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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 690-698, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345226

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) é o método de escolha para avaliar as dimensões e a função do ventrículo direito (VD), e a insuficiência pulmonar (IP). Objetivos Avaliar a acurácia da ecocardiografia bidimensional (ECO 2D) em estimar a função e as dimensões do VD e o grau de IP, e comparar os resultados obtidos pela ECO 2D com os da RMC. Métodos Comparamos os relatórios de ECO e RMC de pacientes cuja indicação para RMC havia sido para avaliar VD e IP. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Incluímos 51 pacientes com cardiopatia congênita com idade mediana de 9,3 anos (7-13,3 anos). Observou-se uma baixa concordância entre ECO 2D e RMC quanto à classificação da dimensão (Kappa 0,19; IC 95% 0,05 a 0,33, p 0,004) e da função do VD (Kappa 0,16; IC 95% -0,01 a +0,34; p 0,034). O tamanho do VD foi subestimado pela ECO 2D em 43% dos casos, e a função do VD foi superestimada pela ECO 2D em 29% dos casos. O grau de concordância entre os métodos quanto à classificação da IP não foi significativo (Kappa 0,014; IC 95% -0,03 a +0,06; p 0,27). Houve uma tendência de a ECO 2D superestimar o grau da IP. Conclusões A ECO 2D mostrou baixa concordância com a RMC quanto às dimensões e função do VD, e grau de IP. Em geral, a ECO subestimou as dimensões do VD e superestimou a função do VD e o grau de IP quando comparada à RMC.


Abstract Background Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the method of choice for assessing right ventricular (RV) dimensions and function, and pulmonary insufficiency (PI). Objectives To assess the accuracy of two-dimensional echocardiography (2D ECHO) in estimating RV function and dimensions, and the degree of PI, and compare the 2D ECHO and CMR findings. Methods We compared ECHO and CMR reports of patients whose indication for CMR had been to assess RV and PI. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results We included 51 congenital heart disease patients, with a median age of 9.3 years (7-13.3 years). There was poor agreement between 2D ECHO and CMR for classification of the RV dimension (Kappa 0.19; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.33, p 0.004) and function (Kappa 0.16; 95% CI -0.01 to +0.34; p 0.034). The RV was undersized by 2D ECHO in 43% of the cases, and RV function was overestimated by ECHO in 29% of the cases. The degree of agreement between the methods in the classification of PI was not significant (Kappa 0.014; 95% CI -0.03 to +0.06, p 0.27). 2D ECHO tended to overestimate the degree of PI. Conclusions The 2D ECHO showed a low agreement with CMR regarding the RV dimensions and function, and degree of PI. In general, ECHO underestimated the dimensions of the RV and overestimated the function of the RV and the degree of PI as compared with CMR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional , Heart Defects, Congenital , Stroke Volume , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Reproducibility of Results , Ventricular Function, Right , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
2.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(3): 315-320, jul.-sep. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345170

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Right ventricle (RV) function plays an important role during fetal and neonatal transitional circulation. Despite the published echocardiography guidelines in children including neonates, there is scare evidence on RV assessment using echocardiography in Mexican neonates. This study was aimed at assessing RV function and anatomical measures in healthy term newborns and defines normal values in this cohort of patients. Methods: A prospective study involving healthy term newborns in a single center were enrolled in the study to assess RV, all patients were recruited within 24-72 h after birth. The right ventricular assessment was performed as per American Society of Echocardiography's guidelines. Results: Seventy healthy term newborns with a median gestational age of 38 (38.5 ± 2.7) weeks had RV function assessment and anatomical structures measures with a predefined ten echocardiographic parameters protocol. The mean values for: tricuspid valve diameter was 13 mm ± 1.8, basal diameter of the RV 16.7 mm ± 2, RV length 27.8 mm ± 2.2, mid cavity diameter 14.3 mm ± 1.7, RV-anteroinferior basal diameter 21.5 mm ± 2.5, tricuspid regurgitation gradient 13.3 mmHg ± 5.9, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion 8.7 mm, right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC) 4 chamber (%) 40.6 ± 7.5, tricuspid E/A 0.7 ± 0.5, myocardial velocities (cm/s) E´ 8 ± 2.7, A´ 9.6 ± 2.4, S´ 6.9 ± 1.2, myocardial performance index 0.5 ± 0.1, RVFAC 3 chamber (%) 37.8 ± 15.8, and pulmonary acceleration time mean value 58.8 ± 14.9. Flattening of interventricular septum was seen in 13% infants. Conclusions: This study describes echocardiographic parameters for anatomical structures and assessment of RV function in healthy term newborns during transitional circulation. We reported novel anatomical measures of the RV; this information can provide normal reference range values and be referenced while assessing RV function in normal and sick newborns during transitional circulation.


