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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 59-65, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055104

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Left ventricular remodeling (LVR) is related to both non-fatal and fatal outcomes. Objective: To describe the geometric patterns of the LV and their associations. Methods: A total of 636 individuals between the ages of 45 and 99 years in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were submitted to clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram, and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). The difference between categories was tested with Kruskall-Wallis with post hoc tests, once all variables studied are non-normally distributed and Pearson's Qui-square (categorical variables). Gross and adjusted ORs were estimated by logistic regression. The level of significance was 5% for all tests. Subjects had LVR characterized as: normal geometry (NG), concentric remodeling (CR), concentric hypertrophy (CH), and eccentric hypertrophy (EH). Results: The prevalence of altered patterns was 33%. Subjects presented NG (n = 423; 67%); EH (n = 186; 29%); CH (n = 14; 2%); and CR (n = 13; 2%). The variables of gender, age, level of education and albumin/creatinine ratio (A/C), showed a relationship with the chance of EH even after adjustment. Conclusion: Approximately one third of the studied individuals had LVR and were at risk for developing heart failure. Altered A/C in urine was associated with EH, indicating an early relationship between cardiac and renal dysfunction.


Resumo Fundamento: O remodelamento ventricular esquerdo (RVE) está relacionado a desfechos não fatais e fatais. Objetivo: Descrever os padrões geométricos do VE e suas associações. Métodos: Um total de 636 indivíduos entre 45 e 99 anos no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, foi submetido a avaliação clínica, exames laboratoriais, eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma com Doppler tecidual (EDT). A diferença entre as categorias foi testada com Kruskall-Wallis com testes post hoc, uma vez que todas as variáveis estudadas não são normalmente distribuídas e o qui-quadrado de Pearson (variáveis categóricas). As ORs brutas e ajustadas foram estimadas por regressão logística. O nível de significância foi de 5% para todos os testes. Os indivíduos tinham RVE caracterizada como: geometria normal (GN), remodelamento concêntrico (RC), hipertrofia concêntrica (HC) e hipertrofia excêntrica (HE). Resultados: A prevalência de padrões alterados foi de 33%. Os sujeitos apresentaram GN (n = 423; 67%); HE (n = 186; 29%); HC (n = 14; 2%); e RC (n = 13; 2%). As variáveis sexo, idade, escolaridade e razão albumina/creatinina (A/C) mostraram relação com a chance de HE, mesmo após o ajuste. Conclusão: Aproximadamente um terço dos indivíduos estudados apresentavam RVE e corriam risco de desenvolver insuficiência cardíaca. A/C alterada na urina foi associada à HE, indicando uma relação precoce entre disfunção cardíaca e renal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Primary Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Echocardiography , Prevalence , Risk Factors
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(3): 400-409, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973754

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Caloric restriction is known to impair the cardiac function and morphology in hypertrophied hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); however, the influence of fasting/refeeding (RF) is unknown. Objective: To investigate the fasting/refeeding approach on myocardial remodeling and function. In addition, the current study was designed to bring information regarding the mechanisms underlying the participation of Ca2+ handling and b-adrenergic system. Methods: Sixty-day-old male SHR rats were submitted to food ad libitum (C), 50% food restriction (R50) or RF cycles for 90 days. Cardiac remodeling was assessed by ultrastructure analysis and isolated papillary muscle function. The level of significance considered was 5% (a = 0.05). Results: The RF rats presented lower cardiac atrophy than R50 in relation to C rats. The C rats increased weight gain, R50 maintained their initial body weight and RF rats increased and decreased weight during RF. The RF did not cause functional impairment because the isotonic and isometric parameters showed similar behavior to those of C. The isotonic and isometric cardiac parameters were significantly elevated in RF rats compared to R50 rats. In addition, the R50 rats had cardiac damage in relation to C for isotonic and isometric variables. While the R50 rats showed focal changes in many muscle fibers, the RF rats displayed mild alterations, such as loss or disorganization of myofibrils. Conclusion: Fasting/refeeding promotes cardiac beneficial effects and attenuates myocardial injury caused by caloric restriction in SHR rats, contributing to reduce the cardiovascular risk profile and morphological injuries. Furthermore, RF promotes mild improvement in Ca2+ handling and b-adrenergic system.


