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ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 37(1): e20230072-e20230072, jan. 2024. ilus.
Article in Portuguese | CONASS, SES-SP, LILACS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1527034


Relato de caso: Paciente masculino, 70 anos, hipertenso, diabético, dislipidêmico e ex-tabagista. Apresentou infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST de parede anterior, sendo submetido à angioplastia da artéria descendente anterior em julho de 2022. Em setembro de 2022, foi admitido em serviço de emergência de hospital geral com quadro de dor torácica ventilatório-dependente e dispneia. Ao exame físico, seu quadro era estável hemodinamicamente.

Humans , Male , Aged , Heart Aneurysm/surgery , Myocardial Infarction , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 384-392, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984664


Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of the proportion of hibernating myocardium (HM) in total perfusion defect (TPD) on reverse left ventricle remodeling (RR) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) by 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) combined with 18F-flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) gated myocardial imaging positron emission computed tomography (PET). Methods: Inpatients diagnosed with HFrEF at the Cardiac Surgery Center, Anzhen Hospital of Capital Medical University from January 2016 to January 2022 were prospectively recruited. MPI combined with 18F-FDG gated PET was performed before surgery for viability assessment and the patients received follow-up MPI and 18F-FDG gated PET at different stages (3-12 months) after surgery. Δ indicated changes (post-pre). Left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV) reduced at least 10% was defined as RR, patients were divided into reverse remodeling (RR+) group and the non-reverse group (RR-). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of RR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the cut-off value for predicting RR. Additionally, we retrospectively enrolled inpatients with HFrEF at the Cardiac Surgery Center, Anzhen Hospital of Capital Medical University from January 2021 to January 2022 as the validation group, who underwent MPI and 18F-FDG gated PET before surgery. Echocardiography was performed before CABG and after CABG (3-12 months). In the validation group, the reliability of obtaining the cut-off value for the ROC curve was verified. Results: A total of 28 patients with HFrEF (26 males; age (56.9±8.7) years) were included in the prospective cohort. HM/TPD was significantly higher in the RR+ group than in the RR- group ((51.8%±17.9%) vs. (35.7%±13.9%), P=0.016). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that HM/TPD was an independent predictor of RR (Odds ratio=1.073, 95% Confidence interval: 1.005-1.145, P=0.035). ROC curve analysis revealed that HM/TPD=38.3% yielded the highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (all 75%) for predicting RR and the AUC was 0.786 (P=0.011). Meanwhile, a total of 100 patients with HFrEF (90 males; age (59.7±9.6) years) were included in the validation group. In the validation group, HM/TPD=38.3% predicted RR in HFrEF patients after CABG with the highest sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (82%, 60% and 73% respectively). Compared with the HFrEF patients in the HM/TPD<38.3% group (n=36), RR and cardiac function improved more significantly in the HM/TPD≥38.3% group (n=64) (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Preoperative HM/TPD ratio is an independent factor for predicting RR in patients with HFrEF after CABG, and HM/TPD≥38.3% can accurately predict RR and the improvement of cardiac function after CABG.

Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Stroke Volume , Heart Failure , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Retrospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Prospective Studies , Coronary Artery Bypass , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Perfusion , Myocardium
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 377-383, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984663


Objective: To investigate whether admission blood pressure (BP) variability during multiple hospitalizations is associated with all-cause mortality independent of baseline BP in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Methods: Patients with ADHF admitted to the Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University from September 2013 to December 2017 were retrospectively enrolled. The risk of all-cause mortality associated with indices of BP variability, including mean admission BPs, standard deviation of BP and coefficient of variation of BP during multiple hospitalizations was assessed, using Cox regression model. Results: A total of 1 006 ADHF patients (mean aged (69.3±13.5) years; 411 (40.8%) female; 670 (66.6%) with preserved ejection fraction) were enrolled. During a median follow-up of 1.54 years, 47.0% of patients died. In all ADHF patients, after adjusting for confounding factors, for every 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in SD and coefficient of variation (CV) of systolic BP, the risk of all-cause mortality increased by 10% and 11%, respectively (SD: HR, 1.10, 95%CI, 1.01-1.21, P=0.029, CV: HR, 1.11, 95%CI, 1.02-1.21, P=0.017); for every 1-SD increase in the mean of diastolic BP, the risk of all cause mortality decreased by 25% (HR, 0.75; 95%CI, 0.65-0.87; P<0.001). In ADHF patients with preserved ejection fraction, after accounted for potential confounders, higher SD and CV of admitted systolic and diastolic BP were significantly associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality, regardless of whether confounding factors were adjusted (P≤0.049); After adjusting for confounding factors, the risk of all-cause mortality increased by 18% and 19% for every 1-SD increase in SD and CV of systolic BP, while the risk of all-cause mortality increased by 11% and 15% for every 1-SD increase in SD and CV of diastolic BP. In ADHF patients with reduced ejection fraction, after adjusting for confounding factors, the higher the mean admission systolic BP during multiple hospitalizations, the lower the risk of total mortality (HR, 0.68; 95%CI, 0.47-1.00; P=0.049). Conclusions: In patients with ADHF, independent of baseline BP, BP variability during multiple hospitalizations was strong predictor of all-cause mortality.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , Blood Pressure , Retrospective Studies , Heart Failure , Hospitalization , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Risk Factors , Prognosis
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 527-533, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982579