Resumen Objetivo: Realizar una valoración ecocardiográfica de parámetros anatómicos y funcionales del ventrículo derecho (VD) en recién nacidos de término (RNT) sanos durante el periodo transicional. Método: Estudio prospectivo en RNT sanos de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales del Hospital Español. Todos los pacientes fueron estudiados en las primeras 24-72 horas de vida, con base en las guías de la American Society of Echocardiography. Resultados: Se estudiaron 70 RNT sanos con una media de edad gestacional de 38 semanas de gestación (38.5 ± 2.7); en estos pacientes se obtuvieron 10 parámetros ecocardiográficos. El valor medio obtenido para la válvula tricúspide fue de 13 ± 1.8 mm, diámetro basal del VD 16.7 ± 2 mm, longitud 27.8 ± 2.2 mm, cavidad media del VD 14.3 ± 1.7 mm, diámetro basal anteroinferior 21.5 ± 2.5 mm, gradiente de insuficiencia tricuspídea 13.3 ± 5.9 mmHg, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) 8.7 mm, Fracción de acortamiento del VD (FAVD) 4 cámaras (%) 40.6 ± 7.5, E/A tricuspídeo 0.7 ± 0.5, velocidades miocárdicas (cm/s) E´ 8 ± 2.7, A´ 9.6 ± 2.4, S´ 6.9 ± 1.2, índice de rendimiento miocárdico 0.5 ± 0.1, FAVD 3 cámaras (%) 37.8 ± 15.8, tiempo de aceleración pulmonar 58.8 ± 14.9. Conclusiones: Este estudio describe parámetros anatómicos y funcionales del VD en RNT sanos durante el periodo de transición. Se reportan valores de normalidad que pueden servir como referencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Child , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Prospective Studies , Mexico
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 624-636, ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346516

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HAP) requiere procesos estructurados de diagnóstico y estratificación de riesgo, siendo la función del ventrículo derecho (VD) un marcador pronóstico central. Los principales objetivos terapéuticos en la HAP son mejorar y/o intentar revertir la disfunción del VD y mantener condición de bajo riesgo. Actualmente existen múltiples fármacos con diferentes mecanismos de acción cuya combinación en doble o triple terapia ha mostrado mejores resultados que la monoterapia. Evidencia actual demuestra la importancia de incorporar tempranamente prostanoides parenterales al esquema, mejorando la funcionalidad del VD y la supervivencia. En esta revisión se refleja el papel de la función del VD en el diagnós tico, pronóstico y seguimiento de la HAP. Se recomienda la evaluación sistemática y estandarizada del VD, así como el inicio temprano de tratamiento combinado en riesgo intermedio-alto para obtener las metas de alcanzar y mantener un riesgo bajo y/o evitar la progresión de la HAP.


Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) requires structured processes of diagnosis and risk stratifica tion, being the function of the right ventricle (RV) a hallmark prognosis determinant. The main therapeutic goals in PAH are to improve and try to revert RV dysfunction and maintaining a low risk. Currently, there are multiple treatments with different mechanisms of action, the combination of which in double or triple therapy has shown improved results compared to monotherapy. Recent clinical evidence shows the importance of early incorpora tion of parenteral prostanoids to the scheme, improving RV function and survival. In this review, we discuss the role of the RV function in the diagnosis, prognosis, and follow-up of PAH. We recommend the systematic and standardised evaluation of the RV as well as the early initiation of combined treatment in cases of intermediate-high risk to try to reach and keep the patient with PAH at a low risk and / or avoid the progression of PAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Ventricular Function, Right , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879251

ABSTRACT

Right ventricular (RV) failure has become a deadly complication of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, for which desynchrony in bi-ventricular pulse resulting from a LVAD is among the important factor. This paper investigated how different control modes affect the synchronization of pulse between LV (left ventricular) and RV by numerical method. The numerical results showed that the systolic duration between LV and RV did not significantly differ at baseline (LVAD off and cannula clamped) (48.52%


