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1.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(4): 420-426, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152816

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos: Evaluar la prevalencia de DD de acuerdo con los criterios de las guías del 2009 y 2016, y su relación con la distensibilidad arterial sistémica (DAS) y la resistencia vascular periférica (RVP). Material y métodos: Se analizó a 306 pacientes ≥ 40 años de edad, con fracción de expulsión ≥ 50%. Se calcularon en todos DAS y RVP. Resultados: La prevalencia de DD fue de 32.7% y 22.9% según las guías de 2009 y 2016, respectivamente (p = < 0.0001). De acuerdo con las guías del 2009, los pacientes con DD presentaron una media de DAS menor que aquéllos con función normal (p = 0.0001), de modo similar a las guías del 2016 (p = 0.0007). La DD, según las guías de 2009 y 2016, mostró valores más altos de RVP que los normales (p = 0.005 y p = 0.018, respectivamente). Asimismo, la DD fue predictora, en el análisis univariado, de DAS < 0.60 ml.mm Hg-1 y RVP > 1,400 mmHg.min.l-1 según ambas guías. En el análisis multivariado, la DD, de acuerdo con las guías del 2009, persistió como predictor independiente de RVP > 1,400 mmHg.min.l-1. Conclusión: Las guías del 2016 reducen la prevalencia de DD. Ésta, tanto en las guías del 2009 como en las del 2106, fue predictor univariado de DAS < 0.60 ml.mmHg-1 y RVP > 1,400 mmHg.min.l-1. La DD, de acuerdo con las guías de 2009, resultó predictora independiente de RVP > 1,400 mmHg.min.l-1.


Abstract Objectives: To assess the prevalence of developmental disabilities (DD) according to the criteria of the 2009 and 2016 guidelines, and its association with systemic arterial compliance (DAS) and peripheral vascular resistance (RVP). Material and methods: 306 patients aged ≥ 40 years, with ejection fraction ≥ 50% were analyzed. It was estimated in all DAS and RVP. Results: The prevalence of DD was 32.7% and 22.9% according to the 2009 and 2016 guidelines, respectively (p ≤ 0.0001). Patients with DD according to the 2009 guideline had a lower average of DAS than those with normal function (p = 0.0001). Similar with the 2016 guide (p = 0.0007). The presence of DD according to the 2009 and 2016 guideline showed higher RVP values than normal values (p = 0.005 and p = 0.018, respectively). The DD according to both guidelines was a predictor, in the univariate analysis, of DAS < 0.60 ml.mmHg−1 and RVP > 1400 mmHg.min.l−1. The DD according to the 2009 guideline persisted as an independent predictor, in the multivariate analysis, of RVP > 1400 mmHg.min.l−1. Conclusion: The 2016 guide decreases the prevalence of DD. The DD, both from the 2009 and 2106 guidelines, were univariate predictors of DAS <0.60 ml.mmHg−1 and RVP > 1400 mmHg.min.l−1. The DD according to the 2009 guide, was an independent predictor of RVP > 1400 mmHg.min.l−1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Diastole/physiology , Stroke Volume/physiology , Prevalence , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/epidemiology , Hemodynamics
2.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(4): 406-414, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152814

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción y objetivos: La insuficiencia valvular mitral provoca el vaciado simultáneo hacia la aorta y la aurícula izquierda durante la sístole ventricular, lo que produce una disminución del volumen hacia la circulación sistémica. En este estudio se busca obtener un dato preciso del porcentaje de volumen expulsado en sentido anterógrado en pacientes con insuficiencia mitral. Métodos: Se aplica una fórmula ecocardiográfica de “corrección” de la fracción de expulsión del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI) en 114 pacientes con insuficiencia mitral, con base en la medición de la fracción regurgitante. Resultados: La corrección de la FEVI demostró que el 44.7% de los casos (n = 51) debe reclasificarse en cuanto a la calidad de su función sistólica ventricular izquierda. De 79 sujetos con FEVI normal (≥ 50%) sólo se mantuvieron 32 en la misma categoría; en el grupo con FEVI moderadamente reducida (intervalo intermedio, 40-49.9%) se pasó de 6 a 23 casos y, en aquéllos con FEVI reducida (< 40%), el grupo aumentó de 29 a 59; el subgrupo de pacientes con FEVI < 30% se incrementó de 21 a 41 sujetos. Conclusiones: Puesto que en la mayoría de las guías de tratamiento la FEVI se usa para estratificar riesgos e indicaciones terapéuticas, los autores creen que la ponderación de la insuficiencia mitral puede incrementar la precisión del tratamiento y la posibilidad de incluir a pacientes que no están considerados en esos tratamientos en el momento actual.


Abstract Introduction and objectives: Mitral valve regurgitation causes simultaneous emptying to the aorta and left atrium during ventricular systole, generating a decrease in volume supply to the systemic circulation. In this study we seek to obtain an accurate data on the percentage of volume expelled in the anterograde direction in patients with mitral regurgitation. Methods: An echocardiographic formula for “correction” of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was applied in 114 patients with mitral regurgitation, based on the measurement of the regurgitant fraction. Results: Correction of the LVEF showed that 44.7% of cases (n = 51) should be reclassified in terms of the quality of their left ventricular systolic function. Of 79 subjects with normal LVEF (≥ 50%) only 32 remained in the same category; in the group with moderately reduced LVEF (medium range, 40-49.9%) it went from 6 to 23 cases and, in those with reduced LVEF (< 40%), the group increased from 29 to 59; the subgroup of patients with LVEF < 30% increased from 21 to 41 subjects. Conclusions: Given that in most treatment guidelines LVEF is used to stratify risks and therapeutic indications, the authors believe that the weighting of mitral regurgitation can increase the accuracy of treatment, and the possibility of including patients who, at this current moment, are not considered for these therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 284-292, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088875

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Diastolic dysfunction, commonly evaluated by echocardiography, is an important early finding in many cardiomyopathies. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) often requires specialized sequences that extends the test time. Recently, feature-tracking imaging has been made available, but still requires expensive software and lacks clinical validation. Objective: To assess diastolic function in patients with aortic valve disease (AVD) and compare it with normal controls by evaluating left ventricular (LV) longitudinal displacement by CMR. Methods: We compared 26 AVD patients with 19 normal controls. Diastolic function was evaluated as LV longitudinal displacement in 4-chamber view cine-CMR images using steady state free precession (SSFP) sequence during the entire cardiac cycle with temporal resolution < 50 ms. The resulting plot of atrioventricular junction (AVJ) position versus time generated variables of AVJ motion. Significance level of p < 0.05 was used. Results: Maximum longitudinal displacement (0.12 vs. 0.17 cm), maximum velocity during early diastole (MVED, 0.6 vs. 1.4s-1), slope of the best-fit line of displacement in diastasis (VDS, 0.22 vs. 0.03s-1), and VDS/MVED ratio (0.35 vs. 0.02) were significantly reduced in AVD patients compared with controls, respectively. Aortic regurgitation showed significantly worse longitudinal LV shortening compared with aortic stenosis. Higher LV mass indicated worse diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions: A simple linear measurement detected significant differences on LV diastolic function between AVD patients and controls. LV mass was the only independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction in these patients. This method can help in the evaluation of diastolic dysfunction, improving cardiomyopathy detection by CMR, without prolonging exam time or depending on expensive software.


