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2.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 32(1): 6-13, jan.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969855

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares são a maior causa de morbimortalidade no mundo. A prevenção primária, por meio do diagnóstico precoce, é necessária para possibilitar o tratamento adequado e controlar a evolução da doença, reduzindo a mortalidade e os gastos em saúde pública. Correlacionar aterosclerose em artéria carótida (avaliada pelo Eco Doppler) e disfunção ventricular esquerda (avaliada pelo ecocardiograma), além de correlacionar tais achados com o risco cardiovascular dos pacientes estudados. Método: Foram analisados 286 prontuários de pacientes que realizaram os exames Eco Doppler carotídeo e ecocardiograma transtorácico. Os dados analisados foram: presença de placa aterosclerótica e grau de estenose, fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo e presença de alterações contráteis difusas ou segmentares do ventrículo esquerdo. Resultados: Dos 238 laudos de Eco Doppler carotídeo, 18 tinham estenose maior que 70% em artéria carótida e 14 destes apresentavam alteração contrátil do ventrículo esquerdo (p = 0,045). Dos pacientes que tinham risco cardiovascular muito alto, 61 apresentavam estenose em artéria carótida (p < 0,001); 51 pacientes com risco cardiovascular muito alto apresentavam alteração contrátil (p < 0,001). Dos 266 laudos de ecocardiograma, 37 registravam fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo reduzida. Desses, 25 tinham risco cardiovascular muito alto (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Houve relação positiva entre estenose de artéria carótida, redução da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo e alteração contrátil do ventrículo esquerdo (difusa ou segmentar) com risco cardiovascular muito alto. Também foi possível correlacionar a estenose carotídea com alteração contrátil, apesar deste estudo não demonstrar correlação entre estenose carotídea e redução da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo


Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Primary prevention, through early diagnosis, is necessary to enable proper treatment and control disease progression, reducing mortality and public health expenditures. Objective: Correlate carotid artery atherosclerosis (evaluated by Doppler echocardiography) and left ventricular dysfunction (evaluated by echocardiography) and to correlate the findings with the patients' cardiovascular risk. Method: A total of 286 medical records of patients who underwent carotid Doppler echocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were analyzed. The data analyzed were: presence of atherosclerotic plaque and degree of stenosis, left ventricular ejection fraction and presence of diffuse or segmental left ventricular contractile disorders. Results: Of the 238 reports of carotid Doppler echocardiography, 18 had stenosis greater than 70% in the carotid artery and 14 of those had left ventricular contractile disorders (p = 0.045). Of the patients with very high cardiovascular risk, 61 had carotid artery stenosis (p < 0.001); 51 patients with very high cardiovascular risk had contractile disorders (p < 0.001). Of the 266 echocardiography reports, 37 had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Of these, 25 had very high cardiovascular risk (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between carotid artery stenosis, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular (diffuse or segmental) contractile disorder with very high cardiovascular risk. It was also possible to correlate carotid stenosis with contractile disorder, although this study did not demonstrate any correlation between carotid stenosis and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Echocardiography/methods , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Primary Prevention/methods , Stroke Volume , Vertebral Artery , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/diagnosis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Myocardial Revascularization/methods
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(1): 39-47, July 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950193

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cardiac cachexia is an important predictive factor of the reduction in survival of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Objectives: The aims of the present study were to evaluate adropin and irisin levels in cachectic and non-cachectic subjects and the relationships between the levels of these proteins and clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with HFrEF. Methods: The clinical records of patients who were admitted to the cardiology outpatient clinic for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction were screened. Cachectic patients were identified and assigned to the study group (n = 44, mean age, 65.4 ± 11.2 y; 61.4% men). Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients without weight loss were enrolled as the control group (n = 42, mean age, 61.0 ± 16.5 y; 64.3% men). The serum adropin and irisin levels of all patients were measured. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Serum adropin and irisin levels were significantly higher in the cachexia group than in the controls (Adropin (ng/L); 286.1 (231.3-404.0) vs 213.7 (203.1-251.3); p < 0.001, Irisin (µg/mL); 2.6 (2.2-4.4) vs 2.1 (1.8-2.4); p = 0.001). Serum adropin and irisin levels were positively correlated with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin levels (all p values: < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, adropin was the only independent predictor of cachexia in the heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients (OR: 1.021; 95% CI: 1.004−1.038; p = 0.017). Conclusions: The results suggest that adropin and irisin may be novel markers of cardiac cachexia in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients. Adropin and irisin are related with the severity of heart failure.


