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Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020188, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142403


Venous aneurysm of the head and neck is a rare clinical entity due to its asymptomatic nature and tendency of clinicians to report only surgical results. Whereas the primary aneurysm of internal jugular vein (IJV) in children is being increasingly recognized, secondary aneurysms of veins of the head and neck in adults, notably the external jugular vein (EJV) aneurysm remains only in anecdotal case reports. We present the case of a 63-year-old previously healthy woman who presented with a gradually progressive right lateral neck swelling over the last 18 months. Following the evaluation, she was diagnosed as a case of isolated spontaneous right-sided EJV aneurysm and was managed by surgical excision of the aneurysm.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Jugular Veins/pathology , Aneurysm/pathology
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 92-100, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056355


ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differentiating bland thrombus from tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava (IVC) in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively investigated 30 consecutive patients who underwent robot-assisted radical nephrectomy with IVC thrombectomy and had pathologically confirmed RCC. All patients underwent US and CEUS examination. Two off-line readers observed and recorded thrombus imaging information and enhancement patterns. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for bland thrombus were assessed. Results: Of the 30 patients, no adverse events occurred during administration of the contrast agent. Early enhancement of the mass within the IVC lumen on CEUS was an indicator of tumor thrombus. Bland thrombus showed no intraluminal flow on CEUS. There were eight (26.7%) patients with bland thrombus, including three level II, two level III, and three level IV. There were three cases with cephalic bland thrombus and five cases with caudal bland thrombus. Three caudal bland thrombi extended to the iliac vein and underwent surgical IVC interruption. Based on no intraluminal flow, for bland thrombus, CEUS had 87.5% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 96.7% accuracy, 100% positive predictive value and 95.6% negative predictive value. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the potential of CEUS in the differentiation of bland and tumor thrombus of the IVC in patients with RCC. Since CEUS is an effective, inexpensive, and non-invasive method, it could be a reliable tool in the evaluation of IVC thrombus in patients with RCC.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Venous Thrombosis , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Vena Cava, Inferior/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/methods , Contrast Media , Venous Thrombosis/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Tumor Burden , Neoplasm Grading , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(2): 229-232, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990581


Abstract Advanced renal cell carcinoma accompanied by tumor thrombus in the venous system is present in up to 10% of cases. Extension of tumor thrombus above the diaphragm or into the right atrium represents level IV disease. Level IV tumors are typically treated with sterno-laparotomy approach with or without deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and veno-venous bypass. In this case report, the surgical technique for the resection of advanced RCC were described, with the concomitant use of transesophageal echocardiography for thrombus extraction without the veno-venous or cardiopulmonary bypass.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Thrombectomy/methods , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Venous Thrombosis/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
J. vasc. bras ; 15(4): 287-292, Oct.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841391


Abstract Air plethysmography is a non-invasive test that can quantify venous reflux and obstruction by measuring volume changes in the leg. Its findings correlate with clinical and hemodynamic measures. It can quantitatively assess several components of venous hemodynamics: valvular reflux, calf muscle pump function, and venous obstruction. Although clinical uses of air plethysmography have been validated, it is used almost exclusively for medical research. Air plethysmography can be used to assess chronic venous disease, to evaluate improvement after venous surgery, to diagnose acute and past episodes of deep venous thrombosis, to evaluate compression stocking therapy, to study the physiological implications of high-heeled shoes in healthy women, and even to evaluate the probability of ulcer healing.

Resumo A pletismografia a ar é um método não invasivo que pode quantificar refluxo e obstrução venosa medindo alterações no volume das pernas. Seus achados se correlacionam com parâmetros clínicos e hemodinâmicos. Ela pode fornecer informações quantitativas dos diferentes componentes da hemodinâmica venosa: refluxo valvular, função de bomba muscular da panturrilha e obstrução venosa. Apesar de ter seu uso clínico validado, a pletismografia a ar é usada quase que exclusivamente para pesquisa. Ela pode ser usada para avaliar a doença venosa crônica, mensurar o ganho hemodinâmico após cirurgia venosa, diagnosticar trombose venosa profunda atual ou prévia, avaliar os efeitos da elastocompressão, estudar as implicações fisiológicas do uso de salto alto em mulheres e também avaliar a probabilidade de cura de uma úlcera venosa.