Resumo Fundamento: A restrição calórica compromete a função e a morfologia cardíacas em corações hipertrofiados de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR). No entanto, a influência de ciclo de jejum/Realimentação é desconhecida. Objetivo: Investigar o efeito de ciclos de jejum/realimentação sobre a remodelação e função miocárdica. Além disso, o presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar os mecanismos subjacentes à participação do trânsito de cálcio (Ca+2) e sistema beta-adrenérgico. Métodos: Neste estudo, SHR machos de 60 dias de idade foram submetidos a alimento ad libitum (grupo C), 50% de restrição alimentar (grupo R50) ou ciclos de RF (grupo RF) por 90 dias. A remodelação cardíaca foi avaliada por meio da análise ultraestrutural e função do músculo papilar isolado. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5% (a = 0,05). Resultados: Os ratos do grupo RF apresentaram menor atrofia cardíaca do que os do grupo R50 em relação aos do grupo C. Os ratos do grupo C aumentaram peso corporal, os ratos do grupo R50 mantiveram seu peso corporal inicial e os ratos do grupo RF aumentaram e reduziram seu peso durante o ciclo RF. O ciclo RF não causou comprometimento funcional, pois os parâmetros isotônicos e isométricos apresentaram comportamento similar aos dos ratos do grupo C. Os parâmetros cardíacos isotônicos e isométricos mostraram-se significativamente elevados nos ratos do grupo RF em comparação aos dos ratos do grupo R50. Além disso, os ratos do grupo R50 apresentaram dano cardíaco em comparação aos ratos do grupo C quanto às variáveis isotônicas e isométricas. Os ratos do grupo R50 apresentaram alterações focais em muitas fibras musculares, enquanto os ratos do grupo RF apresentaram leves alterações, como perda ou desorganização de miofibrilas. Conclusão: Ciclos de Jejum/Realimentação promovem efeitos benéficos cardíacos e atenuam o dano miocárdico causado por restrição calórica em SHR, contribuindo para reduzir o risco cardiovascular e os danos morfológicos. Além disso, o ciclo de jejum/realimentação promove leve melhora do trânsito do Ca2+ e do sistema beta-adrenérgico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Papillary Muscles/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Fasting/physiology , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Cardiomyopathies/prevention & control , Papillary Muscles/pathology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Time Factors , Body Weight/physiology , Calcium/analysis , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Caloric Restriction/adverse effects , Isoproterenol/analysis , Isoproterenol/metabolism , Myocardial Contraction , Cardiomyopathies/pathology
3.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 37(2): 93-103, ago. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959346

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El ejercicio físico reduce la mortalidad cardiovascular y genera remodelado cardíaco. Altas cargas de entrenamiento pueden generar remodelado cardíaco adverso. Biomarcadores (BMC) de inflamación Interleukina 6 (IL-6) y de estrés oxidativo Malondialdehído (MDA), potencialmente pueden caracterizar la respuesta al esfuerzo. Objetivo: Evaluar actividad de IL-6 y MDA en respuesta a una maratón en atletas con distinto nivel de entrenamiento y remodelado cardíaco asociado. Sujetos y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, simple ciego, incluyó 16 atletas que completaron la maratón de Santiago (42 k), separados según entrenamiento previo, grupo 1 (G1, n: 8): Alto ≥ 100 km/semana y grupo 2 (G2, n: 8): Bajo <100 km/semana). Se obtuvo pre y post maratón: niveles de IL-6, MDA y ecocardiografía Doppler transtorácica (ETT); cuantificando cámaras cardíacas izquierdas, derechas y deformación del ventrículo izquierdo (strain longitudinal). Se utilizaron las pruebas de Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon y Kruskal-Wallis. Resultados: Edad G1: 38.13±7.18 años vs G2: 40.38±6.63 años (NS). Tiempo maratón G1: 185.75±14.87 min vs G2: 219.75±24.92 min (p<0.01). Masa del ventrículo izquierdo G1: 91±21 g/m2 vs G2: 73±12 g/m2 (p<0.01). Volumen aurícula izquierda G1: 39.4±12.6 ml/m2 vs 30.6±4.6 ml/m2 (p<0.01). FEVI G1: 55.8±3.3% vs G2: 58.6±6.7% (NS). MDA G1: PRE 0.17±0.13 uM/L, POST 0.67±0.59 uM/L, G2: PRE 0.29±0.24 uM/L, POST 1.01±1.15 uM/L (p<0.01). IL-6 G1: PRE 2.50±1.35 pg/ml, POST 93.91±27.23 pg/ml vs G2: PRE 4.65±5.89 pg/ml, POST 97.83±30.72 pg/ml (NS). Conclusión: El ejercicio físico aumenta los BMC de inflamación y estés oxidativo (IL-6, MDA). Un entrenamiento físico de alta intensidad disminuye la respuesta de estrés oxidativo y se asocia a un mayor remodelado cardíaco.


