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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928477

ABSTRACT

Trauma-induced pulmonary thromboembolism is the second leading cause of death in severe trauma patients. Primary fibrinolytic hyperactivity combined with hemorrhage and consequential hypercoagulability in severe trauma patients create a huge challenge for clinicians. It is crucial to ensure a safe anticoagulant therapy for trauma patients, but a series of clinical issues need to be answered first, for example, what are the risk factors for traumatic venous thromboembolism? How to assess and determine the status of coagulation dysfunction of patients? When is the optimal timing to initiate pharmacologic prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism? What types of prophylactic agents should be used? How to manage the anticoagulation-related hemorrhage and to determine the optimal timing of restarting chemoprophylaxis? The present review attempts to answer the above questions.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Hemorrhage , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 164-172, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Aspirin has demonstrated safety and efficacy for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis following total hip arthroplasty (THA); however, inconsistent dose regimens have been reported in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of 100 mg aspirin twice daily with rivaroxaban in VTE prophylaxis following THA.@*METHODS@#Patients undergoing elective unilateral primary THA between January 2019 and January 2020 were prospectively enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive 5 weeks of VTE prophylaxis with either oral enteric-coated aspirin (100 mg twice daily) or rivaroxaban (10 mg once daily). Medication safety and efficacy were comprehensively evaluated through symptomatic VTE incidence, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) on Doppler ultrasonography, total blood loss (TBL), laboratory bloodwork, Harris hip score (HHS), post-operative recovery, and the incidence of other complications.@*RESULTS@#We included 70 patients in this study; 34 and 36 were allocated to receive aspirin and rivaroxaban prophylaxis, respectively. No cases of symptomatic VTE occurred in this study. The DVT rate on Doppler ultrasonography in the aspirin group was not significantly different from that in the rivaroxaban group (8.8% vs. 8.3%, χ2 = 0.01, P = 0.91), confirming the non-inferiority of aspirin for DVT prophylaxis (χ2 = 2.29, P = 0.01). The calculated TBL in the aspirin group (944.9 mL [658.5-1137.8 mL]) was similar to that in the rivaroxaban group (978.3 mL [747.4-1740.6mL]) (χ2 = 1.55, P = 0.12). However, there were no significant inter-group differences in HHS at post-operative day (POD) 30 (Aspirin: 81.0 [78.8-83.0], Rivaroxaban: 81.0 [79.3-83.0], χ2 = 0.43, P = 0.67) and POD 90 (Aspirin: 90.0 [89.0-92.0], Rivaroxaban: 91.5 [88.3-92.8], χ2 = 0.77, P = 0.44), the incidence of bleeding events (2.9% vs. 8.3%, χ2 = 0.96, P = 0.33), or gastrointestinal complications (2.9% vs. 5.6%, χ2 = 1.13, P = 0.29).@*CONCLUSION@#In terms of safety and efficacy, the prophylactic use of 100 mg aspirin twice daily was not statistically different from that of rivaroxaban in preventing VTE and reducing the risk of blood loss following elective primary THA. This supports the use of aspirin chemoprophylaxis following THA as a less expensive and more widely available option for future THAs.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Chictr.org, ChiCTR18000202894; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=33284.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Humans , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
3.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 42(4): 300-308, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142978

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hemostatic abnormalities and thrombotic risk associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are among the most discussed topics in the management of this disease. The aim of this position paper is to provide the opinion of Brazilian experts on the thromboprophylaxis and management of thrombotic events in patients with suspected COVID-19, in the sphere of healthcare in Brazil. To do so, the Brazilian Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis (BSTH) and the Thrombosis and Hemostasis Committee of the Brazilian Association of Hematology, Hemotherapy and Cellular Therapy (ABHH) have constituted a panel of experts to carefully review and discuss the available evidence about this topic. The data discussed in this document was reviewed by May 9, 2020. Recommendations and suggestions reflect the opinion of the panel and should be reviewed periodically as new evidence emerges.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 364-387, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137197

ABSTRACT

Abstract The development of protocols to prevent perioperative Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) and the introduction of increasingly potent antithrombotic drugs have resulted in concerns of increased risk of neuraxial bleeding. Since the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology 2014 guideline, new oral anticoagulant drugs were approved by international regulating agencies, and by ANVISA. Societies and organizations that try to approach concerns through guidelines have presented conflicting perioperative management recommendations. As a response to these issues and to the need for a more rational approach, managements were updated in the present narrative review, and guideline statements made. They were projected to encourage safe and quality patient care, but cannot assure specific results. Like any clinical guide recommendation, they are subject to review as knowledge grows, on specific complications, for example. The objective was to assess safety aspects of regional analgesia and anesthesia in patients using antithrombotic drugs, such as: possible technique-associated complications; spinal hematoma-associated risk factors, prevention strategies, diagnosis and treatment; safe interval for discontinuing and reinitiating medication after regional blockade.