Humans , Female , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Chronic Disease , Plethysmography/classification
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(6): 1244-1247, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828920


ABSTRACT Introduction: Vena cava thrombus is an extremely rare complication of testicular tumors. We report on an unusual case of testicular tumor presenting with inferior vena cava thrombus extending from the left spermatic and bilateral external iliac veins to the hepatic vein. Case report: A-35-year old man presented with a 6-month history of left scrotal mass and a 1-day history of bilateral lower extremity edema. Computed tomography (CT) revealed the presence of thrombus extending from the left spermatic vein and bilateral external iliac veins to the hepatic vein, and multiple lymph node and lung metastases. 3 cycles of chemotherapy were given after the left high inguinal orchiectomy. Pathological examination demonstrated a pure yolk sac carcinoma with lymphovascular invasion and direct tumor extension into the left spermatic cord. CT and positron emission tompgraphy-CT obtained no findings of metastasis or recurrence at 3 months after the chemotherapy. Conclusion: We review this seldom case and discuss the literature with regard to its diagnosis and treatment.

Humans , Male , Adult , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology , Vena Cava, Inferior/pathology , Yolk Sac/pathology , Carcinoma, Embryonal/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Hepatic Veins/diagnostic imaging , Iliac Vein/diagnostic imaging
Säo Paulo med. j ; 134(4): 355-358, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792822


ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Umbilical cord thrombosis is related to greater fetal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is usually associated with umbilical cord abnormalities that lead to mechanical compression with consequent vascular ectasia. Its correct diagnosis and clinical management remains a challenge that has not yet been resolved. CASE REPORT: This study reports a case of umbilical artery thrombosis that occurred in the second half of a pregnancy. The umbilical cord was long, thin and overly twisted and the fetus presented severe intrauterine growth restriction. The clinical and histopathological findings from this case are described. CONCLUSIONS: This case report emphasizes the difficulty in diagnosing and clinically managing abnormalities of intrauterine life with a high chance of perinatal complications.

RESUMO: CONTEXTO: A trombose do cordão umbilical está relacionada com o aumento da morbimortalidade fetal e perinatal. É geralmente associada a alterações do cordão umbilical que levam à compressão mecânica com consequente ectasia vascular. Seu correto diagnóstico e manejo clínico é um desafio que não está ainda bem esclarecido. RELATO DE CASO: Neste relato se descreve caso de trombose da artéria umbilical de ocorrência na segunda metade da gravidez associada a cordão umbilical longo, fino, excessivamente retorcido, associado a feto com restrição de crescimento intrauterino grave. São descritos seus achados clínicos e histopatológicos correlacionados. CONCLUSÃO: Este relato de caso reforça a dificuldade diagnóstica e de manejo clínico em alteração da vida intrauterina com grande possibilidade de complicações perinatais.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Umbilical Arteries/blood supply , Umbilical Arteries/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Fetus/abnormalities , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Prenatal Diagnosis , Umbilical Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Outcome , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology , Fetus/diagnostic imaging
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 85(6): 708-713, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734812


Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava represents a significant percentage of all venous thrombosis that take place during the neonatal period, generally associated with risk factors such as the use of central venous catheter. The incidence of bacterial endocarditis in preterm infants is low. Objectives: To characterize the case of a preterm neonate with both conditions and to detail the disease changing spectrum in the neonatal population and its therapeutic possibilities. Case report: Premature newborn, 31 + 5 weeks of gestation who presented Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia, developed progressive thrombosis of the inferior vena cava and right atrium secondary to the use of umbilical venous catheter, with subsequent diagnosis of endocarditis. He was treated with anticoagulation with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin. Given a favorable evolution, it was decided to continue the anticoagulation therapy for 4-6 weeks, and at the time of discharge, aspirin treatment was given. Conclusions: The preterm infant with infective endocarditis and intracardiac thrombus presents an interesting management dilemma. Treatment should be individualized according to the clinical evolution and safety profile of thrombolytic and/or anticoagulant agents. Availability and advantages of low molecular weight heparin have led to its use as an alternative treatment in neonates and infants with deep venous thrombosis.

La trombosis de la vena cava inferior corresponde a un porcentaje importante de las trombosis venosas en la etapa neonatal, generalmente asociado a factores de riesgo como el uso de catéter venoso central. La incidencia de endocarditis bacteriana en recién nacidos prematuros es baja. Objetivos: Caracterizar el caso de un neonato pretérmino en que se asociaron ambas patologías y detallar el espectro cambiante de esta enfermedad en la población neonatal y sus posibilidades terapéuticas. Caso clínico: Recién nacido prematuro de 31 + 5 semanas de gestación, que presentó bacteriemia por Enterococo faecalis, evolucionó con trombosis progresiva de la vena cava inferior y aurícula derecha secundaria al uso de catéter venoso umbilical, con posterior diagnóstico de endocarditis. Se manejó con anticoagulación con heparina de bajo peso molecular en forma subcutánea, dada evolución favorable, se decidió continuar manejo médico con terapia anticoagulante por 4-6 semanas, y al alta manejo con aspirina. Conclusiones: El neonato pretérmino con endocarditis infecciosa y trombo intracardiaco presentan un dilema interesante de manejo, por lo cual se debe individualizar el tratamiento según la evolución clínica y el perfil de seguridad de los agentes trombolíticos y/o anticoagulantes. La disponibilidad y las ventajas de la heparina de bajo peso molecular ha dado lugar a su uso como una alternativa de tratamiento en neonatos y niños con trombosis venosa profunda.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Vena Cava, Inferior/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Infant, Premature , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(5): 822-824, Sep-Oct/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720787


The livedoid vasculopathy is an obstructive vascular process of etiology not yet fully known, being possibly associated with several prothrombotic events. It is clinically characterized by the presence of painful and recurring purpuric lesions, which usually suffer ulceration and evolve with formation of white atrophic scars usually located in the lower limbs. Two cases are here reported of painful ulcerated lesions on the lower limbs, in which the identification of VL enabled the diagnosis of systemic diseases.

Adult , Female , Humans , Livedo Reticularis/pathology , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Livedo Reticularis/drug therapy , Skin Ulcer/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/pathology
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(3): 521-522, May-Jun/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711606


Degos disease, also known as malignant atrophic papulosis, is a rare occlusive vasculopathy of unknown etiology characterized by infarcts in the dermis, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, and other organs. It is characterized by papules, which become umbilicated and evolve with a depressed porcelain-white central area, with an erythematous halo with telangiectasias. Histological findings include wedge-shaped dermoepidermal necrosis and blood vessel thrombosis. Approximately 50-60% of patients with systemic symptoms die within 2-3 years, most due to gastrointestinal perforation. We report a typical case, with lethal outcome, in a 45-year-old woman.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Skin/pathology , Malignant Atrophic Papulosis/pathology , Biopsy , Fatal Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Malignant Atrophic Papulosis/complications , Intestinal Perforation/complications
Int. braz. j. urol ; 39(3): 353-363, May/June/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680103