Subject(s)
Heart Failure/therapy , Heart-Assist Devices , Humans , Systole , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Ventricular Function, Right
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(4): 638-644, Abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131195

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The practice of screening for complications has provided high survival rates among heart transplantation (HTx) recipients. Objectives: Our aim was to assess whether changes in left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) are associated with cellular rejection. Methods: Patients who underwent HTx in a single center (2015 - 2016; n = 19) were included in this retrospective analysis. A total of 170 biopsies and corresponding echocardiograms were evaluated. Comparisons were made among biopsy/echocardiogram pairs with no or mild (0R/1R) evidence of cellular rejection (n = 130 and n = 25, respectively) and those with moderate (2R) rejection episodes (n=15). P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant Results: Most patients were women (58%) with 48 ± 12.4 years of age. Compared with echocardiograms from patients with 0R/1R rejection, those of patients with 2R biopsies showed greater LV posterior wall thickness, E/e' ratio, and E/A ratio compared to the other group. LV systolic function did not differ between groups. On the other hand, RV systolic function was more reduced in the 2R group than in the other group, when evaluated by TAPSE, S wave, and RV fractional area change (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, RV GLS (−23.0 ± 4.4% in the 0R/1R group vs. −20.6 ± 4.9% in the 2R group, p = 0.038) was more reduced in the 2R group than in the 0R/1R group. Conclusion: In HTx recipients, moderate acute cellular rejection is associated with RV systolic dysfunction as evaluated by RV strain, as well as by conventional echocardiographic parameters. Several echocardiographic parameters may be used to screen for cellular rejection.


Resumo Fundamento: A prática de triagem para complicações tem proporcionado altas taxas de sobrevida entre pacientes que receberam transplante cardíaco (TC). Objetivos: Visamos avaliar se alterações no strain longitudinal global (SLG) do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) e do ventrículo direito (VD) estão associadas à rejeição celular. Métodos: Pacientes que foram submetidos à TC em um único centro (2015 - 2016; n = 19) foram incluídos nesta análise retrospectiva. Foram avaliados um total de 170 biópsias com ecocardiogramas correspondentes. Foram realizadas comparações entre pares de biópsia/ecocardiograma com nenhuma ou leve (0R/1R) evidência de rejeição celular (n = 130 e n = 25, respectivamente) e aqueles com episódios de rejeição moderada (2R) (n = 15). Foram considerados estatisticamente significativos os valores de p < 0,05. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes eram mulheres (58%) com idade média de 48 ± 12,4 anos. Em comparação com os ecocardiogramas dos pacientes com rejeição 0R/1R, os pacientes com biópsias 2R apresentaram maior espessura da parede posterior do VE, relação E/e' e relação E/A, em comparação com o outro grupo. A função sistólica do VE não diferiu entre os grupos. Por outro lado, a função sistólica do VD foi reduzida no grupo 2R em comparação ao outro grupo, quando avaliada por TAPSE, onda S e variação fracional da área do VD. Adicionalmente, SLG VD (−22,97 ± 4,4% no grupo 0R/1R vs. −20,6 ± 4,9% no grupo 2R, p = 0,038) foi reduzido no grupo 2R, em comparação com o grupo 0R/1R. Conclusão: Em pacientes de TC, rejeição celular aguda moderada está associada à disfunção sistólica do VD, avaliado pelo strain do VD, bem como por parâmetros ecocardiográficos convencionais. Vários parâmetros ecocardiográficos podem ser utilizados para realizar triagem para rejeição celular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Heart Transplantation , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/surgery , Echocardiography , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Function, Right , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Graft Rejection , Heart Ventricles , Middle Aged
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200100, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136806