Resumo Os padrões evolutivos para a prevenção do tromboembolismo venoso perioperatório e a introdução de medicações antitrombóticas cada vez mais potentes resultaram em preocupações com o aumento do risco de sangramento neuroaxial. Após o consenso da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia em 2014, novos medicamentos anticoagulantes orais foram aprovados pelas instituições reguladoras internacionais, assim como pela ANVISA. As sociedades que buscam abordar o manejo perioperatório desses fármacos apresentam recomendações conflitantes. Em resposta a essas questões e à necessidade de uma abordagem mais racional, as condutas foram atualizadas nesta revisão narrativa e feitas declarações de consenso. Elas foram projetadas para encorajar a assistência ao paciente de forma segura e de qualidade, mas não podem garantir um resultado específico. Tal como acontece com qualquer recomendação de orientação clínica, estas estão sujeitas a revisão com o conhecimento de avanços específicos de complicações. O objetivo foi avaliar aspectos da segurança em anestesia e analgesia regional em pacientes em uso de medicações antitrombóticas, tais como: possíveis complicações decorrentes da técnica; fatores de risco associados ao hematoma espinhal, estratégias de prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento; intervalo seguro para suspensão e reinício da medicação após o bloqueio regional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Brazil , Risk Factors , Perioperative Care/methods , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.3): 65-66, June 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135192

ABSTRACT

Si bien la incidencia es incierta, algunos reportes de caso sugieren que la infección por COVID 19 se asocia con un aumento del riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso. Sugerimos iniciar tromboprofilaxis a todos los pacientes hospitalizados por síntomas asociados con una infección por COVID-19, a menos que esté contraindicado, con enoxaparina 40 mg SC diariamente si el clearance de creatinina es mayor a 30 ml/min.


Although the incidence is uncertain, some case reports suggest that COVID 19 infection is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. We suggest starting prophylactic anticoagulant therapy for all patients hospitalized with a symptomatic infection with COVID-19, unless contraindicated, with enoxaparin 40 mg SC daily if creatinine clearance is greater than 30 ml/min.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Inpatients , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Argentina , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(3): 368-374, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137261

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The current review evaluates recent literature on the different aspects of prophylaxis in postoperative pulmonary and venous thromboembolism and their main risk factors. Methods: The literature survey was carried out based on the PubMed data using the keywords "coronary artery bypass graft" and "venous thromboembolism" as components of the search field title. Results: Studies reported several risk factors for postoperative thromboembolism including advanced age, postoperative immobilization, type of thromboprophylaxis, obesity, and location of the surgery. Conclusion: According to the studies, tailored prophylaxis could be easily adapted to decrease the intensity and duration of postoperative thromboembolism in a patient with several disorders and comorbidities, especially in cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(4): 218-227, Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137824

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To identify current strategies and recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis associated with the pregnancy-puerperal cycle, a condition of high morbidity and mortality among women. Methods The literature search was performed between May and October 2019, using the PubMed database, including papers published in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The terms thromboembolism (Mesh) AND pregnancy (Mesh) OR postpartum (Mesh) were used as descriptors, including randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and guidelines published from 2009 to 2019, presenting strategies for prevention of thromboembolism during pregnancy and the postpartum. Results Eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Many studies evaluated were excluded because they did not address prevention strategies. We compiled the recommendations from the American Society of Hematologists, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, the American College of Chest Physicians and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Conclusion: There are some gaps in the research, and clinical studies with appropriate methodology are needed to support decisions made regarding the risk of thromboembolism in the perigestational period. Thus, the attention of the professionals involved in the care of pregnant and postpartum women is crucial, as it is a condition associated with high morbidity and mortality.


Resumo Objetivo Identificar as estratégias e recomendações atuais para profilaxia de tromboembolismo venoso associado ao ciclo gravídico-puerperal, condição de alta morbimortalidade entre mulheres. Métodos A busca na literatura ocorreu entre maio e outubro de 2019, com pesquisa na base de dados do PubMed, contemplando trabalhos publicados nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol. Os termos thromboembolism (Mesh) AND pregnancy (Mesh) OR postpartum (Mesh) foram utilizados como descritores, incluindo ensaios clínicos randomizados, metanálises, revisões sistemáticas e diretrizes publicadas entre 2009 a 20019, apresentando estratégias de prevenção de tromboembolismo venoso durante a gravidez e o pós-parto. Resultados Oito artigos abordando estratégias de tromboprofilaxia primária e secundária durante a gestação, parto e puerpério foram selecionados para a presente revisão sistemática. Muitos estudos avaliados foram excluídos por não abordarem estratégias de prevenção. Foram compiladas as recomendações das seguintes sociedades: American Society of Hematologists, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, American College of Chest Physicians e Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Conclusão Até o presente momento, há algumas lacunas e estudos clínicos com metodologia adequada se fazem necessários para respaldar a tomada de decisão frente ao risco de tromboembolismo venoso no período perigestacional. Torna-se fundamental a atenção dos profissionais envolvidos no atendimento às gestantes e puérperas, pois trata-se de uma condição associada a alta morbimortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/drug therapy , Postpartum Period , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
8.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 24-34, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131002