Purpose To study the surgical outcomes of radical nephrectomy with thrombectomy and to determine prognostic factors for survival of Korean patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and venous tumor thrombus. Materials and Methods A total of 124 patients with RCC and venous tumor thrombus who underwent radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy were included in this retrospective study. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were analyzed retrospectively according to various prognostic factors. Results The median overall follow-up period for all patients was 29.0 months; the median survival period was 50.0 months. The 2-, 5- and 10-year CSS rates for all patients were 64.2%, 47.1% and 31.7%, respectively. Those for 76 patients (pN0/xM0) without metastasis at presentation were 80.9%, 64.5% and 44.9%, respectively. For all patients, lower body mass index (BMI), higher Fuhrman grade, presence of symptoms, perinephric fat invasion, invasion of inferior vena cava (IVC) wall, lymph node (LN) involvement and distant metastasis at presentation were independent predictors for decreased CSS on multivariate analysis, while thrombus level was not. For non-metastatic patients, lower BMI, presence of symptoms and tumor size were independently associated with decreased CSS. In terms of RFS, lower BMI, presence of perinephric fat invasion were prognostic factors for recurrence. Conclusions Our data suggest that obesity is independently associated with better survival or lower risk of tumor recurrence in Korean patients undergoing radical nephrectomy with tumor thrombectomy. Also, our results indicate that Fuhrman grade, presence of symptoms, perinephric fat invasion and invasion of IVC wall, LN involvement and distant metastasis at presentation are independent predictors for survival. .

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging/methods , Nephrectomy/methods , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Body Mass Index , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/surgery , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Republic of Korea , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/surgery
GEN ; 64(4): 356-358, dic. 2010. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-664524


La trombosis venosa portal extrahepática (TVPHE) ocurre en etapas tempranas de la vida como complicación de onfalitis, canulación de vena umbilical, sepsis intraabdominal, deshidratación y estados de hipercoagulabilidad. En la adultez, se describe la asociación a estados de hipercoagulabilidad, principalmente deficiencias de proteínas C y S, postraumática, manipulación portal, pancreatitis, así como obstrucción o invasión tumoral. En la mitad de estos casos, la etiología es desconocida. Hay reportes en la literatura de TVPEH asociada a procesos infecciosos severos como sepsis por Fusobacterium necrophorum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, así como infección por Citomegalovirus; sin embargo estos reportes son muy escasos. Paciente femenino de 56 años de edad, con antecedente de síndrome mielodisplásico, quien acude por clínica de dolor abdominal difuso, ictericia obstructiva y trastornos en el funcionalismo hepático. Dentro de las evaluaciones efectuadas se realiza Ultrasonido Endoscópico (USE) con evidencia de trombosis venosa profunda portal y mesentérica superior con hipertensión portal, várices esofágicas y fundicas. Se plantea probable origen infeccioso por lo que se solicita serologia para CMV con niveles elevados de IgG, se inicia tratamiento antiviral con valganciclovir y betabloquenates con evolución satisfactoria luego de un año. Conclusión: A pesar de que la trombosis venosa portal asociada a la infección por CMV es un evento poco frecuente en individuos inmunocompetentes, el descarte de esta debe ser incluida dentro del plan diagnóstico de trombosis del lecho esplenoportal...

Extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (EHPVT) occurs in early stages of life as a complication of omphalitis, cannulation of the umbilical vein, intra-abdominal sepsis, dehydration, and hypercoagulable states, mainly C and S proteins deficiencies, post-traumatic, portal vein manipulation, pancreatitis, as well as tumor invasion or obstruction. Etiology is unknown in half of these cases. In the literature, there are reports of EHPVT associated with severe infectious processes such as sepsis by Fusobacterium necrophorum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, as well as infection by Cytomegalovirus (CMV). Nonetheless, such reports are very scarce. Female patient aged 56, con antecedent myelodysplastic syndrome, who attends the clinic with diffuse abdominal pain, obstructive icterus, and liver function disturbances. Among the assessments performed, an Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) is carried out evidencing upper mesenteric and deep portal vein thrombosis with portal hypertension, esophageal and fundic varices. A probable infectious origin is stated, thus serology is requested for CMV with elevated levels of IgG; antiviral treatment is started with Valgancyclovir and Beta-Blockers with satisfactory evolution after one year. Conclusion: Despite the portal vein thrombosis associated with the infection by CMV is a rare event in immunocompetetnt persons, discarding it must be included in a diagnosis plan for splenic-portal bed thrombosis...