In this study, we aim to elucidate the clinical impact and long-term course of tricuspid regurgitation (TR), taking into account its dynamic nature, after biatrial orthotopic heart transplant (OHT). All consecutive adult patients undergoing biatrial OHT (1984-2017) with an available follow-up echocardiogram were included. Mixed-models were used to model the evolution of TR. The mixed-model was inserted into a Cox model in order to address the association of the dynamic TR with mortality. In total, 572 patients were included (median age: 50 years, males: 74.9%). Approximately 32% of patients had moderate-to-severe TR immediately after surgery. However, this declined to 11% on 5 years and 9% on 10 years after surgery, adjusted for survival bias. Pre-implant mechanical support was associated with less TR during follow-up, whereas concurrent LV dysfunction was significantly associated with more TR during follow-up. Survival at 1, 5, 10, 20 years was 97% ± 1%, 88% ± 1%, 66% ± 2% and 23% ± 2%, respectively. The presence of moderate-to-severe TR during follow-up was associated with higher mortality (HR: 1.07, 95% CI (1.02-1.12), p = 0.006). The course of TR was positively correlated with the course of creatinine (R = 0.45). TR during follow-up is significantly associated with higher mortality and worse renal function. Nevertheless, probability of TR is the highest immediately after OHT and decreases thereafter. Therefore, it may be reasonable to refrain from surgical intervention for TR during earlier phase after OHT.

Male , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Heart Transplantation , Echocardiography , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 390-402, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981015


Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a type of heart failure characterized by left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction. With the aging of the population and the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, such as hypertension, obesity and diabetes, the prevalence of HFpEF is increasing. Compared with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), conventional anti-heart failure drugs failed to reduce the mortality in HFpEF due to the complex pathophysiological mechanism and multiple comorbidities of HFpEF. It is known that the main changes of cardiac structure of in HFpEF are cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular hypertrophy, and HFpEF is commonly associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, renal dysfunction and other diseases, but how these comorbidities cause structural and functional damage to the heart is not completely clear. Recent studies have shown that immune inflammatory response plays a vital role in the progression of HFpEF. This review focuses on the latest research progress in the role of inflammation in the process of HFpEF and the potential application of anti-inflammatory therapy in HFpEF, hoping to provide new research ideas and theoretical basis for the clinical prevention and treatment in HFpEF.

Humans , Heart Failure , Stroke Volume/physiology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Inflammation/complications , Obesity , Hypertension
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2023. 59 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518900


INTRODUÇÃO: a insuficiência cardíaca (IC) é uma das três causas mais comuns de doenças cardiovasculares (DCV), grupo de enfermidades que é a principal causa de morbimortalidade no mundo. O eletrocardiograma (ECG) é um dos exames utilizados na avaliação da IC, sendo de baixo custo e amplamente acessível. Quando associado à inteligência artificial, o ECG pode ser uma poderosa ferramenta para triagem de indivíduos com maior probabilidade de IC. O objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho de um algoritmo de IA, aplicado ao ECG, para detecção de DSVE e compará-lo ao das alterações maiores ao ECG (AME), de acordo com o código de Minnesota. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal retrospectivo de acurácia diagnóstica que utilizou a população do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Foram avaliados 2567 indivíduos que possuíam ecocardiograma (ECO) e ECG válidos e valores de predição para disfunção sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo (DSVE) estimadas por um algoritmo de inteligência artificial (IA). A DSVE foi definida como Fração de Ejeção do Ventrículo Esquerdo (FEVE) menor que 40%, calculada utilizando o ECO. A prevalência de DSVE foi de 1,13% na população estudada (29 indivíduos). Foram calculados sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo (VPP), valor preditivo negativo (VPN), razão de verossimilhança positivo (RVP), razão de verossimilhança negativa (RVN), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) para o algoritmo e para as AME. Calculou-se também a área sob a curva ROC (ASC-ROC) para o algoritmo. RESULTADOS: a população estudada possui mediana de 62 anos, sendo 47,2% do sexo masculino. A ASC-ROC do algoritmo para predição de IC foi de 0,947 (IC 95% 0,913 ­ 0,981). A sensibilidade, especificidade, VPP, VPN, RVP, RVN e DOR para o algoritmo foi de 0,690; 0,976; 0,244; 0,996; 27,6; 0,32 e 88,74, respectivamente. Para as AME foi 0,172; 0,837; 0,012; 0,989; 1,09; 0,990 e 1,07 respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A IA aplicada ao ECG é uma fermenta promissora para identificação de pacientes com maior probabilidade de IC e que devem ser priorizados para realização de ECO. Isso poderia aprimorar o diagnóstico de IC em nosso meio e, assim, permitir o início precoce do tratamento, com possível impacto na redução da morbidade e mortalidade.

INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF) is one of the three most common causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the tests used in the evaluation of HF, combining low-cost and wide accessibility. When combined with artificial intelligence, the ECG can be a powerful tool for screening individuals with a higher risk of HF. Our objective was to assess the performance of an AI algorithm applied to the ECG for the detection of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and compare it to the performance of major ECG abnormalities (MEA) according to the Minnesota code. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil). A total of 2567 individuals with valid echocardiograms (ECO) and ECGs and probability values for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) estimated by an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm, were evaluated. LVSD was defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 40%, calculated using ECO. The prevalence of LVSD was 1.13% in the studied population (29 individuals). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated for the algorithm and MEA. The area under the ROC curve (AUC-ROC) was also calculated for the algorithm. RESULTS: The study population had a median age of 62 years, with 47.2% being male. The AUC-ROC for the algorithm to predict HF was 0.947 (95% CI 0.913 ­ 0.981). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, PLR, NLR, and DOR for the algorithm were 0.690, 0.976, 0.244, 0.996, 27.6, 0.32, and 88.74, respectively. For MEA, it was 0.172, 0.837, 0.012, 0.989, 1.09, 0.990, and 1.07, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: AI applied to the ECG is a promising tool for identifying patients with a higher likelihood of HF who should be prioritized for ECO. This could improve the diagnosis capacity of HF in our setting and thus enable early treatment initiation, with possible impact on reducing morbidity and mortality.

Humans , Male , Female , Artificial Intelligence , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Electrocardiography , Heart Failure
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 410-418, May-June 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375650


Abstract An acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV2 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Current data in the world and in Brazil show that approximately 40% of patients who died have some type of cardiac comorbidity. There are also robust reports showing an increase in IL-6 / IL-1B / TNF-alpha and the presence of lymphopenia in patients with COVID-19. Our team and others have shown that increased cytokines are the link between arrhythmias/Left ventricular dysfunction and the immune system in different diseases. In addition, it has been well demonstrated that lymphopenia can not only be a good marker, but also a factor that causes heart failure. Thus, the present review focused on the role of the immune system upon the cardiac alterations observed in the SARS-CoV2 infection. Additionally, it was well described that SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect cardiac cells. Therefore, here it will be reviewed in deep.

Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Myocardium/immunology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Cytokines , Cytokines/immunology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Heart Failure/complications , Lymphopenia/complications
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 634-645, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364356


Resumo Fundamento Embora se saiba que a fração de ejeção (FE) do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) medida por eletrocardiograma seja preservada em pacientes com acromegalia, não há informação suficiente sobre deformação longitudinal global e deformação do átrio esquerdo (SLG-VE e SAE). Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as funções do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) e do átrio esquerdo (AE) por ecocardiograma strain (ES) em pacientes com acromegalia. Métodos Este estudo incluiu 50 pacientes com acromegalia na forma ativa da doença e 50 controles saudáveis com idade, sexo e área de superfície corporal similares. Além dos ecocardiogramas de rotina, medições de SLG-VE e SAE foram realizadas com o ES. Resultados Os valores dos SAE e SLG-VE foram significativamente mais baixos em pacientes com acromegalia (p<0,05 para todos). Na análise bivariada, a pressão arterial sistólica, o pró-hormônio N-terminal do peptídeo natriurético cerebral, o fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina tipo 1, e detectou-se que os níveis de IMVE tinham correlação positiva com SAE e SLG-VE (p<0,05). O nível de IGF-1 tinha forte correlação com SAE e SLG-VE (p<0,001 e β=0,5 vs. p<0,001 e β=0,626, respectivamente); 48% dos pacientes com acromegalia têm SLG-VE reduzido (<20%). O índice de massa do ventrículo esquerdo (IMVE) determina independentemente a presença de SLG-VE reduzido, e cada 1g/m2 de aumento no nível de IMVE aumenta a probabilidade de redução de SLG-VE em 6%. Conclusão Embora a fração de ejeção de VE seja normal em pacientes com acromegalia, os valores de SAE e SLG-VE são significativamente mais baixos. Além do aumento em IMVE, outro achado do envolvimento cardíaco pode ser a redução de SAE e SLG-VE. Portanto, além do ecocardiograma de rotina, SAE e SLG-VE podem ser úteis para avaliar os sinais iniciais de envolvimento cardíaco antes da ocorrência de alterações cardíacas irreversíveis.