Resumo Fundamento: A caquexia cardíaca é um importante preditor de redução de sobrevida em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFER). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os níveis de adropina e irisina em pacientes com ICFER caquéticos e não caquéticos, assim como a relação entre os níveis dessas proteínas e os parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais nesses pacientes. Objetivos: Os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar os níveis de adropina e irisina em indivíduos caquéticos e não caquéticos e as relações entre os níveis dessas proteínas e os parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais em pacientes com ICFEN. Métodos: Os prontuários de pacientes atendidos no ambulatório de cardiologia para ICFER foram triados. Aqueles com ICFER caquéticos foram identificados e constituíram o grupo de estudo (n = 44; idade média, 65,4 ± 11,2 anos; 61,4% de homens). Aqueles com ICFER e sem perda de peso foram arrolados como grupo controle (n = 42; idade média, 61,0 ± 16,5 anos; 64,3% de homens). Os níveis séricos de adropina e irisina de todos os pacientes foram medidos. Considerou-se significativo um p-valor < 0,05. Resultados: Os níveis séricos de adropina e irisina foram significativamente mais altos nos pacientes caquéticos do que nos controles [adropina (ng/l): 286,1 (231,3-404,0) vs 213,7 (203,1-251,3); p < 0,001; irisina (µg/ml): 2,6 (2,2-4,4) vs 2,1 (1,8-2,4); p = 0,001]. Os níveis séricos de adropina e irisina correlacionaram-se positivamente com os níveis de peptídeo natriurético cerebral (BNP) e a classe funcional da New York Heart Association (NYHA), e negativamente com o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e os níveis séricos de albumina (todos os p-valores: < 0,001). Na análise multivariada, a adropina foi o único preditor independente de caquexia nos pacientes com ICFER (OR: 1,021; IC 95%: 1,004−1,038; p = 0,017). Conclusões: Os resultados sugerem que a adropina e a irisina possam ser novos marcadores de caquexia cardíaca em pacientes com ICFER. Adropina e irisina estão relacionadas com a gravidade da insuficiência cardíaca.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Peptides/blood , Cachexia/blood , Fibronectins/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Heart Failure/blood , Cachexia/etiology , Blood Proteins , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Heart Failure/complications
6.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 31(2): f:89-l:96, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883721

ABSTRACT

ntrodução: A disfunção diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo (DDVE) pode levar a insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção preservada. O ecocardiograma, em especial o Doppler tecidual, é o principal exame utilizado. A clínica geralmente cursa com dispneia, avaliada pela escala modified Medical Research Council (mMRC). Entretanto, existem poucos estudos que investiguem qual é a associação entre o sintoma e a disfunção. Objetivo: Avaliar se a queixa de dispneia se associa com a progressão da DDVE e se há relação entre mMRC e os graus de DDVE. Métodos: Estudo caso-controle e transversal, com 60 participantes, com avaliação clínica (mMRC) e ecocardiográfica (parâmetros bidimensionais, Doppler espectral e tecidual). Dentre os participantes avaliados, 49 configuraram o grupo caso (DDVE com dispneia) e 11 o grupo controle (DDVE sem dispneia). Foram excluídos participantes com comorbidades ou outras alterações ecocardiográficas relacionadas à dispneia. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 61,7 anos (± 7,9), sendo 72% mulheres. Do total, 82% dos participantes apresentaram dispneia. Destes, 82% apresentaram DDVE grau I. Todos apresentaram função ventricular sistólica preservada. A presença de dispneia se associou com o grau de DDVE (p = 0,04), relação que não se observou com a intensidade do sintoma (p = 0,72). Conclusão: Houve associação entre a presença de dispneia e grau de DDVE, porém não houve relação entre a progressão da dispneia e a evolução da DDVE. O aumento do átrio esquerdo e a presença de doença arterial coronariana foram associadas com graus mais avançados de DDVE


Introduction: The left ventricle diastolic dysfuntion (LVDD) can lead to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Echocardiography, especially the tissue Doppler, is the main exam. The clinic has dyspnea as a typical symptom, which is evaluated by modified Medical Research Council (mMRC). However, there are few studies that investigate what is the association between the symptom and LVDD. Objective: Evaluate if dyspnea is associated with the advancement of LVDD and if there is a linkage between mMRC and the degrees of LVDD. Method: Case-control transversal study, with 60 participants, with clinical (mMRC) and echocardiographic (bidimensional parameters, spectral and tissue Doppler) evaluation. Among the participants, 49 constituted the case group (LVDD with dyspnea) and 11 the control group (LVDD without dyspnea). Participants with co-morbidity or other echocardiographic abnormalities related to dyspnea were excluded. Results: The average age was 61,7 (± 7,9) years and 72% were women. In overwall, 82% of the participants had dyspnea. Among them, 82% had LVDD degree I. All of the study population had preserved ventricular systolic function. The presence of dyspnea was associated with the degree of LVDD (p = 0,04), however, the symptom severity was not (p = 0,72). Conclusion: Dyspnea was associated with the degree of LVDD, but there was no association between the symptom severity and the evolution of LVDD. The aging, the increase of left atrium and coronary artery disease were associated with the advanced grades of LVDD


