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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(5): 970-978, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248893

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A vitamina D (VD) tem um importante papel na função cardíaca. No entanto, a vitamina exerce uma curva "dose-resposta" bifásica na fisiopatologia cardiovascular e pode causar efeitos deletérios, mesmo em doses não tóxicas. A VD exerce suas funções celulares ligando-se ao seu receptor. Ainda, a expressão da proteína de interação com a tiorredoxina (TXNIP) é positivamente regulada pela VD. A TXNIP modula diferentes visa de sinalização celular que podem ser importantes para a remodelação cardíaca. Objetivos: Avaliar se a suplementação com VD leva à remodelação cardíaca, e se a TXNIP e a tiorredoxina (Trx) estão associadas com esse processo. Métodos: Duzentos e cinquenta ratos Wistar machos foram alocados em três grupos: controle (C, n=21), sem suplementação com VD; VD3 (n = 22) e VD10 (n=21), suplementados com 3,000 e 10,000 UI de VD/ kg de ração, respectivamente, por dois meses. Os grupos foram comparados por análise de variância (ANOVA) com um fator e teste post hoc de Holm-Sidak (variáveis com distribuição normal), ou pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis e análise post-hoc de Dunn. O nível de significância para todos os testes foi de 5%. Resultados: A expressão de TXNIP foi mais alta e a atividade do Trx foi mais baixa no grupo VD10. Os animais que receberam suplementação com VD apresentaram aumento de hidroperóxido lipídico e diminuição de superóxido dismutase e glutationa peroxidase. A proteína Bcl-2 foi mais baixa no grupo VD10. Observou-se uma diminuição na β-oxidação de ácidos graxos, no ciclo do ácido tricarboxílico, na cadeia transportadora de elétrons, e um aumento na via glicolítica. Conclusão: A suplementação com VD levou à remodelação cardíaca e esse processo pode ser modulado por TXNIP e Trx, e consequentemente por estresse oxidativo.


Abstract Background: Vitamin D (VD) has been shown to play an important role in cardiac function. However, this vitamin exerts a biphasic "dose response" curve in cardiovascular pathophysiology and may cause deleterious effects, even in non-toxic doses. VD exerts its cellular functions by binding to VD receptor. Additionally, it was identified that the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) expression is positively regulated by VD. TXNIP modulate different cell signaling pathways that may be important for cardiac remodeling. Objective: To evaluate whether VD supplementation lead to cardiac remodeling and if TXNIP and thioredoxin (Trx) proteins are associated with the process. Methods: A total of 250 Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: control (C, n=21), with no VD supplementation; VD3 (n = 22) and VD10 (n=21), supplemented with 3,000 and 10,000 IU of VD/ kg of chow respectively, for two months. The groups were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Holm-Sidak post hoc analysis, (variables with normal distribution), or by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's test post hoc analysis. The significance level for all tests was 5%. Results: TXNIP protein expression was higher and Trx activity was lower in VD10. The animals supplemented with VD showed increased lipid hydroperoxide and decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The protein Bcl-2 was lower in VD10. There was a decrease in fatty acid β-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transport chain with shift to increase in glycolytic pathway. Conclusion: VD supplementation led to cardiac remodeling and this process may be modulated by TXNIP and Trx proteins and consequently oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Thioredoxins/metabolism , Ventricular Remodeling , Vitamin D , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Cell Cycle Proteins , Dietary Supplements
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(6): 1127-1136, Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278317

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O suco de laranja (SL) é rico em polifenóis com propriedades anti-inflamatórias e antioxidantes. Após o infarto do miocárdio (IM), mudanças complexas ocorrem na estrutura e na função cardíacas, processo conhecido como remodelação cardíaca (RC). O estresse oxidativo e a inflamação podem modular esse processo. Nossa hipótese foi a de que o consumo de SL atenua a RC após o IM. Objetivos Avaliar a influência do SL sobre a RC após IM pela análise de variáveis funcionais, morfológicas, de estresse oxidativo, de inflação, e de metabolismo energético. Métodos Um total de 242 ratos machos pesando entre 200 e 250g foram submetidos a um procedimento cirúrgico (ligação da artéria coronária ou cirurgia simulada). Sete dia após a cirurgia, os animais sobreviventes foram divididos para um dos quatro grupos: 1) SM, animais sham que receberam água e maltodextrina (n= 20); 2) SSL, animais sham que receberam SL (n= 20); 3) IM, animais infartados que receberam água e maltodextrina (n= 40); e 4) ISL, animais infartados que receberam SL (n = 40). A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste de ANOVA com dois fatores com o teste de Holm-Sidak. Os resultados foram apresentados em média ± desvio padrão, e o nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados Três meses depois, o IM levou à hipertrofia do ventrículo esquerdo (VE), com disfunção sistólica e diastólica, e aumento nos mediadores inflamatórios e de estresse oxidativo. Os animais que consumiram SL apresentaram menor atividade da glutationa peroxidase e maior expressão da heme-oxigenase-1 (HO-1). Conclusão O SL atenuou a RC, e a HO-1 pode exercer um importante papel nesse processo.


