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S. Afr. med. j ; 112(2): 117-123, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1358374


Background. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is regarded as the most preventable cause of inpatient death in hospital settings globally. VTE can be prevented through the provision of non-pharmacological and/or pharmacological thromboprophylaxis following individualised risk screening. The Caprini risk assessment model (RAM) offers a validated and well-established approach for VTE risk assessment in medical inpatients. Literature findings describe a trend towards inappropriate and under-prescribing of thromboprophylaxis in this population. Together with concerns regarding clinicians' perceived importance of VTE risk assessment, the need to clarify these aspects of practice is evident. Objectives. To describe VTE risk assessment and prophylaxis practices of medical practitioners in public sector hospitals in Western Cape Province, South Africa (SA). Methods. A retrospective, cross-sectional study design was employed in the medical wards of two district hospitals and one regional hospital in the Cape Town metropole, Western Cape. Medical folders of adult medical inpatients admitted between January and July 2020 were reviewed to assess VTE risk using the Caprini RAM. Thromboprophylaxis therapy prescribed and contraindications to chemoprophylaxis were also evaluated. Results. Of 380 patients included in the review, 51.6% were female, and the average age was 52.1 years (range 18 - 96); 21.3% had their weight recorded, while none had their height documented. Infectious disease was the predominant diagnosis (49.2%) detected in the sample. Common VTE risk factors identified included bed rest/restricted mobility for <72 hours (76.3%) and serious infection (67.4%). A total of 97.1% of patients (n=369) were found to be at moderate or higher risk of VTE (Caprini score ≥2). Of this at-risk group, 24.1% were eligible to receive chemoprophylaxis, yet no prescription for thromboprophylaxis was identified. Seventy percent of patients (n=266) were prescribed chemoprophylaxis, with enoxaparin accounting for 98.5% of regimens. Contraindications to chemoprophylaxis were recorded in 13.4% of patients. Conclusions. Although rates of VTE prophylaxis in medical inpatients may be improving, thromboprophylaxis still remains critically underutilised in this population. This study highlighted a consequence of this trend, with inappropriate chemoprophylaxis prescribing becoming more evident. Mechanical prophylaxis prescribing in medical inpatients is lacking, despite the associated benefits. RAMs should be adapted for the SA setting, where infectious diseases are prevalent. Future research should assess RAM use by clinicians, as this could provide insight into improving RAM uptake and thromboprophylaxis prescribing.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Therapeutics , Risk Assessment , Venous Thromboembolism , Inpatients
Infectio ; 25(4): 293-295, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286725


Resumen La trombosis venosa cerebral (TVC) es una presentación clínica poco común del tromboembolismo venoso caracterizada por cefalea, crisis convulsivas, déficits neurológicos focales y papiledema. El diagnóstico es confirmado con Tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) de cráneo y Resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral. La TVC tiene una relación importante con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), ya que los pacientes VIH positivos cursan con hiperviscosidad san guínea, alteraciones de factores anticoagulantes endógenos y riesgo de sobreinfección, entre otros; que predisponen a estados protrombóticos y lesión vascular como lo es la TVC. El tratamiento de la TVC es terapia anticoagulante, por lo general se utiliza heparina no fraccionada o heparina de bajo peso molecular para la fase aguda y anticoagulantes orales como la warfarina para el mantenimiento posterior. Reportamos el primer caso documentado de TVC en un paciente VIH positivo en Colombia.

Abstract Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare clinical presentation of venous thromboembolism characterized by headache, seizures, neurological deficits and papi lledema. The diagnosis is confirmed using computed tomography scan (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. CVT has an important relationship with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) given that HIV-positive patients may present with blood hyperviscosity, irregular levels of endogenous anticoagulation factors and risk of sepsis among others, that predispose to prothrombotic states and vascular injury such as CVT. The treatment of CVT is anticoagulant therapy, generally unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin for the early phase and oral anticoagulants such as warfarin for the late phase. This case reports the first documented case of CVT in an HIV positive patient in Colombia.

Humans , Male , Adult , Venous Thromboembolism , Skull , Brain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , HIV , Headache , Hepatitis B
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(6): 697-704, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357135


Abstract Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is among the most feared complications by orthopedists both for due to its potentially lethal outcome and the uncertainties related to its prevention. Despite the vast literature on VTE prevention in major orthopedic surgeries, little is known about it in ankle and foot procedures. In orthopedics, adequate thromboprophylaxis requires a careful assessment of the thrombotic and hemorrhagic risks based on the procedure to be performed, as well as and knowledge on anticoagulant agents. The presentis review has the goal of assessing the risk of developingdiscusses VTE risk assessment, the modalities of thromboprophylaxis modalities, and the drugs used, with an emphasis on foot and ankle surgeries.