Resumo Fundamentos: A disfunção diastólica, comumente avaliada por ecocardiografia, é um importante achado precoce na maioria das cardiomiopatias. A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) frequentemente requer sequências específicas que prolongam o tempo de exame. Recentemente, métodos de imagens com monitoramento de dados (feature-tracking) foram desenvolvidos, mas ainda requerem softwares caros e carecem de validação clínica. Objetivos: Avaliar a função diastólica em pacientes com doença valvar aórtica (DVA) e compará-la a controles normais pela medida do deslocamento longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) por RMC. Métodos: Nós comparamos 26 pacientes com DVA com 19 controles normais. A função diastólica foi avaliada como uma medida do deslocamento longitudinal do VE nas imagens de cine-RMC no plano quatro câmaras usando a sequência steady state free precession (SSFP) durante todo o ciclo cardíaco com resolução temporal < 50 ms. O gráfico resultante da posição da junção atrioventricular versus tempo gerou variáveis de movimento da junção atrioventricular. Utilizamos nível de significância de p < 0,005. Resultados: Deslocamento longitudinal máximo (0,12 vs. 0,17 cm), velocidade máxima em início de diástole (0,6 vs. 1,4s-1), velocidade máxima na diástase (0,22 vs. 0,03s-1) e a razão entre a velocidade máxima na diástase e a velocidade máxima em diástole inicial (0,35 vs. 0,02) foram significativamente menores nos pacientes com DVA em comparação aos controles normais, respectivamente. Pacientes com insuficiência aórtica apresentaram medidas de encurtamento longitudinal do VE significativamente piores em comparação aqueles com estenose aórtica. O aumento da massa ventricular esquerda indicou pior disfunção diastólica. Conclusões: Esta simples medida linear detectou diferenças significativas na função diastólica do VE entre pacientes com DVA e controles normais. A massa ventricular esquerda foi o único preditor independente de disfunção diastólica nesses pacientes. Este método pode auxiliar na avaliação da disfunção diastólica, melhorando a detecção de cardiomiopatias por RMC sem prolongar o tempo de exame ou depender de caros softwares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/physiopathology , Aortic Valve Stenosis/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Diastole/physiology , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Atrioventricular Node/physiopathology , Atrioventricular Node/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Bundle of His/physiopathology , Bundle of His/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190457, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092227

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is one of the most common diseases in Latin America and heart involvement is the main cause of death. This study aimed to determine differences in tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) parameters in the assessment left and right ventricular function in patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas disease compared to those in healthy controls. METHODS: We compared 194 patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas disease to 72 age-matched healthy individuals. We considered p-values <0.05 to be statistically significant. RESULTS: TDI analysis of the right ventricular (RV) showed lengthened isovolumic relaxation time (IRT) and higher RV index of myocardial performance (RIMP) and left ventricle (LV) index of myocardial performance (LIMP) in the Chagas group than in the control group, indicating RV and LV systolic and diastolic myocardial damage. TDI analysis of the myocardial velocities of the interventricular septum and the lateral wall of the LV also showed a systolic and diastolic myocardial damage. CONCLUSIONS: The study results demonstrated early LV systolic and diastolic myocardial damage in the RV and LV in patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas disease by TDI. These early findings of RV and LV dysfunction may help identify patients who will progress to heart failure during the disease course. TDI should be included in initial patient evaluations because it allows adequate follow-up and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Doppler , Case-Control Studies , Observer Variation , Chagas Disease/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Early Diagnosis , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(4): 677-684, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038580

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease of genetic origin in the world population, with a prevalence of at least 1/500. The association with systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is not uncommon, as it affects approximately 25% of the world population. Most studies aim at the differential diagnosis between these diseases, but little is known about the magnitude of this association. Objective: To compare left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) in HCM patients with and without associated SAH. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study that included 45 patients with HCM and preserved ejection fraction, with diagnosis confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, including 14 hypertensive patients. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed, with emphasis on left ventricular myocardial strain analysis using GLS. In this study, p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Left ventricular strain was significantly lower in hypertensive individuals compared to normotensive individuals (-10.29 ± 2.46 vs. -12.35% ± 3.55%, p = 0.0303), indicating greater impairment of ventricular function in that group. Mean age was also significantly higher in hypertensive patients (56.1 ± 13.9 vs. 40.2 ± 12.7 years, p = 0.0001). Diastolic dysfunction was better characterized in hypertensive patients (p = 0.0242). Conclusion: Myocardial strain was significantly lower in the group of patients with HCM and SAH, suggesting greater impairment of ventricular function. This finding may be related to a worse prognosis with early evolution to heart failure. Prospective studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.


Resumo Fundamentos: A cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH) é a doença cardíaca de origem genética mais frequente na população mundial, com prevalência de, pelo menos, 1/500. A associação com hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) não é incomum, uma vez que esta acomete aproximadamente 25% da população mundial. A maioria dos estudos objetiva o diagnóstico diferencial entre essas doenças, mas pouco se sabe sobre a magnitude dessa associação. Objetivo: Comparar o strain longitudinal global (SLG) do ventrículo esquerdo em pacientes portadores de CMH com e sem HAS associada. Métodos: Estudo transversal retrospectivo que incluiu 45 pacientes portadores de CMH e fração de ejeção preservada, com diagnóstico confirmado por ressonância magnética, sendo 14 hipertensos. Realizada avaliação ecocardiográfica transtorácica com ênfase na análise da deformação miocárdica do ventrículo esquerdo por meio do SLG. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A deformação do ventrículo esquerdo foi significativamente menor nos hipertensos quando comparada aos normotensos (-10,29 ± 2,46 vs. -12,35% ± 3,55%, p = 0,0303), indicando maior comprometimento da função ventricular naquele grupo. A média de idade também foi significativamente maior nos hipertensos (56,1 ± 13,9 vs. 40,2 ± 12,7 anos, p = 0,0001). A disfunção diastólica foi melhor caracterizada nos pacientes hipertensos (p = 0,0242). Conclusão: A deformação miocárdica foi significativamente menor no grupo de pacientes com CMH e HAS, sugerindo maior comprometimento da função ventricular. Esse achado pode estar relacionado a um pior prognóstico com evolução precoce para insuficiência cardíaca. Estudos prospectivos são necessários para confirmar essa hipótese.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Prognosis , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(4): 737-745, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038572