Abstract Background Orange juice (OJ) is rich in polyphenols with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. After myocardial infarction (MI), complex changes occur in cardiac structure and function, which is known as cardiac remodeling (CR). Oxidative stress and inflammation can modulate this process. We hypothesized that the consumption of OJ attenuates the CR after MI. Objectives To evaluate the influence of OJ on CR after MI by analysis of functional, morphological, oxidative stress, inflammation, and energy metabolism variables. Methods A total of 242 male rats weighing 200-250 g were submitted to a surgical procedure (coronary artery ligation or simulated surgery). Seven days after surgery, survivors were assigned to one of the four groups 1) SM, sham animals with water and maltodextrin (n= 20); 2) SOJ, sham animals with OJ (n= 20); 3) IM, infarcted animals with water and maltodextrin (n= 40); and 4) IOJ, infarcted animals with OJ (n = 40). Statistical analysis was performed by the two-way ANOVA supplemented by Holm-Sidak. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation, the level of significance adopted was 5%. Results After 3 months, MI led to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, with systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and increased oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. OJ intake reduced LV cavity and improved systolic and diastolic function. The OJ animals presented lower activity of glutathione peroxidase and higher expression of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Conclusion OJ attenuated CR in infarcted rats and HO-1 may be play an important role in this process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Citrus sinensis , Myocardial Infarction , Systole , Ventricular Remodeling , Heart
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(4): 784-792, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285193

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico tem sido considerado uma importante terapia não farmacológica para a prevenção e tratamento das doenças cardiovasculares. No entanto, seus efeitos na remodelação cardíaca leve não são claros. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do exercício aeróbico sobre a capacidade funcional, estrutura cardíaca, função ventricular esquerda (VE) e expressão gênica das subunidades da NADPH oxidase em ratos com infarto do miocárdio pequeno (IM). Métodos: Três meses após a indução do IM, ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: Sham; IM sedentário (IM-SED); e IM exercício aeróbico (IM-EA). Os ratos se exercitaram em uma esteira três vezes por semana durante 12 semanas. Um ecocardiograma foi realizado antes e após o treinamento. O tamanho do infarto foi avaliado por histologia e a expressão gênica por RT-PCR. O nível de significância para análise estatística foi estabelecido em 5%. Resultados: Ratos com IM menor que 30% da área total do VE foram incluídos no estudo. A capacidade funcional foi maior no IM-EA do que nos ratos Sham e IM-SED. O tamanho do infarto não diferiu entre os grupos. Ratos infartados apresentaram aumento do diâmetro diastólico e sistólico do VE, diâmetro do átrio esquerdo e massa do VE, com disfunção sistólica. A espessura relativa da parede foi menor no grupo IM-SED do que nos grupos IM-EA e Sham. A expressão gênica das subunidades NADPH oxidase NOX2, NOX4, p22phox e p47phox não diferiu entre os grupos. Conclusão: Infarto do miocárdio pequeno altera a estrutura cardíaca e a função sistólica do VE. O exercício aeróbico tardio pode melhorar a capacidade funcional e a remodelação cardíaca por meio da preservação da geometria ventricular esquerda. A expressão gênica das subunidades da NADPH oxidase não está envolvida na remodelação cardíaca, nem é modulada pelo exercício aeróbico em ratos com infarto do miocárdio pequeno.