Abstract: Background: Exercise reduces cardiovascular mortality and generates cardiac remodeling. High training loads can induce adverse cardiac remodeling, and its associated cardiac remodeling. Therefore, interleukin 6 (IL 6) and malondialdehyde (MDA), biomarkers of inflammatory response and oxidative stress respectively, may have a role in stratifying this risk. Objective: To assess the activity of IL-6 and MDA in response to a marathon race in athletes with different previous training status. Subjects And Methods: Prospective, single-blind study involving 16 male athletes that finished the Santiago Marathon (42 k), allocated into two groups according to their previous training: Group 1 (G1, n: 8) with high training (≥ 100 km/weekly) and Group 2 (G2, n: 8) with low training (< 100 km/weekly). Before and after the race serum levels of IL-6, MDA and transthoracic Doppler echocardiography for cardiac chamber quantification and left ventricle deformation (longitudinal strain) were measured. Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess statistical significance. Results: Age G1: 38.13±7.18 years-old vs G2: 40.38±6.63 years-old (NS). Marathon finishing time G1: 185.75±14.87 min vs G2: 219.75±24.92 min (p<0.01). Left ventricle mass G1: 91±21 g/m2 vs G2: 73±12 g/m2 (p<0.01). Left atrium volume G1: 39.4±12.6 ml/m2 vs 30.6±4.6 ml/m2 (p<0.01). LVEF G1: 55.8±3.3% vs G2: 58.6±6.7% (NS). MDA G1: PRE 0.17±0.13 uM/L, POST 0.67±0.59 uM/L, G2: PRE 0.29±0.24 uM/L, POST 1.01±1.15 uM/L (p<0.01). IL-6 G1: PRE 2.50±1.35 pg/ml, POST 93.91±27.23 vs G2: PRE 4.65±5.89 pg/ml, POST 97.83±30.72 pg/ml (NS). Conclusion: Physical exercise generates a rise in biomarkers (IL-6, MDA). Athletes with high-intensity training level have a diminished oxidative stress response post effort and greater cardiac remodeling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Echocardiography , Biomarkers , Single-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Athletes , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(5): 427-434, May 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896338

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: The idea that different sports and physical training type results in different cardiac adaptations has been widely accepted. However, this remodelling process among different sport modalities is still not fully understood. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the heart morphology variation associated with a set of different modalities characterized by distinct models of preparation and different methods and demands of training and completion. Method: The sample comprises 42 basketball players, 73 roller hockey players, 28 judo athletes and 21 swimmers. Anthropometry was assessed by a single and experienced anthropometrist and the same technician performed the echocardiographic exams. Analysis of variance was used to study age, body size and echocardiograph parameters as well as different sport athlete's comparison. Results: Basketball players are taller (F=23.448; p<0.001; ES-r=0.553), heavier (F=6.702; p<0.001; ES-r=0.334) and have a greater body surface area (F=11.896; p<0.001; ES-r=0.427). Basketball and hockey players have larger left auricle diameters compared with judo athletes (F=3.865; p=0.011; ES-r=0.316). Interventricular end-diastolic septal thickness (F=7.287; p<0.001; ES-r=0.347) and left ventricular posterior wall thickness (F=8.038; p<0.001; ES-r=0.362) of the judokas are smaller compared to the mean values of other sports participants. In addition, relative left parietal ventricular wall thickness is lower among swimmers compared with judokas (F=4.127; p=0.008; ES-r=0.268). Conclusion: The major contributors to changes in heart morphology are for the most part associated with sport-specific training and competition and the specific dynamics and adaptive mechanisms imposed by each sport.


