibility to hypotension. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the Inferior Vena Cava Collapsibility Index (IVCCI) for predicting intraoperative hypotension. Methods One hundred twenty-nine adult patients who were scheduled for elective surgical procedures after administration of spinal (intrathecal) anesthesia were included in the study. Ultrasound evaluation of the Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) was done in the preoperative area, and the patients were shifted to the Operating Room (OR) for spinal anesthesia. An independent observer recorded the change in blood pressure after spinal anesthesia inside the OR. Results Twenty-five patients developed hypotension (19.37%). Baseline systolic blood pressure and mean blood pressures were statistically higher in those patients who developed hypotension (p= 0.001). The logistic regression analysis for IVCCI and the incidence of hypotension showed r2 of 0.025. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated the Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.467 (95% Confidence Interval, 0.338 to 0.597; p= 0.615). Conclusions Preoperative evaluation of IVCCI is not a good predictor for the occurrence of hypotension after spinal anesthesia.

Humans , Hypotension/etiology , Hypotension/epidemiology , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(8): 994-999, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431880


BACKGROUND: Vena cava (VC) involvement in kidney tumors occurs in 4 to 10% of cases, and is associated with a higher mortality. Nephrectomy with thrombectomy of the VC, performed by a multidisciplinary team, improves survival. Aim: To report a series of consecutive nephrectomies with caval thrombectomy performed in an academic center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report 32 patients with cT3b and 3c renal tumors, who underwent radical nephrectomy with VC thrombectomy between 2001 and 2021. A descriptive analysis of clinical, surgical and pathological variables was performed. Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: The mean tumor size was 9.7 cm. According to Mayo classification 3/32 (9%) patients had a type I thrombus, 10/32 (31%) had a type II thrombus, 8/32 (25%) had a type III thrombus, and 5/32 (16%) had a type IV thrombus. The mean bleeding was 2000 cc. There was one intraoperative death. Nineteen percent of patients had complications >= 3 according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Reoperations occurred in 9%. Pre and postoperative creatinine levels were 1.17 and 1.91 mg/dl respectively (p < 0.01). Pre and postoperative Hematocrit levels were 47.9 and 31% respectively (p = 0.02). Sixty six percent of tumors were clear cell renal cancer, 9% were papillary and 3% were chromophobic. Mean OS was 10 months. Two-year SCE was 40%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are similar to those reported elsewhere. Despite being an unusual pathology, the surgical technique has been improving, thanks to the multidisciplinary work of urologists and surgeons.

Humans , Thrombosis/surgery , Thrombosis/complications , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/methods , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Nephrectomy/methods
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 99-103, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360561


Abstract Objective: In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the vena cava distensibility index and pulse pressure variation as dynamic parameters for estimating intravascular volume in critically ill children. Methods: Patients aged 1 month to 18 years, who were hospitalized in the present study's pediatric intensive care unit, were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to central venous pressure: hypovolemic (< 8mmHg) and non-hypovolemic (central venous pressure ≥ 8 mmHg) groups. In both groups, vena cava distensibility index was measured using bedside ultrasound and pulse pressure variation. Measurements were recorded and evaluated under arterial monitoring. Results: In total, 19 (47.5%) of the 40 subjects included in the study were assigned to the central venous pressure ≥ 8 mmHg group, and 21 (52.5%) to the central venous pressure < 8 mmHg group. A moderate positive correlation was found between pulse pressure variation and vena cava distensibility index (r = 0.475, p < 0.01), while there were strong negative correlations of central venous pressure with pulse pressure variation and vena cava distensibility index (r = -0.628, p < 0.001 and r = -0.760, p < 0.001, respectively). In terms of predicting hypovolemia, the predictive power for vena cava distensibility index was > 16% (sensitivity, 90.5%; specificity, 94.7%) and that for pulse pressure variation was > 14% (sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 89.5%). Conclusion: Vena cava distensibility index has higher sensitivity and specificity than pulse pressure variation for estimating intravascular volume, along with the advantage of non-invasive bedside application.