Resumo O tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) é uma das complicações mais temidas pelos ortopedistas, tanto pelo seu desfecho potencialmente letal quanto pelas incertezas relacionadas à sua prevenção. Apesar da vasta literatura existente sobre a prevenção de TEV nas grandes cirurgias ortopédicas, pouco se sabe sobre sua prevenção nas cirurgias do tornozelo e do pé. Uma adequada prescrição da tromboprofilaxia em ortopedia exige criteriosa avaliação dos riscos trombóticos e hemorrágicos com base no tipo de cirurgia a ser realizada, além do conhecimento sobre os anticoagulantes. Esta revisão tem como objetivos abordar a avaliação do risco de desenvolver TEV, as modalidades de tromboprofilaxia, e os fármacos utilizados, tendo como ênfase as cirurgias do pé e do tornozelo.

Risk Assessment , Orthopedic Procedures , Disease Prevention , Venous Thromboembolism , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Foot , Orthopedic Surgeons , Anticoagulants
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(3)set-out. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348200


Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência dos fatores de risco e medidas de prevenção para trombose venosa profunda de pacientes cirúrgicos em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Métodos: Estudo transversal, conduzido em 2019, com utilização da escala de Caprini para classificação de cada paciente quanto ao risco para trombose venosa profunda, e análise das intervenções adotadas. Resultados: Foram avaliados 68 pacientes. Os fatores de risco mais prevalentes foram procedimento cirúrgico de grande porte (96%) e restrição ao leito (90%). O risco para tromboembolismo venoso foi alto (62/91%), moderado (5/7%) e baixo (1/2%). A mobilização de membros foi aplicada a todos os pacientes, deambulação precoce foi realizada em 62% e 56% foram submetidos à profilaxia medicamentosa. Conclusão: A alta prevalência dos fatores de risco para trombose venosa profunda em pacientes cirúrgicos e a baixa aplicabilidade de medidas preventivas demonstram a importância da implementação de programas de educação continuada e medidas de monitoramento desses eventos.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of the risk factors and preventive measures for deep venous thrombosis in surgical patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Methods: Cross-sectional study held in 2019 using the Caprini scale to classify each patient regarding their risk for deep venous thrombosis, and analysis of the actions taken. Results: A total of 68 patients were evaluated. The most prevalent risk factors were being submitted to major surgical procedures (96%) and bed restriction (90%). The risk for venous thromboembolism was high (62/91%), moderate (5/7%), and low (1/2%). Limb mobilization was applied on all patients; early ambulation was performed in 62%; and 56% were submitted to drug prophylaxis. Conclusion: The high prevalence of risk factors for deep vein thrombosis in surgical patients and the low applicability of preventive measures show the importance of implementing continuing education programs and measures to monitor such events.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Patients , General Surgery , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/nursing , Intensive Care Units , Drug Prescriptions/nursing , Early Ambulation/nursing , Disease Prevention , Venous Thromboembolism/nursing , Ambulatory Care , Hospitalization , Nurses , Nursing Care
Dolor ; 31(74): 26-34, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362804


El paciente oncológico de cuidados paliativos puede presentar una variedad importante de condiciones clínicas que producen sufrimiento y disminución en la calidad de vida; esto se presenta como un reto para el clínico en la identificación y correcto abordaje de los pacientes. El dolor se ha considerado por años como el síntoma cardinal a tratar en el paciente oncológico, donde se deben considerar sus condicionantes fisiopatológicos, la farmacología de las intervenciones, los posibles efectos secundarios y los condicionantes familiares, sociales y personales del dolor, pero a pesar de su relevancia, no es el único síntoma, estando acompañado de un abanico de patologías, como las afectaciones gastrointestinales, pulmonares, vasculares, hematológicas y neurológicas, que favorecen la pérdida de capacidad del paciente y, en muchas ocasiones, la muerte. Se realizó una revisión actualizada en bases de datos como EMBASE, PUBMED, SCIELO, además de la revisión de guías de asociaciones internacionales con el objetivo de acercar a todos los médicos, sin distinguir su especialidad o área de trabajo, al abordaje y manejo del paciente oncológico en cuidado paliativo, favoreciendo la sensibilización con estas patologías y la importancia en el curso de vida de los pacientes.