Resumo Objetivo: Os efeitos decorrentes da prática de diferentes modalidades desportivas resultam em padrões divergentes de adaptação cardíaca. A presente pesquisa procura estudar a variação da morfologia do coração associada a um conjunto de modalidades desportivas distintas quanto à natureza do esforço e aos modelos de preparação, incluindo metodologias de treino e sistemas de competição. Método: Foram estudados 42 basquetebolistas, 73 hoquistas, 28 judocas e 21 nadadores. A antropometria foi avaliada por um único e experiente antropometrista e os exames ecocardiográficos foram realizados pelo mesmo operador. Recorreu-se à análise da variância para estudar a variação associada a idade, medidas de tamanho corporal e parâmetros ecocardiográficos, bem como para a comparação entre os atletas de diferentes modalidades desportivas. Resultados: Os basquetebolistas são os atletas mais altos (F=23,448; p<0,001; ES-r=0,553), mais pesados (F=6,702; p<0,001; ES-r=0,334), com maior superfície corporal (F=11,896; p<0,001; ES-r=0,427) e, com os hoquistas, apresentam um diâmetro da aurícula esquerda superior ao dos judocas (F=3,865; p=0,011; ES-r=0,316). A espessura telediastólica do septo interventricular (F=7,287; p<0,001; ES-r=0,347) e da parede posterior do ventrículo esquerdo (F=8,038; p<0,001; ES-r=0,362) dos judocas é inferior à dos outros atletas, mesmo quando controlado para o tamanho corporal. Os nadadores apresentam uma espessura parietal relativa do ventrículo esquerdo superior à dos judocas (F=4,127; p=0,008; ES-r=0,268). Conclusão: As diferentes fontes de variação da morfologia cardíaca prendem-se com as dinâmicas do processo de treino, competição e correspondentemente com os mecanismos adaptativos, sobrepondo-se ao processo de formação desportiva a longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Swimming/physiology , Basketball/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Martial Arts/physiology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Athletes , Hockey/physiology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Body Surface Area , Algorithms , Echocardiography/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors , Body Size/physiology , Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(4): 331-338, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838717

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Hypertension is a chronic, low-grade inflammation process associated with the release of cytokines and development of target organ damage. Deregulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels have been associated with high blood pressure and cardiovascular complications; however, the mechanisms involved are complex and not fully understood. Objective: This study aimed to compare the levels of MCP-1 in patients with resistant (RH) versus mild-to-moderate (HTN) hypertension and their association with the presence or absence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in all hypertensive subjects. Methods: We enrolled 256 hypertensive subjects: 120 RH and 136 HTN, investigating the relationship between circulating MCP-1 levels and blood pressure, biochemical data, hematologic profile, and cardiac damage within the RH and HTN groups. Plasma MCP-1 levels were measured by ELISA and LVH was assessed by echocardiography. Results: We found no difference in MCP-1 levels between RH and HTN subjects. On the other hand, we encountered lower MCP-1 levels in patients with LVH (105 pg/mL [100 - 260 pg/mL] versus 136 pg/mL (100 - 200 pg/mL), p = 0.005, respectively] compared with those without LVH. A logistic regression model adjusted for body mass index (BMI), age, race, aldosterone levels, and presence of diabetes and RH demonstrated that median levels of MCP-1 (2.55 pg/mL [1.22 - 5.2 pg/mL], p = 0.01) were independently associated with LVH in the entire hypertensive population. Conclusion: Since MCP-1 levels were similar in both RH and HTN subjects and decreased in hypertensive patients with existing LVH, our study suggests a possible downregulation in MCP-1 levels in hypertensive individuals with LVH, regardless of hypertension strata.


Resumo Fundamentos: A hipertensão arterial é um processo crônico de baixo grau inflamatório, associado com liberação de citocinas e desenvolvimento de lesão em órgãos-alvo. A desregulação dos níveis de proteína quimiotática de monócitos-1 (MCP-1) tem sido associada com elevação da pressão arterial e complicações cardiovasculares; porém, os mecanismos envolvidos são complexos e ainda não foram inteiramente elucidados. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os níveis de MCP-1 em pacientes com hipertensão resistente (HR) versus pacientes com hipertensão de grau leve a moderado (HAS) e sua associação com a presença ou ausência de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE) em todos os indivíduos hipertensos. Métodos: Foram incluídos 256 indivíduos hipertensos: 120 com HR e 136 com HAS. Foi investigada a relação entre os níveis circulantes de MCP-1 e pressão arterial, dados bioquímicos, perfil hematológico e dano cardíaco nos grupos HR e HAS. Os níveis plasmáticos de MCP-1 foram medidos por ELISA e a HVE foi avaliada por ecocardiografia. Resultados: Não encontramos diferença nos níveis de MCP-1 entre indivíduos com HR e HAS. Por outro lado, encontramos níveis mais baixos de MCP-1 em pacientes com HVE (105 pg/mL [100 - 260 pg/mL] versus 136 pg/mL [100 - 200 pg/mL], respectivamente, p = 0,005] em comparação a pacientes sem HVE. Um modelo de regressão logística ajustado para o índice de massa corporal (IMC), idade, raça, níveis de aldosterona e presença de diabetes e HR mostrou que os níveis medianos de MCP-1 (2,55 pg/mL [1,22 - 5,2 pg/mL], p = 0,01) estiveram independentemente associados com HVE em toda a população de hipertensos. Conclusão: Como os níveis de MCP-1 foram semelhantes em indivíduos tanto com HR quanto HAS e estiveram diminuídos em pacientes hipertensos com HVE, nosso estudo sugere uma possível redução nos níveis de MCP-1 em indivíduos hipertensos com HVE, independe do grau da hipertensão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology , Chemokine CCL2/analysis , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5854, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839272