Humans , Child , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Critical Illness , Blood Pressure , Central Venous Pressure , Ultrasonography
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 196-197, Jan.-Feb. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356285


ABSTRACT Background: Inferior vena cava (IVC) invasion from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs at a rate of 4-10% (1). IVC thrombectomy (IVC-TE) can be an open procedure because of the need for handling of the IVC (2). The first reported series of robotic management of IVC-TE started in 2011 for the management of Level I - II thrombi with subsequent case reports in recent years (2-5). Materials and Methods: The following is a patient in his 50's with no significant medical history. Magnetic resonance imaging and IR venogram were performed preoperatively. The tumor was clinical stage T3b with a 4.3cm inferior vena cava thrombus. The patient underwent robotic assisted nephrectomy and IVC-TE. Rummel tourniquets were used for the contralateral kidney and the IVC. The tourniquets were created using vessel loops, a 24 French foley catheter and hem-o-lock clips. Results: The patient tolerated the surgical procedure well with no intraoperative complications. Total surgical time was 274 min with 200 minutes of console time and 22 minutes of IVC occlusion. Total blood loss in the surgery was 850cc. The patient was discharged from the hospital on post-operative day 3 without any complications. The final pathology of the specimen was pT3b clear cell renal cell carcinoma Fuhrman grade 2. The patient followed up post-operatively at both four months and six months without disease recurrence. The patient continues annual follow-up with no recurrence. Conclusions: Surgeon experience is a key factor in radical nephrectomy with thrombectomy as patients have a reported 50-65% survival rate after IVC-TE (4).

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Tourniquets , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy , Nephrectomy
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1763-1768, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971362


Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) with renal vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), and right atrial embolism is a rare solid tumor, whose etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear. Moreover, it is often misdiagnosed. One patient with renal AML complicated with renal vein, IVC, and right atrial embolism was admitted to the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, who was a 35-year-old female, without any previous medical history, presented with right low back pain for more than 3 years. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed irregular lobulated fatty density mass in the right kidney, renal vein, IVC, and right atrium. The contrast-enhanced scan showed no enhancement of fat components at each phase and mild enhancement of solid components. Radical resection of the right kidney and removal of tumor thrombus were performed, and there was no recurrence 1 year after the operation. It is rare for renal AML to grow along the renal vein, IVC, and extend to the right atrium. Imaging examination is extremely important, and the CT findings of this case are characteristic, but the diagnosis eventually depends on pathological and immunohistochemical examinations.

Female , Humans , Adult , Vena Cava, Inferior/pathology , Angiomyolipoma/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Embolism/pathology , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 23(2)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1389040


Resumen El presente articulo describe un caso clínico de una paciente con un ''trombo tumoral''. Estos son tumores que se extienden desde el órgano afectado hasta el atrio derecho, por la vena cava inferior. Hasta el 10 % de los tumores descritos pueden alcanzar la vena cava inferior y el 1 % de estos llegan a atrio derecho. El carcinoma de células renales es el más frecuente en producir este cuadro. El objetivo del articulo es mostrar que es fundamental realizar un adecuado diagnóstico diferencial, ya que existen diferentes procesos tumorales que pueden causar un ''trombo tumoral'' y diferentes causas de masas en el atrio derecho. La clínica de los pacientes con este cuadro será por obstrucción de la vena cava. El diagnóstico se realiza con estudios de imágenes, ultrasonido (US), ecocardiograma, tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) y resonancia magnética. El manejo debe de ser quirúrgico, sin embargo, presenta pronóstico desfavorable, en algunos casos se puede resecar el tumor primario y extraer la masa que ha invadido la vena cava inferior.

Abstract: This article describes a clinical case of a patient with a 'tumoral thrombus''. These are tumors that extend from the affected organ to the right atrium, through the inferior vena cava. Up to 10% of the tumors described can reach the inferior vena cava and 1% of these reach the right atrium. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common to produce this condition. The objective of the article is to show that it is essential to carry out an adequate differential diagnosis since there are different tumor processes that can cause a ''tumoral thrombus'' and different causes of masses in the right atrium. The symptoms of patients with this condition will be caused by the obstruction of the vena cava. The diagnosis is made with imaging studies, ultrasound (US), echocardiography, computerized axial tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging. The management must be surgical, however it has an unfavorable prognosis, in some cases the primary tumor can be resected and the mass that has invaded the inferior vena cava removed.