The palliative care cancer patient can present a significant variety of clinical conditions that produce suffering and a decrease in the quality of life. This is a challenge for the clinician in the identification and correct approach of patients. Pain has been considered for years as the cardinal symptom to be treated in cancer patients, where its pathophysiological factors, the pharmacology of the interventions, possible side effects and the family, social and personal conditions of pain must be considered, but despite its relevance is not the onset of symptoms and is accompanied by a range of pathologies such as gastrointestinal, pulmonary, vascular, hematological and neurological affectations that favor the loss of capacity of the patient and in many cases death. An updated review was carried out in databases such as EMBASE, PUBMED, SCIELO in addition to the revision of guides from international associations with the aim of bringing all doctors without distinguishing their specialty or area of work to the approach and management of cancer patients in palliative care favoring awareness of these pathologies and their importance in the life course of patients.

Humans , Palliative Care/methods , Cancer Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/diagnosis , Tumor Lysis Syndrome/diagnosis , Emergencies , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Intestinal Obstruction/diagnosis , Morphine/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/complications
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 346-352, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347293


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a incidência de embolia pulmonar, seu relacionamento com os níveis de dímero D e outros possíveis fatores associados, além dos efeitos adversos da anticoagulação e meios de contraste. Métodos: Conduziu-se um estudo de coorte retrospectiva em um hospital público chileno. Foram incluídos os pacientes com idade acima de 18 anos com COVID-19, mecanicamente ventilados na unidade de terapia intensiva, admitidos entre março e junho de 2020. Todos os pacientes receberam tromboprofilaxia com heparina, que foi aumentada até uma dose de anticoagulação com níveis de dímero D acima de 3µg/mL. Resultados: Foram acompanhados 127 pacientes, dos quais 73 foram submetidos à angiografia por tomografia computadorizada (média de idade de 54 ± 12 anos; 49 homens). Sessenta e dois dos 73 pacientes (84,9%) receberam anticoagulação total antes da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada. Além disso, 18 dos 73 pacientes tiveram embolia pulmonar (24,7%). Na comparação entre pacientes com e sem embolia pulmonar, não se observaram diferenças significantes em termos de idade, sexo, obesidade, tabagismo, escores de Wells e Genebra revisado, dímero D ou mortalidade. O uso de anticoagulantes foi similar em ambos os grupos. O número de dias desde o início da anticoagulação até a angiografia por tomografia computadorizada foi significantemente menor no grupo com embolia pulmonar (p = 0,002). Três pacientes tiveram lesão renal aguda após o contraste (4,1%), e um paciente teve sangramento importante. Conclusão: Apesar da anticoagulação, um em cada quatro pacientes com COVID-19 submetidos à ventilação mecânica e avaliados com angiografia por tomografia computadorizada apresentou embolia pulmonar. Com uma maior demora para realização da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada após início de anticoagulação empírica, identificou-se um número significantemente menor de embolias

Abstract Objective: To assess pulmonary embolism incidence, its relationship with D-dimer levels and other possible associated factors in addition to anticoagulation and contrast medium adverse effects. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study at a Chilean public hospital was performed. Intensive care unit mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients older than 18 years old between March and June 2020 were included. All patients received heparin thromboprophylaxis, which was increased to the anticoagulation dose with D-dimer greater than 3µg/mL. Results: A total of 127 patients were followed up, of whom 73 underwent pulmonary computed tomography angiography (mean age, 54 ± 12 years; 49 men). Sixty-two of the 73 patients (84.9%) received full anticoagulation before computed tomography angiography. In addition, 18 of the 73 patients had pulmonary embolism (24.7%). When comparing patients with and without pulmonary embolism, no significant differences were observed in age, sex, obesity, smoking, Wells and revised Geneva scores, D-dimer or mortality. Anticoagulant use was similar in both groups. Days from the start of anticoagulation until computed tomography angiography were significantly lower in the pulmonary embolism group (p = 0.002). Three patients presented post contrast-acute kidney injury (4.1%), and one patient had major bleeding. Conclusion: Despite anticoagulation, one in four COVID-19 patients connected to mechanical ventilation and evaluated with pulmonary computed tomography angiography had pulmonary embolism. With a longer the delay in performing computed tomography angiography once empirical anticoagulation was started, significantly less pulmonary embolism was identified.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Computed Tomography Angiography , SARS-CoV-2 , Intensive Care Units , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 26-32, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292714