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Dyspnea/complications , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Body Mass Index , Control Groups , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart/physiopathology , Hypertension/complications , Risk Factors , Statistical Analysis , Stroke Volume
7.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(2): 150-162, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-847908

ABSTRACT

A doença arterial coronariana é altamente prevalente. A caracterização anatômica apenas não é suficiente para determinar o grau de isquemia que uma estenose acarreta, especialmente nos momentos de demanda aumentada. Os métodos de avaliação da perfusão miocárdica permitem caracterizar a repercussão funcional de uma estenose coronariana e auxiliam na escolha da conduta médica a ser adotada. Os métodos de imagem utilizados atualmente desenvolveram formas de avaliar a adequação da perfusão miocárdica em repouso e em estresse. Na presente revisão, são discutidas as diversas modalidades não invasivas de avaliação da perfusão miocárdica


Coronary artery disease is highly prevalent. Anatomical characterization alone is not sufficient to establish the degree of ischemia caused by an obstruction, especially in moments of high myocardial demand. Myocardial perfusion evaluation methods enable the functional repercussion of a coronary stenosis to be characterized, and assist in the choice of medical conduct to be adopted. The imaging methods currently in use have developed ways of evaluating the adequacy of myocardial perfusion at rest and in stress. This revision article discusses the various non-invasive modalities of myocardial perfusion evaluation


Subject(s)
Humans , Perfusion/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Cardiac Imaging Techniques/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Nuclear Medicine/methods
8.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 30(2): f:46-l:53, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-833518

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: A avaliação da disfunção diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) apresenta significativo número de disfunções indeterminadas, principalmente quando a fração de ejeção (FE) está preservada. O strain longitudinal global (SLG), e o strain rate sistólico (SRs) e diastólico precoce (SRd), pode ser útil para reclassificar os pacientes assim diagnosticados. Objetivo: Avaliar, com SLG, SRs e SRd, pacientes com disfunção diastólica, comparar com indivíduos saudáveis e verificar o valor aditivo do método. Métodos: Estudados 149 pacientes (idade 62,2 ± 10,6 anos) com disfunção diastólica (49,7% grau 1; 15,4% grau 2; 18,1% grau 3 e 16,8% indeterminada) e 189 indivíduos sadios (idade 44,5 ± 13,3 anos). Aferidas dimensões e função do VE e átrio esquerdo (AE), velocidades Doppler mitral e tecidual e suas relações, SLG, SRs e SRd do VE. Avaliação dos dados pelos testes de Kolmogorov-Smirnoff, Kruskal-Wallis, análise de regressão múltipla e área sob a curva ROC. Dados significativos quando p < 0,05. Resultados: Na disfunção diastólica as dimensões e espessura do VE estavam aumentadas e verificou-se menor FE. O Doppler mitral e tecidual estava alterado e o volume do AE e a velocidade de refluxo tricúspide estavam aumentados. O SLG e SRs estavam diminuídos na disfunção grau 2 e 3 e o SRd diminuído já na disfunção grau 1, correlacionando-se melhor com a disfunção diastólica. O valor de corte da curva ROC para o SRd foi 1,0 s-1 . Conclusão: A disfunção diastólica complementada com strain rate miocárdico parece acrescentar sensibilidade e especificidade nos casos em que a função diastólica é indeterminada, podendo ser usado para reclassificar estes pacientes


Background: The evaluation of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction presents a significant number of indeterminate dysfunctions, especially when ejection fraction (EF) is preserved. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and systolic strain rate (SSR) and early diastolic strain rate (EDSR) may be useful for reclassifying diagnosed patients. Objective: To evaluate, using GLS, SSR and EDSR, patients with diastolic dysfunction, compare with healthy individuals, and determine the additive value of the method. Methods: The study included 149 patients (age 62.2 ± 10.6) with diastolic dysfunction (49.7% grade 1; 15.4% grade 2; 18.1% grade 3 and 16.8% unspecified) and 189 healthy individuals (age 44.5 ± 13.3). Left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) dimensions and function, mitral and tissue Doppler velocities and their ratios, GLS, SSR and EDSR have been determined. Data evaluation using the Kolmogorov-Smirnoff, KruskalWallis tests, multiple regression analysis and area under the ROC curve. Data were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: In diastolic dysfunction, LV dimensions and thickness were increased and EF was lower. Mitral and tissue Doppler revealed abnormalities and LA volume and tricuspid regurgitation velocity were increased. GLS and EDSR were decreased in dysfunction grade 2 and 3 and EDSR was decreased in dysfunction grade 1, correlating better with diastolic dysfunction. The ROC cutoff value for the EDSR was 1.0 s-1. Conclusion: Diastolic dysfunction supplemented with myocardial strain rate seems to add sensitivity and specificity where the diastolic function is indeterminate and may be used for reclassifying these patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Heart Ventricles , Mitral Valve , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Analysis of Variance , Compliance , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Heart Atria , ROC Curve , Statistical Analysis
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5,supl.1): 169-171, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837956