Humans , Female , Aged , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Neoplasms/complications
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(4): 578-580, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347166


Abstract Pulmonary venous connections may be infrequently abnormal in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). A special subgroup of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return,"scimitar cyndrome", and its coexistence with TOF is less frequently reported. It may proceed unnoticed, as cyanosis already predominates in the clinical picture. This uncommon association must be kept in mind for patients with TOF who have an accessory flow in the inferior vena cava, especially when all pulmonary venous return to the left atrium is not clearly seen.

Humans , Infant , Pulmonary Veins , Scimitar Syndrome/surgery , Scimitar Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Tetralogy of Fallot/surgery , Tetralogy of Fallot/diagnostic imaging , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Heart Atria
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(2): 218-226, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289302


Resumen La hipertensión portal es un síndrome caracterizado por el incremento en el gradiente de presión portal, definido por la diferencia entre la presión de la porta y la vena cava inferior. Esta presión depende del flujo venoso y la resistencia vascular. En los pacientes cirróticos estas dos variables están alteradas de manera suprafisiológica, inicialmente por la lesión estructural dependiente de fibrosis y los nódulos de regeneración y posteriormente por cambios dinámicos vasculares que causan vasoconstricción intrahepática y vasodilatación esplácnica, lo cual explica las manifestaciones sistémicas de la cirrosis. La importancia de la hipertensión portal radica en la frecuencia y severidad de las complicaciones asociadas, especialmente la hemorragia variceal y otras como ascitis, peritonitis bacteriana espontanea, síndrome hepatorrenal y encefalopatía hepática. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar una revisión actualizada sobre el uso de las pruebas diagnósticas invasivas y no invasivas disponibles para el estudio de la hipertensión portal y su aplicación en la práctica clínica.

Abstract Portal hypertension is characterized by an increase in the portal pressure gradient, which is defined as the difference between the portal venous pressure and the pressure within the inferior vena cava. Such a pressure depends on venous flow and vascular resistance. In patients with cirrhosis, both variables are altered, initially due to fibrosis-dependent structural injury and regeneration nodules, and subsequently by vascular dynamic changes that cause intrahepatic vasoconstriction and splanchnic vasodilation, which explains the systemic manifestations of cirrhosis. The importance of portal hypertension lies in the frequency and severity of associated complications, especially variceal hemorrhage, but also ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy. The objective of this article is to carry out an updated review on the use of invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests available for the study of portal hypertension and their application in clinical practice.

Humans , Male , Female , Vena Cava, Inferior , Fibrosis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Hypertension, Portal , Portal Pressure , Methods
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 166-172, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388810


Resumen Introducción: El tromboembolismo pulmonar sin tratamiento, presenta un riesgo de recurrencia del 20%, con una mortalidad del 18% al 26%, en pacientes con embolia pulmonar donde esta contraindica o fracasa la anticoagulación, es necesario interrumpir parcialmente la vena cava inferior, siendo los filtros de vena cava la alternativa más utilizada. Objetivo: Analizar las variables epidemiológicas involucradas en la enfermedad tromboembólica y los resultados de la inserción del filtro de vena cava inferior. Materiales y Método: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional y descriptivo, donde se analiza la inserción sucesiva de 82 filtros de vena cava inferior, en un período de 10 años (2009 al 2019), en el Hospital Dr. Eduardo Pereira de Valparaíso, Chile. Resultados: Sexo femenino 53,6%, edad promedio 60,4 años (rango 19-86), la principal causa para desarrollar enfermedad tromboembólica fueron las enfermedades oncológicas (56,09%), la principal vía de acceso fue la vena femoral común (69,51%), localización del filtro suprarrenal (4,87%), se obtuvo un seguimiento actualizado en el 89,02%, la supervivencia a 5 años fue de 73,17% y a 10 años de 57,32%, morbilidad en relación al procedimiento (9,75%), éxito del procedimiento (97,5%), no hubo mortalidad relacionada. Discusión: Los grandes ensayos, demuestran el beneficio de la interrupción de la vena cava inferior mediante filtros, especialmente en pacientes oncológicos, con elevado riesgo de embolia pulmonar. Conclusión: La inserción de un filtro de vena cava inferior, adecuadamente indicado, es un procedimiento mínimamente invasivo, de bajo riesgo y con excelentes resultados en la profilaxis de la embolia pulmonar.