ABSTRACT

Abstract Patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy (ChC) usually progress with fatigue and dyspnea. Exercise tests are valuable for the functional evaluation of these patients. However, information about the applicability of the exercise tests is scattered, and no studies have systematically reviewed the results. Thus, the present review explored the general aspects and prognostic value of exercise tests in patients with ChC. A literature search of the MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus, and LILACS databases was performed to identify relevant studies. There were no data restrictions, and articles that met the objective of the study were selected. Articles written in English, Portuguese, and Spanish were considered, and 25 articles were finally included. The peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was correlated with demographic and echocardiographic variables. Echocardiographic features of the left ventricular diastolic function and right ventricular systolic function appeared to be determinants of functional capacity, in addition to age and sex. VO2peak was associated with higher mortality, especially in patients with dilated ChC. The minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope (VE/VCO2 slope) was a strong predictor of survival; however, more studies are needed to verify this observation. Field tests showed moderate to strong correlation with VO2peak and thus may be inexpensive tools for the functional evaluation of patients with ChC. However, few studies have verified their prognostic significance. While exercise tests are useful tools for functional assessment, information is scarce regarding further considerations, and many of the criteria are based on guidelines for other heart diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Prognosis , Echocardiography
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 935-945, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055037

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: New echocardiographic techniques are used in the diagnosis and prognosis of many heart diseases. However, reference values in different populations are still needed for several of these new indexes. We studied these new echocardiographic parameters in a group of Brazilians with no known cardiovascular disease. Objective: To study values for new echocardiographic indexes in Brazilians without known cardiovascular disease and their correlation with age. Methods: Cross-sectional study that included healthy individuals who underwent three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) strain (e) analysis. Left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) function were analyzed by 3DE and STE, and right ventricular (RV) function by STE. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Seventy-seven subjects (46.7% men; 40.4 ± 10.4 years) were included. Maximum, minimum and pre-atrial contraction (pre-A) LA volumes (ml/m2) were 21.2 ± 5.5, 7.8 ± 2.5, and 11.0 ± 3.1, respectively. Peak positive global LA e (LAScd), peak negative global LA e and total global LA e (LASr) were 17.4 ± 5.2%, -13.2 ± 2.0% and 30.5 ± 5.9%, respectively. LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (ml/m2) measured 57 ± 12 and 24 ± 6, and 3D LV ejection fraction measured 58 ± 6%. Global LV longitudinal, circumferential and radial e were -19 ± 2%, -19 ± 3%, and 46 ± 12%, respectively. LV torsion measured 1.6 ± 0.70 /cm. Global longitudinal RV e (RV-GLS) and RV free wall strain were -22 ± 3% and -24 ± 5%. Minimum LA and pre-A volumes, LV apical rotation, torsion and RV-GLS increased with age, while total and passive LA emptying fractions, LAScd, LASr, LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes decreased with age. Conclusion: Values for new echocardiographic indexes in Brazilians without known cardiovascular disease and their correlation with age are presented.


Resumo Fundamentos: Novas técnicas ecocardiográficas são utilizadas no diagnóstico e prognóstico de diversas cardiopatias. No entanto, muitos desses novos índices ainda carecem de valores de referência em diferentes populações. Estudamos esses novos parâmetros ecocardiográficos em um grupo de brasileiros sem doença cardiovascular conhecida. Objetivo: Estudar valores dos novos índices ecocardiográficos em brasileiros sem doença cardiovascular conhecida e sua correlação com a idade. Métodos: Estudo transversal composto por indivíduos saudáveis que realizaram ecocardiograma tridimensional (E3D) e ecocardiograma bidimensional com análise de deformação (e) por speckle tracking (EST). Foram analisadas as funções atrial esquerda (AE) e ventricular esquerda (VE) por E3D e EST, e a função ventricular direita (VD) por EST. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significantes. Resultados: Foram incluídos setenta e sete indivíduos (46,7% homens; 40,4 ± 10,4 anos). Os volumes AE máximo, mínimo e pré-contração atrial (pré-A) (ml/m2) foram 21,2 ± 5,5, 7,8 ± 2,5 e 11,0 ± 3,1, respectivamente. O pico da e global positiva do AE (LAScd), pico da e global negativa do AE e e global total do AE (LASr) foram 17,4±5,2%, -13,2 ± 2,0% e 30,5 ± 5,9%, respectivamente. Os volumes diastólico final e sistólico final do VE (ml/m2) mediram 57 ± 12 e 24 ± 6 e a fração de ejeção tridimensional do VE mediu 58 ± 6%. A e longitudinal, circunferencial e radial global do VE foi de -19 ± 2%, -19 ± 3% e 46 ± 12%, respectivamente. A torção do VE mediu 1,6 ± 0,7(0)/cm. A e longitudinal global do VD (SLG-VD) e a deformação da parede livre do VD foram de -22 ± 3% e -24 ± 5%. Os volumes mínimo e pré-A do AE, rotação apical do VE, torção e SLG-VD aumentaram com a idade, enquanto as frações de esvaziamento total e passivo do LA, LAScd, LASr, volumes diastólico final e sistólico final do VE diminuíram com a idade. Conclusão: Apresentam-se os valores para os novos índices ecocardiográficos em brasileiros sem doença cardiovascular conhecida e sua correlação com a idade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Echocardiography/standards , Atrial Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Right , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/standards , Reference Values , Brazil , Echocardiography/methods , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Age Factors , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Healthy Volunteers
13.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(1): 37-45, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003636