Abstract Background Although it is known that the left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) measured by echocardiography is preserved in patients with acromegaly, there is not enough information about the LV and left atrial strain (LV-GLS and LAS). Objective This study aimed to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) functions with strain echocardiography (SE) in patients with acromegaly. Methods This study included 50 acromegaly patients with active disease and 50 healthy controls with similar age, gender, and body surface area. In addition to routine echocardiography examinations, LV-GLS and LAS measurements were performed with SE. Results LAS and LV-GLS values were significantly lower in patients with acromegaly (p<0.05 for all). In bivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, Insulin-like growth factor-1, LA diastolic diameter, and LVMI levels were found to be positively correlated with both LAS and LV-GLS (p <0.05). IGF-1 level was strongly correlated with LAS and LV-GLS (p<0.001 and β=0.5 vs. p<0.001 and β=0.626, respectively); 48% of patients with acromegaly have reduced LV-GLS (<20%). Left ventricular mass-index (LVMI) independently determines the presence of reduced LV-GLS and each 1g/m2increase in LVMI level increases the likelihood of reduced LV-GLS by 6%. Conclusion Although LV ejection fraction is normal in patients with acromegaly, LAS and LV-GLS values were significantly reduced. Apart from LVMI increase, another finding of cardiac involvement may be LAS and LV-GLS decrease. Therefore, in addition to routine echocardiography, LAS and LV-GLS may be useful to evaluate early signs of cardiac involvement before the occurrence of irreversible cardiac changes.

Humans , Acromegaly/complications , Acromegaly/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 220-229, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364988


Abstract Background Cardiotoxicity is the main complication related to cancer therapy. Studies indicate that global longitudinal strain is an early detector of subclinical dysfunction of the left ventricle, preceding the decline in ejection fraction (EF). However, the reproducibility of such methodology has not been tested outside specialized centers. Objectives To assess the frequency of subclinical cardiotoxicity and to compare global longitudinal strain and EF measurements during the clinical course of patients undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer. Methods This was an observational prospective study of 78 adult women who underwent serial echocardiograms (baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after the beginning of chemotherapy), to evaluate biplane and 3D EF and global longitudinal strain. Cardiotoxicity and subclinical dysfunction were defined according to American Society of Echocardiography/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging criteria. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results The mean age of the patients was 50.1 ± 11.48 years. The frequency of subclinical cardiotoxicity (defined by global longitudinal strain) was 14.9% after 30 days of chemotherapy, 16.7% after 3 months, and 19.7% after 6 months, compared to 4.5%, 3%, and 6.6%, respectively, when clinical cardiotoxicity was determined according to EF. The group that developed subclinical cardiotoxicity by 30 days (group A) had a higher frequency of clinical cardiotoxicity at 3 months (p=0.028) and a lower mean biplane EF after 30 days (p= 0.036) than the group that showed no evidence of subclinical cardiotoxicity (group B). Conclusion Subclinical cardiotoxicity was frequent and began early, being associated with a drop in EF during the clinical course.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Cardiotoxicity/diagnostic imaging , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 676-683, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940906


Objective: To evaluate the impact of empagliflozin on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, consecutive HFmrEF patients admitted to the Department of Cardiology of China-Japan Friendship Hospital from September 2019 to October 2020 were screened, and randomly assigned to empagliflozin group (EG) or conventional group (CG) using a random number table. The enrolled patients were treated according to the guidelines, and patients in the empagliflozin group received additional empagliflozin (10 mg, once a day, orally) on top of the conventional treatment. The primary end points were VO2peak at 6 months after treatment, and the secondary end points included other parameters of cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), 6-minute walking distance, N-terminal B-type pro-natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level, and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) score. Results: A total of 112 patients were included (mean age 69 (57, 78) years, 84 male (75.0%)). There were 55 cases in CG group and 57 cases in EG group. There were no significant differences in baseline data including age, sex, body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin, NT-proBNP, daily dose of tolasemi, combined medication, CPET parameters, the proportion of New York Heart Association heart function Ⅲ/Ⅳ, history of coronary heart disease, history of hypertension, history of diabetes (all P>0.05). At 6 months after treatment, VO2peak was significantly higher in EG group than in CG group(P=0.023). VE/VCO2 slope was significantly lower in EG group than in CG group(P=0.034). Oxygen uptake efficiency slope was significantly higher in EG group than in CG group(P=0.038). The level of NT-proBNP was significantly lower in EG group than in CG group(P=0.020). Six-minute walking distance was significantly higher in EG group than in CG group(P=0.037). KCCQ score was significantly higher in EG group than in CG group(P=0.048). Exercise oscillatory ventilation decreased in both groups (1 case in each group, P>0.05). Conclusion: Empagliflozin can significantly improve VO2peak in patients with HFmrEF.