Introduction: Pulmonary thromboembolism without treatment presents a risk of recurrence of 20%, with a mortality of 18% to 26%. In patients with pulmonary embolism, when anticoagulation therapy is contraindicated or failed, it is necessary to intervene partially the inferior vena cava on which cava vein filters are the main used alternative. Aim: Analyze the epidemiological variables involved on thromboembolic disease, and the outcomes of the inferior vena cava filter insertions. Materials and Method: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study, which analyzes the successive insertion of 82 inferior vena cava filters, over a period of 10 years (2009 to 2019), in the Dr. Eduardo Pereira Hospital, Valparaíso, Chile. Results: Female sex 53.6%, average age 60.4 years (range 19-86), the main cause to develop thromboembolic disease were oncological diseases (56.09%); the main access path was the common femoral vein (69.51%); in a 4.87% the location of the filter was suprarenal. Complete follow-up was obtained in 89.02% of the cases, 5-year survival with 73.17% ratio and 10-years survival of 57.32%, morbidity in relation to the procedure was 9.75%; success of the procedure 97.5%; there was no mortality related. Discussion: Large studies demonstrate the benefits of interruption on the inferior vena cava through filters, especially in cancer patients with high risk of pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: The insertion of an inferior vena cava filter when indication is adequate, is a minimally invasive procedure with low risk and excellent results in the prophylaxis of pulmonary embolism.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vena Cava, Inferior/physiopathology , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200124, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279380


Abstract The incidence of asymptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) exceeds 70% in patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), even in cases of distal deep vein thrombosis. We report the case of a patient with a diagnosis of DVT in the lower left limb associated with asymptomatic PE who presented late symptoms due to this same PE. The absence of acute symptoms and the late onset of symptoms could have provoked doubts about the most appropriate treatment, resulting in unnecessary interventions, if pulmonary embolism had not already been diagnosed with tomography. In the present case, we demonstrate that computed tomography angiography conducted at the time of DVT diagnosis accurately diagnosed PE and prevented any misinterpretation of recurrent DVT in a patient already being medicated, which could have been mistakenly interpreted as demonstrating failure of anticoagulant therapy. Such a situation could lead to unnecessary intervention to fit an inferior vena cava filter. We cannot suggest that a classic medical conduct should be reformulated simply on the basis of a case report. However, we would be remiss not to suggest that well-designed studies should be carried out in the future to assess the need for this examination in the acute phase.

Resumo A ocorrência de embolia pulmonar assintomática em pacientes com trombose venosa profunda tem uma incidência que excede 70%, mesmo nos casos de trombose venosa profunda distal. Relatamos o caso de um paciente com diagnóstico de trombose venosa profunda no membro inferior esquerdo associado a embolia pulmonar assintomática, que apresentou sintomas tardios devido a essa mesma embolia. A ausência de sintomas agudos e o surgimento de sintomas tardios pode suscitar dúvidas quanto ao tratamento mais adequado e resultar em intervenções desnecessárias, se o diagnóstico tomográfico de embolia pulmonar não tiver sido feito anteriormente. No presente caso, demonstramos que uma angiotomografia realizada no momento do diagnóstico de trombose venosa profunda detectou a embolia pulmonar e evitou uma interpretação incorreta de um evento trombótico recorrente na vigência de anticoagulação, o que por engano demonstraria uma falha na terapia anticoagulante. Essa situação pode levar a intervenções desnecessárias, como o implante de filtro de veia cava inferior. Entendemos que apenas um relato de caso não deve mudar uma conduta médica já estabelecida; no entanto, fomenta a discussão e estimula estudos que avaliem a necessidade de um exame diagnóstico pulmonar no momento do diagnóstico de trombose venosa profunda.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Recurrence , Vena Cava, Inferior , Mass Screening , Vena Cava Filters , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Lower Extremity , Computed Tomography Angiography , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 32(3): 5616-5621, sept. 2021. imag
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427557