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Atletas altamente entrenados muestran cambios cardíacos estructurales como adaptación a la sobrecarga, producto del ejercicio repetitivo y extenuante. Se han evidenciado elevación de biomarcadores de remodelado y fibrosis miocárdica posterior al ejercicio intenso en atletas. Sin embargo, el comportamiento de estos biomarcadores según el nivel de entrenamiento previo no se ha evaluado. Objetivo: Investigar biomarcadores de fibrosis y función ventricular derecha en maratonistas con distinto nivel de entrenamiento previo. Métodos: Se incluyeron 36 maratonistas hombres, sanos, que completaron 42 km en la maratón de Santiago. Se dividieron según entrenamiento previo en dos grupos, Grupo 1 (G1): ≥100 km/semana y Grupo 2 (G2): <100 km/semana. Se realizó ecocardiografía transtorácica y se evaluaron niveles plasmáticos de galectina-3 y del propéptido amino terminal del procolágeno tipo III (PIIINP) en la semana previa a la carrera e inmediatamente posterior a ésta. Resultados: Posterior a la maratón, la función sistólica del ventrículo derecho disminuyó en el grupo G2 junto con un aumento significativo de los niveles plasmáticos de PIIIPNP (61±16 a 94±24 ng/mL, p=0,01). Estos cambios no se observaron en el grupo G1 (65 ± 11 a 90±29 ng/mL, p=0,10). Los niveles plasmáticos de galectina-3 aumentaron significativamente en ambos grupos posterior al ejercicio (6,8±2,2 a 19,7±4,9 ng/mL, p 0,012 y 6,0±1,1 a 19,4 ± 5,9 ng/mL, p 0,01) en los grupos G1 y G2, respectivamente). Conclusiones: Atletas con menor grado de entrenamiento, presentan posterior a una maratón un significativo aumento de productos de degradación del colágeno (PIIIPNP) asociado a disminución de la función del ventrículo derecho. Los niveles de galectina-3 plasmática aumentan significativamente en ambos grupos post-esfuerzo independiente del entrenamiento previo.


Abstracts: Introduction: Highly trained athletes show structural cardiac changes as adaptation to overload. Rise in remodeling biomarkers and myocardial fibrosis after intense exercise in athletes has been evidenced; however, the behavior of these biomarkers according to pre-competition training level has not been evaluated. Objective: To evaluate fibrosis biomarkers levels and right ventricle function in marathon runners according to their previous training level, in the period prior to a marathon race and immediately after it. Methods: Thirty-six healthy male marathon runners were included. Subjects were grouped according to their previous training level: Group 1 (G1): ≥100 km/week and Group 2 (G2): <100 km/week. Transthoracic echocardiography along with plasmatic levels of galectin-3 and amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were measured one week previous and immediately after the marathon. Results: Post-effort right ventricle systolic function decreased in G2, together with a significant elevation of PIIIPNP (61±16 to 94±24 ng/mL, p=0.01). These changes were not observed in G1 (from 65±11 to 90±29 ng/mL, p=0.10). Plasma galectin-3 increased significantly in both groups immediately post-exercise (6.8±2.2 to 19.7±4.9 ng/mL, p=0.012, and 6.0±1.1 to 19.4±5.9 ng/mL, p=0.01, in G1 and G2. respectively). Conclusion: Less trained athletes evidenced higher post marathon levels of PIIIPNP which is associated with a decreased global right ventricle function. Plasma galectin-3 levels increased significantly after intense exertion regardless of the intensity of previous training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Running/physiology , Fibrosis/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Ventricular Function, Right , Heart Injuries/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Fibrosis/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Single-Blind Method , Chile , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Procollagen/blood , Galectin 3/blood , Athletes
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(1): 20-24, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038472