ABSTRACT

Functional food intake has been highlighted as a strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by reducing risk factors. In this study, we compared the effects of oral treatment with soy milk and simvastatin on dyslipidemia, left ventricle remodeling and atherosclerotic lesion of LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr-/-) fed a hyperlipidic diet. Forty 3-month old male LDLr-/- mice were distributed into four groups: control group (C), in which animals received standard diet; HL group, in which animals were fed a hyperlipidic diet; HL+SM or HL+S groups, in which animals were submitted to a hyperlipidic diet plus soy milk or simvastatin, respectively. After 60 days, both soy milk and simvastatin treatment prevented dyslipidemia, atherosclerotic lesion progression and left ventricle hypertrophy in LDLr-/- mice. These beneficial effects of soy milk and simvastatin were associated with reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory state in the heart and aorta caused by the hyperlipidic diet. Treatment with soy milk was more effective in preventing HDLc reduction and triacylglycerol and VLDLc increase. On the other hand, simvastatin was more effective in preventing an increase in total cholesterol, LDLc and superoxide production in aorta, as well as CD40L both in aorta and left ventricle of LDLr-/-. In conclusion, our results suggest a cardioprotective effect of soy milk in LDLr-/- mice comparable to the well-known effects of simvastatin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Diet , Receptors, LDL/blood , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Soy Milk/administration & dosage , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Mice, Knockout
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(5): e5742, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839290

ABSTRACT

Cardiac remodeling is defined as changes in shape and function of the heart in response to aggression (pressure overload). The sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase cardiac isoform 2a (SERCA2a) is a known factor that influences function. A wide spectrum of studies report a decrease in SERCA2a in heart failure, but none evaluate it's the role in early isolated diastolic dysfunction in supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS). Our hypothesis was that SERCA2a participates in such dysfunction. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats (60-80 g) were divided into AoS and Sham groups, which were submitted to surgery with or without aorta clipping, respectively. After 6 weeks, the animals were submitted to echocardiogram and functional analysis by isolated papillary muscle (IPM) in basal condition, hypoxia, and SERCA2a blockage with cyclopiazonic acid at calcium concentrations of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mM. Western-blot analyses were used for SERCA2a and phospholamban detection. Data analysis was carried out with Student's t-test and ANOVA. AoS enhanced left atrium and E and A wave ratio, with preserved ejection fraction. Basal condition in IPM showed similar increases in developed tension (DT) and resting tension (RT) in AoS, and hypoxia was similar between groups. After cyclopiazonic acid blockage, final DT was equally decreased and RT was similar between groups, but the speed of relaxation was decreased in the AoS group. Western-blot was uniform in all evaluations. The hypothesis was confirmed, since functional parameters regarding SERCA2a were changed in the AoS group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Aortic Stenosis, Supravalvular/complications , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Aortic Stenosis, Supravalvular/metabolism , Calcium-Binding Proteins/analysis , Collagen/analysis , Diastole/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Echocardiography , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Indoles , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/analysis , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Time Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/metabolism , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
8.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 36(2): 97-105, 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899573