INTRODUCCIÓN. El tromboembolismo venoso es una complicación prevenible en pacientes hospitalizados y la estratificación del riesgo mejora la seguridad del paciente, su valoración evita su ocurrencia. OBJETIVO. Evaluar el riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso y uso adecuado de terapia tromboprofiláctica en pacientes hospitalizados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio analítico transversal. Población de 412 y muestra de 373 pacientes encuestados, distribuidos: 186 en Unidades Clínicas, 163 en Unidades Quirúrgicas y 24 en Obstetricia del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, desde el 21 al 23 de febrero del 2019. La tabulación y análisis de datos se realizó en el programa estadístico International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versión 21. RESULTADOS. Se categorizó como alto riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso al 76,67% (286; 373) de pacientes; 49,46% (144; 163) postquirúrgicos y 69,40% (129; 286) clínicos de alto riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso, recibiendo tromboprofilaxis farmacológica de forma adecuada el 38,80% (56; 144) de quirúrgicos y 57,40% (74; 129) de clínicos. CONCLUSIÓN. Se determinó que el uso de tromboprofilaxis no farmacológica y farmacológica con heparina de bajo peso molecular en pacientes hospitalizados con riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso, fue bajo.

INTRODUCTION. Venous thromboembolism is a preventable complication in hospitalized patients and risk stratification improves patient safety, its ocurrence is prevented by its assessment. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the risk of venous thromboembolism and ade-quate use of thromboprophylactic therapy in hospitalized patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional analytical study. Population of 412 and sample of 373 patients surveyed, distributed: 186 in clinical wards, 163 in surgical wards and 24 in obstetrics of the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital, from february 21 to 23, 2019. Data tabulation and analysis was performed in the statistical program International Business Machines Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21. RESULTS. 76,67% (286; 373) of patients were categorized as high risk of venous thromboembolism; 49,46% (144; 163) post-surgical and 69,40% (129; 286) clinical patients as high risk of venous thromboembo-lism, with 38,80% (56; 144) of surgical and 57,40% (74; 129) of clinical patients receiving adequate pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS. The use of nonpharma-cological and pharmacological thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin in hospitalized patients at risk of venous thromboembolism was low.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Vascular Diseases/prevention & control , Veins , Heparin/therapeutic use , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Thrombolytic Therapy , Drug Therapy , Data Analysis , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Anticoagulants
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 72(1): 53-68, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251613


RESUMEN Objetivo: sintetizar la evidencia disponible en torno a las intervenciones para la prevención de eventos tromboembólicos venosos durante el cuidado perioperatorio de las mujeres con patología ginecológica benigna, buscando reducir la morbi-mortalidad asociada a esta condición. Materiales y métodos: el grupo desarrollador estuvo integrado por profesionales de la salud, tomadores decisiones y un representante de las pacientes. Todos los participantes declararon sus conflictos de interés. Se construyeron preguntas clínicas contestables y se realizó la graduación de los desenlaces. Se elaboró la pesquisa de la información en Medline/PubMed, Embase, Epistemonikos y LILACS. La búsqueda también abarcó fuentes de literatura gris y se actualizó el 22 de septiembre de 2020 sin restricciones por fecha o idioma. Se implementó la aproximación GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) para establecer la calidad de la evidencia y la fuerza de las recomendaciones, se realizó consenso formal acorde con la metodología RAND/UCLA. Previo a la publicación, el documento fue objeto de revisión por pares. Resultados: se presenta la versión corta del consenso "para la prevención de eventos tromboembólicos venosos durante el cuidado perioperatorio de las mujeres con patología ginecológica benigna", junto a su evidencia de soporte y respectivas recomendaciones. Conclusiones: como recomendaciones claves para la implementación, se proponen el uso de la escala de Caprini y el uso de intervenciones acorde con el nivel de riesgo perioperatorio de las pacientes.

ABSTRACT Objective: To draw a synthesis of the available evidence regarding interventions for the prevention of venous thromboembolic events during the peri-operative care of women with benign gynecological pathology, with the aim of reducing the associated morbidity and mortality. Materials and methods: The development group included healthcare professionals, decision-makers and one patient representative. All the participants stated their disclosures. Answerable clinical questions were built and outcomes were graded. The search for information was conducted in Medline, Embase, Epistemonikos and LILACS, but it also included grey literature and was updated on September 22, 2020, with no date or language restrictions. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used to determine the quality of the evidence and the strength of the recommendations. Formal consensus was developed in accordance with the RAND/UCLA methodology. The document was submitted to peer review before publication. Results: The abbreviated version of the "consensus on the prevention of venous thromboembolic events during the perioperative care of women with benign gynecological pathology" is presented together with the supporting evidence and respective recommendations. Conclusions: The key recommendations for implementation include the use of the Caprini scale and of interventions consistent with the individual peri-operative risk level.