El leiomiosarcoma de la vena cava inferior (VCI) es un tumor mesenquimal maligno, poco frecuente, de bajo crecimiento, que surge en las células de músculo liso de la túnica media de la pared vascular y que tiene en general un mal pronóstico. Las imágenes juegan un papel crucial en el abordaje diagnóstico y en el planeamiento quirúrgico, por lo que reconocer los hallazgos más frecuentes es necesario en la práctica radiológica. A continuación, se describe un caso que ilustra los aspectos más representativos de esta enfermedad en diferentes modalidades diagnósticas, incluyendo tomografía, resonancia magnética y PET-CT, con el objetivo de hacer un reconocimiento de las características que puedan llevar a un diagnóstico temprano y, por lo tanto, a favorecer la sobrevida de los pacientes.

Inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma (IVC) is a low-growing, malignant mesenchymal tumor that arises in the smooth muscle cells of the tunica media of the vascular wall and has a generally poor prognosis. Images play a crucial role in the diagnostic approach and in surgical planning, therefore, recognizing the most frequent findings is necessary in radiological practice. We describe a case that outlines the most typical findings in different diagnostic modalities including tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and PET-CT, with the aim of recognizing the characteristics that can lead to an earlier diagnosis and therefore to favor patient survival.

Leiomyosarcoma , Vena Cava, Inferior , Multidetector Computed Tomography
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20210006, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340182


Resumo A agenesia de veia cava inferior é descrita em menos de 1% da população, de ocorrência rara e devido a alterações embrionárias. Sua correlação com a trombose venosa profunda certamente é subestimada, visto que tal alteração é de difícil detecção pela ultrassonografia. O objetivo deste artigo foi relatar o caso de uma paciente de 41 anos com dor e edema até a raiz de coxa direita após cirurgia plástica. Foi realizado dúplex venoso de membros inferiores e evidenciada trombose venosa profunda ilíaco-femoro-poplíteo e distal bilateralmente. Solicitado angiotomografia venosa devido a não visualização de veia cava inferior no ultrassom, evidenciando trombose de plexo lombar direito e segmento ilíaco-femoral bilateral, além de agenesia de segmento infra-hepático de veia cava inferior, com ectasia e tortuosidade compensatória de veias paravertebrais, sistema ázigos e hemiázigos, com varizes pélvicas bilateralmente. Foi realizada anticoagulação sistêmica e oral, com boa evolução clínica.

Abstract Agenesis of the inferior vena cava (IVC) has been described in less than 1% of the population; a rare occurrence caused by embryonic abnormalities. Its correlation with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is certainly underestimated, since this change is hard to detect using ultrasound. The aim of the article is to report the case of a 41-year-old female patient with pain and edema up to the top of the right thigh after plastic surgery. Bilateral venous duplex ultrasound revealed bilateral DVT involving iliac-femoral-popliteal and distal segments. Venous angiotomography was requested because the IVC was not visible on ultrasound, revealing thrombosis of the right lumbar plexus and iliofemoral segment bilaterally and agenesis of the infrahepatic segment of the inferior vena cava, with ectasia and compensatory tortuosity of paravertebral veins and the azygos-hemiazygos system, and bilateral pelvic varices. Systemic and oral anticoagulation were administered, with a satisfactory clinical response.