Aged , Humans , Male , Benzhydryl Compounds , Glucosides , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Peptide Fragments , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Ventricular Function, Left
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(2): eabc264, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400505


Embora a avaliação da viabilidade miocárdica seja comum na prática do cardiologista, muitos médicos têm dúvidas a respeito dos resultados dos métodos diagnósticos. A medicina nuclear tem papel importante nos estudos de viabilidade, mas os laudos precisam ser interpretados num contexto clínico e fisiopatológico. Este artigo teve o objetivo de revisar a origem e a evolução do conceito da viabilidade miocárdica. São expostos os métodos diagnósticos com ênfase na medicina nuclear com uma explicação funcional sobre cada tipo de exame. A partir disso, são mostradas imagens como exemplos e é proposta uma maneira de atuar nesses casos baseada na clínica, na porcentagem de miocárdio acometido e na topografia das lesões coronarianas (proximais ou distais). (AU)

Although assessing myocardial viability is a common cardiology practice, many physicians question the results of diagnostic methods. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in viability studies, but the reports require interpretation in a clinical and pathophysiological context. this article was aimed at reviewing the origin and evolution of myocardial viability. Here we present diagnostic methods by emphasizing nuclear medicine and provide a functional explanation of each test type using example images. We also propose how to act in these cases based on clinic examination findings, the percentage of affected myocardium, and coronary lesion topography (proximal or distal).(AU)

Humans , Echocardiography/methods , Myocardial Stunning/diagnosis , Myocardial Stunning/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy , Nuclear Medicine/instrumentation , Rubidium/administration & dosage , Thallium/administration & dosage , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Clinical Diagnosis , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Dobutamine/administration & dosage , Myocardial Revascularization/methods
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(2): eabc293, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400580


Fundamento: A ecocardiografia avançada com utilização de strain miocárdico bi e tridimensional propõe identificar a disfunção sistólica subclínica em diversas condições clínicas. No diabetes mellitus, seu papel é de grande interesse para diagnóstico precoce de cardiomiopatia diabética. Contudo, há grande heterogeneidade nos artigos publicados. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão sistemática, para avaliar o papel atual da avaliação com strain nos pacientes com diabetes mellitus. Métodos: Após revisão sistemática em cinco bancos de dados, 19 estudos que utilizaram strain bidimensional e oito estudos que utilizaram strain tridimensional foram incluídos. Resultados:Na avaliação por strain bidimensional, a amostra totalizou 1.774 indivíduos com diabetes mellitus, com idade média de 57,1 anos e mediana de 55 anos, com equilíbrio em relação ao sexo dos participantes (47,5% do sexo feminino). Nos estudos que utilizaram strain tridimensional, foram incluídos 488 indivíduos com diabetes, com idade média de 55,7 anos e mediana de 63 anos, também com equilíbrio entre o sexo dos pacientes (51% do sexo feminino). O strain global longitudinal foi o marcador de deformação miocárdica que mais frequentemente conseguiu demonstrar diferença entre grupos com indivíduos diabéticos e controles. Conclusão: O strain miocárdico por speckle tracking bi e tridimensional permite identificar disfunção sistólica subclínica em pacientes diabéticos, o que se torna mais marcante nos pacientes com mais fatores de risco associados e com remodelamento ventricular.(AU)

Background: Advanced echocardiography using two- and three-dimensional myocardial strain proposes to identify subclinical systolic dysfunction in different clinical conditions. Strain assessment plays an important role in the early diagnosis of diabetic cardiomyopathy in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the findings of published articles are heterogeneous. Here we conducted a systematic review to analyze the current role of strain assessment in patients with DM. Methods: This systematic review of five databases identified 19 studies that used twodimensional strain and 8 studies that used three-dimensional strain. Results: The studies of two-dimensional strain included 1,774 DM patients (mean age, 57.1 years; median age, 55 years; 47.5% women), while those of three-dimensional strain included 488 DM patients (mean age, 55.7 years; median age, 63 years; 51% women). Global longitudinal strain was the myocardial deformation marker that differed most frequently between the DM and control groups. Conclusion: Myocardial strain imaging by two- and three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography allows the identification of subclinical systolic dysfunction in DM patients, and differences become more marked when associated with risk factors and ventricular remodeling.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Echocardiography/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/prevention & control , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Injuries/prevention & control
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(4): eabc340, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425564