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Most cardiovascular abnormalities in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been associated with myocardial damage directly caused by the virus. Some cases, however, may be associated with adverse effects from antiretroviral therapy (ART). New ventricular function assessment techniques are capable of detecting early changes in the cardiac function of HIV-infected patients using or not using ART. The usefulness of these techniques has been little employed in these patients. Objectives: To investigate the potential influence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the occurrence of subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction evaluated by myocardial strain rate analysis using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2-D Echo) in treated HIV patients compared to untreated patients and healthy individuals. Methods: Sixty-eight HIV-infected patients with no cardiovascular symptoms, normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (> 0.55 on 2-D Echo) were divided into three groups: 11 patients not using antiretroviral therapy (NT), 24 using protease inhibitor (PI) and 33 using non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). We also studied 30 normal non-HIV infected individuals (Ctrl). Demographic, clinical, biochemical and anthropometric data were collected. Preliminary transthoracic echocardiography included study of myocardial strain using two-dimensional speckle tracking. We studied strain and strain rate in the seventeen left ventricular (LV) myocardial segments in the longitudinal, circumferential and radial axes. Statistical analysis of the data was done with IBM SPSS - version 20 for Windows. Upon analysis of the data, namely the normality of independent variables in the different groups and the homogeneity of the variances between the groups, Kruskal-Wallis' non-parametric test was done, followed by Dunn's multiple comparison tests to test the significance of the differences between the values measured in the study groups. A significance level of 5% was adopted for decision-making on statistical tests. Results: The mean age of HIV patients was 40 ± 8.65 years and the mean age of controls was 50 ± 11.6 years (p < 0.001). Median LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) of NT patients (-17.70%), PI patients (-18.27%) and NNRTIs (-18.47%) were significantly lower than that of the Ctrl group (-20.77%; p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in mean SLG between treated patients (PI, NNRTI) and untreated (NT) patients. No significant differences were observed in mean circumferential and radial strain, nor on circumferential and radial strain rates between the NT, PI, NNRTI and Ctrl groups. Conclusion: The data suggest that HIV patients present, on myocardial strain measured by speckle tracking, signs of early LV systolic dysfunction that seem to be unrelated to the presence of ART. The prognostic significance of this condition in these patients deserves further studies.


Resumo Fundamento: A maior parte das alterações cardiovasculares dos pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) tem sido associada ao dano miocárdico causado diretamente pelo vírus. Alguns casos, porém, podem estar associados a efeitos adversos da terapia antirretroviral (TARV). Novas técnicas de avaliação da função ventricular são capazes de detectar modificações precoces na função cardíaca do paciente infectado pelo HIV em uso ou não de TARV. A utilidade dessas técnicas tem sido pouco empregada nesses pacientes. Objetivos: Investigar possível influência da terapia antirretroviral (TARV) na ocorrência de disfunção sistólica ventricular esquerda subclínica avaliada pela análise da taxa de deformação miocárdica (strain) por meio do speckle tracking ao ecocardiograma bidimensional (E2D) em pacientes portadores do HIV tratados, comparados com pacientes não tratados e indivíduos saudáveis. Métodos: Sessenta e oito pacientes infectados pelo HIV assintomáticos do ponto de vista cardiovascular, com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) normal (>0,55 pelo E2D) foram divididos em três grupos: 11 pacientes sem tratamento antirretroviral (ST), 24 em uso de inibidor de protease (IP) e 33 em uso de inibidor de transcriptase reversa não nucleosídeo (ITRNN). Foram estudados também 30 indivíduos normais não infectados pelo HIV (Ctrl). Foram coletados dados demográficos, clínicos, bioquímicos e antropométricos. A ecocardiografia transtorácica foi realizada incluindo no estudo inicial o estudo da deformação miocárdica pela técnica bidimensional (speckle tracking). Estudamos o strain e a sua taxa de deformação (strain rate) nos dezessete segmentos miocárdicos do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) nos eixos longitudinal, circunferencial e radial. A análise estatística dos dados foi feita com o programa IBM SPSS - versão 20 para Windows. Depois de analisados os dados, nomeadamente a normalidade das variáveis independentes nos diferentes grupos e a homogeneidade das variâncias entre os grupos, decidiu-se utilizar o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis seguido dos testes de comparações múltiplas pelo procedimento de Dunn, para testar a significância das diferenças entre os valores medidos nos grupos em estudo. Foi considerado o nível de significância de 5% para a tomada de decisão nos testes estatísticos realizados. Resultados: A média das idades dos pacientes com HIV foi de 40 ± 8,65 anos e a idade média dos controles foi de 50 ± 11,6 anos (p < 0,001). Os valores medianos do strain longitudinal global do VE (SLG) dos pacientes ST (-17.70%), dos pacientes IP (-18.27%) e ITRNN (-18.47%) foram significativamente menores do que o grupo Ctrl (-20,77%; p = 0,001). Não houve diferença significante nos valores médios do SLGentre os pacientes tratados (IP, ITRNN) e não tratados (ST). Não foram observadas diferenças significantes nos valores médios do strain circunferencial e radial, nem nas taxas de deformação circunferencial e radial entre os grupos ST, IP, ITRNN e Ctrl. Conclusão: Os dados sugerem que pacientes com HIV apresentam, à análise da deformação miocárdica ao speckle tracking, sinais de disfunção sistólica incipiente do VE que parece não ter relação com a presença de TARV. O significado prognóstico dessa alteração nesses pacientes merece estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography/methods , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric
7.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(4): 475-481, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040340

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Mucopolysaccharidosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by the intralysosomal deposition of glycosaminoglycans. Cardiovascular impairment is a common feature. Cardiac signs and symptoms are underestimated due to the disease involvement in other organs. Enzyme replacement therapy can be used in mucopolysaccharidosis I, II, IV, and VI. Thus, the knowledge about the use of new echocardiography tools is relevant to improve the care of this population. This study aimed to describe left ventricular function assessment by conventional echocardiography and left ventricular global longitudinal strain analysis and compare the alterations in patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy and who had different ages at the start of therapy. Method: Outpatient-based descriptive study. The patients were submitted to conventional echocardiography and left ventricular global longitudinal strain measurement. Results: Sixteen patients were evaluated; median age of 14.2 years (SD = 5.2 years). Left ventricular hypertrophy was found in nine patients (56.2%). All patients had preserved left ventricular systolic function (Simpson and Teichholz). Nine (56.2%) patients showed alterations in left ventricular global longitudinal strain. The study showed a positive association between left ventricular hypertrophy and alteration in the left ventricular global longitudinal strain, and late start of enzyme replacement therapy and alteration in the left ventricular global longitudinal strain. Conclusion: Echocardiographic alterations in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis were frequently observed, especially alterations in the left ventricular geometry and subclinical dysfunction. Patients who had a late enzyme replacement therapy start showed an association with worse left ventricular global longitudinal strain values, reinforcing the need for early diagnosis and treatment. The use of new echocardiographic tools may improve the follow-up of these patients.