Abstract Background: Physical exercise has been considered an important non-pharmacological therapy for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, its effects on minor cardiac remodeling are not clear. Objective: To evaluate the influence of aerobic exercise on the functional capacity, cardiac structure, left ventricular (LV) function, and gene expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in rats with small-sized myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Three months after MI induction, Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Sham; sedentary MI (MI-SED); and aerobic exercised MI (MI-AE). The rats exercised on a treadmill three times a week for 12 weeks. An echocardiogram was performed before and after training. The infarction size was evaluated by histology, and gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR. The significance level for statistical analysis was set at 5%. Results: Rats with MI lower than 30% of the LV total area were included in the study. Functional capacity was higher in MI-AE than in Sham and MI-SED rats. The infarction size did not differ between groups. Infarcted rats had increased LV diastolic and systolic diameter, left atrial diameter, and LV mass, with systolic dysfunction. Relative wall thickness was lower in MI-SED than in the MI-AE and Sham groups. Gene expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits NOX2, NOX4, p22phox, and p47phox did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Small-sized MI changes cardiac structure and LV systolic function. Late aerobic exercise is able to improve functional capacity and cardiac remodeling by preserving the left ventricular geometry. NADPH oxidase subunits gene expression is not involved in cardiac remodeling or modulated by aerobic exercise in rats with small-sized MI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Ventricular Remodeling , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Exercise , Rats, Wistar , Heart
6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 878-884, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921291

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of propofol on the experimental myocardial infarction in rats. The myocardial infarction model was established by ligating the anterior descending branch of left coronary artery in rats. Model rats were treated with propofol. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. Cardiac hemodynamic changes were detected by multiconductor biorecorder. Pathological changes in the infarcted myocardia were detected by HE staining. The expression levels of cardiac hypertrophy marker genes and fibrosis marker proteins were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results showed that, compared with the sham surgery group, the model group exhibited larger infarct size (> 40%), impaired heart function, and significantly increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Propofol reduced cardiac function impairment and decreased LVEDP in the model group. Propofol significantly reduced lung weight/body weight ratio, heart weight/body weight ratio, left ventricular weight/body weight ratio and left atrial weight/body weight ratio in the model group. Furthermore, after myocardial infarction, the administration of propofol significantly improved the diastolic strain rate, down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of myocardial hypertrophy markers, atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain, and reversed the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), MMP9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) induced by myocardial infarction. These results suggest propofol can reduce adverse ventricular remodeling, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis after myocardial infarction, and has protective effect against the experimental myocardial infarction induced by coronary artery ligation in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardium , Propofol/pharmacology , Rats , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/genetics , Ventricular Remodeling
7.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 416-437, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888751

ABSTRACT

Over the last half century, surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has evolved to offer a durable and efficient valve haemodynamically, with low procedural complications that allows favourable remodelling of left ventricular (LV) structure and function. The latter has become more challenging among elderly patients, particularly following trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Precise understanding of myocardial adaptation to pressure and volume overloading and its responses to valve surgery requires comprehensive assessments from aortic valve energy loss, valvular-vascular impedance to myocardial activation, force-velocity relationship, and myocardial strain. LV hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis remains as the structural and morphological focus in this endeavour. Early intervention in asymptomatic aortic stenosis or regurgitation along with individualised management of hypertension and atrial fibrillation is likely to improve patient outcome. Physiological pacing via the His-Purkinje system for conduction abnormalities, further reduction in para-valvular aortic regurgitation along with therapy of angiotensin receptor blockade will improve patient outcome by facilitating hypertrophy regression, LV coordinate contraction, and global vascular function. TAVI leaflet thromboses require anticoagulation while impaired access to coronary ostia risks future TAVI-in-TAVI or coronary interventions. Until comparable long-term durability and the resolution of TAVI related complications become available, SAVR remains the first choice for lower risk younger patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aortic Valve/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Catheters , Humans , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Remodeling
8.
Clinics ; 76: e2732, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronary artery disease is the primary cause of death and is responsible for a high number of hospitalizations worldwide. Ventricular remodeling is associated with worse prognosis following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and is a risk factor for ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. This study aimed to identify the predictors of ventricular remodeling following STEMI. Additionally, we evaluated the clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic characteristics of patients with anterior wall STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous intervention in the acute phase and at 6 months after the infarction. METHODS: This prospective, observational, and longitudinal study included 50 patients with anterior wall STEMI who were admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) of a tertiary hospital in Brazil between July 2017 and August 2018. During the CCU stay, patients were evaluated daily and underwent echocardiogram within the first three days following STEMI. After six months, the patients underwent clinical evaluation and echocardiogram according to the local protocol. RESULTS: Differences were noted between those who developed ventricular remodeling and those who did not in the mean±standard deviation levels of creatine phosphokinase MB isoenzyme (CKMB) peak (no remodeling group: 323.7±228.2 U/L; remodeling group: 522.4±201.6 U/L; p=0.008) and the median and interquartile range of E/E' ratio (no remodeling group: 9.20 [8.50-11.25] and remodeling group: 12.60 [10.74-14.40]; p=0.004). This difference was also observed in multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: Diastolic dysfunction and CKMB peak in the acute phase of STEMI can be predictors of ventricular remodeling following STEMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Echocardiography , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Remodeling
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10138, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153533