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Speckle-tracking echocardiography has shown its usefulness in the evaluation of the right ventricle (RV) in healthy subjects and in pulmonary hypertension. It is unknown whether this technique could be sensitive to assess healthy RV with increases in preload. Methods: Consecutive subjects were studied without evidence of cardiopulmonary disease. They underwent speckle-tracking echocardiography in General Electric Vivid 7® equipment. The "segmental longitudinal strain" (SLS) and "global longitudinal strain" (GLS) of the RV was determined at rest and with an increase in the preload through elevation the legs to 45°. Results: We analyzed 31 subjects, 16 men and 15 women, aged 16-53 years, in which were measured SLS and GLS. Basal of the RV free wall: —29.1 ± 3.3 versus −32.7 ± 5.5%, p = 0.0002. Mid of the RV free wall: —28.6 ± 6.4 versus —31.5 ± 4.9 %, p = 0.001. Apical of the free wall of the RV: —21.9 ± 6.5 versus —23.3 ± 6.1 %, p = 0.118. Basal inferoseptum: —19.40 ± 3.2 versus —18.9 ± 3.0 %, p = 0.204. Mid inferoseptum: —19.3 ± 3.2 versus —19 ± 3.1 %, p = 0.249. Apical septum: —17.1 ± 5.1 versus —17 ± 5.4 %, p = 0.457. GLS of the RV: —23.06 ± 3.4 versus —24.5 ± 2.9 %, p = 0.002. ICC: 0.773, 95 % CI: 0.534-0.890, p < 0.001. Conclusions: This method was sensitive to detect differences in the GLS and SLS basal and mid of the RV free wall.


Resumen Introducción: La ecocardiografía speckle-tracking (EST) ha mostrado su utilidad en la evaluación del ventrículo derecho (VD) en sujetos sanos y en hipertensión pulmonar. Se desconoce si esta técnica es sensible para evaluar el VD en sujetos sanos con aumento en la precarga. Método: Se evaluaron sujetos consecutivos sin evidencia de enfermedad cardiopulmonar. Se realizó EST con equipo General Electric Vivid 7®. La deformación longitudinal segmentaria (DLS) y la deformación longitudinal global (DLG) del VD se determinaron en reposo y con incremento en la precarga mediante la elevación de las piernas a 45°. Resultados: Analizamos 31 sujetos, 16 hombres y 15 mujeres. Edad: 16-53 años. Basal de la pared libre del VD: —29.1 ± 3.3 vs. —32.7 ± 5.5%, p = 0.0002. Medio de la pared libre del VD: —28.6 ± 6.4 vs. —31.5 ± 4.9%, p = 0.001. Apical de la pared libre del VD: —21.9 ± 6.5 vs. —23.3 ± 6.1, p = 0.118. Basal septum inferior: —19.40 ± 3.2 vs. —18.9 ± 3.0%, p = 0.204. Medio septum inferior: —19.3 ± 3.2 vs. —19 ± 3.1%, p = 0.249. Apical septal −17.1% ± 5.1 vs. −17 ± 5.4, p = 0.457. DLG del VD: —23.06 ± 3.4 vs. —24.5 ± 2.9%, p = 0.002. CCI: 0.773, IC 95%: 0.534-0.890, p < 0.001. Conclusiones: El método fue sensible para detectar diferencias en la DLG y DLS basal y media de la pared libre del VD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Function, Right , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Patient Positioning , Healthy Volunteers , Leg
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(3): 249-257, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989346

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Few reports exist on the relationship of the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) with its most important features including enlargement of the left atrium and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and with the right ventricular (RV) function. Objective: To determine the correlation between the left atrial size and the RV function and dimensions in patients with and without LVDD and LVH. Methods: Fifty patients were included, 25 (40% men) of them with LVDD, aged 67.1 ± 10.6 years (study group) and 25 without LVDD (52% men) aged 49.9 ± 16.3 years (control group). Patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography with evaluation of the left atrial size and volume (LAV), LVDD, LVH, and RV function and dimensions. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: LAV > 34 mL/m2 and left atrial size > 40 mm were associated with lower absolute values of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and RV lateral S' (p ≤ 0.001, Pearson's correlation coefficient -0.4 and -0.38, respectively) in the study group. Patients in the study group showed higher incidence of LVH (p = 0.02) and greater left atrial diameter (p = 0.03) compared with the control group. In addition, greater left atrial diameter (p = 0.02) and LAV (p = 0.01) values were found in patients with LVDD grade II compared with LVDD grade I. Conclusions: The present study determined, for the first time, the correlation of left atrial enlargement with progressive RV dysfunction in patients with LVDD.