Resumo Objetivo: A mucopolissacaridose é uma doença genética rara, caracterizada por depósito intralisossômico de glicosaminoglicanos. O comprometimento cardiovascular é frequente. Sinais e sintomas cardíacos são subestimados pelo envolvimento da doença em outros órgãos. A terapia de reposição enzimática pode ser usada em mucopolissacaridose I, II, IV e VI. Assim, o conhecimento da aplicação de novas ferramentas de ecocardiografia é relevante para melhorar a assistência dessa população. Este estudo visou descrever a função do ventrículo esquerdo pelo ecocardiograma convencional e pela análise do strain global longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo e comparar as alterações em pacientes que fazem uso da terapia de reposição enzimática e que tiveram idades distintas de início da terapia. Método: Estudo descritivo de base ambulatorial. Os pacientes foram submetidos à ecocardiografia convencional e medida do strain global longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo. Resultados: Foram avaliados 16 pacientes; mediana de 14,2 anos (desvio: 5,2 anos). Hipertrofia do ventrículo esquerdo foi encontrada em nove pacientes (56,2%). Todos os pacientes tiveram função sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo preservada (Simpson e Teichholz). Nove (56,2%) pacientes apresentaram alteração no strain global longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo. O estudo mostrou associação positiva entre hipertrofia do ventrículo esquerdo e alteração no strain global longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo e início tardio da terapia de reposição enzimática e alteração no strain global longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo. Conclusão: Alterações ecocardiográficas em pacientes com mucopolissacaridose foram frequentes, especialmente alterações na geometria e disfunção subclínica do ventrículo esquerdo. Pacientes que iniciaram tardiamente a terapia de reposição enzimática apresentaram associação com piores valores de strain global longitudinal do ventrículo esquerdo, o que reforça a necessidade do diagnóstico e tratamento precoces. O uso de novas ferramentas de ecocardiografia pode melhorar o acompanhamento desses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Mucopolysaccharidoses/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Echocardiography/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mucopolysaccharidoses/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Enzyme Replacement Therapy
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(2): 188-194, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019397

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Left ventricular global longitudinal strain value (GLS) can predict functional capacity in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) heart failure (HF) and to assess prognosis in reduced LVEF HF. Objetive: Correlate GLS with parameters of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test (CPET) and to assess if they could predict systolic HF patients that are more appropriated to be referred to heart transplantation according to CPET criteria. Methods: Systolic HF patients with LVEF < 45%, NYHA functional class II and III, underwent prospectively CPET and echocardiography with strain analysis. LVEF and GLS were correlated with the following CPET variables: maxVO2, VE/VCO2 slope, heart rate reduction during the first minute of recovery (HRR) and time needed to reduce maxVO2 in 50% after physical exercise (T1/2VO2). ROC curve analysis of GLS to predict VO2 < 14 mL/kg/min and VE/VCO2 slope > 35 (heart transplantation's criteria) was performed. Results: Twenty six patients were selected (age, 47 ± 12 years, 58% men, mean LVEF = 28 ± 8%). LVEF correlated only with maxVO2 and T1/2VO2. GLS correlated to all CPET variables (maxVO2: r = 0.671, p = 0.001; VE/VCO2 slope: r = -0.513, p = 0.007; HRR: r = 0.466, p = 0.016, and T1/2VO2: r = -0.696, p = 0.001). GLS area under the ROC curve to predict heart transplantation's criteria was 0.88 (sensitivity 75%, specificity 83%) for a cut-off value of -5.7%, p = 0.03. Conclusion: GLS was significantly associated with all functional CPET parameters. It could classify HF patients according to the functional capacity and may stratify which patients have a poor prognosis and therefore to deserve more differentiated treatment, such as heart transplantation.


Resumo Fundamento: O strain longitudinal global (SLG) é capaz de predizer a capacidade funcional dos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) preservada, e avaliar o prognóstico na IC com FEVE reduzida. Objetivo: Correlacionar o SLG com parâmetros do teste de exercício cardiopulmonar (TECP), e avaliar se o SLG seria capaz de predizer quais pacientes com IC sistólica deveriam ser encaminhados ao transplante cardíaco de acordo com os critérios do TECP. Métodos: Os pacientes com IC sistólica com FEVE <45%, classe funcional NYHA II e III, submeteram-se prospectivamente ao TECP e à ecocardiografia com análise do strain. A FEVE e o SLG foram correlacionados com as seguintes variáveis do TECP: maxVO2, inclinação de VE/VCO2, redução da frequência cardíaca durante o primeiro minuto de recuperação (RFC), e tempo necessário para a redução do maxVO2 em 50% após o exercício físico (T1/2VO2). Foi realizada análise da curva ROC do SLG em predizer um VO2 < 14 mL/kg/min e uma inclinação de VE/VCO2 > 35 (critérios para transplante cardíaco). O nível de significância adotado na análise estatística foi de p < 0,05. Resultados: Vinte e seis pacientes foram selecionados para o estudo (idade, 47±12 anos, 58% homens, FEVE média LVEF = 28 ± 8%). A FEVE correlacionou-se somente com o maxVO2 e o T1/2VO2. O SLG correlacionou-se com todas as variáveis do TECP (maxVO2: r = 0,671; p = 0,001; inclinação de VE/VCO2: r = -0,513; p = 0,007; RFC: r = 0,466; p = 0,016; e T1/2VO2: r = -0,696, p = 0,001). A área sob a curva ROC para o SLG para predizer os critérios para transplante cardíaco foi de 0,88 (sensibilidade 75%, especificidade 83%) para um ponto de corte de -5,7%, p = 0,03. Conclusão: O SLG apresentou associação significativa com todos os parâmetros funcionais do TECP. O SLG foi capaz de classificar os pacientes com IC segundo capacidade funcional e possivelmente pode identificar quais pacientes têm um prognóstico ruim e, portanto, se beneficiariam de um tratamento diferenciado, tal como o transplante cardíaco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Exercise/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Failure, Systolic/physiopathology , Oxygen/metabolism , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Prognosis , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Echocardiography/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Heart Transplantation , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Heart Rate/physiology
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(2): 207-215, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019395

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Myocardial performance index (MPI), demonstrates both systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle. Presystolic wave (PSW) is frequently detected on Doppler examination of the left ventricular outflow tract and possible mechanism of PSW is impaired LV compliance and left ventricular stiffness. Objective: To investigate the relationship between PSW and MPI in type 2 diabetic patients. Method: A total of 129 type 2 diabetic patients were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of PSW on Doppler echocardiography. There were 90 patients (38 male, mean age 57.77 ± 10.91 years) in the PSW-positive group and 39 patients (13 male; mean age: 55.31 ± 11.29 years) in the PSW-negative group. The p values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: MPI was higher in PSW- positive group (0.63 ± 0.17vs 0.52 ± 0.13, p < 0.001). In addition, subclinical left ventricle dysfunction (LVD) was higher in the PSW- positive group (p = 0.029). Univariate analysis showed that the presence of PSW associated with abnormal MPI (p = 0.031). Pearson correlation analysis showed that PSW velocity correlated with MPI (r: 0.286, p = 0.006). Conclusion: Presence of the PSW on Doppler examination was associated with subclinical LV dysfunction in patients with DM type 2. This easy-to-perform echocardiographic parameter may be related to subclinical LVD among patients with type 2 DM.