ABSTRACT

Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) and sarcolemmal Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) structures are involved in heart cell Ca2+ homeostasis. Previous studies have shown discrepancies in their function and expression in heart failure. The goal of this study was to evaluate heart function and hypertrophied muscle Ca2+-handling protein behavior under pressure overload. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Aortic stenosis (AoS), induced by a clip placed at the beginning of the aorta, and Control (Sham). After 18 weeks, heart function and structure were evaluated by echocardiogram. Myocardial function was analyzed by isolated papillary muscle (IPM) at basal condition and Ca2+ protein functions were evaluated after post-pause contraction and blockage with cyclopiazonic acid in IPM. Ca2+-handling protein expression was studied by western blot (WB). Echocardiogram showed that AoS caused concentric hypertrophy with enhanced ejection fraction and diastolic dysfunction inferred by dilated left atrium and increased relative wall thickness. IPM study showed developed tension was the same in both groups. AoS showed increased stiffness revealed by enhanced resting tension, and changes in Ca2+ homeostasis shown by calcium elevation and SERCA2a blockage maneuvers. WB revealed decreased NCX1, SERCA2a, and phosphorylated phospholambam (PLB) on serine-16 in AoS. AoS had left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction compared to Sham; this could be related to our findings regarding calcium homeostasis behavior: deficit in NCX1, SERCA2a, and phosphorylated PLB on serine-16.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Calcium/metabolism , Ventricular Remodeling , Rats, Wistar , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Homeostasis
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(2): 184-193, ago., 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131293

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A influência de intervenções não farmacológicas como restrição calórica e exercício físico sobre a saúde e prevenção de enfermidades cardíacas tem sido documentada em estudos clínicos e experimentais. Objetivo Analisar a influência da combinação entre dieta intermitente e exercício físico sobre a capacidade funcional, metabolismo glicêmico e remodelação cardíaca. Métodos Foram utilizados 60 ratos Wistar machos distribuídos em quatro grupos: Controle (C), Exercício Físico (EF), Dieta Intermitente (DI) e Exercício Físico e Dieta Intermitente (EDI). Durante 12 semanas, enquanto C e EF foram tratados diariamente com dieta comercial padrão ad libitum, DI e EDI receberam dieta similar em dias alternados com dias de jejum. Os grupos EF e EDI foram submetidos a protocolo de corrida em esteira rolante. Posteriormente, foram analisadas capacidade funcional, comportamento nutricional e metabolismo glicêmico. Além da morfologia do coração, a expressão proteica das proteínas extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) e c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) no coração foi avaliada por Western-blot. A análise dos resultados foi feita por meio de Two-Way ANOVA e teste de Student-Newman-Keuls. O nível de significância considerado foi de 5%. Resultados O exercício físico aumentou a capacidade funcional nos grupos EF e EDI, e acarretou fibrose cardíaca. A combinação entre dieta intermitente e exercício físico resultou em menor área sob a curva de glicemia e menores medidas de área e interstício cardíaco no EDI em relação ao EF. A expressão de proteínas ERK e JNK foi similar entre os grupos (p>0,05). Conclusões Dieta intermitente se associa com melhor tolerância glicêmica e atenua o processo de remodelação cardíaca decorrente do exercício físico. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(2):184-193)