Resumo Fundamentos: A relação entre a disfunção diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo (DDVE), seus achados mais importantes, como aumento do átrio esquerdo e hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE), e a função do ventrículo direito (VD) tem pouca documentação na literatura científica. Objetivo: Avaliar a correlação entre o tamanho atrial esquerdo em indivíduos com e sem DDVE e HVE e função e dimensões do VD. Métodos: Foram selecionados 50 pacientes, sendo 25 com DDVE (grupo de estudo [GE]; 67,1 ± 10,6 anos; 40% homens) e 25 sem DDVE (grupo-controle [GC]; 49,9 ± 16,3 anos; 52% homens). Os pacientes foram submetidos a ecocardiografia transtorácica com avalição do tamanho e volume atrial esquerdo (VAE), DDVE, HVE, dimensões e função do VD. Valores de p < 0,05 indicaram significância estatística. Resultados: VAE > 34 ml/m2 e tamanho atrial esquerdo > 40 mm apresentaram menores valores absolutos de excursão sistólica do plano do anel tricúspide (TAPSE) e S' lateral do VD (p ≤ 0,001, coeficiente de correlação de Pearson de -0,4 e -0,38, respectivamente) no GE. O GE apresentou maior incidência de HVE e maior diâmetro atrial esquerdo quando comparado ao GC (p = 0,02 e p = 0,03, respectivamente). O GE apresentou maior diâmetro e VAE nos indivíduos com DDVE grau II quando comparados aos indivíduos com DDVE grau I (p = 0,02 e p = 0,01, respectivamente). Conclusões: O presente estudo permitiu correlacionar de maneira inédita o aumento atrial esquerdo com diminuição progressiva da função ventricular direita em pacientes com disfunção diastólica de VE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Organ Size , Stroke Volume , Echocardiography, Doppler , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761401

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Elevated pulmonary pressure and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are the hallmarks of pulmonary vascular disease in animal models and human patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Monocrotaline models of PAH are widely used to study the pathophysiology of PAH. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the severity of PAH rat model by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). METHODS: PAH was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by monocrotaline (M) group. The peak systolic (s'), early diastolic (e'), and late diastolic myocardial velocities (a') were measured using TDI at basal segments. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) was measured in the 4-chamber view. Velocity of a tricuspid regurgitation (TR) jet was measured to estimate the pulmonary artery pressure to assess the severity of PAH. RESULTS: Decrease in the RV shortening fraction and ejection fraction were observed in the M group compared with the control (C) group. RV e' velocity and s' velocity were significantly lower in the M group compared with the C group. The TAPSE was significantly lower in the M group compared with the C group (1.26±0.22 mm vs. 2.83±0.34 mm). The TR velocity was significantly higher in the M group compared with the C group (4.48±0.34 m/sec vs. 1.23±0.02 m/sec). CONCLUSION: TAPSE is an easily obtainable, widely recognized and clinically useful echocardiographic parameter of global RV function in the PAH rat model. We recommend that TDI would be a helpful diagnostic tool to evaluate the RV function in PAH rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Echocardiography , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Models, Animal , Monocrotaline , Pulmonary Artery , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency , Vascular Diseases , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Ventricular Function, Right
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(3): 375-381, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973762