Humans , Female , Consensus , Venous Thromboembolism , Pulmonary Embolism , General Surgery , Women , Perioperative Care
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880635


OBJECTIVES@#To screen the risk factors for predicting venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk after hip fracture in the elderly, to establish a prediction model based on these factors, and to analyze its prediction efficacy.@*METHODS@#A total of 52 hip fracture patients over 60 years old with VTE admitted to the Department of Orthopaedic Trauma, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from March 2017 to April 2019 were selected as a thrombus group, and another 52 hip fracture patients over 60 years old without VTE were selected as a control group. The differences of hospitalization data and examination results between the 2 groups were compared. Logistic regression model was used to explore the influence of risk factors on VTE risk after hip fracture in the elderly and construct the prediction model based on these factors. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to analyze the predictive effectiveness of model, Hosmer-lemeshow goodness of fit test was used to evaluate the fitting degree of prediction model.@*RESULTS@#Univariate analysis showed that injury-admission interval, Caprini score, WBC count, platelet count, neutrophil count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, systemic immune-inflammatory index (SII), and fibrinogen in the thrombus group were higher than those in the control group (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#SII, Caprini score, and injury-admission interval are independent predictors of VTE after hip fracture in the elderly. The prediction model based on these 3 factors has a good efficacy on the prediction of VTE risk, and could provide important reference for the prevention, management, and treatment of VTE after hip fracture in the elderly.

Aged , Hip Fractures/surgery , Humans , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880118


OBJECTIVE@#To test the anticoagulation functions, perform the genetic diagnosis and analyze the clinical characteristics in a family with combined heterozygous genetic variants of PROC and PROS1.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood was collected from all the family members. Hematological phenotypes and activity of anticoagulant factors were analyzed. Target genes were amplified by PCR from DNA isolated from peripheral blood, and then were analyzed by Sanger DNA sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Many members in the family displayed the combined genetic variants in protein C and protein S, and six family members accompanied by deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The influences of genetic and secondary factors on the incidence of venous thrombosis in the family members were analyzed. The results showed that in this family, carriers of combined protein C and protein S gene defects had a higher incidence of VTE, but acquired factors still played a key role in the eventual thrombotic symptoms.@*CONCLUSION@#Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial disease, the combined genetic heterozygous mutations of protein C and S is an important genetic factor, and the clinical phenotype show a high heterogenicity, the secondary factors contribute to the VTE incidence.

Heterozygote , Humans , Mutation , Protein C/genetics , Protein S/genetics , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis/genetics
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 164-172, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878008


BACKGROUND@#Aspirin has demonstrated safety and efficacy for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis following total hip arthroplasty (THA); however, inconsistent dose regimens have been reported in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of 100 mg aspirin twice daily with rivaroxaban in VTE prophylaxis following THA.@*METHODS@#Patients undergoing elective unilateral primary THA between January 2019 and January 2020 were prospectively enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive 5 weeks of VTE prophylaxis with either oral enteric-coated aspirin (100 mg twice daily) or rivaroxaban (10 mg once daily). Medication safety and efficacy were comprehensively evaluated through symptomatic VTE incidence, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) on Doppler ultrasonography, total blood loss (TBL), laboratory bloodwork, Harris hip score (HHS), post-operative recovery, and the incidence of other complications.@*RESULTS@#We included 70 patients in this study; 34 and 36 were allocated to receive aspirin and rivaroxaban prophylaxis, respectively. No cases of symptomatic VTE occurred in this study. The DVT rate on Doppler ultrasonography in the aspirin group was not significantly different from that in the rivaroxaban group (8.8% vs. 8.3%, χ2 = 0.01, P = 0.91), confirming the non-inferiority of aspirin for DVT prophylaxis (χ2 = 2.29, P = 0.01). The calculated TBL in the aspirin group (944.9 mL [658.5-1137.8 mL]) was similar to that in the rivaroxaban group (978.3 mL [747.4-1740.6mL]) (χ2 = 1.55, P = 0.12). However, there were no significant inter-group differences in HHS at post-operative day (POD) 30 (Aspirin: 81.0 [78.8-83.0], Rivaroxaban: 81.0 [79.3-83.0], χ2 = 0.43, P = 0.67) and POD 90 (Aspirin: 90.0 [89.0-92.0], Rivaroxaban: 91.5 [88.3-92.8], χ2 = 0.77, P = 0.44), the incidence of bleeding events (2.9% vs. 8.3%, χ2 = 0.96, P = 0.33), or gastrointestinal complications (2.9% vs. 5.6%, χ2 = 1.13, P = 0.29).@*CONCLUSION@#In terms of safety and efficacy, the prophylactic use of 100 mg aspirin twice daily was not statistically different from that of rivaroxaban in preventing VTE and reducing the risk of blood loss following elective primary THA. This supports the use of aspirin chemoprophylaxis following THA as a less expensive and more widely available option for future THAs.@*TRIAL, ChiCTR18000202894;