Fundamento: A cardiotoxicidade induzida por quimioterapia (CiC) é uma complicação importante entre os pacientes que recebem antraciclinas. Biomarcadores e parâmetros de imagem têm sido estudados por sua capacidade de identificar pacientes com risco de desenvolver essa complicação. O strain longitudinal global do ventrículo esquerdo (SLG-VE) tem sido descrito como um parâmetro sensível para detectar disfunção sistólica, mesmo na presença de fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) preservada. Objetivo: avaliar o papel do SLG-VE como preditor de CiC. Métodos: O presente estudo consiste em uma análise post-hoc do estudo CECCY (Carvedilol for Prevention of ChemotherapyRelated Cardiotoxicity [Carvedilol para Prevenção da Cardiotoxicidade Relacionada à Quimioterapia]), que avaliou a prevenção primária de cardiotoxicidade com carvedilol durante quimioterapia com doxorrubicina em uma população com câncer de mama. Definiu-se cardiotoxicidade como uma redução >10% na FEVE. O SLG-VE foi obtido antes da quimioterapia em pacientes sem doença cardiovascular prévia ou anormalidades no ecocardiograma. Resultados: Trinta e um pacientes submetidos a estudo ecocardiográfico completo incluindo avaliação de SLG-VE antes da quimioterapia foram incluídos nesta análise. Um SLG-VE absoluto <16,9% antes da quimioterapia mostrou 100% de sensibilidade e 73% de especificidade para predizer cardiotoxicidade (AUC=0,85; IC 95% 0,680­0,959, p<0,001). Nesta população, os valores de FEVE antes da quimioterapia não foram preditores de CiC (IC 95% 0,478 a -0,842, p=0,17). A associação de baixos níveis séricos de SLG-VE (<17%) e BNP (>17 pg/mL) dois meses após a quimioterapia aumentou a precisão para detectar CiC de início precoce (100% de sensibilidade, 88% de especificidade, AUC=0,94; IC 95% 0,7810,995, p<0,0001). Conclusões: Nossos dados sugerem que o SLG-VE é um possível preditor de cardiotoxicidade induzida por quimioterapia. São necessários estudos maiores para confirmar a relevância clínica desse parâmetro ecocardiográfico nesse cenário clínico. (AU)

Background: Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity (ChC) is an important complication among patients receiving anthracyclines. Biomarkers and imaging parameters have been studied for their ability to identify patients at risk of developing ChC. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) is a sensitive parameter for detecting systolic dysfunction despite the presence of preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Objective: To evaluate the role of the LV-GLS as a predictor of ChC. Methods: This was a post-hoc analysis of the Carvedilol for Prevention of Chemotherapy-Related Cardiotoxicity trial, which evaluated the primary prevention of cardiotoxicity with carvedilol during doxorubicin chemotherapy in a population of patients with breast cancer. Cardiotoxicity was defined as a reduction ≥10% in LVEF. LV-GLS was determined before chemotherapy in patients with no prior cardiovascular disease or echocardiogram abnormalities. Results: Thirty-one patients for whom a complete echocardiography study including measurement of LV-GLS was performed before chemotherapy were included in this analysis. An absolute LV-GLS<16.9% before chemotherapy showed 100% sensitivity and 73% specificity for predicting cardiotoxicity (area under the curve [AUC], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.680­0.959; p<0.001). In this population, LVEF values before chemotherapy did not predict ChC (95% CI, 0.478 to -0.842; p=0.17). The association of low LV-GLS (<17%) and brain-type natriuretic peptide serum levels (>17 pg/mL) at 2 months after chemotherapy increased the accuracy for detecting early-onset ChC (100% sensitivity, 88% specificity; AUC, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.781­0.995; p<0.0001). Conclusions: Our data suggest that LV-GLS is a potential predictor of ChC. Larger studies are needed to confirm its clinical relevance in this clinical setting. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Cardiotoxicity/complications , Global Longitudinal Strain/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Echocardiography/methods , Biomarkers/analysis , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Anthracyclines/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy/methods , Carvedilol/toxicity , Heart Failure/prevention & control
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(1): eabc245, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369683