ABSTRACT

Abstract Symmetrical peripheral gangrene is an ischemic necrosis simultaneously involving the distal portions of two or more extremities without any proximal arterial obstruction or vasculitis. It may occur as a result of a large number of infectious and non-infectious causes. A few cases of symmetrical peripheral gangrene associated with cardiac disease have been described in the literature. We describe a case of symmetrical peripheral gangrene complicating ventricular pseudoaneurysm, probably a hitherto unreported occurrence. In this report, we sought to emphasize the importance of cardiac evaluation while dealing with a case of symmetrical peripheral gangrene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aneurysm, False/complications , Foot Dermatoses/etiology , Gangrene/etiology , Heart Aneurysm/complications , Skin/pathology , Echocardiography , Aneurysm, False/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Foot Dermatoses/pathology , Gangrene/pathology , Heart Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/complications
13.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 29(2): 88-96, mar.-abr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831098

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: Estudos mostram o aumento da circunferência abdominal como indicador relevante de riscocardiovascular (RCV) aumentado.Objetivo: Identificar alterações cardíacas estruturais e funcionais em mulheres hipertensas não diabéticas comobesidade abdominal (OA). Métodos: Estudo transversal com 120 mulheres hipertensas, de 40-65 anos, estratificadas em: grupo sem obesidadeabdominal (SOA, n=42) e com obesidade abdominal (COA, n=78), sendo circunferência abdominal < ou ≥88 cm, respectivamente. Realizou-se avaliação clínica, exames bioquímicos, ecoDopplercardiograma e ultrassonografia de carótida.Resultados: A média de idade foi 53±1 anos nos grupos. A pressão arterial (PA) sistólica, embora maior no grupo COA, não atingiu significância estatística (145±2mmHg vs. 140±2mmHg, p=0,098). Grupo COA apresentou maiorPA diastólica (90±1mmHg vs. 85±1mmHg, p <0,05), maior número de critérios (3,1±0,1 vs. 1,4±0,1, p<0,001) e prevalência de síndrome metabólica (62,8% vs. 11,9%, p<0,001). Apesar de glicemias normais, pacientes COA apresentaram índices mais altos de HOMA-IR (2,62±0,22 vs. 1,61±0,17 p<0,01) e HOMA-beta (358±57 vs. 200±22, p<0,05). Na avaliação ecocardiográfica, a função sistólica foi semelhante nos grupos, mas o grupo COA apresentou evidências de disfunção diastólica pelo Doppler tissular e prevalência maior de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (29,2% vs. 2,4%), sem diferença entre a espessura médio-intimal da carótida.Conclusões: Nesta amostra de hipertensas não diabéticas, a obesidade abdominal foi associada com maiores níveis de pressão arterial diastólica, redução da sensibilidade à insulina e alterações cardíacas, especialmente hipertrofia ventricular esquerda e disfunção diastólica. Contudo, não houve evidência de aterosclerose carotídea subclínica nas hipertensas com e sem obesidade abdominal.


Background: Studies show increased waist circumference as a relevant indicator of increased cardiovascular risk (CVR). Objective: To identify structural and functional cardiac abnormalities in nondiabetic hypertensive women with abdominal obesity (AO). Methods: Cross-sectional study with 120 hypertensive women, aged 40-65, stratified into: group with no abdominal obesity (NAO,n=42) and with abdominal obesity (QAO, n=78), and waist circumference < or ≥88cm, respectively. Clinical evaluation, biochemical tests, Doppler echocardiography and carotid ultrasound were conducted. Results: Average age was 53±1 in the groups. Although the systolic blood pressure (BP) was higher in the WAO group, it did not reach statistical significance (145±2mmHg vs. 140±2mmHg, p=0.098). The WAO group had higher diastolic BP (90±1mmHg vs. 85±1mmHg, p<0.05), greater number of criteria (3.1±0.1 vs. 1.4±0.1, p<0.001) and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (62.8% vs.11.9%; p<0.001). Despite normal blood glucose levels, WAO patients had higher HOMA-IR levels (2.62±0.22 vs. 1.61±0.17 p<0.01) and HOMA-beta levels (358±57 vs. 200±22, p<0.05). In the echocardiographic evaluation, systolic function was similar in bothgroups, but the WAO group presented evidence of diastolic dysfunction by tissue Doppler and higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (29.2% vs. 2.4%), with no difference between the carotid artery intima-media thickness.Conclusions: In this sample of nondiabetic hypertensive women, abdominal obesity was associated with higher levels of diastolic blood pressure, reduced insulin sensitivity and cardiac issues, especially left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction.However, there was no evidence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients with and without abdominal obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hypertension , Metabolic Syndrome , Obesity, Abdominal , Women , Abdominal Circumference , Arterial Pressure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Echocardiography/methods , Prevalence , Prognosis , Statistical Analysis
14.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 28(4): 216-225, out.-dez. 2015. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774754