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Fast-track worldwide reperfusion programs improve outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction and stroke. Similar programs called Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) focus on submassive and massive pulmonary embolism (PE) excluding deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Methods: PREVENTION-team (Hospital Zambrano Hellion Venous Thromboembolism [VTE] Rapid Response). Primary objective: Fast-track stratification, diagnostics, and treatment (60-90 min) to improve proximal DVT and submassive and massive PE patients care. Secondary objectives: Increase diagnosis rate of low-risk PE and distal DVT; exploration of cause; long-term anticoagulation; identify high-risk profile for chronic complications; community-based support groups and patient education to extend the concept of the thrombosis-free hospital to thrombosis-free home. Structure and organization: The team includes cardiologists, vascular medicine, angiologist, echocardiographer, cardiovascular imaging, and interventional cardiologists. The team will be accessible 24 h a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year, and base on previous national experience. The cardiology fellow on call will be responsible for activation and evaluation. We will design several tools to accelerate these processes. Risk stratification and therapeutic approach will be based on clinical presentation, echocardiogram, and biomarkers findings. According to PERT stratification based on resources and medical specialties, Hospital Zambrano Hellion has level 1 PERT. PREVENTION-team links physicians with different expertise, provide fast, efficient, and time-saving treatment, potentially saving lives and reducing bleeding and chronic complications in VTE patients. Finally, establishing a network in our hospital and health system to improve VTE patients care. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first rapid response team focused on VTE in Mexico.


Resumen Antecedentes: Programas de reperfusión mejoraron la evolución en infarto con elevación del ST y accidente cerebrovascular embólico. Programas similares llamados PERT para TEP masiva o submasiva excluyen TVP. Métodos: Equipo PREVENTION (Hospital Zambrano Hellion Venous Thromboembolism Rapid Response). Objetivo primario: Estratificación, diagnóstico y tratamiento acelerado (60-90 minutos) para mejorar atención del TVP proximal y TEP masiva o submasiva. Objetivos secundarios: Incrementar diagnóstico de TEP de riesgo bajo y TVP distal; explorar causa; anticoagulación a largo plazo; perfil de riesgo alto para complicaciones crónicas; grupos de soporte en la comunidad y educación para pacientes, y extender el concepto de hospital libre de trombosis a hogar libre de trombosis. Estructura y organización: Incluye cardiólogos, medicina vascular, angiólogo, ecocardiografistas, imagen cardiovascular. Basado en experiencia nacional, el equipo estará accesible 24 horas del día, siete días de la semana, 365 días del año. El residente de cardiología realizará la activación y estratificación. Diseñamos herramientas para acelerar el proceso. La estratificación de riesgo y el abordaje terapéutico se basará en presentación clínica, hallazgos ecocardiograficos y biomarcadores. El Hospital Zambrano Hellion tiene nivel PERT 1 de acuerdo a la estratificación PERT basada en recursos y especialidades. Equipo-PREVENTION en TEV vincula médicos con diferentes capacidades, ofrece rápido y eficiente tratamiento para preservar vidas y reducir complicaciones hemorrágicas y crónicas. En nuestro hospital y sistema de salud establecer una sólida red de trabajo para mejorar la atención. Hasta nuestro conocimiento, en México este podría ser el primer equipo de respuesta rápida enfocado en TEV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Hospital Rapid Response Team/organization & administration , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Time Factors , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Patient Care/methods , Mexico
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(1): 69-80, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125039

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad tromboembólica venosa (ETV) en adultos hospitalizados posee elevada morbimortalidad, es origen de complicaciones crónicas y determina incrementos de costos para el sistema de salud. Desde la publicación de recomendaciones de tromboprofilaxis en pacientes internados en 2013, han surgido nuevas alternativas y estrategias, que nos motivaron a actualizar nuestras recomendaciones. A pesar de que existen diferentes consensos y guías de práctica clínica la adherencia a las mismas es subóptima. Se han actualizado las diferentes alternativas terapéuticas para los adultos hospitalizados (clínicos no quirúrgicos, quirúrgicos no ortopédicos, con y sin cáncer, ortopédicos y embarazadas), poniendo particular atención en los fármacos disponibles en Argentina.


Venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) in hospitalized adults has high morbidity and mortality, is the origin of chronic complications and increased cost for the health system. Since the publication of recommendations for thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients in 2013, new alternatives and strategies have emerged, which motivated us to update our recommendations. Although there are different consensus and clinical practice guidelines, adherence to them is suboptimal. The different therapeutic alternatives for hospitalized adult patients (non-surgical, surgical non-orthopedic, with and without cancer, orthopedic an d pregnant) have been updated, paying particular attention to the drugs available in Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/standards , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Argentina , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
10.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(4): e20180325, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090818