Anticoagulants , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Humans , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 86(4) (Nro Esp - ACARO Asociación Argentina para el Estudio de la Cadera y Rodilla): 446-454, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353945


Objetivo: Analizar la incidencia de eventos tromboembólicos extrahospitalarios luego de un reemplazo total de rodilla o cadera primario en los primeros 90 días posoperatorios, utilizando como tromboprofilaxis ácido acetilsalicílico o dabigatrán. El objetivo secundario fue evaluar el costo de la terapia antiagregante y de la anticoagulante. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo en el posoperatorio de reemplazos totales de cadera y rodilla primarios sobre la incidencia de eventos tromboembólicos extrahospitalarios, durante los primeros 90 días posteriores a la cirugía, en dos grupos. Se administró ácido acetilsalicílico (325 mg/día) o dabigatrán (150-220 mg/día) por 35 días. Resultados: La serie incluyó a 224 pacientes (media de la edad 68.5 años), el 44,2% eran hombres. El 51,3% era un reemplazo total de cadera. El 64,3% continuó la tromboprofilaxis con dabigatrán y el 35,7%, con aspirina. La incidencia total de eventos tromboembólicos fue del 1,3%; 1,4% con dabigatrán y 1,3% con aspirina (p = 0,9). El costo de la tromboprofilaxis fue de USD 3,6 con aspirina 325 mg y USD 130 o 175 con dabigatrán, según la presentación de 75 y 110 mg. Conclusiones:La aspirina como tromboprofilaxis tras un reemplazo total de cadera o rodilla en pacientes con bajo riesgo de sufrir eventos tromboembólicos ha logrado resultados clínicos similares a los del dabigatrán. Se puede recomendar un protocolo multimodal basado en el uso de aspirina. Este mejora el cumplimiento de la terapia antitrombótica por parte de los pacientes, debido al bajo costo de la profilaxis con aspirina. Nivel de Evidencia: III

Objective: To analyze the incidence of out-of-hospital thromboembolic events after a primary total knee or hip replacement in the first 90 postoperative days, using acetylsalicylic acid or dabigatran as thromboprophylaxis. As a secondary objective, to evaluate the cost of antiplatelet therapy compared to anticoagulants. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out in the postoperative period of primary total hip and knee replacement on the incidence of out-of-hospital thromboembolic events during the first 90 postoperative days in two groups of patients. Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg per day) or dabigatran (150 to 220 mg per day) were used as thromboprophylaxis for 35 days. Results: The series consisted of 224 patients aged 68.5 years (38-95 years), 44.2% male. 51.3% corresponded to total hip replacement. 64.3% continued thromboprophylaxis with dabigatran and 35.7% with aspirin. The total incidence of thromboembolic events was 1.3%. In the patients who received dabigatran it was 1.4% and in those who received aspirin, 1.3% (p = 0.9). The cost of thromboprophylaxis with aspirin 325 mg was US $ 3.6 while with dabigatran it was US $ 130 or $ 175, according to its presentation, 75 and 110 mg. Conclusion: Aspirin as thromboprophylaxis after total hip or knee replacement in individuals at low risk of thromboembolic events has shown similar clinical outcomes as dabigatran, and a multimodal protocol based on the use of aspirin can be recommended. This improves patient adherence to antithrombotic therapy, due to the low cost of aspirin prophylaxis. Level of Evidence: III

Middle Aged , Aged , Aspirin , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Venous Thromboembolism , Dabigatran
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 55: e03738, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1250725