Resumo Fundamento: O índice de performance miocárdica (IPM) avalia as funções sistólica e diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo. A onda pressistólica (OPS) é geralmente detectada no exame Doppler da via de saída do ventrículo esquerdo e seus possíveis mecanismos são complacência prejudicada e rigidez do ventrículo esquerdo. Objetivo: Investigar a relação entre OPS e IPM em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2. Método: 129 pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 foram incluídos no estudo. Os sujeitos foram alocados em dois grupos, com base na presença de OPS no exame ecocardiográfico com Doppler. Foram incluídos 90 pacientes (38 homens, idade média 57,77 ± 10,91 anos) no grupo OPS-positiva e 39 pacientes (13 homens; idade média 55,31 ± 11,29 anos) no grupo OPS-negativa. Valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado para significância estatística. Resultados: O IPM foi mais alto no grupo OPS-positiva (0,63 ± 0,17 vs 0,52 ± 0,13, p < 0,001). Além disso, a disfunção ventricular esquerda subclínica (DVE) foi maior no grupo OPS-positiva (p = 0,029). Análise univariada mostrou associação de OPS com IPM anormal (p = 0,031), assim como o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson mostrou correlação entre velocidade de OPS e IPM (r: 0,286, p = 0,006). Conclusão: Presença de OPS na ecocardiografia com Doppler foi associada à DVE subclínica em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2. Esse exame ecocardiográfico de fácil execução pode ser relacionado à DVE subclínica entre pacientes com diabetes tipo 2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Heart/physiopathology , Heart/diagnostic imaging
10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(5): 592-595, May 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012953

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Hypertension may occur with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, and the consequence may be symptoms and signs of heart failure (HF). Hepatojugular reflux (HJR), described as a sign of regurgitation of the tricuspid valve, may reflect structural and functional changes of the LV in the hypertensive patient. The signal may be present in the presence of HF. Case: male, 49 years old with uncontrolled blood pressure. Physical examination showed jugular turgescence, HJR, and elevated blood pressure. Complementary exams showed signs of atrial and left ventricular overload in the electrocardiogram and, the echocardiogram showed left atrium volume increase, concentric LV hypertrophy and signs of grade I diastolic dysfunction. DISCUSSIO: The HJR present correlates with pulmonary artery pressure and probably reflect the increase in central blood volume.


RESUMO A hipertensão pode cursar com disfunção diastólica de ventrículo esquerdo (VE) e a consequência disso pode ser sintomas e sinais de insuficiência cárdica (IC). O refluxo hepatojugular (RHJ), descrito como sinal de regurgitação da valva tricúspide, pode refletir alterações estruturais e funcionais do VE no paciente hipertenso. O sinal pode estar presente na vigência de IC. Caso: homem, 49 anos compressão arterial não controlada. Ao exame físico apresentou turgência jugular, RHJ e pressão arterial elevada. Os exames complementares mostraram sinais de sobrecarga atrial e de ventrículo esquerdo no eletrocardiograma, e no ecocardiograma foi evidenciado aumento do volume do átrio esquerdo, hipertrofia concêntrica do VE e sinais de disfunção diastólica grau I. DISCUSSÃO: RHJ presente correlaciona-se com a pressão da artéria pulmonar e provavelmente reflete o aumento do volume sanguíneo central.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Stroke Volume/physiology , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Jugular Veins/physiopathology , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Heart Failure/pathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Jugular Veins/pathology , Middle Aged
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(3): 249-257, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989346

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Few reports exist on the relationship of the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) with its most important features including enlargement of the left atrium and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and with the right ventricular (RV) function. Objective: To determine the correlation between the left atrial size and the RV function and dimensions in patients with and without LVDD and LVH. Methods: Fifty patients were included, 25 (40% men) of them with LVDD, aged 67.1 ± 10.6 years (study group) and 25 without LVDD (52% men) aged 49.9 ± 16.3 years (control group). Patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography with evaluation of the left atrial size and volume (LAV), LVDD, LVH, and RV function and dimensions. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: LAV > 34 mL/m2 and left atrial size > 40 mm were associated with lower absolute values of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and RV lateral S' (p ≤ 0.001, Pearson's correlation coefficient -0.4 and -0.38, respectively) in the study group. Patients in the study group showed higher incidence of LVH (p = 0.02) and greater left atrial diameter (p = 0.03) compared with the control group. In addition, greater left atrial diameter (p = 0.02) and LAV (p = 0.01) values were found in patients with LVDD grade II compared with LVDD grade I. Conclusions: The present study determined, for the first time, the correlation of left atrial enlargement with progressive RV dysfunction in patients with LVDD.


Resumo Fundamentos: A relação entre a disfunção diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo (DDVE), seus achados mais importantes, como aumento do átrio esquerdo e hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE), e a função do ventrículo direito (VD) tem pouca documentação na literatura científica. Objetivo: Avaliar a correlação entre o tamanho atrial esquerdo em indivíduos com e sem DDVE e HVE e função e dimensões do VD. Métodos: Foram selecionados 50 pacientes, sendo 25 com DDVE (grupo de estudo [GE]; 67,1 ± 10,6 anos; 40% homens) e 25 sem DDVE (grupo-controle [GC]; 49,9 ± 16,3 anos; 52% homens). Os pacientes foram submetidos a ecocardiografia transtorácica com avalição do tamanho e volume atrial esquerdo (VAE), DDVE, HVE, dimensões e função do VD. Valores de p < 0,05 indicaram significância estatística. Resultados: VAE > 34 ml/m2 e tamanho atrial esquerdo > 40 mm apresentaram menores valores absolutos de excursão sistólica do plano do anel tricúspide (TAPSE) e S' lateral do VD (p ≤ 0,001, coeficiente de correlação de Pearson de -0,4 e -0,38, respectivamente) no GE. O GE apresentou maior incidência de HVE e maior diâmetro atrial esquerdo quando comparado ao GC (p = 0,02 e p = 0,03, respectivamente). O GE apresentou maior diâmetro e VAE nos indivíduos com DDVE grau II quando comparados aos indivíduos com DDVE grau I (p = 0,02 e p = 0,01, respectivamente). Conclusões: O presente estudo permitiu correlacionar de maneira inédita o aumento atrial esquerdo com diminuição progressiva da função ventricular direita em pacientes com disfunção diastólica de VE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Organ Size , Stroke Volume , Echocardiography, Doppler , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 38-47, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002422