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo visou avaliar a adequação da prescrição de profilaxia de tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) após a implementação do protocolo. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo antes e depois realizado em um hospital de cuidados terciários no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Pacientes clínicos e cirúrgicos internados, com 18 anos ou mais, foram avaliados para o risco de TEV e, posteriormente, para adequação da tromboprofilaxia, de acordo com o risco. As avaliações ocorreram antes e depois de uma estratégia de implementação de protocolo, que consistiu em uma plataforma on-line para acessar o protocolo, uma postagem pública do diagrama do protocolo, alertas clínicos na sala de convívio médico, alertas de e-mail e alertas pop-up no sistema informatizado de prescrição médica. O Desfecho principal foi a adequação da prescrição de profilaxia do TEV de acordo com o protocolo. Resultados Foram avaliados 429 pacientes para adequação da tromboprofilaxia (213 antes e 216 depois). A prevalência de adequação aumentou de 54% para 63% (pré e pós-intervenção, respectivamente) e após o ajuste por tipo de paciente e fase do estudo, a razão de prevalência atingiu (RP) = 1,20, intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC) 1,02-1,42. Conclusões os resultados mostraram que a adequação geral da prescrição de tromboprofilaxia foi discretamente melhorada. Apesar desses resultados, este estudo fornece evidências, até o momento, de uma série de estratégias para implementar o protocolo em instituições privadas em países de renda média com uma equipe médica aberta, pois há poucas pesquisas investigando esse tipo de intervenção simples e pragmática.


ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to assess the adequacy of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis prescription after a protocol implementation. Methods This was a before-and-after study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Medical and surgical inpatients aged 18 years or older were assessed for VTE risk and subsequently for thromboprophylaxis adequacy, according to their risk. The evaluations occurred before and after the protocol strategy implementation; it consisted of an online platform to access the protocol, a public posting of the protocol diagram, clinical alerts on the medical staff TV, e-mail alerts, and pop-up alerts on the computerized physician order entry system. The main outcome measure was the adequacy of VTE prophylaxis prescription according to the protocol. Results A total of 429 patients were evaluated for thromboprophylaxis adequacy (213 before and 216 after). The prevalence of adequacy increased from 54% to 63% (pre and post-intervention, respectively), and after adjustment for patient type and phase of the study, the prevalence ratio reached (PR)=1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.42. Conclusion The results showed that the overall appropriateness of thromboprophylaxis prescription was weakly improved. Despite these results, this study provides evidence to date a bunch of strategies for protocol implementations in private institutions in middle-income countries with an open medical staff, as there are few studies investigating these simple and pragmatic interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 31(3): 198-205, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145376

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is characterized by an intense inflammatory response and coagulopathy that is associated to a high incidence of thrombotic events with in situ thrombosis of the microcirculation of the lungs and other organs, which is the key event in the pathogenesis of the respiratory and multi-organ failure. These observations have led to to the use of heparin, which has anticoagulant, antiinflammatory and anti-viral properties, as the best agent to treat these patients. Clinical guidelines recommend the use of heparin thromboprophilaxis in these patients, although there is no agreement in the indication, dose and duration of thromboprophylaxis due to lack of randomized studies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Coronavirus Infections , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Heparin/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
12.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 33: eAPE20190125, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1124002

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Comparar o conhecimento autopercebido e objetivo de enfermeiros sobre tromboembolismo venoso e identificar suas práticas e barreiras percebidas para a avaliação de risco e autoeficácia em realizar cuidados preventivos para a doença. Métodos Estudo descritivo transversal realizado com enfermeiros assistenciais lotados nas unidades nos setores de cuidados a pacientes adultos de um hospital-escola da cidade de São Paulo. Os enfermeiros responderam a um instrumento sobre conhecimento percebido e objetivo, avaliação de risco, autoeficácia e barreiras para avaliação de risco de tromboembolismo venoso, o qual foi elaborado e refinado por enfermeiros e médicos com expertise acadêmica e clínica. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva (frequências absolutas e relativas). Resultados Dos 81 enfermeiros, 53,3% percebiam seu conhecimento sobre avaliação de risco de tromboembolismo venoso como "bom", porém 33,1% em média responderam corretamente a questões objetivas sobre a doença; 44,4% realizavam avaliação de risco em apenas alguns pacientes. A barreira mais comum para avaliação do risco foi falta de protocolo (65,4%), seguida de falta de tempo (29,6%). Em relação à autoeficácia, somente 13% a 24,3% se sentem seguros a maior parte do tempo em prevenir e orientar pacientes quanto à prevenção de tromboembolismo venoso. Conclusão Há discrepância entre o conhecimento percebido e objetivo sobre tromboembolismo venoso e a avaliação de risco é insuficiente. Os enfermeiros têm baixa autoeficácia quanto à avaliação de risco. A falta de protocolo é percebida como barreira importante para essa avaliação. Esses resultados podem subsidiar o planejamento individual de educação permanente focada na prevenção da doença.