ABSTRACT

Alguns pacientes com estenose valvar aórtica (EAo) apresentam baixos gradientes (gradiente transvalvar médio < 40mmHg), apesar de área valvar compatível com EAo importante (AVA < 1,0 cm2) e da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo preservada (FE > 50%). Dentre estes pacientes, é possível a identificação de dois grupos: um comfluxo normal (volume sistólico indexado, VSI > 35 mL/m2), que apresenta boa evolução e prognóstico, comparáveis aos pacientes com EAo moderada (AVA 1,0 a 1,5 cm2), e outro, com baixo fluxo (VSI ≤ 35mL/m2). Acredita-se que os pacientes do primeiro grupo ocorram como resultado de baixa estatura, com tamanho corporal pequeno, ou de medidas ecocardiográficas inadequadas, ou ainda de incongruências de classificação presentes em algumas diretrizes de manejo de valvopatias. Nos pacientes que apresentam baixo fluxo, ocorre um padrão de remodelamento ventricular que cursa com aumento da pós-carga e hipertrofia miocárdica concêntrica significativa, além de disfunção miocárdica sistólica intrínseca (ainda que, com FE preservada), com consequente diminuição da cavidade ventricular esquerda e do volume sistólico. Tais alterações estão associadas à pior prognóstico, e estes pacientes devem ser cuidadosamente avaliados para que não tenham seus sintomas subestimados e seu adequado tratamento postergado ou negligenciado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Aortic Valve Stenosis/etiology , Aortic Valve/abnormalities , Stroke Volume/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Valve Diseases , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
15.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 23(1): 73-76, abr.-jun.2015. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782181

ABSTRACT

Pseudoaneurismas do ventrículo esquerdo são geralmente associados a infarto agudo do miocárdio, entretanto, podem surgir no pós-operatório tardio de cirurgias valvares, assim como os pseudoaneurismas aórticos. Acometem frequentemente pacientes com alto risco cirúrgico, e o tratamento percutâneo éhabitualmente realizado em centros de referência para o tratamento de cardiopatias congênitas devido às características anatômicas dos defeitos. Apresentamos dois casos de pseudoaneurismas do ventrículoesquerdo tratados por via transapical, sem necessidade de circulação extracorpórea, e um caso depseudoaneurisma aórtico tratado por via femoral, no qual foi utilizado laço por acesso contralateral para permitir suporte e direcionamento adequados da bainha longa para acessar o defeito...


Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms are usually associated with acute myocardial infarction; however, these conditions may emerge in the late postoperative period of valvar surgery, and this can also occur with aortic pseudoaneurysms. These pseudoaneurysms often affect patients with high surgical risk,and percutaneous treatment is usually performed in reference centers for treatment of congenital heartdiseases, due to anatomical characteristics of these defects. We present two cases of left ventricularpseudoaneurysms treated by transapical approach without need for cardiopulmonary bypass, and one caseof aortic pseudoaneurysm treated by femoral approach, in which a snare was introduced by contralateral access, to allow for adequate support and guidance of the long sheath for accessing the defect...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aorta/surgery , Cardiac Catheterization , Aneurysm, False/complications , Aneurysm, False/therapy , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Femoral Artery , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Septal Occluder Device
16.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 28(1): 30-35, jan.-mar. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-747459