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Reliable markers to predict sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) remain elusive, but echocardiogram (ECG) parameters may help stratify patients. Given their roles as markers for myocardial dispersion especially in high risk populations such as those with Brugada syndrome, we hypothesized that the Tpeak to Tend (TpTe) interval and TpTe/QT are independent risk factors for SCD in ESRD. Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted on a cohort of patients with ESRD starting hemodialysis. Patients were US veterans who utilized the Veterans Affairs medical centers for health care. Average age of all participants was 66 years and the majority were males, consistent with a US veteran population. ECGs that were performed within 18 months of dialysis initiation were manually evaluated for TpTe and TpTe/QT. The primary outcomes were SCD and all-cause mortality, and these were assessed up to 5 years following dialysis initiation. Results: After exclusion criteria, 205 patients were identified, of whom 94 had a prolonged TpTe, and 61 had a prolonged TpTe/QT interval (not mutually exclusive). Overall mortality was 70.2% at 5 years and SCD was 15.2%. No significant difference was observed in the primary outcomes when examining TpTe (SCD: prolonged 16.0% vs. normal 14.4%, p=0.73; all-cause mortality: prolonged 55.3% vs. normal 47.7%, p=0.43). Likewise, no significant difference was found for TpTe/QT (SCD: prolonged 15.4% vs. normal 15.0%, p=0.51; all-cause mortality: prolonged 80.7% vs. normal 66.7%, p=0.39). Conclusions: In ESRD patients on hemodialysis, prolonged TpTe or TpTe/QT was not associated with a significant increase in SCD or all-cause mortality.


RESUMO Introdução: Marcadores confiáveis para predizer morte súbita cardíaca (MSC) em pacientes com doença renal terminal (DRT) permanecem elusivos, mas os parâmetros do ecocardiograma (ECG) podem ajudar a estratificar os pacientes. Devido a seus papéis como marcadores para a dispersão miocárdica, especialmente em populações de alto risco, como aquelas com síndrome de Brugada, nós hipotetizamos que o intervalo pico da onda T ao final da onda T (TpTe) e TpTe/QT são fatores de risco independentes para MSC na DRT. Métodos: Revisão retrospectiva do prontuário foi realizada em uma coorte de pacientes com DRT iniciando a hemodiálise. Os pacientes eram veteranos de guerra americanos que utilizavam os centros médicos do Veterans Affairs para atendimento médico. A idade média de todos os participantes foi de 66 anos e a maioria era do sexo masculino, consistente com uma população veterana dos EUA. ECGs que foram realizados dentro de 18 meses após o início da diálise, e foram avaliados manualmente para TpTe e TpTe/QT. Os desfechos primários foram MSC e mortalidade por todas as causas, e estes foram avaliados até 5 anos após o início da diálise. Resultados: Após o critério de exclusão, foram identificados 205 pacientes, dos quais 94 com TpTe prolongado e 61 com intervalo TpTe/QT prolongado (não mutuamente exclusivo). A mortalidade geral foi de 70,2% em 5 anos e a MSC foi de 15,2%. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada nos desfechos primários ao se avaliar o TpTe (MSC: prolongado 16,0% versus normal 14,4%, p = 0,73; mortalidade por todas as causas: prolongado 55,3% vs. normal 47,7%, p = 0,43). Da mesma forma, nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada para TpTe/QT (MSC: prolongado 15,4% vs. normal 15,0%, p = 0,51; mortalidade por todas as causas: prolongado 80,7% vs. normal 66,7%, p = 0,39). Conclusões: Em pacientes com insuficiência renal terminal em hemodiálise, TpTe ou TpTe/QT prolongados não foram associados a um aumento significativo da morte súbita ou mortalidade por todas as causas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Electrocardiography/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Veterans , Comorbidity , Incidence , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Heart Rate , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 189-192, Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038535

ABSTRACT

Abstract Changes in iron metabolism in heart failure (HF) have been described as an important prognostic marker. To check if the markers of iron kinetics are related to the morbidity and etiology of chagasic cardiomyopathy. Patients with Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathy (CCC, n = 40), with indeterminate form (IND, n = 40), besides non-chagasic cardiomyopathy (NCh, n = 40). The mean age was 50.98 ± 5.88 in CCC, 50% were male, 49.68 ± 5.28 in IND, 52.2% were male, and 49.20 ± 10.09 in NCh, 12.5% were male. Lower levels of iron (FeSe) were observed in the CCC groups (93.15 ± 36.53), when compared to IND (125.30 ± 22.79) and NCh (114.77 ± 18.90) (p = 0.0004), lower IST transferrin saturation index in CCC (29.48 ± 6.59), when compared to IND (30.95 ± 7.06) and in the NCh group (39.70 ± 7.54) p = 0.0001), total binding capacity of the lower CTLF iron in the CCC group (297.30 ± 36.46), when compared to the IND group (196.52 ± 56.95) and the NCh group (275.18 ± 33, 48) (p = 0.0001), lower ferritin in the CCC group (134.55, 1.56-42.36), when compared to the IND group (156,25, 1,72-42,20) and the NCh group (112.95, 2.88-42.66) (p = 0.0004). It was also observed that FeSe (95% CI 1.00-1.04, p = 0.0014), IST (95% CI 1.02-1.22) (p = 0.0012) and gender (95% CI 1.07-14.43 p = 0.0038) were independently associated with the degree of ventricular dysfunction in chagasic cardiomyopathy. CCC patients showed greater change in iron metabolism regarding the indeterminate form and other forms of cariomyopathies.