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Although right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in pulmonary diseases has been associated with increased morbidity, tools for RV dysfunction identification are not well defined. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of RV dysfunction by means of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to investigate whether STE could be used as an index of RV improvement after a pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program. Methods: Forty-six patients with COPD undergoing PR program and 32 age-sex matched healthy subjects were enrolled. RV function was evaluated at admission and after PR program by conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) and STE. In addition, exercise tolerance of subjects was evaluated using the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Results: COPD patients had worse RV function according to STE and 2DE as well. STE was more sensitive than conventional 2DE in determining RV improvement after PR program - RV global longitudinal strain (LS): 20.4 ± 2.4% vs. 21.9 ± 2.9% p < 0.001 and RV free wall LS: 18.1 ± 3.4% vs. 22.9 ± 3.7%, p < 0.001). RV free wall LS was directly related to distance walked at baseline 6MWT (r = 0.58, p < 0.001) and to the change in the 6MWT distance (6MWTD ∆) (r = 0.41, p = 0.04). Conclusions: We conclude that STE might be as effective as 2DE for evaluation of global and regional RV functions. STE may become an important tool for assessment and follow-up of COPD patients undergoing PR program to determine the relationship between RV function and exercise tolerance.


Resumo Fundamento: Embora a disfunção do ventrículo direito (VD) nas doenças pulmonares tenha sido associada ao aumento da morbidade, as ferramentas para a identificação da disfunção do VD não estão bem definidas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a disfunção do VD por ecocardiografia speckle tracking (STE) em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC), e se a STE pode ser usada como indicador de melhora da função ventricular direita após um programa de reabilitação pulmonar (RP). Métodos: Quarenta e seis pacientes com DPOC submetidos ao programa de RP e 32 controles sadios pareados por sexo e idade foram incluídos no estudo. A função do VD foi avaliada na admissão e após o programa de RP por ecocardiografia bidimensional convencional e por STE. Além disso, a tolerância ao exercício foi avaliada pelo teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6M). Resultados: Pacientes com DPOC apresentaram pior função do VD segundo STE e ecocardiografia bidimensional convencional. Em comparação ao método convencional, a STE mostrou maior sensibilidade em determinar melhora da função ventricular direita após o programa de RP - strain longitudinal (SL) global do VD: 20,4 ± 2,4% vs. 21,9 ± 2,9% p < 0,001; SL da parede livre do VD: 18,1 ± 3,4% vs. 22,9 ± 3,7%, p < 0,001. O SL da parede livre do VD relacionou-se diretamente com a distância percorrida no TC6M basal (r = 0,58, p < 0,001) e com a variação no TC6M ∆ (TC6M) (r = 0,41, p = 0,04). Conclusões: Concluímos que a STE pode ser tão eficaz como a ecocardiografia bidimensional convencional na avaliação das funções globais e regionais do VD. Ainda, a STE pode se tornar uma importante ferramenta de avaliação e acompanhamento de pacientes com DPOC submetidos à RP para determinar a relação entre função ventricular direita e tolerância ao exercício.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Echocardiography/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/rehabilitation , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/rehabilitation , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Time Factors , Case-Control Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(3): 237-243, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954560

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APTE) is a highly prevalent condition (104-183 cases per 100,000 person-years) and is potentially fatal. Approximately 20% of patients with APTE are hypotensive, being considered at high risk of death. In such patients, immediate lung reperfusion is necessary in order to reduce right ventricular afterload and to restore hemodynamic stability. To reduce pulmonary vascular resistance in APTE and, consequently, to improve right ventricular function, lung reperfusion strategies have been developed over time and widely studied in recent years. In this review, we focus on advances in the indication and use of systemic thrombolytic agents, as well as lung reperfusion via endovascular and classical surgical approaches, in APTE.


RESUMO O tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP) agudo é uma condição altamente prevalente (104-183 por 100.000 pessoas-ano) e potencialmente fatal. Aproximadamente 20% dos pacientes com TEP agudo apresentam-se hipotensos, sendo considerados pacientes com alto risco de morte. Nesses casos, a necessidade de reperfusão pulmonar imediata é mandatória para reduzir a pós-carga do ventrículo direito e restaurar a condição hemodinâmica do paciente. Visando a redução da resistência vascular pulmonar no TEP agudo e, por consequência, a melhora na função ventricular direita, estratégias de reperfusão pulmonar foram desenvolvidas com passar do tempo e vêm sendo muito estudadas nos últimos anos. Avanços na indicação e no uso de trombolíticos sistêmicos, reperfusão pulmonar via abordagem endovascular ou abordagem cirúrgica clássica no TEP agudo são os focos desta revisão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Reperfusion/rehabilitation , Ventricular Function, Right , Hemorrhage
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