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Na cardiomiopatia dilatada (CMD) de origem não isquêmica uma reserva coronariana diminuída estáassociada a maior risco de morte e um dos possíveis mecanismos é o aumento das pressões de enchimento doventrículo esquerdo. Objetivo: Avaliar a reserva de fluxo coronariano (RFC) pela Ecocardiografia Transtorácica (ETT) e comparar com graus de função diastólica.Métodos: Foram estudados 156 pacientes com CMD não isquêmica (101 homens, média etária 53 ± 12 anos) e disfunção sistólica importante. A função diastólica foi avaliada pelo fluxo transvalvar mitral, fluxo venoso pulmonar e Doppler tecidual, e classificada em: normal (Grau 0); alteração de relaxamento (Grau I); padrão pseudonormal (Grau II); restritivo com reversão à manobra de Valsalva (grau III); e restritivo sem reversão à manobra de Valsalva (Grau IV). A RFC foi determinada pelo fluxo obtido com o Doppler pulsado na artéria descendente anterior e calculada como a relação entre a velocidade diastólica máxima durante a hiperemia (dipiridamol, 0,84 mg/Kg) e no basal.Resultados: Todos os pacientes apresentavam disfunção sistólica importante, fração de ejeção média de 25,3 ± 5,7%; 86 pacientes (55%) apresentavam função diastólica grau 0 ou I, enquanto 70 pacientes (45%) apresentavam disfunção diastólicagraus II, III e IV. A exequibilidade da medida de RFC foi de 90,4%. A RFC foi significativamente maior nos pacientes com função diastólica 0 ou I (2,2 ± 0,5) do que nos pacientes com disfunção diastólica graus II, II e IV (1,9 ± 0,5; p < 0,001). Conclusões: A RFC apresenta-se reduzida em pacientes com CMD de origem não isquêmica e graus avançados de disfunção diastólica.


Introduction: In patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), decreased coronary flow reserve is associated with increased risk of death and one of the possible mechanisms is the increased left ventricular filling pressures. Objective: To evaluate the coronary flow reserve (CFR) by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and compare it with degrees of diastolicfunction in patients with DCM. Methods: We studied 156 patients with DCM (101 men, mean age 53±12 years) and severe systolic dysfunction. Diastolic function was assessed by mitral inflow, pulmonary venous flow and tissue Doppler, and classified as normal (grade 0), impaired relaxation pattern (Grade 1), pseudonormal pattern (Grade 2), reversible restrictive pattern during Valsalva maneuver (Grade 3) and irreversible restrictive pattern during Valsalva maneuver (Grade 4). The CFR was determined by pulsed Doppler in left anterior descending coronary artery and calculated as the ratio of the maximumdiastolic velocity during hyperemia (dipyridamole, 0.84 mg/kg) and baseline. Results: All patients had significant systolic dysfunction, with mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 25.3±5.7%. 86 patients (55%) had grade 0 or 1 diastolic function while 70 patients (45%) had grades II, III or IV of diastolic dysfunction. The feasibility of CFR obtained by TTE was 90.4%. The CFR was significantly higher in patients with diastolic dysfunction 0 or 1 (2.2±0.5) than in patients with diastolic dysfunction grades II, II or IV (1.9±0.5, p<0.001). Conclusion: CFR is reduced in patients with nonischemic DCM and advanced degrees of diastolic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/mortality , Echocardiography/methods , Statistical Analysis , Stroke Volume
17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 28(1): 42-50, jan.-fev. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-762188

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: O envelhecimento abrange mudanças físicas e psicológicas que reduzem a capacidade de adaptação do idoso à sociedade, sendo o maior fator de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Investigar alterações do sistema cardiovascular decorrentes do processo de envelhecimento em ratos. Métodos: Parâmetros murinométricos/nutricionais, ecocardiográficos e hemodinâmicos foram determinados em ratos machos com um, cinco e 12 meses de idade. A expressão de proteínas importantes na dinâmica do cálcio intracelular ena sinalização da leptina foram investigadas em homogenato de coração de rato, bem como a atividade das ATPases cardíacas. Os dados foram apresentados como média±erro-padrão e analisados pelo teste one way ANOVA (*p<0,05 vs. 1 mês e #p<0,05 vs. 5 meses). Resultados: Enquanto o índice de massa corporal aumentou (0,46±0,01 g/cm2 ; 0,75±0,01 g/cm2*; 0,78±0,01 g/cm2*), ocoeficiente de eficácia alimentar (0,431±0,013; 0,035±0,003*; 0,003±0,001*#), a velocidade máxima desenvolvida em teste de esforço (3,36±0,34 km/h; 1,38±0,04 km/h*;1,20±0,13 km/h*) e a frequência cardíaca (410,2±5,9 bpm; 375,9±7,6 bpm*;376,6±3,3 bpm*) diminuíram com a idade. Foram observadas hipertrofia do ventrículo esquerdo e disfunção diastólicaem paralelo à redução da expressão do receptor para leptina (2,1±0,4; 1,9±0,2; 0,8±0,2*#) e da atividade da bomba decálcio da família SERCA (1981±77 nmol Pi/mg de proteína/h; 2385±205 nmol Pi/mg de proteína/h; 1148±152 nmol Pi/mg de proteína/h#) no coração.Conclusões: O envelhecimento está associado a risco cardiometabólico, sendo a infrarregulação de receptores para leptina e a redução da atividade da bomba de cálcio no coração provavelmente mecanismos subjacentes à disfunção diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo e a consequente intolerância ao exercício.