RESUMO Objetivo O estudo teórico apresentado tem por objetivo discorrer sobre o papel do enfermeiro na prevenção mecânica do tromboembolismo venoso em pacientes cirúrgicos. Método O estudo considerou as versões atualizadas dos principais guidelines internacionais e revisões acerca do tema. Além de serem discutidas as medidas não farmacológicas de prevenção de tromboembolismo venoso em pacientes cirúrgicos e o papel do enfermeiro. Resultados É importante que o enfermeiro cirúrgico inclua, em suas atividades, as avaliações de risco do tromboembolismo venoso e as medidas profiláticas não farmacológicas, baseadas em evidências científicas e protocolos institucionais bem delineados. Conclusão Dentre as medidas mecânicas, o uso de meias elásticas de compressão graduada e a compressão pneumática intermitente devem ser asseguradas pelos enfermeiros.

RESUMEN Objetivo El estudio teórico presentado tiene como objetivo discurrir sobre el papel del enfermero en la prevención mecánica del tromboembolismo venoso de pacientes quirúrgicos. Método El estudio tuvo en cuenta las versiones actualizadas de las principales directrices y revisiones internacionales sobre el tema, además de discutir las medidas no farmacológicas para la prevención del tromboembolismo venoso en pacientes quirúrgicos y el papel del enfermero. Resultados Es importante que el enfermero quirúrgico incluya, en sus actividades, evaluaciones de riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso y medidas profilácticas no farmacológicas, basadas en la evidencia científica y en protocolos institucionales bien diseñados. Conclusión Entre las medidas mecánicas, los enfermeros deben garantizar el uso de medias elásticas de compresión graduada y la compresión neumática intermitente.

ABSTRACT Objective This theoretical study aims to discuss the role of nurses in the mechanical prevention of venous thromboembolism in surgical patients. Method The study considered the updated versions of the main international guidelines and reviews on the topic. Non-pharmacological measures to prevent venous thromboembolism in surgical patients and the role of nurses are discussed. Results It is important that surgical nurses include in their activities risk of assessments for venous thromboembolism and non-pharmacological prophylactic measures, based on scientific evidence and well-designed institutional protocols. Conclusion Among the mechanical measures, the use of graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression should be ensured by nurses.

Operating Room Nursing , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Thromboembolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Patient Safety
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(1): e-01841, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146871


Introdução: O tromboembolismo venoso é uma condição potencialmente fatal e frequente no paciente oncológico. Muitas vezes, a anticoagulação é inviável, e a colocação do filtro de veia cava (FVC) torna-se uma opção. A indicação clínica, entretanto, é controversa e gera alto custo. Objetivo: Descrever as características demográficas, clínicas e epidemiológicas dos pacientes com colocação de FVC e seu impacto na sobrevida global. Método: Estudo de coorte retrospectiva com pacientes em tratamento oncológico no INCA, que tiveram FVC implantado de janeiro/2015 até abril/2017. Na análise de sobrevida global em cinco anos, foram considerados o tempo entre o diagnóstico de câncer e o óbito por qualquer causa. Realizaram-se análise descritiva, estimativas de sobrevida (Kaplan-Meier) e regressão de Cox. Resultados: Foram incluídos 74 pacientes com média de idade 54 (+-15) anos. Em sua maioria, apresentavam tumores ginecológicos (52,7%) e digestivos (20,3%). O tempo mediano entre o diagnóstico de câncer e a colocação do FVC foi de 3,48 meses (0-203). No seguimento, foram observados 40 óbitos (54,1%) com mediana de tempo de 25 meses (IC 95%; 1,76-47,32). Na análise ajustada, verificou-se risco 5,63 vezes maior de morrer nos pacientes com colocação do FVC em até seis meses após o diagnóstico de câncer (HR=4,99; IC 95%; 2,20-11,33; p<0,001), e risco 2,47 vezes maior entre aqueles que não fizeram no pré-operatório (HR=2,47; IC 95%; 1,08-5,66; p=0,032). Conclusão: A colocação do FVC foi realizada com maior frequência em pacientes com tumores ginecológicos e em até seis meses após o diagnóstico de câncer foi associada a maior risco de óbito.