Introdução: A excursão sistólica do anel tricúspide e a do anel mitral são parâmetros utilizados para se avaliar a função contrátil do ventrículo direito e do ventrículo esquerdo, respectivamente. Pouco se conhece sobre sua relação com a função diastólica ventricular esquerda. Objetivo: Avaliar se os valores de excursão sistólica do anel tricúspide e do anel mitral se correlacionam com parâmetros utilizados na avaliação da função diastólica ventricular esquerda. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal. Foram selecionados 219 indivíduos, sendo 116 mulheres, com função sistólica preservada de ambos os ventrículos. As análises foram feitas separadamente para os sexos masculino e feminino, por meio dos coeficientes de correlação de Pearson e de Sperman. Foram obtidos: excursão sistólica do anel tricúspide, excursão sistólica do anel mitral, volumes atriais e medidas relacionadas à avaliação da função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo ao ecocardiograma transtorácico. Resultados: No sexo feminino, a excursão sistólica do anel mitral se correlacionou positivamente com o e' lateral (coeficiente de correlação de Sperman de 0,22; p=0,016) e a excursão sistólica do anel tricúspide se correlacionou positivamente com a relação E/A (coeficiente de correlação de Sperman de 0,23, p=0,037), com o e' lateral (coeficiente de correlação de Sperman de 0,28; p=0,012), com o e' septal (coeficiente de correlação de Sperman de 0,28; p=0,012) e negativamente com a relação E/e' (coeficiente de correlação de Pearson de -0,27; p=0,018) e onda A (coeficiente de correlação de Pearson de -0,29; p= 0,009). No sexo masculino, apenas a excursão sistólica do anel mitral se correlacionou positivamente com a onda E (coeficiente de correlação de Pearson de 0,21; p=0,037), e' lateral (coeficiente de correlação de Sperman de 0,34; p <0,001) e e' septal (coeficiente de correlação de Sperman de 0,26; p=0,008). Não houve correlação entre excursão sistólica do anel mitral e do anel tricúspide e volumes atriais. A presença de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e diabetes melito influenciou nos valores de excursão sistólica do anel tricúspide e do anel mitral correlacionados a ondas E e A, relação E/A, ondas e' septal e lateral e relação E/e'. Conclusão: No presente estudo, os valores da excursão sistólica do anel mitral e do anel tricúspide apresentaram correlação significativa com algumas variáveis da função diastólica ventricular esquerda com maior evidência no sexo feminino.(AU)

Introduction: Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and mitral annular systolic excursion are parameters used to assess the systolic function of the right ventricle and left ventricle, respectively. Little is known about its relationship with left ventricular diastolic function. Objective: To assess whether the values of mitral annular systolic excursion and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion correlate with parameters used in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. Method: Observational cross-sectional study. Two hundred nine individuals were selected, 116 women, with both ventricles normal systolic function. The analyzes were performed for men and women, through Pearson correlation coefficient and Sperman correlation coefficient. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, mitral annular systolic excursion, atrial volumes and left ventricular diastolic function parameters on transthoracic echocardiogram were obtained. Results: In women, mitral annular systolic excursion was positively correlated with lateral e '(Sperman correlation coefficient of 0.22; p=0.016) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was positively correlated with E / A ratio (Sperman correlation coefficient of 0.23; p=0.037), lateral e' (Sperman correlation coefficient of 0.28; p=0.012), and septal e' (Sperman correlation coefficient of 0.28; p=0.012), and negatively with the E/e' ratio (Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.27; p=0.018), and A wave (Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.29; p=0.009). In men, only mitral annular systolic excursion correlated positively with E wave (Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.21; p=0.037), lateral e' (Sperman correlation coefficient of 0.34; p <0.001) and the septal e' (Sperman correlation coefficient of 0.26; p=0.008). There was no correlation between mitral annular systolic excursion E and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and atrial volumes. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus influenced tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and mitral annular systolic excursion values correlated to E and A waves, E/A ratio, septal and lateral e' waves, and E/e' ratio. Conclusion: In the present study, mitral annular systolic excursion and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values showed a significant correlation with some parameters of left ventricular diastolic function, with stronger evidence on female sex.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Tricuspid Valve/anatomy & histology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Mitral Valve/anatomy & histology , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hypertension/complications
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(6): 1191-1201, dez. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350048


Resumo A prevalência de obesidade e insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção preservada (ICFEP) aumenta significativamente em mulheres na pós-menopausa. Embora a obesidade seja um fator de risco para disfunção diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo (DDFVE), o mecanismo que liga a interrupção da produção de hormônios ovarianos, especialmente o estrogênio, ao desenvolvimento da obesidade, DDFVE, e ICFEP em mulheres em processo de envelhecimento não é claro. Estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos demonstram que mulheres na pós-menopausa com obesidade abdominal (definida pela circunferência de cintura) têm risco maior de desenvolver a ICFEP do que homens ou mulheres sem obesidade abdominal. Este estudo analisa dados clínicos que corroboram a existência de uma ligação de mecanismo entre a perda de estrogênio mais obesidade e o remodelamento ventricular esquerdo com ICFEP. Ele também discute os possíveis mecanismos celulares e moleculares para a proteção mediada por estrogênio contra tipos de células, depósitos de tecidos, função e metabolismo de adipócitos negativos que podem contribuir para a DDFVE e a ICFEP.