Background: Aging involves physical and psychological changes that reduce the elderly’s ability to adapt themselves to society, which is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To investigate changes in the cardiovascular system resulting from the aging process in rats. Methods: Murinometric/nutritional, echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters were determined in 1, 5 and 12-month aged male rats. The expression of proteins that are critical to intracellular calcium dynamics and leptin signaling, as well as cardiac ATPase activity, was investigated in cardiac homogenates of rats. Data were expressed as mean ± standard error and analyzed by ANOVA one-way test (* p <0.05 vs. one month and #p <0.05 vs. 5 months). Results: Whereas the body mass index increased (0.46±0.01 g/cm2; 0.75±0.01 g/cm2 *,0.78±0.01 g/cm2*), the food efficiency ratio(0.431±0.013; 0.035±0.003*; 0.003±0.001*#), maximum speed during maximal exercise stress testing (3.36±0.34 km/h; 1.38±0.04 km/h*;1.20±0.13 km/h*) and heart rate (410.2±5.9bpm; 375.9±7.6 bpm*; 376.6±3,3 bpm*) decreased with age. Left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction along with reduced leptin receptor expression (2.1±0.4; 1.9±0.2; 0.8±0.2*#) and SERCA-type calcium pump activity (1981±77 nmol Pi/mg protein/h; 2385±205 nmol Pi/mg protein/h; 1148±152 nmol Pi/mg protein/h#) were observed in the hearts.Conclusions: Aging process is related to cardiometabolic risk, with cardiac leptin receptor downregulation and reduced cardiac SERCA2 calcium pump activity presumably being mechanisms underlying the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and consequent exercise intolerance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aging , Anthropometry , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Epidemiology, Experimental , Models, Animal , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Body Mass Index , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Health Education , Longevity/physiology , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Rats, Wistar , Calcium Signaling/physiology
18.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 47-52, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199049

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Symptoms of postmyocardial infarction (post-MI) patients at risk for progression to heart failure are often ignored, and lack of symptom recognition or misinterpretation may diminish health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study was conducted to evaluate the differences in HRQoL by symptom experience and determine factors that predict diminished HRQoL in post-MI patients. METHODS: Using a descriptive correlational study design, post-MI patients with left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < 50%) completed face-to-face interviews for symptoms, HRQoL, covariates including self-care compliance, New York Heart Association class, and demographic and clinical questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 105 post-MI patients participated (mean age 65 years, 79.0% male, mean ejection fraction 43.6%, New York Heart Association class III/IV 33.3%). Mean length of time after the cardiac event was 48 months. Patients reported four or more symptoms, with fatigue being the most common symptom (63.8%), followed by shortness of breath (56.2%), weakness (54.3%), and dizziness (51.4%). HRQoL was moderately poor, with a mean score of 44.38 +/- 27.66. There was no significant relationship between self-care compliance and HRQoL. Patients who were female, with low monthly income, and had lower functional capacity and more symptoms had worse HRQoL, after controlling for age and length of time after the event (adjusted R2 = 0.53, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: A need for transitional care that assists post-MI patients take an active involvement in symptom monitoring arises so that they can get into the system earlier and benefit from treatment, and eventually achieve desirable HRQoL.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications
19.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 84(4): 243-249, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-744057

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: La asociación entre marcadores serológicos y fracción de expulsión en el infarto no ha sido completamente estudiada. Nuestro objetivo es estudiar la asociación existente entre marcadores bioquímicos y disfunción ventricular izquierda en el infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST. Métodos: Con un diseño observacional, prospectivo, incluimos a pacientes con infarto con elevación ST en las primeras 24 h. Se analizaron al ingreso: recuento de leucocitos, glucemia, péptido natriurético tipo B y troponina T, y creatinfosfocinasa total y fracción MB al ingreso y en forma seriada. Estos parámetros se correlacionaron con la fracción de expulsión estimada por ecocardiograma. Resultados: Se incluyeron 108 pacientes. Mediana de fracción de expulsión 48% (intervalo intercuartílico 41-57). En el análisis de regresión lineal simple, el péptido natriurético tipo B (p = 0.005), el pico de creatinfosfocinasa fracción MB (p = 0.01), el recuento leucocitario (p = 0.001) y la glucemia (p = 0.033) se asociaron inversa y significativamente con la fracción de expulsión. No mostraron asociación los otros parámetros. En el análisis de regresión lineal múltiple, solo el péptido natriurético tipo B (p = 0.01) y el pico de creatinfosfocinasa fracción MB (p = 0.02) presentaron correlación significativa con la fracción de expulsión. Ambos parámetros se asociaron significativamente con una fracción de expulsión < 50%, de manera independiente a otras variables clínicas. Conclusiones: En la etapa aguda del infarto con elevación ST, el péptido natriurético tipo B y la creatinfosfocinasa fracción MB se asociaron significativamente con la disfunción ventricular izquierda independientemente de la presencia de otros marcadores bioquímicos y variables clínicas determinantes de disfunción ventricular.