Resumen Objetivo Comparar el conocimiento autopercibido y objetivo de enfermeros sobre tromboembolismo venoso e identificar las prácticas y barreras percibidas para evaluar el riesgo y la autoeficacia de cuidados preventivos para la enfermedad. Métodos Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado con enfermeros asistenciales destinados a unidades en sectores de cuidados a pacientes adultos en un hospital universitario de la ciudad de São Paulo. Los enfermeros respondieron un instrumento sobre conocimientos percibidos y objetivos, evaluación de riesgos, autoeficacia y barreras para evaluar el riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso, que fue elaborado y refinado por enfermeros y médicos con expertise académica y clínica. Los datos fueron analizados por estadística descriptiva (frecuencias absolutas y relativas). Resultados De los 81 enfermeros, el 53,3% percibió que sus conocimientos sobre evaluación de riesgos de tromboembolismo venoso eran "buenos", pero un promedio de 33,1% respondió correctamente las preguntas objetivas sobre la enfermedad y el 44,4% realizaba evaluación de riesgos solo en algunos pacientes. La barrera más común para evaluar los riesgos fue la falta de protocolo (65,4%), seguida de la falta de tiempo (29,6%). Respecto a la autoeficacia, solamente entre el 13% y el 24,3% se siente seguro la mayor parte del tiempo para prevenir y orientar pacientes sobre la prevención de tromboembolismo venoso. Conclusión Hay discrepancias entre el conocimiento percibido y objetivo sobre tromboembolismo venoso y la evaluación de riesgos es insuficiente. Los enfermeros tienen una autoeficacia baja respecto a la evaluación de riesgos. La falta de un protocolo se percibe como barrera importante para esta evaluación. Estos resultados pueden contribuir a la planificación individual de educación permanente centrada en la prevención de la enfermedad.


Abstract Objectives To compare nurses' self-perceived and objective knowledge of venous thromboembolism, and to identify their risk assessment practices and perceived barriers, and self-efficacy in delivering care to prevent venous thromboembolism. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study including bedside nurses working in adult units at a teaching hospital in the city of São Paulo. Nurses answered a questionnaire on self-perceived and objective knowledge, risk assessment, self-efficacy, and barriers to venous thromboembolism risk assessment, which was developed and refined by nurses and physicians with academic and clinical expertise. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (absolute and relative frequencies). Results Out of 81 nurses, 53.3% perceived their own knowledge of venous thromboembolism risk assessment as good, however, only an average of 33.1% of nurses answered objective questions about the disease correctly; and 44.4% performed risk assessment for only a few patients. The most common barrier for risk assessment was the lack of protocol (65.4%), followed by the lack of time (29.6%). Regarding self-efficacy, only 13% to 24.3% were sure most of the time that they could prevent venous thromboembolism and educate patients for prevention. Conclusion A gap between self-perceived and objective knowledge of venous thromboembolism was identified, and risk assessment was considered insufficient. Nurses had low risk assessment self-efficacy. The lack of a protocol is perceived as a significant barrier for assessment. These results may support individual planning of permanent education focusing on disease prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Assessment , Knowledge , Self Efficacy , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Nurses , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(2): 122-131, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042606

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad tromboembólica venosa está comprendida por la trombosis venosa profunda y el tromboembolismo pulmonar, las cuales son enfermedades comunes con alta morbilidad y mortalidad, incluso antes del diagnóstico. El tratamiento está basado principalmente en la terapia anticoagulante, con diferentes opciones dependiendo del ámbito clínico y la estabilidad del paciente (terapia oral vs parenteral). Objetivo: Revisar las diferentes opciones y escenarios clínicos para la indicación de terapia anticoagulante, basados en la evidencia médica actual. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus, Google Académico y Scielo sobre estudios que evaluaran la indicación de la terapia anticoagulante en pacientes con diagnóstico de enfermedad tromboembólica venosa, principalmente, estudios aleatorizados controlados y metaanálisis. Discusión y Resultados: Fueron encontrados estudios aleatorizados controlados donde se evidencian menores tasas de sangrado y recurrencia de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa a favor de los anticoagulantes directos, excluyendo algunas situaciones especiales como cáncer y enfermedad renal crónica avanzada. Conclusión: La terapia anticoagulante es el pilar del tratamiento en la enfermedad tromboembólica, disminuyendo la morbilidad y mortalidad de esta entidad, aunque aumenta el riesgo de sangrado. Anteriormente, los anticoagulantes antagonistas de la vitamina K eran la única opción terapéutica, pero con altas tasas de sangrado, afortunadamente desde hace algunos años contamos con los anticoagulantes directos con mejores perfiles de seguridad y menor tasa de sangrado.


ABSTRACTS: Venous thromboembolic disease includes deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, which are common diseases with high morbidity and mortality. The treatment is based mainly on anticoagulant therapy, with different options depending on clinic context and patient stability (oral vs parenteral therapy). Objective: To review evidence based medical information regarding the use of anticoagulant therapy in venous thromboembolism. Methods: We performed a systematic review of PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar and Scielo databases, of randomized controlled studies and meta-analysis evaluating anticoagulant therapy in patients with thromboembolic venous disease. Results: Except for tromboembolic disease in patients with cancer or chronic kidney disease anticoagulation with direct (new) oral agents led to less bleeding episodes and lower relapse rate. Conclusion: anticoagulant therapy is the basis of treatment for thromboembolic disease, decreasing morbidity and mortality. New oral anticoagulants' are associated to better clinical results, notwithstanding a slight increase in bleeding episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
14.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 109(3): 178-181, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1271220