Abstract Background The effects of non-pharmacological interventions such as calorie restriction and exercise training on health and prevention of cardiovascular diseases have been investigated in clinical and experimental studies. Objective To analyze the influence of intermittent fasting and exercise training on functional fitness, glycemia and cardiac remodeling. Methods Wistar rats (n=60) were randomly divided into four groups: control, exercise training (ET), intermittent fasting (IF) and exercise training plus intermittent fasting (ETI). Over 12 weeks, control and ET animals were fed daily a standard commercial diet ad libitum , while IF and ETI animals were fed every other day. In addition, the ET and ETI groups were submitted to a running protocol on a treadmill. After this period, functional fitness, nutritional parameters and blood glucose levels were analyzed. In addition to heart morphology, myocardial protein expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was assessed by Western-blot. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. The level of significance considered was 5%. Results Exercise training increased functional fitness in the ET and ETI groups and promoted cardiac fibrosis. The combination of intermittent fasting and exercise training resulted in a smaller area under the blood glucose curve and reduced cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and interstitial collagen fraction in the ETI group compared to ET. ERK and JNK expression levels were similar among groups (p>0.05). Conclusions Intermittent fasting is associated with improved glucose tolerance and attenuates cardiac remodeling induced by exercise training (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(2):184-193)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Fasting , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Remodeling , Caloric Restriction , Myocardium
13.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(1): 24-33, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los ratones SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h que son alimentados con una dieta rica en grasas saturadas, desarrollan enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica severa, complicaciones isquémicas e insuficiencia cardíaca, con alta mortalidad. Los estudios con este modelo se han enfocado fundamentalmente en la enfermedad coronaria y menos en el remodelado cardíaco. El OBJETIVO del trabajo ha sido caracterizar el remodelado miocárdico, evaluar la evolución temporal de la función ventricular izquierda y la sobrevida asociada a enfermedad cardíaca por ateromatosis. MÉTODO: Ratones homocigotos SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h fueron alimentados por 8 semanas con dieta aterogénica o dieta normal y se comparó la sobrevida en ambos grupos. A las 4 semanas se realizó un ecocardiograma bidimensional. En los ratones eutanasiados se evaluó en la pared cardíaca fibrosis miocárdica y tamaño de los cardiomiocitos por morfometría, apoptosis con técnica de TUNEL e infiltración por células inflamatorias mononucleares (ED1) por inmunohistoquímica. RESULTADOS: En el grupo que recibió dieta aterogénica la sobrevida se redujo en 46,7% (p < 0.001), debido a muerte súbita y a falla cardíaca progresiva. En este grupo, a las 4 semanas se observó dilatación de cavidades izquierdas y disminución de la fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo en comparación con el grupo control (79,3 ± 1,3% vs 66 ± 3,7%, p<0,01). También se observó aumento de la masa cardíaca relativa de 2.1 veces (p<0,001) y del peso pulmonar relativo en 80% (p<0,001), sin cambios en las dimensiones de los cardiomiocitos. En el miocardio de los ratones que recibieron dieta aterogénica hubo un aumento de la fibrosis cardíaca de 7.9 veces (p < 0.01) y del número de cardiomiocitos apoptóticos en 55.9 veces (p < 0.01), junto a un aumento del número de células inflamatorias mononucleares ED1. CONCLUSIONES: En el modelo de falla cardíaca severa de etiología isquémica con alta mortalidad en el ratón homocigoto SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h sometido a una dieta aterogénica, con falla cardíaca izquierda por disfunción sistólica, el remodelado patológico del miocardio está dado fundamentalmente por apoptosis y fibrosis. También se observa un aumento discreto de macrófagos en la pared cardíaca. Es posible que el edema parietal también pueda ser un mecanismo de remodelado relevante en este modelo.


Abstract: SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h mice fed a high saturated fat diet develop severe coronary atheromatosis, and cardiac failure with a high mortality rate. Cardiac remodeling under these conditions has not been well studied. AIM: To evaluate the time course of left ventricular function, cardiac remodeling and survival associated to the administration of an atherogenic diet. METHOD: Homozygote SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h mice received an atherogenic diet for 8 weeks. Mice receiving a normal diet served as controls. Survival rate, myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte size, apoptosis and infiltration by inflammatory or mononuclear cells were compared between groups. A TUNEL technique was used to evaluate apoptosis. RESULTS: A 46.7% survival reduction compared to controls was observed in the experimental group (p<0.01), due to left ventricular and atrial dilatation associated to a decrease in ejection fraction (79,3 ± 1,3% vs 66 ± 3,7%, p<0,01, respectively). Also, an increased cardiac weight, 2.6 times greater was observed in the experimental group, compared to controls. Mice receiving the atherogenic diet showed an 80% increased lung weight. There was no evident change in cardiomyocytes, but there was more (7.9 times) cardiac fibrosis (p<0.01) and 55.9 times more apoptotic cells. (p<0.01), along with a greater number of inflammatory cells and ED1 mononuclear cells. CONCLUSION: Mice receiving an atherogenic diet develop heart failure and reduced survival rate. This is associated with cardiac remodeling with underlying apoptosis an ventricular wall fibrosis. It is posible that wall edema might contribute to the observed cardiac remodeling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Ventricular Remodeling , Diet, Atherogenic , Heart Failure/etiology , Hyperlipidemias/pathology , Ischemia/etiology , Fibrosis , Survival Analysis , Ventricular Function, Left , Apoptosis , Mice, Knockout , Ventricular Dysfunction , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/pathology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/mortality , Ischemia/pathology
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 59-65, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055104