Resumo A alteração do metabolismo do ferro na insuficiência cardíaca (IC) tem sido descrita como um importante marcador prognóstico. Verificar se os marcadores da cinética do ferro guardam relação com a morbidade e a etiologia da cardiomiopatia chagásica. Pacientes com cardiomiopatia chagásica crônica (CCC, n = 40), com a forma indeterminada (IND, n = 40), além de cardiomiopatia não chagásica (NCh, n = 40). A idade média foi de 50,98 ± 5,88 no CCC, 50% eram do sexo masculino, 49,68 ± 5,28 no IND, 52,2% eram do sexo masculino e 49,20 ±10,09 no NCh, 12,5% eram do sexo masculino. Observaram-se níveis de ferro (FeSe) menores no grupos CCC (93,15 ± 36,53), quando comparados ao IND (125,30 ± 22,79) e NCh (114,77 ± 18,90) (p = 0,0004), índice de saturação de transferrina (IST) menor no CCC (29,48 ± 6,59), quando comparado ao IND (30,95 ± 7,06) e no grupo NCh (39,70 ± 7,54) (p= 0,0001), capacidade total de ligação do ferro CTLF menor no grupo CCC (297,30 ± 36,46), quando comparado ao grupo IND (196,52 ± 56,95) e ao grupo NCh (275,18 ± 33,48) (p = 0,0001), ferritina menor no grupo CCC (134,55, 1,56-42,36), quando comparada ao grupo IND (156,25, 1,72 - 42,20) e ao grupo NCh (112,95, 2,88-42,66) (p = 0.0004). Verificou-se também que o FeSe (IC% 95% 1,00-1,04; p = 0,0014), o IST (IC 95% 1,02-1,22) (p = 0,0012) e o sexo (IC 95% 1,07-14,43 p = 0,0038) associaram-se independentemente ao grau de disfunção ventricular na cardiomiopatia chagásica. Os pacientes com CCC demonstraram maior alteração no metabolismo do ferro em relação a forma indeterminada e outras formas de miocardiopatias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/metabolism , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Iron Metabolism Disorders/metabolism , Iron/blood , Reference Values , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Chronic Disease , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Iron Metabolism Disorders/physiopathology , Anemia/physiopathology , Anemia/metabolism
15.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(1): 17-21, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of serum cystatin C (Cys-C) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight CHD patients were divided into drug treatment (56 cases) and PCI treatment (72 cases) groups, receiving conventional drug treatment and PCI plus conventional drug treatment, respectively. At admission time and 4 weeks after treatment, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic diameter, and left ventricular end systolic diameter were measured. At admission time and 24h, 72h, 1 week, and 4 weeks after treatment, the serum levels of Cys-C and hs-CRP were determined. Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, LVEF in the PCI treatment group was significantly higher than that before treatment (P<0.01) and it was significantly higher than in the drug treatment group at the same time (P<0.01). Cys-C and hs-CRP level in the PCI treatment group were significantly higher than in the drug treatment group 72h and 1 week after treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01), respectively, but they were significantly lower than in the drug treatment group 4 weeks after treatment (P<0.01). There were obvious interaction effects between grouping factor and time factor in Cys-C (F=3.62, P<0.05) and hs-CRP (F=17.85, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum levels of Cys-C and hs-CRP are closely related to the heart function in CHD patients undergoing PCI, and they may be used for predicting the outcome of PCI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Coronary Disease/surgery , Coronary Disease/blood , Cystatin C/blood , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Body Mass Index , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/drug therapy
17.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 37(3): 194-200, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042595

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los modelos experimentales de falla cardíaca con fracción de eyección disminuida en murinos son pocos. Uno de estos modelos es el de coartación de la aorta torácica en el arco aórtico (COA) en ratones. Un aspecto importante en su desarrollo es la evaluación precoz del procedimiento y su relación con la función sistólica posterior. En este sentido, las velocidades de flujo carotídeo y la relación entre ambos flujos (derecho, pre-coartación; izquierdo post coartación) pueden permitir evaluar tempranamente la precisión del procedimiento y relacionarse más tardíamente con la función sistólica VI. Nuestro objetivo fue comparar precozmente (semana 2 post operatoria) las velocidades de flujo en ambas carótidas (Doppler continuo) y tardíamente (semana 5 postoperatoria) la función sistólica VI (Ecocardiograma de superficie) en ratones seudocoartados o sham (n= 6) vs ratones COA (n = 12). Se confirmó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la relación de velocidades de flujo entre ambas carótidas medida precozmente entre los ratones sham y COA (1,1 ± 0,1 vs 2,5 ± 0,5, p< 0,001), lo que se correlacionó con un deterioro significativo de la función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo evaluada a las 5 semanas en los ratones COA. Conclusión: En este modelo preclínico de falla cardíaca por sobrecarga de presión con fracción de eyección VI disminuida en ratón, el aumento precoz de la velocidad de flujo en la arteria carótida derecha (pre-coartación en el modelo COA) y sobre todo de la relación entre las velocidades de flujo carotídeo entre ambas carótidas se asocia a deterioro importante de la función sistólica VI cinco semanas después de efectuada la COA, lo que permite predecir la efectividad del procedimiento en este modelo experimental.


Abstract: There are few experimental models of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in murines. One of these models is transverse aortic coarctation (TAC) in mice. However, an important challenge in its development is the early evaluation of the procedure and its relationship with late systolic LV function. In this sense, carotid flow velocities and the relationship between both (right, precoarctation, left post-coarctation) may allow early evaluation of the accuracy of the procedure and be related to late LV systolic function. The aim was to compare early (week 2 post-operative) flow velocities determined in both carotid arteries (by continuous Doppler) with late (week 5 postoperative) LV systolic function (by echocardiogram) in sham (n= 6) vs. TAC (n: 12) mice. We confirmed a statistically significant difference in the early ratio of carotid flow velocities (left/right common carotid velocity ratio) between sham and TAC mice (1.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.5 ± 0.5, p< 0.001) and this correlated well with a deteriorated left ventricular function in the TAC mice after 5 weeks. In this preclinical model of cardiac failure due to pressure overload with reduced LV ejection fraction in the mouse, the early increase in right carotid flow velocity (precoarctation) and especially the relationship between precoarctation/postcoarctation carotid flow velocities is associated with significant impairment of LV systolic function five weeks after the TAC, which allows to predict the effectiveness of the procedure in this experimental model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Aortic Coarctation/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Heart Failure, Systolic/physiopathology , Aortic Coarctation/surgery , Regional Blood Flow , Stroke Volume , Blood Flow Velocity , Echocardiography/methods , Carotid Arteries/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Failure, Systolic/surgery , Mice, Inbred C57BL
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 827-830, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041498

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We investigated the occurrence of coronary sinus abnormalities in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease (CD). METHODS: Differences between the maximum and minimum diameters of the coronary sinus (∆%) on echocardiography were evaluated in individuals with the indeterminate form of CD (n=14) and those without (n=16) CD. The association of the difference with abnormalities detected by echocardiography and myocardial scintigraphy was assessed. RESULTS: The mean Δ% values did not differ significantly between the groups. There was no correlation of the measurements with echocardiographic and myocardial scintigraphy findings. CONCLUSIONS: The coronary sinus evaluation revealed no differences between the groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Coronary Sinus/physiopathology , Coronary Sinus/parasitology
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(4): 607-615, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973766

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Heart failure (HF) affects more than 5 million individuals in the United States, with more than 1 million hospital admissions per year. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can benefit patients with advanced HF and prolonged QRS. A significant percentage of patients, however, does not respond to CRT. Electrical dyssynchrony isolated might not be a good predictor of response, and the last left ventricular (LV) segment to contract can influence the response. Objectives: To assess electromechanical dyssynchrony in CRT with LV lead implantation guided by GATED SPECT. Methods: This study included 15 patients with functional class II-IV HF and clinically optimized, ejection fraction of 35%, sinus rhythm, left bundle-branch block, and QRS ≥ 120 ms. The patients underwent electrocardiography, answered the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ), and underwent gated myocardial perfusion SPECT up to 4 weeks before CRT, being reassessed 6 months later. The primary analysis aimed at determining the proportion of patients with a reduction in QRS duration and favorable response to CRT, depending on concordance of the LV lead position, using chi-square test. The pre- and post-CRT variables were analyzed by use of Student t test, adopting the significance level of 5%. Results: We implanted 15 CRT devices, and 2 patients died during follow-up. The durations of the QRS (212 ms vs 136 ms) and the PR interval (179 ms vs 126 ms) were significantly reduced (p < 0.001). In 54% of the patients, the lead position was concordant with the maximal delay site. In the responder group, the lateral position was prevalent. The MLHFQ showed a significant improvement in quality of life (p < 0.0002). Conclusion: CRT determines improvement in the quality of life and in electrical synchronism. Electromechanical synchronism relates to response to CRT. Positioning the LV lead in the maximal delay site has limitations.