Humans , Female , Adult , Vena Cava, Inferior/abnormalities , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Lower Extremity , Vascular Malformations/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200155, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351014


Abstract Duplication of the inferior vena cava is a rare congenital anomaly, with an incidence of 0.2-3%. Despite being asymptomatic, anomalies of IVC are important in aortoiliac and retroperitoneal surgeries. Preoperative CT imaging is essential to identify any IVC anomaly and to prevent unexpected hemorrhage during surgery. Here, we report a case of a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm in which we encountered a type I IVC duplication anomaly intraoperatively while performing transperitoneal aneurysmorrhaphy and took precautions to avoid any iatrogenic injuries to either of the two trunks or the pre-aortic trunk of the anomalous duplicate IVC.

Resumo A duplicação da veia cava inferior (VCI) é uma anomalia congênita rara com incidência de 0,2 a 3%. Apesar de assintomáticas, anomalias da VCI são importantes em cirurgias aortoilíacas e retroperitoneais. A imagem da tomografia pré-operatória é essencial para identificar qualquer anomalia de VCI e para evitar hemorragia inesperada durante a cirurgia. Relatamos um caso de aneurisma de aorta abdominal justarrenal, no qual encontramos uma anomalia de duplicação de VCI do tipo 1 intraoperatório enquanto realizávamos correção cirúrgica de aneurisma transperitoneal. Por isso, tomamos a precaução para evitar qualquer lesão iatrogênica nos dois troncos e no tronco pré-aórtico de VCI duplicada anômala.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Vena Cava, Inferior/abnormalities , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Vascular Malformations/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292168


Fundamento: A avaliação do volume intravascular e da fluido-responsividade é uma condição desafiadora no manejo de pacientes críticos. Os métodos diagnósticos precisam garantir segurança, reprodutibilidade e praticidade no monitoramento hemodinâmico. Objetivo: Descrever a aplicabilidade dos índices ultrassonográficos da veia cava inferior na avaliação do volume intravascular e na predição da fluido-responsividade em pacientes críticos. Método: Trata-se de revisão sistemática realizada por meio das bases de dados PubMed®, Lilacs e SciELO nos 5 anos anteriores. Os descritores utilizados foram "inferior vena cava", "ultrasonography", "fluid-responsiveness" e "volume status". Resultados: Foram selecionados 13 artigos compatíveis com os objetivos deste estudo. O índice de colapsibilidade da veia cava inferior variou de 25% a 50% como ponto de corte para definição de hipovolemia. Além disso, apresentou aplicabilidade na predição da fluido-responsividade em pacientes sob respiração espontânea, com pontos de corte variando de 25% a 57%. Em cenários de ventilação mecânica, o índice de distensibilidade da veia cava inferior mostrou-se mais eficaz, quando comparado às demais medidas, para predição de fluido-responsividade, mas foi encontrada variação de 10,2% a 20,5%. O índice diâmetro da veia cava inferior/diâmetro da artéria aorta foi especialmente útil na população pediátrica para definição do volume intravascular, mas em adultos existiram muitas divergências quanto à sua aplicabilidade. Conclusão: A avaliação do volume intravascular e da fluido-responsividade por meio dos índices ultrassonográficos da veia cava inferior apresenta aplicabilidade e segurança no diagnóstico e no monitoramento da instabilidade hemodinâmica. Entretanto, são necessários estudos de padronização de valores em razão das divergências quanto aos pontos de corte utilizados em cada índice.(AU)

Humans , Child , Adult , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Blood Volume/physiology , Critical Care/methods , Fluid Therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Hemodynamic Monitoring/methods
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 665-670, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942233