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Left ventricular remodeling (LVR) is related to both non-fatal and fatal outcomes. Objective: To describe the geometric patterns of the LV and their associations. Methods: A total of 636 individuals between the ages of 45 and 99 years in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were submitted to clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram, and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). The difference between categories was tested with Kruskall-Wallis with post hoc tests, once all variables studied are non-normally distributed and Pearson's Qui-square (categorical variables). Gross and adjusted ORs were estimated by logistic regression. The level of significance was 5% for all tests. Subjects had LVR characterized as: normal geometry (NG), concentric remodeling (CR), concentric hypertrophy (CH), and eccentric hypertrophy (EH). Results: The prevalence of altered patterns was 33%. Subjects presented NG (n = 423; 67%); EH (n = 186; 29%); CH (n = 14; 2%); and CR (n = 13; 2%). The variables of gender, age, level of education and albumin/creatinine ratio (A/C), showed a relationship with the chance of EH even after adjustment. Conclusion: Approximately one third of the studied individuals had LVR and were at risk for developing heart failure. Altered A/C in urine was associated with EH, indicating an early relationship between cardiac and renal dysfunction.


Resumo Fundamento: O remodelamento ventricular esquerdo (RVE) está relacionado a desfechos não fatais e fatais. Objetivo: Descrever os padrões geométricos do VE e suas associações. Métodos: Um total de 636 indivíduos entre 45 e 99 anos no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, foi submetido a avaliação clínica, exames laboratoriais, eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma com Doppler tecidual (EDT). A diferença entre as categorias foi testada com Kruskall-Wallis com testes post hoc, uma vez que todas as variáveis estudadas não são normalmente distribuídas e o qui-quadrado de Pearson (variáveis categóricas). As ORs brutas e ajustadas foram estimadas por regressão logística. O nível de significância foi de 5% para todos os testes. Os indivíduos tinham RVE caracterizada como: geometria normal (GN), remodelamento concêntrico (RC), hipertrofia concêntrica (HC) e hipertrofia excêntrica (HE). Resultados: A prevalência de padrões alterados foi de 33%. Os sujeitos apresentaram GN (n = 423; 67%); HE (n = 186; 29%); HC (n = 14; 2%); e RC (n = 13; 2%). As variáveis sexo, idade, escolaridade e razão albumina/creatinina (A/C) mostraram relação com a chance de HE, mesmo após o ajuste. Conclusão: Aproximadamente um terço dos indivíduos estudados apresentavam RVE e corriam risco de desenvolver insuficiência cardíaca. A/C alterada na urina foi associada à HE, indicando uma relação precoce entre disfunção cardíaca e renal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Primary Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Echocardiography , Prevalence , Risk Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827479

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effect of Linggui Zhugan Decoction (LZD, ) on the ventricular remodeling (VR) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and related mRNA and proteins expression in transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway, and explain its putative mechanism.@*METHODS@#A VR model was generated by ligation of coronary artery in mice. Two weeks after surgery, 60 mice were randomly divided into the model group, the sham-operation group (distilled water), the positive control group (2.4 mg/kg simvastatin), and the low-, medium- and high-dose LZD groups (2.1, 4.2, 8.4 g crude drug/kg, respectively) by a random number table, 10 mice in each group. Mice in each group was treated for 4 weeks. Changes of hemodynamics indices and cardiac weight index were detected by the PowerLab data acquisition and analysis recording instrument. Morphology changes of myocardial tissue were observed by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining. The expressions of TGF-β, Smad2, Smad3, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 in myocardial tissue were detected by Western blotting. The mRNA expressions of TGF-β, Smad2 and Smad3 were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The expressions of matrix metalloprotein 2 (MMP2), MMP9, collagen I and collagen III were observed by immunohistochemical methods.@*RESULTS@#VR mice showed significant dysfunction in hemodynamic indices and cardiac structure and function. Compared with the shamoperation group, myocardial tissue damage, interstitial fibrosis occurred in the model mice, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular pressure maximum contraction rate (+dp/dt) and left ventricular pressure maximum relaxation rate (-dp/dt) decreased significantly (all P<0.01), while left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), cardiac weight index and left ventricular weight index elevated significantly, meanwhile TGF-β, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, Smad2, Smad3, MMP2, MMP9, collagen I, collagen III protein expressions in myocardial tissue and TGF-β, Smad2 and Smad3 mRNA expressions increased significantly (all P<0.01). Compared with the model group, LZD could significantly improve the pathological changes of myocardial tissue, increase LVSP, +dp/dtmax and -dp/dtmax, lower LVEDP, reduce the whole heart weight index and left ventricular weight index and inhibit the over-expressions of TGF-β, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, Smad2, Smad3, MMP2, MMP9, collagen I and collagen III proteins in myocardial tissue and mRNA expressions of TGF-β, Smad2 and Smad3 (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#LZD can significantly suppress VR induced by AMI, and its underlying mechanism may be associated with its inhibitory effect on the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Myocardial Infarction , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Smad Proteins , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism , Ventricular Remodeling
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and the correlation between CRT and pulmonary artery hemodynamic parameters.@*METHODS@#The patients with chronic heart failure indicator for CRT were enrolled. The left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) was measured by echocardiography and New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification was evaluated between one week before and six months after CRT. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were measured by right heart catheterization. Left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) is defined as a decrease of 15% or more in LVESV at the 6th month after CRT; Clinical response is defined as a decrease of NYHA classification at or above grade 1 at the 6th month after CRT. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was defined as mPAP≥25 mmHg. According to the response, patients were divided into 3 groups: group A (LVRR+clinical response), group B (no LVRR+clinical response) and group C (no LVRR+no clinical response). The changes of NYHA classification, echocardiographic and pulmonary hemodynamic parameters were observed in the 3 groups. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to analyze the differences in all-cause mortality, combined end-point events of death or re-hospitalization due to heart failure among different groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 45 patients with CRT implantation [aged (63.27±9.55) years, 36 males] were included. The average follow-up period was (33.76±11.50) months. Thirty-one patients (68.89%) were in group A, 9 of whom with PH. Eight patients (17.78%) were in group B, 7 of whom with PH. Six patients were in group C, all with PH. Cardiac function including NYHA classification, echocardiographic and pulmonary hemodynamic parameters had been significantly improved in group A after CRT implantation (0.05). There were no significant changes in NYHA classification, echocardiographic and pulmonary hemodynamic parameters in group C (>0.05). Compared with group C, group A and group B had lower all-cause mortality (=0.005) and lower incidence of composite endpoint events (=0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Patients with LVRR and clinical response after CRT have a good prognosis. Patients with clinical response but without LVRR have a better prognosis than those without clinical response and LVRR, which may be related to the decrease of pulmonary hemodynamic parameters such as mPAP and TPG.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Heart Failure , Therapeutics , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Artery , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Remodeling
18.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 247-252, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002222

ABSTRACT

Brazil is the worldwide leader in the long-term use of pesticides and herbicides. This compromises the health of handlers by causing harmful neurological, respiratory, and cardiovascular changes. The herbicide 2.4D has been shown to cause cardiac overload with subsequent pathological remodeling. Objective: To analyze the cardiac morphological repercussions on the left ventricle (LV) of mice submitted to nebulization by the herbicide 2.4D. Methods: Fifteen mice were divided into three groups: control group (CG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization with sodium chloride solution; low concentration group (LCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 3.71 x 10-3 grams; and high concentration group (HCG; n = 5) exposed to nebulization of the herbicide 2.4D with 9.28 x 10-3 grams for 15 minutes. The fractal dimension analysis was performed through the box-counting method. Later, the ImageJ program was used to calculate the fractal dimension of each group. To evaluate cardiac remodeling, histological slides were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE). Fifty areas of cardiomyocytes were analyzed per animal. The comparisons between groups were performed by ANOVA One-Way with Tukey's posttest (p < 0.05). Results: There was no change in fractal dimension values between the CG = 1.37 ± 0.02, LCG = 1.33 ± 0.04 and the HCG = 1.33 ± 0.07 groups. However, cardiac hypertrophy occurred in the HCG = 303.9 ± 38.80 µm(2) when compared to the CG group = 236.9 ± 61.71 µm(2) (p = 0.034). Conclusion: The herbicide 2.4D used for 72 hours did not promote cardiotoxicity when evaluated by fractal dimension. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was observed in the LV


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pesticides/adverse effects , Inhalation , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Remodeling , Herbicides/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistical Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Agrochemicals/adverse effects , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular , Models, Animal , Mice , Neurologic Manifestations
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(1): 87-90, Jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038534

ABSTRACT

Abstract Blood pressure (BP)-lowering therapy improves left ventricular (LV) parameters of hypertensive target-organ damage in stage II hypertension, but whether there is a drug-class difference in echocardiographic parameters in stage I hypertension patients is less often studied. In the PREVER treatment study, where individuals with stage I hypertension were randomized for treatment with diuretics (chlorthalidone/amiloride) or losartan, 110 participants accepted to participate in a sub-study, where two-dimensional echocardiograms were performed at baseline and after 18 months of antihypertensive treatment. As in the general study, systolic BP reduction was similar with diuretics or with losartan. Echocardiographic parameters showed small but significant changes in both treatment groups, with a favorable LV remodeling with antihypertensive treatment for 18 months when target blood pressure was achieved either with chlorthalidone/amiloride or with losartan as the initial treatment strategy. In conclusion, even in stage I hypertension, blood pressure reduction is associated with improvement in echocardiographic parameters, either with diuretics or losartan as first-drug regimens.


Resumo A terapia de redução da pressão arterial (PA) melhora os parâmetros do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) na lesão a órgãos-alvo causada pela condição hipertensiva na hipertensão de estágio II; no entanto, se existem ou não diferenças relacionadas à classe de medicamentos nos parâmetros ecocardiográficos de pacientes com hipertensão estágio I é menos frequentemente estudado. No estudo PREVER-treatment, em que indivíduos com hipertensão estágio I foram randomizados para tratamento com diuréticos (clortalidona/amilorida) ou losartana, 110 participantes aceitaram participar de um subestudo, no qual foram realizados ecocardiogramas bidimensionais basais e após 18 meses de tratamento anti-hipertensivo. Como no estudo geral, a redução da PA sistólica foi semelhante com diuréticos ou com losartana. Os parâmetros ecocardiográficos mostraram pequenas mas significativas alterações em ambos os grupos de tratamento, com um remodelamento favorável do VE com tratamento anti-hipertensivo por 18 meses, quando a pressão arterial alvo foi atingida com clortalidona/amilorida ou com losartana como estratégia inicial de tratamento. Em conclusão, mesmo na hipertensão estágio I, a redução da pressão arterial está associada à melhora nos parâmetros ecocardiográficos tanto com o uso de diuréticos ou losartana como primeiro esquema de tratamento farmacológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Losartan/therapeutic use , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Amiloride/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Echocardiography , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Losartan/pharmacology , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Diuretics/pharmacology , Amiloride/pharmacology , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology
20.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 144-149, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763291

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fimasartan/amlodipine fixed-dosed combination (F/A) on left ventricle (LV) systolic function and infarct size in the rat myocardial infarction (MI) model. We induced MI in 20 rats by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and they were divided into two groups [MI group (n=10) vs. MI+F/A 10 mg/kg group (n=10)]. F/A was administered for 28 days between day-7 and day-35 in the MI+F/A group and echocardiography was performed at day-7 and at day-35 after the induction of MI. Picrosirius red staining was performed to confirm the fibrotic tissue and infarct size was measured using image analysis program for Image J. At the 35-day follow-up, the LV ejection fraction (EF) was significantly higher (38.10±3.92% vs. 29.86±4.56%, p<0.001) and delta (day-35 minus day-7) EF was significantly higher (0.14±2.66% vs. −8.53±2.66%. p<0.001) in the MI+F/A group than the MI group. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the MI+F/A group than the MI group (103.23±13.35 mmHg vs. 123.43±14.82 mmHg, p<0.01). The MI+F/A group had a smaller infarct size (26.84±5.31% vs. 36.79±3.10%, p<0.01) than the MI group at the 35-day follow-up. Oral administration of F/A 10 mg/kg could improve LV systolic function and reduce infarct size in a rat MI model.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Animals , Blood Pressure , Calcium Channel Blockers , Coronary Vessels , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Ventricles , Ligation , Myocardial Infarction , Rats , Ventricular Remodeling
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