Introduction: Venous thromboembolism is a potentially fatal condition and frequent in oncologic patients. Quite often full anticoagulation is unfeasible, and placement of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter becomes an option. Clinical indication, however, is controversial and expensive. Objective: To describe the demographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of oncologic patients submitted to IVC filter placement and their impact on global survival. Method: Retrospective cohort study with patients undergoing cancer treatment at INCA submitted to IVC filter placement from January 2015 to April 2017. Time between cancer diagnoses and death from any cause was considered for the analysis of the global 5-years survival. Descriptive analysis, survival estimates (Kaplan-Meyer) and Cox regression were performed. Results: 74 patients with a mean age of 54 (+15) years were included. Most of them had gynecological (52.7%) and digestive (20.3%) tumors. The median time between cancer diagnosis and IVC filter placement was 3.48 months (0-203). In the follow-up, 40 deaths (54.1%) were observed with a median time of 25 months (95% CI; 1.76 to 47.32). In the adjusted analysis, 5.63 times greater risk of death was verified in patients with IVC filter placement within six months after cancer diagnosis (HR=4.99; 95% CI; 2.20-11.33; p<0.001), and 2.47 times greater risk among those who did not do it at pre-operation (HR=2.47; 95% CI; 1.08-5.66; p=0.032). Conclusion: IVC filter placement was performed more frequently in patients with gynecological tumors and in until six months after cancer diagnosis was associated with increased risk of death.

Introducción: El tromboembolismo venoso es una afección potencialmente mortal y frecuente en pacientes con cáncer. La anticoagulación a menudo no es factible, y la colocación de un filtro de vena cava (FVC) se convierte en una opción. Sin embargo, las indicaciones clínicas son controvertidas y generan un alto costo. Objetivo: Describir las características demográficas, clínicas y epidemiológicas de los pacientes con colocación de CVF y su impacto en la supervivencia general. Método: Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo de pacientes sometidos a tratamiento contra el cáncer en INCA a quienes se les implantó FVC entre enero de 2015 y abril de 2017. En el análisis de la supervivencia general a cinco años, el tiempo transcurrido entre el diagnóstico de cáncer y la muerte cualquier causa Se realizó un análisis descriptivo, estimaciones de supervivencia (Kaplan-Meier) y regresión de Cox. Resultados: Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con una edad media de 54 (+-15) años. La mayoría de ellos tenían tumores ginecológicos (52,7%) y digestivos (20,3%). La mediana del tiempo entre el diagnóstico de cáncer y la colocación de FVC fue de 3,48 meses (0-203). En el período de seguimiento, se observaron 40 muertes (54,1%) con una mediana de tiempo de 25 meses (IC 95%: 1,76 a 47,32). En el análisis ajustado, se observó un riesgo de muerte 5,63 veces mayor en pacientes con colocación de FVC dentro de los seis meses posteriores al diagnóstico de cáncer (HR=4,99; IC 95%: 2,20-11,33; p<0,001) y 2,47 veces mayor riesgo entre aquellos que no lo hicieron antes de la operación (HR=2,47; IC 95%; 1,08-5,66; p=0,032). Conclusión: La colocación de FVC se realizó con mayor frecuencia en pacientes con tumores ginecológicos. La colocación de FVC dentro de los seis meses posteriores al diagnóstico de cáncer se asoció con un mayor riesgo de muerte.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Vena Cava Filters/adverse effects , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis , Time Factors , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Venous Thromboembolism/surgery , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Genital Neoplasms, Female/complications , Genital Neoplasms, Female/mortality , Neoplasms/complications
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(4): 227-232, dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145596


La enfermedad producida por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 se identificó por primera vez en diciembre de 2019 en la ciudad de Wuhan, en la República Popular China, y en pocos meses se convirtió en una pandemia. Desde el comienzo ha sido un desafío mundial, que amenazó la salud pública y obligó a tomar medidas estrictas de aislamiento social. Como consecuencia de la emergencia sanitaria se ha producido una reducción importante de la actividad asistencial, que puso en riesgo el acceso y la continuidad de los métodos anticonceptivos, exponiendo a mujeres a embarazos no intencionales. Los derechos sexuales y reproductivos resultan esenciales y deben garantizarse siempre. (AU)

The disease caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was identified for the first time in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, in the People's Republic of China, and within a few months it became a pandemic. From the beginning, it has been a global challenge, threatening public health, having to take strict measures of social isolation. As a consequence of the health emergency, there has been a significant reduction in healthcare activity, putting access and continuity of contraceptive methods at risk, exposing women to unintended pregnancies. Sexual and reproductive rights are essential and must always be guaranteed. (AU)

Humans , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hormonal Contraception/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pregnancy, Unwanted , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Contraceptive Agents/administration & dosage , Contraceptive Agents/classification , Contraceptive Agents/supply & distribution , Reproductive Rights , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Health Services Accessibility