ABSTRACT

Background. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication during and after hospitalisation, and is regarded as the most common cause of preventable death in hospitalised patients worldwide. Despite its importance, there are few data on VTE risk and adherence to prophylaxis prescription guidelines in surgical patients from the South African (SA) public sector, especially from low-resource environments such as Eastern Cape Province.Objectives. To evaluate the risk and prescription of VTE prophylaxis to surgical patients at a tertiary government hospital in the Eastern Cape.Methods. A cross-sectional clinical audit of general surgical inpatients was performed on two dates during July and August 2017. Patients' VTE risk was calculated by using the Caprini risk assessment model (RAM) and thromboprophylaxis prescription evaluated accordingly. Results. A total of 179 patients were included in the study, of whom 56% were male and 44% female. The average age was 45 (range 18 - 83) years. Of the total number of participants, 33% were elective cases and 67% were emergency admissions. With application of RAM, 77% of patients were at risk of VTE (Caprini score ≥2), with 81% of elective and 74% of emergency patients being at risk. The most prevalent risk factors for VTE were major surgery (34%), age 41 - 60 years (30%), age 61 - 74 years (20%) and sepsis during the previous month (27%). A contraindication to chemoprophylaxis was recorded in 30% of patients, with the most prevalent being renal dysfunction (40%), peptic ulcer disease (34%), active bleeding (17%), liver dysfunction (17%), coagulopathy (6%) and recent cerebral haemorrhage (6%). With regard to VTE risk profile and contraindications to chemoprophylaxis, the correct thromboprophylactic treatment was prescribed to 26% of at-risk patients, with 21% of elective and 27% of emergency admission patients receiving the correct therapy.Conclusions. Despite a high proportion of patients being at risk of VTE, the rate of adequate thromboprophylaxis prescription for surgical inpatients at Frere Hospital, East London, SA is very low. Increased availability of mechanical prophylaxis, as well as interventions to improve the rate of adequate prophylaxis prescription, needs to be evaluated for feasibility and effect in this hospital and other SA public hospitals


Subject(s)
Prescriptions , South Africa , Tertiary Care Centers , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/surgery
15.
Artrosc. (B. Aires) ; 26(2): 35-40, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1016005

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La trombosis venosa profunda (TVP) y embolia pulmonar (EP) es una complicación grave reportada en muchos procedimientos ortopédicos. Actualmente, no existe una recomendación estandarizada para el uso de la profilaxis de TVP y EP durante la reconstrucción del ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA). Este estudio buscó evaluar las prácticas profilácticas actuales de los cirujanos artroscópicos en Argentina. Hipótesis: Muy pocos cirujanos utilizan la profilaxis perioperatoria de TVP para la cirugía reconstructiva de LCA. Diseño del estudio: Encuesta. Material y Método: Las encuestas se enviaron por correo electrónico a cirujanos artroscópicos acreditados en Argentina. Las preguntas se centraron en su uso actual de la profilaxis química y no química del TVP. Resultados: Las encuestas fueron completadas por 327 cirujanos en Argentina, lo que arrojó una tasa de respuesta del 33%. De los que respondieron, el 49,5% afirmó que usaban profilaxis química de forma rutinaria, el 33,8% de estos utilizaban heparina (HBPM) y el 29,4% utilizaban aspirina (ácido acetilsalicílico [AAS] ). El 41% de los encuestados informaron haber tenido al menos un caso de TVP sintomática en su práctica clínica. Conclusión: La mitad de todos los cirujanos artroscopistas encuestados de la Asociación Argentina de Artroscopia usan profilaxis química para la TVP después de la reconstrucción del LCA. La historia personal o familiar de un trastorno hemorrágico fue el principal factor de riesgo para la profilaxis tromboembólica. Posiblemente la profilaxis selectiva analizando factores de riesgo para TVP sea una conducta adecuada en cirugía reconstructiva de LCA. Relevancia clínica: Esta encuesta nos brinda información muy útil sobre las conductas en nuestro medio en relación a la profilaxis de TVP y el EP en las reconstrucción del LCA


Introduction: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant perioperative risk with many common orthopaedic procedures. Currently, there is no standardized recommendation for the use of VTE prophylaxis during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This study sought to evaluate the current prophylactic practices of arthroscopic surgeons in Argentina. Hypothesis: Very few surgeons use perioperative VTE prophylaxis for ACL reconstructive surgery. Study design: Survey. Methods: Surveys were emailed to accredited arthroscopic surgeons in Argentina. Questions were focused on their current use of chemical and nonchemical VTE prophylaxis. Results: Surveys were completed by 327 surgeons in Argentina, yielding a response rate of 33%. Of those who responded, 49,5% stated that they routinely use chemical prophylaxis, with 33,8% of those using heparine (LMWH) (33,8%) and 29,4%of those using aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid [ASA]). 41% of surgeans report having had at least one case of VTE in their clinical practice. Conclusion: Half of all arthroscopic surgeons surveyed by the Argentine Arthroscopy Association routinely use chemical VTE prophylaxis after ACL reconstruction. Personal or family history of a bleeding disorder was the main risk factor for thromboembolic prophylaxis. Possibly selective prophylaxis analyzing risk factors for VTE is an appropriate behavior in ACL reconstructive surgery. Clinical relevance: This survey study evaluating the use of VTE prophylaxis with ACL reconstruction lends clinical insight to the current practice of a large, geographically diverse group of arthroscopic surgeons in Argentina