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/complications , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Portal Vein/injuries , Gastroenterology
Int. braz. j. urol ; 35(6): 652-657, Nov.-Dec. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-536797


PURPOSE: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a propensity to propagate into the renal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC). Due to inherent differences in the venous anatomy of the right and left kidneys, tumor thrombus involvement of IVC may vary. The aim of this study is to compare clinical presentation and outcome of right vs. left RCC with IVC thrombus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent radical nephrectomy and IVC thrombectomy between 1997 and 2008 were identified. All relevant data were collected and analyzed. Results: Eight-seven patients were included. Sixty patients (69 percent) had a right sided tumor. Mean tumor size was 10.2 (± 4) cm and was not significantly different on either side. Fifty-six percent of right sided tumors had level-III (intra-hepatic) or higher tumor thrombus, while 22 percent of left sided tumors had similar level thrombus extension (p < 0.0001). Nearly 50 percent of left sided tumors showed level-I thrombus compared to 10 percent of right side tumors. A comparison of age, estimated blood loss and transfusion rate was not significantly different. The recurrence free (p = 0.9) and disease specific survival (p = 0.4) were not significantly different between the right and left side tumors with IVC thrombus. Conclusion: A level-III IVC tumor thrombus is more frequently seen with a right side tumor. However, clinical and operative characteristics among the left and right sided tumors with IVC thrombus were not different. More significantly, recurrence rate and survival did not differ with the laterality of the tumor.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Kidney Neoplasms/complications , Vena Cava, Inferior , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Nephrectomy , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/surgery
PAFMJ-Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2008; 58 (4): 397-400
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-89365


To determine the frequency of antiphospholipid syndrome in patients of DVT. Single center descriptive study. It was carried out at Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from May to Oct 2003. Fifty patients of either sex with Deep vein thrombosis [DVT] legs, who were diagnosed clinically and later on confirmed on doppler ultrasound, were selected through non-probability convenience sampling. doppler ultrasound was done to diagnose DVT and antiphospholipid antibodies tested namely lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. Other associated risk factors were also documented. Data collected and organised, descriptive statistics were applied to calculate the frequencies. The results were organised in graphs and tables. Out of 50 patients of DVT 38 [76%] were males and 12 [24%] were females. Mean age for males was 44.94 +/- 14.92 years whereas for females it was 27.66 +/- 5.97 years. Antiphospholipid syndrome was detected in 13[26%] patients; 11 [22%] were males and 2 [4%] females. Only lupus anticoagulant was detected in 9 [18%] patients. Anticardiolipin antibodies were detected in 3 [6%] patients. In 1 [2%] both lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies were detected. There is an association between antiphospholipid syndrome and DVT. Association of lupus anticoagulant is more, as compared to anticardiolipin antibodies with DVT. Additional risk factors make a person further susceptible to DVT

Humans , Male , Female , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor , Antibodies, Anticardiolipin , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Risk Factors
Rev. venez. cir ; 60(4): 139-160, dic. 2007. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-539997


La enfermedad tromboembólica es un área de creciente interés; un diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuados son imprescindibles para la buena práctica médica, por lo cual requiere certeza en la toma de decisiones. Motivados por la diversidad de opciones del arsenal terapéutico, se decidió actualizar las pautas venezolanas de terapia antitrombótica y trombolítica, a través de la guía 2005. Metodología para el Desarrollo de las Guías de Práctica -Clínica Basadas en Evidencia.

Humans , Male , Female , Antifibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Arteries/pathology , Clinical Clerkship/standards , Clinical Clerkship , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Antifibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods