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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(1): 87-90, Jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038534

ABSTRACT

Abstract Blood pressure (BP)-lowering therapy improves left ventricular (LV) parameters of hypertensive target-organ damage in stage II hypertension, but whether there is a drug-class difference in echocardiographic parameters in stage I hypertension patients is less often studied. In the PREVER treatment study, where individuals with stage I hypertension were randomized for treatment with diuretics (chlorthalidone/amiloride) or losartan, 110 participants accepted to participate in a sub-study, where two-dimensional echocardiograms were performed at baseline and after 18 months of antihypertensive treatment. As in the general study, systolic BP reduction was similar with diuretics or with losartan. Echocardiographic parameters showed small but significant changes in both treatment groups, with a favorable LV remodeling with antihypertensive treatment for 18 months when target blood pressure was achieved either with chlorthalidone/amiloride or with losartan as the initial treatment strategy. In conclusion, even in stage I hypertension, blood pressure reduction is associated with improvement in echocardiographic parameters, either with diuretics or losartan as first-drug regimens.


Resumo A terapia de redução da pressão arterial (PA) melhora os parâmetros do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) na lesão a órgãos-alvo causada pela condição hipertensiva na hipertensão de estágio II; no entanto, se existem ou não diferenças relacionadas à classe de medicamentos nos parâmetros ecocardiográficos de pacientes com hipertensão estágio I é menos frequentemente estudado. No estudo PREVER-treatment, em que indivíduos com hipertensão estágio I foram randomizados para tratamento com diuréticos (clortalidona/amilorida) ou losartana, 110 participantes aceitaram participar de um subestudo, no qual foram realizados ecocardiogramas bidimensionais basais e após 18 meses de tratamento anti-hipertensivo. Como no estudo geral, a redução da PA sistólica foi semelhante com diuréticos ou com losartana. Os parâmetros ecocardiográficos mostraram pequenas mas significativas alterações em ambos os grupos de tratamento, com um remodelamento favorável do VE com tratamento anti-hipertensivo por 18 meses, quando a pressão arterial alvo foi atingida com clortalidona/amilorida ou com losartana como estratégia inicial de tratamento. Em conclusão, mesmo na hipertensão estágio I, a redução da pressão arterial está associada à melhora nos parâmetros ecocardiográficos tanto com o uso de diuréticos ou losartana como primeiro esquema de tratamento farmacológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Losartan/therapeutic use , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Amiloride/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Echocardiography , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Losartan/pharmacology , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Diuretics/pharmacology , Amiloride/pharmacology , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900807, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038127

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) on ventricular remodeling in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure. Methods Pressure overload-induced heart failure model (abdominal aortic coarctation) was established in 40 rats, which were divided into model and 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA groups. Ten rats receiving laparotomy excepting abdominal aortic coarctation were enrolled in sham-operated group. The 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA groups were treated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA, respectively, for 8 weeks. Results Compared with model group, in 20 mg/kg TIIA group the left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular fractional shortening, left ventricular systolic pressure, ±maximum left ventricular pressure rising and dropping rate, and myocardial B-cell lymphoma-2 and cleaved cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3 protein levels were increased, respectively (P<0.05), and the left ventricular end diastolic diameter, left ventricular end systolic diameter, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, heart weight index, left ventricular weight index, serum B-type brain natriuretic peptide, interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein levels and myocardial B-cell lymphoma-2 associated X protein level were decreased, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion TIIA may alleviate ventricular remodeling in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure heart by reducing inflammatory response and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Abietanes/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Ventricular Pressure , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
3.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 36(3): 209-220, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899588

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar algunos mecanismos moleculares por los cuales la activación de ROCK cardíaca post infarto del miocardio (IAM) participa en el remodelado y en deterioro de la función sistólica. Métodos: Determinación simultánea de niveles de proteínas blanco de ROCK cardíaca, de función sistólica in vivo del ventrículo izquierdo (VI) y de fibrosis e hipertrofia cardíaca en ratas con IAM en condiciones de inhibición de ROCK con fasudil. Resultados : Siete días post IAM la masa ventricular relativa aumentó significativamente en un 30% en el grupo MI y se redujo con fasudil. La disfunción sistólica VI mejoró significativamente con fasudil mientras que la activación de ROCK cardíaca se redujo a niveles del grupo control. El inhibidor de ROCK también redujo significativamente los niveles cardíacos elevados de las isoformas ROCK1 y ROCK2, de MHC-β y del colágeno miocárdico. En el grupo con IAM aumentaron significativamente los niveles de fosforilación de ERK 42 y ERK 44 (en 2 veces y en 63%, respectivamente), mientras que en el grupo IAM tratado con fasudil estos niveles fueron similares a los del grupo control. El IAM aumentó significativamente los niveles fosforilados del factor de transcripción GATA-4, que se normalizaron con el inhibidor de ROCK. Conclusiones: La disfunción sistólica post IAM se asoció fuertemente con la activación del ROCK cardíaca y con la fosforilación de proteínas río abajo de ROCK que promueven remodelado cardíaco como β-MHC y la vía ERK / GATA-4.


Abstracts: Objective: to determine some molecular mechanisms by which cardiac ROCK activation after myocardial infarction (MI) intervene in cardiac systolic function decline and remodeling. Methods: simultaneous measurement of different cardiac ROCK target proteins levels, in vivo left ventricular (LV) systolic function, myocardial fibrosis, and hypertrophy in rats with MI under ROCK inhibition with fasudil were performed. Results: seven days after MI the relative ventricular mass increased significantly by 30% in the MI groupand was reduced with fasudil. LV systolic dysfunction improved significantly with fasudil whereas at the same time cardiac ROCK activation was reduced to sham levels. The ROCK inhibitor also reduced increased cardiac levels of both ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms, β-MHC levels and myocardial collagen volume fraction decline. MI significantly increased phosphorylation levels of ERK 42 and ERK 44 by 2-fold and 63% respectively whereas in the fasudil-treated MI group these levels were similar to those in the sham group. MI significantly increased phosphorylated levels of the transcription factor GATA-4 which were normalyzed by the ROCK inhibitor. Conclusion: LV systolic dysfunction after MI was strongly associated to cardiac ROCK activation and subsequent phosphorylation of ROCK target proteins that promote ventricular remodeling, such as β-MHC and the ERK/GATA-4 pathway. ROCK inhibition with fasudil significantly improved systolic function, diminished myocardial fibrosis, and normalized β-MHC and ERK/GATA-4 phosphorylation levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine/analogs & derivatives , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , rho-Associated Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Organ Size/drug effects , Phosphorylation , Blotting, Western , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cardiomegaly/drug therapy , 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine/pharmacology , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Myocardial Infarction/enzymology
4.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 36(2): 106-115, 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899574

ABSTRACT

Previamente hemos demostrado que la eficacia de enalapril, candesartán y de fasudil -inhibidor de la vía RhoA/ROCK,- en el tratamiento del remodelado cardíaco en la hipertensión (HTA) e infarto al miocardio está mediada por aumento en los niveles circulantes del péptido vasoactivo angiotensina [Ang]-(1-9). Sin embargo, no hay información disponible si el antagonista del receptor de mineralocorticoide, espironolactona (espiro) disminuye el remodelado cardíaco aumentando los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9). El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si espironolac-tona disminuye el remodelado cardíaco aumentando los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9) en la hipertensión arterial experimental. Métodos. Estudio comparativo de 3 grupos experimentales. Se utilizaron ratas Sprague Dawley macho (150 ± 10 grs) unifrectomizadas tratadas con desoxi-corticosterona (DOCA, 60mg/Kg 2 veces sem, im) por 6 semanas. Como controles (Sham) se usaron ratas unifrectomizadas. A partir de la 3° semana las ratas DOCA con HTA> 140 mmHg fueron randomizadas a recibir vehículo o espiro (100 mg/kg día, gavage) por 3 sem. Al finalizar el tratamiento se determinó la presión arterial sistólica (PAS), masa corporal, peso del corazón (PC) y masa cardíaca relativa al largo de la tibia (MCR, mg ventrículos/LT*100). El grado de hipertrofia car-diomiocitaria se determinó midiendo el área y perímetro de los cardiomiocitos y la fibrosis por el contenido de colágeno en cortes teñidos con rojo picrosirio. Resultados (promedio ± ES): Conclusión: Espironolactona disminuye la PAS y aumenta los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9). Este aumento en los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9) se asocia con una disminución significativa de la hipertrofia y la fibrosis cardiaca hipertensiva. Este nuevo efecto de espironolactona en los niveles circulantes de Ang-(1-9), - péptido vasoactivo de la vía paralela del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona,- podría contribuir al efecto antihipertensivo y disminución del daño cardiaco en la hipertensión y remodelamiento cardiovascular y renal patológico. Estos hallazgos pueden tener relevancia terapéutica en términos que Ang-(1-9) podría disminuir el daño cardiovascular patológico.


We have previously demonstrated that the efficacy of enalapril, candesartan and fasudil,- RhoA / ROCK inhibitor-, in the treatment of cardiac remodeling in hypertension (HT) and myocardial infarction is mediated by an increase in circulating levels of the vasoactive peptide angiotensin (Ang) -(1-9). However, it is not known whether the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, spironolactone (spiro) decreases cardiac remodeling by increasing the circulating levels of Ang- (1-9). The aim of this study was to determine whether spironolactone decreases cardiac remodeling by increasing circulating levels of Ang-(1-9) in experimental hypertension. Methods. Comparative study of 3 experimental groups. Unifirectomized male Sprague Dawley rats (150 ± 10 grams) were treated with deoxycorticos-terone (DOCA, 60 mg / kg 2 times a week, im) for 6 weeks. Unifirectomized rats were used as controls (Sham). At 3rd week after surgery, DOCA rats with HTA> 140 mmHg were randomized to receive vehicle or spironolactone (Spiro, 100 mg / kg day, gavage) for 3 weeks. At the end of treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass (BM), heart weight (HW) and relative cardiac mass to the tibia length (MCR, mg ventricles / LT * 100) were determined. The degree of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was determined by measuring the area and perimeter of cardiomyocytes and fibrosis by collagen content in sections stained with picrosirius red. Results (mean ± ES): Conclusion: Spironolactone decreases systolic blood pressure and increases circulating levels of Ang-(1-9). This increase in circulating levels of Ang- (1-9) was associated with a significant decrease in hypertrophy and hypertensive cardiac fibrosis. This new effect of spironolactone on the circulating levels of Ang- (1-9) - vasoactive peptide of the parallel pathway of the re-nin-angiotensin-aldosterone system - could contribute to the antihypertensive effect and decrease of cardiac damage in HT and cardiovascular remodeling and renal disease. These findings may have therapeutic relevance supporting that Ang-(1-9) may decreases pathologic cardiovascular damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spironolactone/pharmacology , Angiotensins/drug effects , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(9): e6146, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888999

ABSTRACT

Elevated salt intake induces changes in the extracellular matrix collagen, leading to myocardial stiffness and impaired relaxation. Resistance training (RT) has been used as a remarkably successful strategy in the treatment of heart disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RT on preventing pathological adaptation of the left ventricle (LV) induced by salt overload. Male Wistar rats (10 weeks old) were distributed into four groups (n=8/group): control (CO), control+1% salt (CO+SALT), RT and RT+1% salt (RT+SALT). The RT protocol consisted of 4×12 bouts of squat training, 5/week for 8 weeks, with 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Echocardiographs were analyzed and interstitial collagen volume fraction (CVF) was determined in the LV. The 1RM tests in the RT and RT+SALT groups increased 145 and 137%, respectively, compared with the test performed before the training program. LV weight-to-body weight ratio and LV weight-to-tibia length ratio were greater in the RT and RT+SALT groups, respectively, compared with the CO group. Although there was no difference in the systolic function between groups, diastolic function decreased 25% in the CO+SALT group compared with the CO group measured by E/A wave ratio. RT partially prevented this decrease in diastolic function compared with the CO+SALT group. A 1% salt overload increased CVF more than 2.4-fold in the CO+SALT group compared with the CO group and RT prevented this increase. In conclusion, RT prevented interstitial collagen deposition in LV rats subjected to 1% NaCl and attenuated diastolic dysfunction induced by salt overload independent of alterations in blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/adverse effects , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Resistance Training , Echocardiography , Rats, Wistar , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Disease Models, Animal
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(5): 396-403, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-784172

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Under this condition, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism abnormalities, apoptosis, and hypertrophy are present. Pentoxifylline has anti‑inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic and anti-proliferative properties. Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline would attenuate cardiac remodeling induced by smoking. Methods: Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: Control (C), Pentoxifylline (PX), Tobacco Smoke (TS), and PX-TS. After two months, echocardiography, invasive blood pressure measurement, biochemical, and histological studies were performed. The groups were compared by two-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. Results: TS increased left atrium diameter and area, which was attenuated by PX. In the isolated heart study, TS lowered the positive derivate (+dp/dt), and this was attenuated by PX. The antioxidants enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in the TS group; PX recovered these activities. TS increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and decreased 3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenases (OH-DHA) and citrate synthase (CS). PX attenuated LDH, 3-OH-DHA and CS alterations in TS-PX group. TS increased IL-10, ICAM-1, and caspase-3. PX did not influence these variables. Conclusion: TS induced cardiac remodeling, associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and changed energy metabolism. PX attenuated cardiac remodeling by reducing oxidative stress and improving cardiac bioenergetics, but did not act upon cardiac cytokines and apoptosis.


Resumo Fundamento: Exposição à fumaça de cigarros é um fator significativo de risco para a remodelação cardíaca. Nesta condição, estão presentes inflamação, estresse oxidativo, anormalidades do metabolismo energético, apoptose e hipertrofia. A pentoxifilina tem propriedades anti-inflamatórias, anti-apoptóticas, anti-trombóticas e anti-proliferativas. Objetivo: O presente estudo testou a hipótese de que a pentoxifilina atenuaria a remodelação cardíaca induzida pelo fumo. Métodos: Ratos Wistar foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: Controle (C), Pentoxifilina (PX), Fumaça de Cigarro (FC), e PX-FC. Depois de dois meses, foram feitos ecocardiografia, medição de pressão arterial invasiva e estudos bioquímicos e histológicos. Os grupos foram comparados por ANOVA de duas vias com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: FC aumentou o diâmetro e a área do átrio esquerdo, o que foi atenuado pela PX. No estudo de coração isolado, FC diminuiu a derivada positiva (+dp/dt), o que foi atenuado por PX. Os antioxidantes enzima superóxido-dismutase e glutationa peroxidase foram reduzidos no grupo FC; PX recuperou essas atividades. FC aumentou o lactato desidrogenase (LDH) e reduziu as desidrogenases 3-hidroxiacil Coenzima A (OH-DHA) e citrato sintase (CS). PX atenuou alterações de LDH, 3-OH-DHA e CS no grupo PX-FC. FC aumentou IL-10, ICAM-1 e caspase-3. PX não teve influência nestas variáveis. Conclusão: FC induziu remodelação cardíaca, associada a um aumento de inflamação, estresse oxidativo, apoptose e metabolismo energético alterado. PX atenuou remodelação cardíaca, reduzindo estresse oxidativo e melhorando bioenergética cardíaca, mas não agiu nas citocinas cardíacas nem na apoptose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Ventricular Function , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(3): 190-197, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of Borage oil on cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent ligation of the left coronary artery and divided into three groups: MI (control), BO-18 (18 mg/kg of borage oil) and BO-180 (180 mg/kg of borage oil). After seven days, heart was arrested in diastole and processed for histological evaluation of: MI size, LV dilation, myocyte hypertrophy, inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis in MI region and in remote region. The relative weight of the lung was used as a marker of heart failure. The MI size was comparable among groups. RESULTS: Compared to control, BO treated groups showed lower weight of heart and lungs, reduced LV dilation and myocyte hypertrophy. Hemodynamic measurements were comparable. The treatment attenuated the inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis in remote myocardium. CONCLUSION: Borage oil attenuates progression of cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Plant Oils/pharmacology , gamma-Linolenic Acid/pharmacology , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Organ Size , Fibrosis , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Heart Failure/pathology , Lung/pathology
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(1): 18-25, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-771049

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Although the beneficial effects of resistance training (RT) on the cardiovascular system are well established, few studies have investigated the effects of the chronic growth hormone (GH) administration on cardiac remodeling during an RT program. Objective: To evaluate the effects of GH on the morphological features of cardiac remodeling and Ca2+ transport gene expression in rats submitted to RT. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 7 per group): control (CT), GH, RT and RT with GH (RTGH). The dose of GH was 0.2 IU/kg every other day for 30 days. The RT model used was the vertical jump in water (4 sets of 10 jumps, 3 bouts/wk) for 30 consecutive days. After the experimental period, the following variables were analyzed: final body weight (FBW), left ventricular weight (LVW), LVW/FBW ratio, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (CSA), collagen fraction, creatine kinase muscle-brain fraction (CK-MB) and gene expressions of SERCA2a, phospholamban (PLB) and ryanodine (RyR). Results: There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference among groups for FBW, LVW, LVW/FBW ratio, cardiomyocyte CSA, and SERCA2a, PLB and RyR gene expressions. The RT group showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in collagen fraction compared to the other groups. Additionally, the trained groups (RT and RTGH) had greater CK-MB levels compared to the untrained groups (CT and GH). Conclusion: GH may attenuate the negative effects of RT on cardiac remodeling by counteracting the increased collagen synthesis, without affecting the gene expression that regulates cardiac Ca2+ transport.


Resumo Fundamento: Apesar de os efeitos benéficos do treinamento resistido (TR) sobre o sistema cardiovascular estarem bem estabelecidos, poucos estudos têm investigado os efeitos crônicos da administração de hormônio do crescimento (GH) sobre a remodelação cardíaca durante um programa de TR. Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos do GH sobre a remodelação cardíaca em suas características morfológicas e na expressão dos genes do trânsito de Ca2+ em ratos submetidos ao TR. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 4 grupos (n = 7 por grupo): controle (CT), GH, TR e TR com GH (TRGH). A dose de GH foi de 0,2 UI/kg, a cada dois dias, por 30 dias. O modelo de TR utilizado foi o salto vertical em água (4 séries de 10 saltos, 3 vezes/semana) durante 30 dias consecutivos. Após o período experimental, as seguintes variáveis foram analisadas: peso corporal final (PCF), peso do ventrículo esquerdo (PVE), razão PVE/PCF, área seccional de cardiomiócitos (ASC), fração de colágeno, creatina quinase fração músculo-cérebro (CK-MB) e expressão gênica de SERCA2a, fosfolambam (PLB) e rianodina (RyR). Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05) entre os grupos para PCF, PVE, razão PVE/PCF, ASC, e expressão gênica de SERCA2a, PLB e RyR. O grupo TR mostrou um significativo aumento (p < 0,05) da fração de colágeno em comparação aos outros. Além disso, os grupos treinados (TR e TRGH) apresentaram maiores níveis de CK-MB em comparação aos não treinados (CT e GH). Conclusão: Esses resultados indicam que o GH pode atenuar os efeitos negativos do TR na remodelação cardíaca por contrabalançar o aumento da síntese de colágeno, sem afetar a expressão de genes que regulam o trânsito de Ca2+ cardíaco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Growth Hormone/pharmacology , Resistance Training/methods , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Body Weight , Calcium-Binding Proteins/analysis , Calcium/metabolism , Collagen/analysis , Collagen/drug effects , Creatine Kinase, BB Form/blood , Creatine Kinase, BB Form/drug effects , Gene Expression , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Organ Size , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats, Wistar , Ryanodine/analysis , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/analysis , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/drug effects , Time Factors , Ventricular Remodeling/genetics
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We evaluated the association between coding region variants of adrenergic receptor genes and therapeutic effect in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS: One hundred patients with stable CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] < 45%) were enrolled. Enrolled patients started 1.25 mg bisoprolol treatment once daily, then up-titrated to the maximally tolerable dose, at which they were treated for 1 year. RESULTS: Genotypic analysis was carried out, but the results were blinded to the investigators throughout the study period. At position 389 of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB1), the observed minor Gly allele frequency (Gly389Arg + Gly389Gly) was 0.21, and no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in the genotypic distribution of Arg389Gly (p = 0.75). Heart rate was reduced from 80.8 +/- 14.3 to 70.0 +/- 15.0 beats per minute (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in final heart rate across genotypes. However, the Arg389Arg genotype group required significantly more bisoprolol compared to the Gly389X (Gly389Arg + Gly389Gly) group (5.26 +/- 2.62 mg vs. 3.96 +/- 2.05 mg, p = 0.022). There were no significant differences in LVEF changes or remodeling between two groups. Also, changes in exercise capacity and brain natriuretic peptide level were not significant. However, interestingly, there was a two-fold higher rate of readmission (21.2% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.162) and one CHF-related death in the Arg389Arg group. CONCLUSIONS: The ADRB1 Gly389X genotype showed greater response to bisoprolol than the Arg389Arg genotype, suggesting the potential of individually tailoring beta-blocker therapy according to genotype.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Bisoprolol/adverse effects , Female , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans , Male , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Middle Aged , Pharmacogenomic Testing , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Genetic , Precision Medicine , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1/drug effects , Republic of Korea , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(8): 646-654, 08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716273

ABSTRACT

The physiological mechanisms involved in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced chronic heart failure (CHF) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated local changes in cardiac aldosterone and its synthase in rats with ISO-induced CHF, and evaluated the effects of treatment with recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 different groups. Fifty rats received subcutaneous ISO injections to induce CHF and the control group (n=10) received equal volumes of saline. After establishing the rat model, 9 CHF rats received no further treatment, rats in the low-dose group (n=8) received 22.5 μg/kg rhBNP and those in the high-dose group (n=8) received 45 μg/kg rhBNP daily for 1 month. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiographic and hemodynamic analysis. Collagen volume fraction (CVF) was determined. Plasma and myocardial aldosterone concentrations were determined using radioimmunoassay. Myocardial aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Cardiac function was significantly lower in the CHF group than in the control group (P<0.01), whereas CVF, plasma and myocardial aldosterone, and CYP11B2 transcription were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). Low and high doses of rhBNP significantly improved hemodynamics (P<0.01) and cardiac function (P<0.05) and reduced CVF, plasma and myocardial aldosterone, and CYP11B2 transcription (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the rhBNP dose groups (P>0.05). Elevated cardiac aldosterone and upregulation of aldosterone synthase expression were detected in rats with ISO-induced CHF. Administration of rhBNP improved hemodynamics and ventricular remodeling and reduced myocardial fibrosis, possibly by downregulating CYP11B2 transcription and reducing myocardial aldosterone synthesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Aldosterone/blood , /metabolism , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Myocardium/metabolism , Natriuretic Agents/therapeutic use , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/therapeutic use , Aldosterone/genetics , Cardiotonic Agents , Chronic Disease , Collagen/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Echocardiography , Fibrosis/etiology , Heart Failure/chemically induced , Heart Failure/metabolism , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Isoproterenol , Long-Term Care , Myocardium/pathology , Natriuretic Agents/administration & dosage , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(2): 187-191, 03/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-704611

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: A hipertrofia cardíaca constitui um dos componentes do remodelamento cardíaco e ocorre em resposta a aumento da atividade ou da sobrecarga funcional do coração. Objetivo: Avaliar a resposta hipertrófica da associação do hormônio tireoidiano e do exercício físico no coração de ratos. Método: Foram utilizados 37 ratos da linhagem Wistar, machos, adultos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: controle, hormônio (HT), exercício (E), hormônio tireoidiano e exercício (H + E). O grupo hormônio recebeu diariamente levotiroxina sódica por gavagem, na dose de 20 μg de hormônio tireoidiano/100 g de peso corporal; o grupo exercício realizou natação cinco vezes por semana, com peso adicional correspondente a 20% do peso corporal, durante seis semanas; no grupo H + E foram aplicados simultaneamente os tratamentos dos grupos HT e E. A estatísica utilizada foi a análise de variância complementada, quando necessário, pelo teste de Tukey e o teste de correlação de Pearson. Resultados: O T4 foi mais elevado nos grupos HT e H + E. O peso total do coração foi maior nos grupos que receberam hormônio tireoidiano, e o peso ventricular esquerdo foi maior no grupo HT. O diâmetro transversal dos cardiomiócitos aumentou nos grupos HT, E e H + E. A porcentagem de colágeno foi maior nos grupos E e H + E. A análise da correlação entre as variáveis apresentou distintas respostas. Conclusão: A associação do hormônio tireoidiano com exercício físico de elevada intensidade produziu hipertrofia cardíaca e gerou um padrão hipertrófico não correlacionado diretamente ao grau de fibrose. .


Background: Cardiac hypertrophy is a component of cardiac remodeling occurring in response to an increase of the activity or functional overload of the heart. Objective: Assess hypertrophic response of the association of thyroid hormone and exercise in the rat heart. Methods: We used 37 Wistar rats, male, adults were randomly divided into four groups: control, hormone (TH), exercise (E), thyroid hormone and exercise (H + E); the group received daily hormone levothyroxine sodium by gavage at a dose of 20 μg thyroid hormone/100g body weight, the exercise group took swimming five times a week, with additional weight corresponding to 20% of body weight for six weeks; in group H + E were applied simultaneously TH treatment groups and E. The statistics used was analysis of variance, where appropriate, by Tukey test and Pearson correlation test. Results: The T4 was greater in groups TH and H + E. The total weight of the heart was greater in patients who received thyroid hormone and left ventricular weight was greater in the TH group. The transverse diameter of cardiomyocytes increased in groups TH, E and H + E. The percentage of collagen was greater in groups E and H + E Correlation analysis between variables showed distinct responses. Conclusion: The association of thyroid hormone with high-intensity exercise produced cardiac hypertrophy, and generated a standard hypertrophy not directly correlated to the degree of fibrosis. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cardiomegaly, Exercise-Induced/drug effects , Cardiomegaly, Exercise-Induced/physiology , Heart/drug effects , Heart/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Body Weight , Models, Animal , Organ Size , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Time Factors , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was designed to evaluate the dose-effect relationship of statins in patients with ischemic congestive heart failure (CHF), since the role of statins in CHF remains unclear. METHODS: The South koreAn Pitavastatin Heart FaIluRE (SAPHIRE) study was designed to randomize patients with ischemic CHF into daily treatments of 10 mg pravastatin or 4 mg pitavastatin. RESULTS: The low density lipoprotein cholesterol level decreased by 30% in the pitavastatin group compared with 12% in the pravastatin (p < 0.05) group. Left ventricular systolic dimensions decreased significantly by 9% in the pitavastatin group and by 5% in the pravastatin group. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) improved significantly from 37% to 42% in the pitavastatin group and from 35% to 39% in the pravastatin group. Although the extent of the EF change was greater in the pitavastatin group (16% vs. 11%) than that in the pravastatin group, no significant difference was observed between the groups (p = 0.386). Exercise capacity, evaluated by the 6-min walking test, improved significantly in the pravastatin group (p < 0.001), but no change was observed in the pitavastatin group (p = 0.371). CONCLUSIONS: Very low dose/low potency pravastatin and high dose/high potency pitavastatin had a beneficial effect on cardiac reverse remodeling and improved systolic function in patients with ischemic CHF. However, only pravastatin significantly improved exercise capacity. These findings suggest that lowering cholesterol too much may not be beneficial for patients with CHF.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Down-Regulation , Dyslipidemias/blood , Exercise Tolerance/drug effects , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Pravastatin/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Quinolines/administration & dosage , Recovery of Function , Republic of Korea , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects
14.
Clinics ; 67(9): 1063-1069, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Chagas' disease has spread throughout Latin America because of the high rate of migration among these countries. Approximately 30% of Chagas' patients will develop cardiomyopathy, and 10% of these will develop severe cardiac damage leading to heart failure. Beta-blockade improves symptoms and survival in heart failure patients; however, its efficacy has not been well established in Chagas' disease. We evaluated the role of carvedilol in cardiac remodeling and mortality in a Chagas' cardiomyopathy animal model. METHODS: We studied Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 55 Syrian hamsters that were divided into three groups: control (15), infected (20), and infected + carvedilol (20). Animals underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and morphometry for collagen evaluation in ventricles stained with picrosirius red. RESULTS: The left ventricular diastolic diameter did not change between groups, although it was slightly larger in infected groups, as was left ventricular systolic diameter. Fractional shortening also did not change between groups, although it was slightly lower in infected groups. Collagen accumulation in the interstitial myocardial space was significantly higher in infected groups and was not attenuated by carvedilol. The same response was observed in the perivascular space. The survival curve showed significantly better survival in the control group compared with the infected groups; but no benefit of carvedilol was observed during the study. However, in the acute phase (up to 100 days of infection), carvedilol did reduce mortality. CONCLUSION: Carvedilol did not attenuate cardiac remodeling or mortality in this model of Chagas' cardiomyopathy. The treatment did improve survival in the acute phase of the disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/mortality , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Collagen/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Echocardiography , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Mesocricetus , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 95(3): 373-380, set. 2010. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-560552

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: O tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca (IC) conta atualmente com diversos tipos de intervenções. Dentre elas, destacam-se a terapia com betabloqueadores (BB) e o treinamento físico (TF). Contudo, os efeitos da associação dessas terapias são pouco estudados. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos do tratamento com BB, metoprolol (M) e carvedilol (C) associados ao TF na IC em camundongos. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos modelo genético de IC induzida em camundongos por hiperatividade simpática. Inicialmente, dividimos os animais com IC em: sedentários (S); treinados (T); tratados com M (138 mg/kg) (M) ou C (65 mg/kg) (C). Na segunda parte, dividimos os grupos em S; treinado e tratado com M (MT) e treinado e tratado com C (CT). O TF consistiu em treinamento aeróbico em esteira por 8 semanas. A tolerância ao esforço foi avaliada por teste progressivo máximo e a fração de encurtamento foi avaliada (FE) por ecocardiografia. O diâmetro dos cardiomiócitos e a fração de colágeno foram avaliados por meio de análise histológica. Os dados foram comparados por ANOVA de um caminho com post hoc de Duncan. O nível de significância foi considerado p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Destacando FE e remodelação cardíaca, verificamos que, isoladamente, T, M e C apresentaram melhora das variáveis. Na associação, após o período de intervenção, observamos aumento da tolerância ao esforço em MT e CT (43,0 por cento e 33,0 por cento, respectivamente). Houve também redução do diâmetro dos cardiomiócitos (10,0 por cento e 9,0 por cento, respectivamente) e da fração de colágeno (52,0 por cento e 63,0 por cento), após a intervenção. Porém, somente CT melhorou significantemente a FE. CONCLUSÃO: A associação do TF às terapias com M ou C proporcionou benefícios sobre a função e remodelação cardíaca em camundongos com IC.


BACKGROUND: Currently there are several types of interventions for the treatment of heart failure (HF). Among these are beta-blocker therapy (BB) and physical training (PT). However, the effects of the combination of these therapies are poorly studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of BB treatment with metoprolol (M) and carvedilol (C) associated with PT in mice with HF. METHODS: We used a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice. Initially, we divided the HF animals into three groups: sedentary (S); trained (T); treated with M (138 mg/kg) (M); or C (65 mg/kg) (C). In the second part, we divided the groups into three subgroups: sedentary (S); trained and treated with M (TM); and trained and treated with C (CT). The PT consisted of aerobic training on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Exercise tolerance was assessed by maximal graded test, and fractional shortening (FS) was assessed by echocardiography. Cardiomyocyte diameter and collagen volume fraction were evaluated by histological analysis. Data were compared by one way ANOVA and post hoc Duncan test. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: As to FS and cardiac remodeling, we found that, in isolation, T, M, and C showed an improvement of the variables analyzed. As to therapy combination, after the intervention period, we observed an increase in exercise tolerance in MT and CT (43.0 percent and 33.0 percent respectively). There was also a reduction in cardiomyocyte diameter (10.0 percent and 9.0 percent respectively) and in collagen volume fraction (52.0 percent and 63.0 percent) after the intervention. However, only CT significantly improved FS. CONCLUSION: The association of PT with M or C therapies provided benefits on cardiac function and remodeling in HF mice.


FUNDAMENTO: El tratamiento de la insuficiencia cardiaca (IC) cuenta actualmente con diversos tipos de intervenciones. De entre ellas podemos destacar la terapia con betabloqueantes (BB) y el entrenamiento físico (EF). Con todo, los efectos de la asociación de estas terapias son poco estudiados. OBJETIVO: Verificar los efectos del tratamiento con BB, metoprolol (M) y carvedilol (C) asociados al EF en la IC en ratones. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos modelo genético de IC inducida en ratones por hiperactividad simpática. Inicialmente, dividimos los animales con IC en: sedentarios (S); entrenados (E); tratados con M (138 mg/kg) (M) o C (65 mg/kg) (C). En la segunda parte, dividimos los grupos en S; entrenado y tratado con M (ME) y entrenado y tratado con C (CE). El EF consistió en entrenamiento aeróbico en estera por 8 semanas. La tolerancia al esfuerzo se evaluó por prueba progresivo máxima y la fracción de acortamiento se evaluó (FE) por ecocardiografía. El diámetro de los cardiomiocitos y la fracción de colágeno fueron evaluados por medio de análisis histológico. Los dados fueron comparados por ANOVA de un camino con post hoc de Duncan. El nivel de significancia se consideró como p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Destacando FE y remodelación cardíaca, verificamos que, aisladamente, E, M y C presentaron mejora de las variables. En la asociación, tras el período de intervención, observamos aumento de la tolerancia al esfuerzo en ME y CE (el 43 por ciento y el 33 por ciento, respectivamente). Hubo también reducción del diámetro de los cardiomiocitos (el 10 por ciento y el 9 por ciento, respectivamente) y de la fracción de colágeno (el 52 por ciento y el 63 por ciento), tras la intervención. Sin embargo, solamente CE mejoró significantemente la FE. CONCLUSIÓN: La asociación del EF a las terapias con M o C proporcionó beneficios sobre la función y remodelación cardíaca en ratones con IC.

Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Heart Failure/therapy , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Combined Modality Therapy , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Collagen/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Metoprolol/pharmacology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Propanolamines/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(4): 390-396, Apr. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-543578

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce blood pressure and attenuate cardiac and vascular remodeling in hypertension. However, the kinetics of remodeling after discontinuation of the long-term use of these drugs are unknown. Our objective was to investigate the temporal changes occurring in blood pressure and vascular structure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Captopril treatment was started in the pre-hypertensive state. Rats (4 weeks) were assigned to three groups: SHR-Cap (N = 51) treated with captopril (1 g/L) in drinking water from the 4th to the 14th week; SHR-C (N = 48) untreated SHR; Wistar (N = 47) control rats. Subgroups of animals were studied at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after discontinuation of captopril. Direct blood pressure was recorded in freely moving animals after femoral artery catheterism. The animals were then killed to determine left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and the aorta fixed at the same pressure measured in vivo. Captopril prevented hypertension (105 ± 3 vs 136 ± 5 mmHg), LVH (2.17 ± 0.05 vs 2.97 ± 0.14 mg/g body weight) and the increase in cross-sectional area to luminal area ratio of the aorta (0.21 ± 0.01 vs 0.26 ± 0.02 ìm²) (SHR-Cap vs SHR-C). However, these parameters increased progressively after discontinuation of captopril (22nd week: 141 ± 2 mmHg, 2.50 ± 0.06 mg/g, 0.27 ± 0.02 ìm²). Prevention of the development of hypertension in SHR by using captopril during the prehypertensive period prevents the development of cardiac and vascular remodeling. Recovery of these processes follows the kinetic of hypertension development after discontinuation of captopril.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Captopril/administration & dosage , Hypertension/drug therapy , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Wistar , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Time Factors
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 93(1): 34-38, jul. 2009. tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-528234

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: Os mecanismos envolvidos na maior remodelação causada pelo betacaroteno após o infarto são desconhecidos. OBJETIVO: Analisar o papel da lipoperoxidação na remodelação ventricular após o infarto do miocárdio, em ratos suplementados com betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram infartados e distribuídos em dois grupos: C (controle) e BC (500mg/kg/dieta). Após seis meses, foram realizados ecocardiograma e avaliação bioquímica. Utilizamos o teste t, com significância de 5 por cento. RESULTADOS: Os animais do grupo BC apresentaram maiores médias das áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p < 0,001) e sistólicas (C = 1,05 ± 0,3 mm²/g, BC = 1,61 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p < 0,001) do VE, ajustadas ao peso corporal do rato. A função sistólica do VE, avaliada pela fração de variação de área, foi menor nos animais suplementados com betacaroteno (C = 31,9 ± 9,3 por cento, BC = 23,6 ± 5,1 por cento; p = 0,006). Os animais suplementados com betacaroteno apresentaram valores maiores da relação E/A (C = 2,7 ± 2,5, BC = 5,1 ± 2,8; p = 0,036). Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os grupos em relação aos níveis cardíacos de GSH (C = 21 ± 8 nmol/mg de proteína, BC = 37 ±15 nmol/mg de proteína; p = 0,086), GSSG (C = 0,4 (0,3-0,5) nmol/g de proteína, BC = 0,8 (0,4-1,0; p = 0,19) de proteína; p = 0,246) e lipoperóxidos (C = 0,4 ± 0,2 nmol/mg de tecido, BC = 0,2 ± 0,1 nmol/mg de tecido; p = 0,086). CONCLUSÃO: A maior remodelação em animais infartados e suplementados com betacaroteno não depende da lipoperoxidação.


BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in the biggest remodeling caused by the post-infarct beta-carotene are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of lipoperoxidation in the ventricular remodeling after infarct of the myocardium in rats supplemented with beta-carotene. METHODS: Rats were infarcted and divided into two groups: C (control) and BC (500mg/kg/regimen). After six months, echocardiogram and biochemical evaluation were performed. The t test was used, with 5 percent significance. RESULTS: The animals from BC group presented highest means of the diastolic (C = 1.57 ± 0.4 mm²/g, BC = 2.09 ± 0.3 mm²/g; p < 0.001) and systolic (C = 1.05 ± 0.3 mm²/g, BC = 1.61 ± 0.3 mm²/g; p < 0.001) areas of LV, which were adapted according to the rat's body weight. The systolic function of LV, evaluated by the area variation fraction, was lower in the animals supplemented with beta-carotene (C = 31.9 ± 9.3 percent, BC = 23.6 ± 5.1 percent; p = 0.006). The animals supplemented with beta-carotene presented higher values of the E/A relation (C = 2.7 ± 2.5, BC = 5.1 ± 2.8; p = 0.036). No differences were found between the groups concerning the cardiac levels of the GSH (C = 21 ± 8 nmol/mg of protein, BC = 37 ± 15 nmol/mg of protein; p = 0.086), GSSG (C = 0.4 (0.3-0.5) nmol/g of protein, BC = 0.8 (0.4-1.0; p = 0.19) of protein; p = 0.246) and lipoperoxides (C = 0.4 ± 0.2 nmol/mg of tissue, BC = 0.2 ± 0.1 nmol/mg of tissue; p = 0.086). CONCLUSION: The highest remodeling in infarcted rats supplemented with beta-carotene does not depend on the lipoperoxidation.


FUNDAMENTO: Los mecanismos implicados en la mayor remodelación ocasionada por betacaroteno tras el infarto son desconocidos. OBJETIVO: Analizar el rol que juega la lipoperoxidación en la remodelación ventricular tras el infarto de miocardio, en ratas suplementadas con betacaroteno. MÉTODOS: Se había inducido a un infarto a las ratas y se las distribuyó en grupos: C (control) y BC (500mg/kg/dieta). Tras seis meses, se realizaron ecocardiograma y evaluación bioquímica. Utilizamos la prueba t, con significancia del 5 por ciento. RESULTADOS: Los animales del grupo BC presentaron mayores promedios de las áreas diastólicas (C = 1,57 ± 0,4 mm²/g, BC = 2,09 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p < 0,001) y sistólicas (C = 1,05 ± 0,3 mm²/g, BC = 1,61 ± 0,3 mm²/g; p < 0,001) del VI, ajustadas al peso corporal de la rata. La función sistólica del VI, evaluada por la fracción de variación de área, fue menor en los animales suplementados con betacaroteno (C = 31,9 ± 9,3 por ciento, BC = 23,6 ± 5,1 por ciento; p = 0,006). Los animales suplementados con betacaroteno presentaron valores mayores de la relación E/A (C = 2,7 ± 2,5, BC = 5,1 ± 2,8; p = 0,036). No se encontraron diferencias entre los grupos con relación a los niveles cardiacos de GSH (C = 21 ± 8 nmol/mg de proteína, BC = 37 ±15 nmol/mg de proteína; p = 0,086), GSSG (C = 0,4 (0,3-0,5) nmol/g de proteína, BC = 0,8 (0,4-1,0; p = 0,19) de proteína; p = 0,246) y lipoperóxidos (C = 0,4 ± 0,2 nmol/mg de tejido, BC = 0,2 ± 0,1 nmol/mg de tejido; p = 0,086). CONCLUSIÓN: La mayor remodelación en animales infartados y suplementados con betacaroteno no depende de la lipoperoxidación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Vitamins/pharmacology , beta Carotene/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Function/drug effects
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 92(6): 479-483, jun. 2009. tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-519969

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: O papel do sistema adrenérgico na remodelação induzida pelo tabagismo é desconhecido. OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência do propranolol na remodelação induzida pela exposição à fumaça de cigarro. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram alocados em três grupos: 1) C, n=10 - animais controle; 2) F, n=10 - animais expostos à fumaça de cigarro; 3) BB, n=10 - animais expostos à fumaça de cigarro e que receberam propranolol (40 mg/kg/dia). Após dois meses, os animais foram submetidos a estudo ecocardiográfico e morfométrico. Utilizou-se análise de variância (ANOVA) de uma via (média ± desvio padrão) ou Kruskal-Wallis (mediana e intervalo interquartil). RESULTADOS: O Grupo BB apresentou menor frequência cardíaca que o Grupo F (C = 358 ± 74 btm, F = 374 ± 53 bpm, BB = 297 ± 30; P = 0,02). O Grupo F apresentou maiores diâmetros diastólicos (C = 18,6 ± 3,4 mm/kg, F = 22,8 ± 1,8 mm/kg, BB = 21,7 ± 1,8 mm/kg; P = 0,003) e sistólicos (C = 8,6 ± 2,1 mmkg, F = 11,3 ± 1,3 mm/kg, BB = 9,9 ± 1,2 mm/kg; P = 0,004) do ventrículo esquerdo (VE), ajustado ao peso corporal (PC) e tendência de menor fração de ejeção (C = 0,90 ± 0,03, F = 0,87 ± 0,03, BB =0,90 ± 0,02; P = 0,07) que o Grupo C. O Grupo BB apresentou tendência de menor relação VE/PC que o Grupo F (C = 1,94 (1,87 - 1,97), F = 2,03 (1,9-2,1) mg/g, BB = 1,89 (1,86-1,94); P = 0,09). CONCLUSÃO: A administração de propranolol atenuou algumas variáveis da remodelação ventricular induzida pela exposição à fumaça do cigarro em ratos.


BACKGROUND: The role of the adrenergic system on ventricular remodeling induced by cigarette smoking is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of propranolol on ventricular remodeling induced by exposure to tobacco smoke. METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups: 1) C, n=10 - control group; 2) F, n=10 - animals exposed to tobacco smoke; 3) BB, n=10 - animals receiving propranolol and exposed to tobacco smoke (40 mg/kg/day). After 2 months, the animals underwent echocardiographic and morphometric analyses. One-way ANOVA (mean ± standard deviation) or the Kruskal-Wallis test (median and interquartile interval) was used. RESULTS: Group BB showed a lower heart rate than group F (C = 358 ± 74 bpm, F = 374 ± 53 bpm, BB = 297 ± 30; P = 0.02). Group F showed greater end-diastolic diameters (C = 18.6 ± 3.4 mm/kg, F = 22.8 ± 1.8 mm/kg, BB = 21.7 ± 1.8 mm/kg; P = 0.003) and left ventricular (LV) end-systolic diameters (C = 8.6 ± 2.1 mm/kg, F = 11.3 ± 1.3 mm/kg, BB = 9.9 ± 1.2 mm/kg; P = 0.004), adjusted for body weight (BW) and a tendency towards a lower ejection fraction (C = 0.90 ± 0.03, F = 0.87 ± 0.03, BB =0.90 ± 0.02; P = 0.07) than group C. Group BB showed a tendency towards a lower LV/BW ratio than group F (C = 1.94 (1.87 - 1.97), F = 2.03 (1.9-2.1) mg/g, BB = 1.89 (1.86-1.94); P = 0.09). CONCLUSION: Administration of propranolol attenuated some of the variables of ventricular remodeling induced by the exposure to tobacco smoke in rats.


FUNDAMENTO: Aún se desconoce el rol del sistema adrenérgico en la remodelación inducida por el tabaquismo. OBJETIVO: Investigar la influencia del propranolol en la remodelación inducida por la exposición al humo del cigarrillo. MÉTODOS: Se dividieron las ratas en tres grupos: 1) C, n=10 - animales control; 2) F, n=10 - animales expuestos al humo de cigarrillo; 3) BB, n=10 - animales expuestos al humo de cigarrillo y que recibieron propranolol (40 mg/kg/día). Tras dos meses, los animales fueron sometidos a estudio ecocardiográfico y morfométrico. Se empleó el análisis de varianza (ANOVA) de una vía (promedio ± desviación estándar) o Kruskal-Wallis (mediana e intervalo intercuartil). RESULTADOS: El Grupo BB presentó menor frecuencia cardiaca que el Grupo F (C = 358 ± 74 lpm, F = 374 ± 53 lpm, BB = 297 ± 30; P = 0,02). El Grupo F presentó mayores diámetros diastólicos (C = 18,6 ± 3,4 mm/kg, F = 22,8 ± 1,8 mm/kg, BB = 21,7 ± 1,8 mm/kg; P = 0,003) y sistólicos (C = 8,6 ± 2,1 mm/kg, F = 11,3 ± 1,3 mm/kg, BB = 9,9 ± 1,2 mm/kg; P = 0,004) del ventrículo izquierdo (VI), ajustado al peso corporal (PC) y tendencia de menor fracción de eyección (C = 0,90 ± 0,03, F = 0,87 ± 0,03, BB =0,90 ± 0,02; P = 0,07) que el Grupo C. El Grupo BB presentó tendencia de menor relación VI/PC que el Grupo F (C = 1,94 (1,87 - 1,97), F = 2,03 (1,9-2,1) mg/g, BB = 1,89 (1,86-1,94); P = 0,09). CONCLUSIÓN: La administración de propranolol atenuó algunas variables de la remodelación ventricular inducida por la exposición al humo del cigarrillo en ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Propranolol/pharmacology , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Models, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 89(3): 151-157, set. 2007. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-462005

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos do betacaroteno no processo de remodelação ventricular após o infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM), em ratos expostos à fumaça do cigarro. MÉTODOS: Após o IAM, os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: 1) grupo C, 24 animais que receberam dieta-padrão; 2) grupo BC, 26 animais que receberam betacaroteno; 3) grupo EFC, 26 animais que receberam dieta-padrão e foram expostos à fumaça de cigarro; e 4) grupo BC+EFC, 20 animais que receberam betacaroteno e foram expostos à fumaça de cigarro. Após seis meses, foi realizado estudo morfofuncional. Utilizou-se significância de 5 por cento. RESULTADOS: Em relação às áreas diastólicas (AD) e sistólicas (AS), os valores do grupo BC foram maiores que os do grupo C. Considerando a AD/peso corporal (PC) e AS/PC, os valores do grupo BC+EFC foram maiores que os valores de C. Em relação à fração de variação de área, foram observadas diferenças significativas entre EFC (valores menores) e C (valores maiores) e entre BC (valores menores) e C (valores maiores). Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos em relação ao tamanho do infarto. O grupo EFC apresentou valores maiores da área seccional dos miócitos (ASM) que os animais-controle. Em adição, o grupo BC+EFC apresentou maiores valores de ASM que BC, EFC e C. CONCLUSÃO: Após o infarto do miocárdio, o tabagismo e o betacaroteno promoveram intensificação do processo de remodelação cardíaca; houve potencialização dos efeitos deletérios no processo de remodelação com os dois tratamentos em conjunto.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of beta-carotene on the ventricular remodeling process following myocardial infarction (MI) in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. METHODS: After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the animals were divided into four groups: 1) Group C, 24 animals that were given standard diet; 2) Group BC, 26 animals that were given beta-carotene; 3) Group ECS, 26 animals that were given standard diet and were exposed to cigarette smoke; and 4) Group BC+ECS, 20 animals that were given beta-carotene and were exposed to cigarette smoke. After six months, a morphofunctional study was performed. We used a 5 percent significance level. RESULTS: As regards diastolic areas (DA) and systolic areas (SA), the values for the BC group were higher than those for the C group. If DA/body weight (BW) and SA/BW are considered, the values for group BC+ECS were higher than the values for group C. As regards the fractional area change, we observed significant differences between ECS (lower values) and C (higher values) and between BC (lower values) and C (higher values). Differences between groups regarding infarction size were not observed. The ECS group presented higher values for myocyte cross-section area (MCA) than control animals. Additionally, the BC+ECS group presented higher MCA values than the BC, ECS and C groups. CONCLUSION: After myocardial infarction, smoking and beta-carotene intensified the heart remodeling process; harmful effects of the remodeling process were heightened when the two treatments were used in conjunction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Smoking/adverse effects , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , beta Carotene/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Echocardiography , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology , Models, Animal , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
20.
Rev. invest. clín ; 59(2): 103-107, mar.-abr. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-632362

ABSTRACT

Background. Serum levels of aldosterone in heart failure are increased up to 20 times compared to normal subjects. After an acute myocardial infarction, aldosterone increases progressively as well as interstitial fibrosis and collagen synthesis from cardiac fibroblasts, forming a patchy heterogeneous interstitial collagen matrix that affects ventricular function. Even if angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA) can reduce aldosterone levels early during treatment, they increase again after a 12 week treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in structure and function of the left ventricle in symptomatic (NYHA I-III) diastolic heart failure patients receiving an aldosterone receptor antagonist. Methods. Twenty-eight subjects with diastolic heart failure, on BB, ACEI and/or ARA were randomized to receive spironolactone (group A) on a mean dose of 37.5 mg once a day (n =14, age 63.7 ± 21.6 years and body mass index, BMI 27.5 ± 9.4), or not (group B, n = 14, Age 64.8 ± 11.9, BMI 26.9 ± 4.7). All patients were followed-up for a mean of 13.79 ± 0.99 months. Results. Group A showed a 42.8% ischemic origin of heart failure, while in group B was 55% (p = 0.2). No other co-morbidities were significativelly different among both groups. Mean percentage of changes by echocardiogram was as follows: Interventricular septum (IVS) -12.2 ± 11% vs. 1.3 ± 15.2 (p = 0.03), pulmonary systolic artery pressure (PSAP was 0.99 ± 3.8% vs. 10.5 ± 9.1, p = 0.05). Other parameters did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusion. Aldosterone receptor antagonists reduce or avoid increasing of PSAP and inducing a favorable remodeling of the left ventricle, especially in the IVS in diastolic heart failure patients.


Antecedentes. En pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca existen aumentos de aldosterona hasta 20 veces mayores que en sujetos control. Después de un infarto miocárdico la aldosterona aumenta progresivamente, así como la fibrosis intersticial y la síntesis de colágena por fibroblastos cardiacos, provocando parches intersticiales heterogéneos en la matriz de colágena que afecta la función ventricular. El tratamiento inicial con inhibidores de enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA) y/o antagonistas de receptores de angiotensina II (ARA) puede reducir estos niveles; sin embargo, aumentan nuevamente después de 12 semanas de tratamiento. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar los cambios estructurales y funcionales en el ventrículo izquierdo en pacientes con insuficiencia diastólica tratados con ARA angiotensina (NYHAI-III). Métodos. Veintiocho pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca diastólica en tratamiento con BB, IECA y/o ARA se aleatorizaron a recibir una dosis media de 37.5 mg una vez al día de espironolactona (grupo A) (n - 14, edad 63.7 ± 0 21.6 años e índice masa corporal IMC 27.5 ± 9.4), o no (grupo B, n =14, edad 64.8 ± 11.9, IMC 26.9 ± 4.7). Todos los pacientes fueron seguidos por 13.79 ± 0.99 meses. Resultados. De los pacientes del grupo A, 42.8% y el 55 del grupo B (p = 0.2), tenían cardiopatía isquémica. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en otras comorbilidades. El porcentaje promedio de cambios en el ecocardiograma se observó en septum interventricular (SIV) -12.2 ± 11% vs. 1.3 ± 15.3% (p = 0.02), y la presión sistólica de la arteria pulmonar (PSAP, 0.99 ± 3.8% vs. 10.5 ± 9.1, p = 0.05, para los grupos A y B, respectivamente). Los otros parámetros no mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Conclusión. El tratamiento con antagonistas de receptores de aldosterona disminuye o limita aumentos de PSAP e inducen una remodelación favorable del ventrículo izquierdo, especialmente del SIV en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca diastólica.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid , Spironolactone/therapeutic use , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/administration & dosage , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Diastole , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/prevention & control , Heart Failure , Heart Septum/drug effects , Heart Septum , Organ Size/drug effects , Spironolactone/administration & dosage , Spironolactone/pharmacology
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