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the impact of deep invasive tumor thrombus on the surgical complexity and prognosis of patients with renal cell carcinoma complicated with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 94 patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma complicated with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus, who underwent surgical treatment in Peking University Third Hospital from January 2017 to June 2020. The patient's general condition, clinicopathological characteristics, surgery and survival information were collected. The patients were divided into two groups based on the intra-operative findings of tumor thrombus adhesion to the venous wall, of which 64 cases were in the deep invasive tumor thrombus (DITT) group and 30 cases were in the non-invasive tumor thrombus (NITT) group. Chi-square, t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for categorical and continuous variables respectively. Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariable Cox regressions were performed to evaluate the influence of DITT on the prognosis of the patients with renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus.@*RESULTS@#DITT significantly increase the difficulty of surgery for the patients with renal cell carcinoma with venous tumor thrombus, which was mainly reflected in the longer operation time (362.5 vs. 307.5 min, P=0.010), more surgical bleeding (1 200 vs. 450 mL, P=0.006), more surgical blood transfusion (800 vs. 0 mL, P=0.021), more plasma transfusion (200 vs. 0 mL, P=0.001), a higher proportion of open surgery (70.3% vs. 36.7%, P=0.002), a longer post-operative hospital stay (9.5 vs. 8 days, P=0.036), and a higher proportion of post-operative complications (46.9% vs. 13.8%, P=0.002). DITT was associated with worse overall survival of the patients with renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus (P=0.022). Even in the multivariate analysis, DITT was still a poor prognostic factor for the overall survival of these patients [HR: 4.635 (1.017-21.116), P=0.047].@*CONCLUSION@#For patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus, DITT will significantly increase the difficulty of surgery, and may lead to poor prognosis.

Humans , Blood Component Transfusion , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Nephrectomy , Plasma , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/surgery , Vena Cava, Inferior
Rev. cient. Esc. Univ. Cienc. Salud ; 7(2): 56-62, jun.-dic. 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1343964


Las malformaciones del sistema venoso abdominal son alteraciones vasculares raras. La incidencia de esta afección se estima en uno de cada 30,000 nacimientos y se asocian con malformaciones gas- trointestinal, genitourinaria, ósea y cardiovascular. En el 2018 se ha registrado en la literatura mundial 39 casos de Abernethy tipo I y 22 casos de Abernethy tipo II. CASO CLÍNICO paciente femenino de 12 años con antecedente de hipertensión portal tratada hace 2 años, con historia de malestar general e ic- tericia, acudió a centro privado para realizarse estudios complementarios. Un ultrasonido Doppler por- tal evidenció una lesión isoecogénica al parénquima hepático en el aspecto inferior del lóbulo derecho. Se continuó la evaluación realizando una tomografía en la cual se observó: configuración anómala del sistema venoso portal; la vena esplénica y mesentérica superior se encuentran dilatadas, además se evidenció confluencia portoesplénica elongada, en la cual derivan dos trayectos portales, uno de ellos drenando la lobulación hepática antes descrita y la segundo se comunica con el sistema venoso portal hepático derecho, demostrando tortuosidad de su trayecto, con estenosis de su porción proximal. Los hallazgos antes descritos sugieren malformación vascular del sistema venoso portal-esplácnico, que causa derivación porto-sistémica en relación a malformación de Abernethy tipo II. En conclusión se recomienda el diagnóstico precoz. El examen preferente es el ecodoppler con posterior confirmación mediante angiotac abdominal. El tratamiento es sumamente importante pues su retraso puede devenir en lesiones irreparables hasta la insuficiencia hepática y muerte...(AU)

Humans , Female , Child , Veins/abnormalities , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Portal Vein
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(12)dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389270


Abnormalities of the inferior vena cava are rare. Its embryological development occurs between the sixth and eighth week of gestation and depends on the persistence or regression of three pairs of veins: the posterior cardinal veins, the subcardinal veins and the supracardinal veins. The type of congenital alteration depends on the moment that embryogenesis is altered. The most frequent clinical presentation is deep vein thrombosis, which occurs mainly in young men. We report a 16-year-old male presenting with edema of the left leg. No risk factor for thrombosis was recorded. A Doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a deep femoro-popliteal vein thrombosis. An abdominal CAT scan showed an agenesis of the supra and infra-adrenal inferior vena cava, with multiple collaterals. The study for thrombophilia was negative. The patient was treated with vitamin K antagonists with a good clinical response.

Adolescent , Humans , Male , Vena Cava, Inferior , Venous Thrombosis , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Fibrinolytic Agents