Subject(s)
Societies, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
16.
Clinics ; 74: e1143, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019698

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate adherence to the therapeutic prophylaxis protocol for venous thromboembolism (VTE) as well as the costs of this practice. METHODS: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted at a State General Hospital in Brazil through reports of drug dispensions, prescriptions and risk stratification of patients. Adherence to the VTE prophylaxis protocol was monitored. The tests for VTE diagnosis measured the adherence to therapeutic prophylaxis treatment, and the purchase prices of the drugs went into the calculation of drug therapy costs. The level of adherence to prescriptions for VTE prophylaxis in the hospital was classified as "adherence", "non-adherence" and "justified non-adherence" when compared with the protocol. RESULTS: Protocol adherence was observed for 50 (30.9%) patients, and non-adherence was observed for 63 (38.9%) patients, generating an additional cost of $180.40/month. Justified non-adherence in 49 (30.2%) patients generated $514.71/month in savings due to a reduction in the number of daily administrations of unfractionated heparin while still providing an effective method for preventing VTE. Twenty-six patients stratified as having medium to high risk of VTE who did not receive prophylaxis were identified, generating $154.41 in savings. However, these data should be evaluated with caution since the risks and outcomes associated with not preventing VTE outweigh the economy achieved from not prescribing a drug when a patient needs it. The only case of VTE identified during the study period was related to justified non-adherence to the protocol. CONCLUSION: The protocol is based on scientific evidence that describes an effective therapy to prevent VTE. However, the protocol should be updated because the justifications for non-adherence are based on scientific evidence, and this justified non-adherence generates savings and yields effective disease prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Heparin/economics , Venous Thromboembolism/economics , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/economics , Anticoagulants/economics , Brazil , Heparin/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Costs/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
17.
J. vasc. bras ; 18: e20180021, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-984688

ABSTRACT

O tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) é uma doença frequente e de alta morbimortalidade, sendo considerada a maior causa evitável de mortalidade em pacientes hospitalizados. Apesar da incidência altíssima de TEV em todos os países e das evidências de que a tromboprofilaxia reduz as complicações tromboembólicas em pacientes clínicos e cirúrgicos, e a custo baixo, persistem grandes dúvidas quanto à segurança desse tipo de intervenção nos pacientes e quanto à tromboprofilaxia ideal. Inúmeros estudos e recomendações baseadas em evidências comprovam a eficácia da profilaxia na prevenção do TEV e/ou da morte dos pacientes, mas ainda hoje ela é subutilizada. Neste artigo, apresentamos uma ampla revisão dos métodos de profilaxia existentes até os dias atuais, publicados em diretrizes e estudos nacionais e internacionais sobre tromboprofilaxia


Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease with high rates of morbidity and mortality and is considered the number one cause of avoidable mortality among hospitalized patients. Although VTE incidence is extremely high in all countries and there is ample evidence that thromboprophylaxis inexpensively reduces the rate of thromboembolic complications in both clinical and surgical patients, a great deal of doubt remains with respect to patient safety with this type of intervention and in relation to the ideal thromboprophylaxis methods. Countless studies and evidence-based recommendations confirm the efficacy of prophylaxis for prevention of VTE and/or patient deaths, but it remains underutilized to this day. This article presents a wide-ranging review of existing prophylaxis methods up to the present, from guidelines and national and international studies of thromboprophylaxis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Disease Prevention , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Inpatients , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Lower Extremity , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
18.
J. vasc. bras ; 18: e20180107, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012631

ABSTRACT

O tromboembolismo venoso (TEV), que compreende o espectro de manifestações de trombose venosa profunda e/ou embolia pulmonar, é uma complicação comum, grave e evitável em pacientes hospitalizados. Embora a perda da mobilidade recente ou continuada represente um dos principais fatores de risco relacionados ao desenvolvimento de TEV, não existem critérios claros e uniformes para a definição do conceito de imobilidade. A diversidade dessas descrições dificulta a interpretação e a comparação dos resultados de estudos clínicos randomizados no que se refere à influência dos diferentes níveis de imobilidade na magnitude do risco de TEV e ao papel da deambulação precoce, de forma isolada, na prevenção de tais eventos. O entendimento dessas limitações é mandatório para a utilização e interpretação adequadas das ferramentas de avaliação de risco de TEV, e para a indicação da melhor estratégia de prevenção de trombose em pacientes clínicos hospitalizados. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar as principais evidências da literatura quanto ao papel da deambulação na prevenção do TEV


Venous thromboembolism (VTE) encompasses the spectrum of manifestations of deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism and is a common, serious, and preventable complication in hospitalized patients. Although immobility plays an important role in determining VTE risk in medical patients, no clear and uniform criteria exist to guide clinicians in assessing immobility. The variation in the descriptions that do exist makes it difficult to interpret and compare the results of randomized clinical trials with respect to the influence of different levels of immobility on the magnitude of VTE risk and the role that early ambulation as an isolated factor plays in prevention of such events. Understanding these limitations is a prerequisite for the proper use and interpretation of VTE risk assessment tools and for indicating the best strategy for preventing venous thrombosis in hospitalized medical patients. The objective of this study was to review the main evidence reported in the literature on the role of ambulation in prevention of VTE