Abstract The prevalence of obesity and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) increases significantly in postmenopausal women. Although obesity is a risk factor for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), the mechanisms that link the cessation of ovarian hormone production, and particularly estrogens, to the development of obesity, LVDD, and HFpEF in aging females are unclear. Clinical, and epidemiologic studies show that postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity (defined by waist circumference) are at greater risk for developing HFpEF than men or women without abdominal obesity. The study presents a review of clinical data that support a mechanistic link between estrogen loss plus obesity and left ventricular remodeling with LVDD. It also seeks to discuss potential cell and molecular mechanisms for estrogen-mediated protection against adverse adipocyte cell types, tissue depots, function, and metabolism that may contribute to LVDD and HFpEF.

Humans , Male , Female , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Estrogens , Obesity, Abdominal/complications
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 40(3): 184-195, dic. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388104


INTRODUCCIÓN: Actualmente, hay nuevas herramientas de software disponibles para medir la sincronía de la contracción intraventricular izquierda mediante SPECT de perfusión miocárdica. Esta técnica permite identificar anomalías de la conducción, apoyar la terapia de resincronización en insuficiencia cardíaca refractaria e incluso la detección precoz de isquemia. OBJETIVO: Conocer la correlación de la sincronía de contracción con otros parámetros de disfunción sisto-diastólica ventricular izquierda. MÉTODO: Estudiamos 135 pacientes remitidos para pesquisa o evaluación de enfermedad coronaria conocida mediante SPECT gatillado. La evaluación de la interpretación inicial con programas QPS/QGS® visual y cuantitativo se efectuó a 50 casos con defectos de perfusión transitoria de diversos tamaños (isquemia), 25 de tipo fijo o mixto (infarto) y 60 sin ellos (normal). Los volúmenes telesistólicos oscilaron entre 26 y 458 mL. Se excluyeron casos con arritmias, anomalías de conducción y artefactos (actividad o movimiento extracardiaco). Los SPECT se procesaron retrospectivamente utilizando el programa Emory Synctool®. Del histograma de sincronía de la contracción, el ancho de banda (BW) y la desviación estándar (SD) se correlacionaron con la fracción de eyección (FEVI), volúmenes y excentricidades sistólico / diastólico, masa ventricular izquierda, tasa máxima de llenado (PFR) y tiempo al máximo de llenado (TPFR). RESULTADOS: Los BW y SD del histograma de fase de contracción fueron mayores en el grupo con defectos fijos y mixtos en comparación con los con perfusión normal. Las correlaciones en reposo y post estrés (Spearman) entre SD y BW con FEVI, volúmenes, excentricidad y masa fueron significativas (p <0,0002) salvo TPFR que no fue significativa. CONCLUSIÓN: La sincronía de contracción intraventricular sistólica izquierda medida con SPECT se correlaciona excelentemente con los parámetros funcionales sistólicos y diastólicos, así como con masa y excentricidad en diversas condiciones y tamaños cardíacos.

INTRODUCTION: New software tools are available to measure left intraventricular contraction synchrony by myocardial perfusion SPECT. This technique allows identification of conduction abnormalities, support resynchronization therapy in refractory heart failure and even allows early detection of myocardial ischemia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation of systolic synchrony with other parameters of left ventricular systolic-diastolic dysfunction. METHODS: We studied 135 patients referred for screening or known coronary artery disease evaluation by triggered SPECT. Evaluation of the initial interpretation with visual and quantitative QPS/QGS® programs was performed in 50 patients with transient perfusion defects of various sizes (ischemia), 25 of fixed or mixed type (infarction) and 60 without abnormalities. Telesystolic volumes ranged from 26 to 458 mL. Cases with arrhythmias, conduction abnormalities and artifacts (extracardiac activity or motion) were excluded. SPECT scans were retrospectively processed using the Emory Synctool® software. Histograms of systolic contraction synchrony bandwidth (BW) and standard deviation (SD) were correlated with ejection fraction (LVEF), systolic/diastolic volumes and eccentricities, left ventricular mass, peak filling rate (PFR) and time to maximum filling (TPFR). RESULTS: BW and SD of the contraction pase histogram were higher in the fixed and mixed defect group compared to studies showing normal perfusion. Spearman correlations at rest and poststress between SD and BW with LVEF, volumes, eccentricity and mass were all significant (p<0.0002) except for TPFR. CONCLUSION: Left systolic intraventricular contraction synchrony measured with SPECT presents an excellent correlation with systolic and diastolic functional parameters, as well as with mass and eccentricity in various cardiac conditions and ventricular dimensions.

Humans , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Software , Gated Blood-Pool Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left