Objective: The association between biochemical markers and left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with myocardial infarction was not completely studied. Our goal is to study the association between biochemical markers and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. Methods: With an observational and prospective design we included patients with less than 24 h ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Leukocytes, glucose, B-type natriuretic peptide and T troponin were measured at admission, and creatine-phosphokinase and creatine-phosphokinase-MB were measured at admission and serially, and correlated with the ejection fraction estimated by echocardiography. Results: A total of 108 patients were included. The median left ventricular ejection fraction was 48% (interquartile range 41-57). Simple linear regression analysis showed that B-type natriuretic peptide (P = .005), peak creatine-phosphokinase-MB (P = .01), leukocyte count (P = .001) and glucose (P = .033) were inversely and significantly associated with the left ventricular ejection fraction. The other parameters showed no association. B-type natriuretic peptide (P = .01) and peak creatine-phosphokinase-MB (P = .02) were the only two variables significantly associated with the left ventricular ejection fraction in the multiple linear regression analysis. Both markers were significantly associated with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 50%, independently of other clinical variables. Conclusion: B-type natriuretic peptide and peak creatine-phosphokinase-MB showed significant association with left ventricular ejection fraction in the acute phase of ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. This association was independent of the presence of other biochemical markers and clinical variables related to ventricular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Electrocardiography , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications
20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 40(6): 609-616, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732562

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of right heart catheterization in the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS: We evaluated clinical, functional, and hemodynamic data from all patients who underwent right heart catheterization because of diagnostic suspicion of PAH-in the absence of severe left ventricular dysfunction (LVD), significant changes in pulmonary function tests, and ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy findings consistent with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism-between 2008 and 2013 at our facility. RESULTS: During the study period, 384 patients underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization at our facility. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was confirmed in 302 patients (78.6%). The mean age of those patients was 48.7 years. The patients without PH showed better hemodynamic profiles and lower levels of B-type natriuretic peptide. Nevertheless, 13.8% of the patients without PH were categorized as New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. Of the 218 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 40 (18.3%) and 178 (81.7%) were diagnosed with PH associated with LVD (PH-LVD) and with PAH, respectively. The patients in the HP-LVD group were significantly older than were those in the PAH group (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The proportional difference between the PAH and PH-LVD groups was quite significant, considering the absence of echocardiographic signs suggestive of severe LVD during the pre-catheterization investigation. Our results highlight the fundamental role of cardiac catheterization in the diagnosis of PAH, especially in older patients, in whom the prevalence of LVD that has gone undiagnosed by non-invasive tests is particularly relevant. .


OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel do cateterismo de câmaras cardíacas direitas no diagnóstico de hipertensão arterial pulmonar (HAP). MÉTODOS: Entre 2008 e 2013, foram avaliadas as características clínicas, funcionais e hemodinâmicas de todos os pacientes que realizaram cateterismo cardíaco direito por suspeita de HAP em nosso laboratório, depois de afastada a presença de disfunção ventricular esquerda (DVE) grave, de alterações significativas nos testes de função pulmonar ou de resultados de cintilografia pulmonar de inalação/perfusão compatíveis com tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico. RESULTADOS: Durante o período de estudo, 384 pacientes foram submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco diagnóstico. A hipertensão pulmonar (HP) foi confirmada em 302 pacientes (78,6%). A média de idade desses pacientes foi de 48,7 anos. Os pacientes sem HP apresentaram melhor perfil hemodinâmico e menores níveis de peptídio natriurético do tipo B que aqueles diagnosticados com HP. No entanto, 13,8% dos pacientes sem HP apresentavam-se em classe funcional III/IV do New York Heart Association. Dos 218 pacientes que cumpriam os critérios de inclusão, 40 (18,3%) e 178 (81,7%) foram diagnosticados como portadores de HP associada à DVE (HP-DVE) e HAP, respectivamente. O grupo HP-DVE tinha idade significativamente mais avançada que aqueles com HAP (p < 0,0001). CONCLUSÕES: A diferença proporcional entre os grupos HAP e HP-DVE foi bastante significativa, considerando a inexistência de sinais ecocardiográficos sugestivos de DVE importante como parte da investigação que antecedeu ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cardiac Catheterization , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Pulmonary Embolism , Respiratory Function Tests , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications
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