Resumo Fundamento: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC) afeta mais de 5 milhões de pessoas nos Estados Unidos, com mais de 1 milhão de internações/ano. A terapia de ressincronização (TRC) pode beneficiar pacientes com IC avançada e QRS alargado; entretanto, percentual significativo de pacientes não respondem à TRC. O dissincronismo elétrico isolado pode não representar um bom preditor de resposta, e o local da última ativação do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) pode influenciar na resposta. Objetivos: Avaliar o dissincronismo eletromecânico na TRC com o implante do eletrodo do VE orientado por GATED SPECT. Métodos: Incluídos 15 pacientes com IC classe funcional II-IV, otimizados clinicamente, com fração de ejeção de 35%, ritmo sinusal, bloqueio de ramo esquerdo, QRS ≥ 120 ms. Realizaram eletrocardiograma, Questionário Minnesota Vivendo com Insuficiência Cardíaca (MLHFQ) e cintilografia GATED SPECT até 4 semanas antes do implante. Reavaliados 6 meses após. Análise primária visou determinar a proporção de pacientes com redução da duração do QRS e resposta favorável à TRC dependendo da concordância ou não na posição do eletrodo, utilizando teste Qui-Quadrado. Análise das variáveis pré e pós TRC foi feita através do teste t de Student, assumindo significância de 5%. Resultados: Realizamos 15 implantes com 2 óbitos no seguimento. As reduções das durações do QRS (212 ms vs 136 ms) e do IPR (179 ms vs 126 ms) foram significativas (p < 0,001). Em 54%, o eletrodo foi concordante com o local de maior atraso. No grupo respondedor, a posição lateral foi prevalente. O MLHFQ mostrou melhora significativa da qualidade de vida (p < 0,0002). Conclusão: A TRC determina melhora da qualidade de vida e do sincronismo elétrico. O sincronismo eletromecânico relaciona-se com a resposta à TRC. O posicionamento do eletrodo de VE no sítio de maior retardo tem limitações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy , Cardiac-Gated Single-Photon Emission Computer-Assisted Tomography/methods , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy/methods , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices , Heart Failure/therapy , Quality of Life , Stroke Volume , Time Factors , Bundle-Branch Block/physiopathology , Bundle-Branch Block/therapy , Fluoroscopy , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Electrocardiography , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(3): 364-372, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973751

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Chagas Disease (CD) is an important cause of morbimortality due to heart failure and malignant arrhythmias worldwide, especially in Latin America. Objective: To investigate the association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with heart remodeling and cardiac arrhythmias in patients CD. Methods: Consecutive patients with CD, aged between 30 to 65 years old were enrolled. Participants underwent clinical evaluation, sleep study, 24-hour Holter monitoring, echocardiogram and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results: We evaluated 135 patients [age: 56 (45-62) years; 30% men; BMI: 26 ± 4 kg/m2, Chagas cardiomyopathy: 70%]. Moderate to severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI, ≥ 15 events/h) was present in 21% of the patients. OSA was not associated with arrhythmias in this population. As compared to patients with mild or no OSA, patients with moderate to severe OSA had higher frequency of hypertension (79% vs. 72% vs. 44%, p < 0.01) higher nocturnal systolic blood pressure: 119 ± 17 vs. 113 ± 13 vs. 110 ± 11 mmHg, p = 0.01; larger left atrial diameter [37 (33-42) vs. 35 (33-39) vs. 33 (30-36) mm, p < 0.01]; and a greater proportion of left ventricular dysfunction [LVEF < 50% (39% vs. 28% vs. 11%), p < 0.01], respectively. Predictor of left atrial dimension was Log10 (AHI) (b = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.91 to 5.81; p < 0.01). Predictors of ventricular dysfunction were AHI > 15 events/h (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 1.31 - 9.98; p = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.10; p < 0.01) and male gender (OR = 3.24, 95% CI: 1.31 - 8.01; p = 0.01). Conclusions: OSA is independently associated with atrial and ventricular remodeling in patients with CD.


Resumo Fundamento: A doença de Chagas (DC) é uma causa importante de morbimortalidade por insuficiência cardíaca e arritmias malignas em todo o mundo, especialmente na América Latina. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) com remodelação cardíaca e arritmias cardíacas em pacientes com DC. Métodos: Foram incluídos pacientes consecutivos com DC, com idade entre 30 e 65 anos. Os participantes foram submetidos à avaliação clínica, estudo do sono, Holter de 24 horas, ecocardiograma e monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial. Resultados: Foram avaliados 135 pacientes [idade: 56 (45-62) anos; 30% homens; IMC: 26 ± 4 kg/m2, cardiomiopatia chagásica: 70%]. AOS moderada a grave (índice de apneia-hipopneia, IAH, ≥ 15 eventos/h) estava presente em 21% dos pacientes. AOS não estava associada a arritmias nessa população. Em comparação com pacientes com AOS leve ou ausente, pacientes com AOS moderada a grave apresentaram maior frequência de hipertensão (79% vs. 72% vs. 44%, p < 0,01) e pressão arterial sistólica noturna mais alta: 119 ± 17 vs. 113 ± 13 vs. 110 ± 11 mmHg, p = 0,01; diâmetro do átrio esquerdo maior [37 (33‑42) vs. 35 (33-39) vs. 33 (30-36) mm, p < 0,01]; e maior proporção de disfunção ventricular esquerda [FEVE < 50% (39% vs. 28% vs. 11%), p < 0,01], respectivamente. O preditor de dimensão do átrio esquerdo foi Log10 (IAH) (β = 3,86, IC 95%: 1,91 a 5,81; p < 0,01). Os preditores de disfunção ventricular foram IAH >15 eventos/h (OR = 3,61, IC 95%: 1,31 - 9,98; p = 0,01), pressão arterial sistólica (OR = 1,06, IC95%: 1,02 - 1,10; p < 0,01) e sexo masculino (OR = 3,24, IC 95%: 1,31 - 8,01; p = 0,01). Conclusões: A AOS está independentemente associada à remodelação atrial e ventricular em pacientes com DC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Ventricular Remodeling , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/pathology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Echocardiography , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Anthropometry , Multivariate Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/pathology , Heart Atria/physiopathology , Heart Atria/pathology
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