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients , Walking , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Acute Disease/therapy , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Mobility Limitation , Patient Safety
19.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(2): e2075, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003083

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A artroplastia total do joelho é um procedimento eletivo, realizado em indivíduos relativamente saudáveis. Porém, devido ao risco inerente de tromboembolismo venoso, são utilizados fármacos para sua profilaxia. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi conduzir uma revisão sistemática da literatura para comparar a eficácia da enoxaparina e da rivaroxabana na prevenção desta complicação e no risco de sangramento intraoperatório. Foi feita uma revisão no site SciELO, Pubmed e Cochrane através dos descritores, artroplastia de joelho, rivaroxabana e enoxaparina através da estratégia de busca PICO. Os critérios de inclusão foram os artigos no período estudado, que comparavam ambas as drogas em cirurgias de artroplastia do joelho. Os critérios de relevância para tornar o estudo elegível foram definidos como: somente artigos publicados a partir 2010 e com casuística com mais de 20 pacientes foram considerados; somente estudos obtidos em sua íntegra foram analisados; somente estudos com seguimento maior do que 12 meses foram considerados relevantes. As variáveis utilizadas para a comparação dos artigos foram as complicações mais comuns no pós-operatório de artroplastias do joelho: tromboembolismo venoso e sangramento. Foi utilizado o Review Man 5.3 para estruturação da revisão. Os autores observaram que nos estudos analisados, considerando tromboembolismo venoso sintomático, a rivaroxabana resultou em maiores benefícios quando comparada com a enoxaparina.


ABSTRACT Total knee arthroplasty is an elective procedure performed on relatively healthy individuals. However, due to the inherent risk of venous thromboembolism, drugs are used for its prophylaxis. The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to compare the efficacy of enoxaparin and rivaroxaban in preventing this complication and the risk of intraoperative bleeding. We reviewed the SciELO, Pubmed and Cochrane databases with the descriptors knee arthroplasty, rivaroxaban and enoxaparin through the PICO search strategy. Inclusion criteria were the articles during the study period comparing both drugs in knee arthroplasty. Relevant criteria to study eligibility were articles published since 2010 and with a sample of more than 20 patients; studies obtained in their entirety; and studies with follow-up of more than 12 months. The variables used to compare the articles were the most common postoperative complications of knee arthroplasties: venous thromboembolism and bleeding. We used the Review Man software, version 5.3, for structuring the review. In the studies analyzed, considering symptomatic venous thromboembolism, rivaroxaban resulted in higher benefits when compared to enoxaparin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Postoperative Complications/ethnology , Risk Factors , Blood Loss, Surgical , Treatment Outcome , Postoperative Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Venous Thromboembolism/ethnology
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(4): 348-353, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950474

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Patients undergoing cataract surgery are generally elderly, and many take drugs with systemic effects. The surgeon must be aware of the risks of continuing or discontinuing such medications perioperatively. Antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants, prescribed to reduce the incidence of thromboembolic events, are often used in this population. This paper aims to review the perioperative use of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs in the setting of cataract surgery. Topical or intracameral anesthesia is preferred over anesthesia injected with needles. Aspirin can be safely continued in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Warfarin has been extensively studied, and the risk of hemorrhage associated with cataract surgery is low if the international normalized ratio is in the therapeutic range. Only a few studies of direct oral anticoagulants are available, and therefore no definite recommendations regarding those agents can be made at this time. Anesthesia in cataract surgery carries a low risk, even for patients taking anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. The discontinuation of this class of drugs before cataract surgery may increase the risk of thromboembolism.


RESUMO Os pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata são geralmente idosos e muitos deles usam drogas com efeitos sistêmicos. No entanto, o cirurgião deve estar ciente dos riscos em manter ou descontinuar medicamentos sistêmicos no pré-operatório da cirurgia de catarata, como os anticoagulantes e os antiplaquetários. Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar a classe de drogas antiplaquetárias e anticoagulantes e orientar o cirurgião de catarata. A classe de fármacos anticoagulantes e antiplaquetária reduz a incidência de eventos potencialmente tromboembólicos. A anestesia tópica ou intracameral nesses pacientes deve ser preferida em relação à anestesia com agulhas. Aspirina pode ser mantida com segurança nos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata. A varfarina foi amplamente estudada e os riscos na cirurgia de catarata são baixos, no entanto, o INR deve ser controlado. Mais estudos são necessários com anticoagulantes orais diretos. Anestesia na cirurgia de catarata tem baixo risco de complicações, mesmo em uso de anticoagulantes ou antiplaquetários sistêmicos. A descontinuação desta classe de medicamentos no pré-operatório da cirurgia de catarata pode aumentar os riscos sistêmicos tromboembólicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cataract Extraction/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Intraoperative Period , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
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