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La estenosis aórtica es frecuente en países desarrollados, cuando es severa (EAS) y sintomática se recomienda reemplazo valvular. Su diagnóstico ecocardiográfico se realiza con cualquiera de; área valvular aórtica (AVA) <1.0 cm², gradiente medio (GM) >40 mmHg, velocidad máxima >4 m/s. Habitualmente existe concordancia entre estos criterios, pero diversas razones generan discordancia hasta en un 40%, principalmente entre área y gradiente (DAG), causando incertidumbre diagnóstica en presencia de fracción de eyección preservada del ventrículo izquierdo (FEp) (FEVI >50%). Objetivos: Caracterizar pacientes con EAS en la red UC. Establecer prevalencia y factores asociados a DAG en pacientes con EAS y FEp. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal, incluyó todos los pacientes con AVA<1.0 cm2 durante 17.5 años en la red UC. Se registraron variables biodemográficas y eco-cardiográficas. Los pacientes con EAS y FEp se subdivi-dieron en 2 grupos según GM, bajo (<40 mmHg) y alto (>40mmHg), se utilizó t-student y Chi cuadrado. Resultados: 1281 pacientes cumplieron criterio de AVA<1.0 cm2. Edad 71.8±13 años, mujeres 51.4%, hombres el 48.6%. FEVI 68.71 ± 14.62%, FEp 89,2%, Características grupo GM Bajo: Edad 81.66 ± 6.56 años, Mujeres 56.3%, fibrilación auricular (FA) 14.1%. Grupo GM Alto. 68.08 ± 13.21 años, mujeres 47.6%, FA 8%. Presencia de DAG 42.5%. Factores asociados a bajo gradiente con FEp fueron: edad avanzada (>70 años), mujer y fibrilación auricular. Conclusiones: La EAS en nuestro medio se observa en personas mayores con FEp. La presencia de DAG es frecuente y el principal factor asociado en presencia de FEp es la FA.


Introduction: Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most prevalent valvular heart disease in developed countries. Symptomatic severe AS requires surgical intervention, and its echocardiographic criteria encompass: Aortic valve area (AVA) < 1.0 cm2, aortic mean gradient (MG) > 40 mmHg, peak aortic jet velocity > 4 m/s. Usually there is agreement among these criteria, but several reasons can cause up to 40% discordant results, mainly between AVA an MG, casting doubt about severity in the setting of preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (pLVEF). Objectives: Characterize patients with severe AS. Assess prevalence and factors related to AG discordance (AGD) in patients with pLVEF. Methods: Cross-sectional study, that included all patients with an AVA <1.0 cm2 during the last 17.5 years in UC health network. Bio-demographic and echocardiographic variables were registered. Patients with severe AS and pLVEF where allocated in 2 subgroups according to the MG as low (<40 mmHg) and high (>40 mmHg), 2 sides t-student and chi-squared test were performed. Results: 1281 patients fulfill criteria of AVA<1.0 cm2. Age 71.8±13 years, women 51.4%, male 48.6%, LVEF 68.71 ± 14.62%. pLVEF 89.2%. Low MG group: Age 81.66 ± 6.56 y, women 56.3%, atrial fibrillation (AF) 14.1%. High MG group: Age 68.08 ± 13.21 y, women 47.6%, AF 8%. AGD prevalence was 42.5%. Factors related to low MG with pLVEF were; advance age (>70 y), women and AF. Conclusions: Severe AS occurs mainly in advance age patients with pLVEF. AGD is frequent and the foremost related factor is AF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aortic Valve Stenosis/physiopathology , Stroke Volume/physiology , Aortic Valve Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography, Doppler , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Sex Distribution , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(9): e6146, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888999

ABSTRACT

Elevated salt intake induces changes in the extracellular matrix collagen, leading to myocardial stiffness and impaired relaxation. Resistance training (RT) has been used as a remarkably successful strategy in the treatment of heart disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RT on preventing pathological adaptation of the left ventricle (LV) induced by salt overload. Male Wistar rats (10 weeks old) were distributed into four groups (n=8/group): control (CO), control+1% salt (CO+SALT), RT and RT+1% salt (RT+SALT). The RT protocol consisted of 4×12 bouts of squat training, 5/week for 8 weeks, with 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Echocardiographs were analyzed and interstitial collagen volume fraction (CVF) was determined in the LV. The 1RM tests in the RT and RT+SALT groups increased 145 and 137%, respectively, compared with the test performed before the training program. LV weight-to-body weight ratio and LV weight-to-tibia length ratio were greater in the RT and RT+SALT groups, respectively, compared with the CO group. Although there was no difference in the systolic function between groups, diastolic function decreased 25% in the CO+SALT group compared with the CO group measured by E/A wave ratio. RT partially prevented this decrease in diastolic function compared with the CO+SALT group. A 1% salt overload increased CVF more than 2.4-fold in the CO+SALT group compared with the CO group and RT prevented this increase. In conclusion, RT prevented interstitial collagen deposition in LV rats subjected to 1% NaCl and attenuated diastolic dysfunction induced by salt overload independent of alterations in blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/adverse effects , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Resistance Training , Echocardiography , Rats, Wistar , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Disease Models, Animal
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(4): 311-318, Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780793

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Numerous studies show the benefits of exercise training after myocardial infarction (MI). Nevertheless, the effects on function and remodeling are still controversial. Objectives: To evaluate, in patients after (MI), the effects of aerobic exercise of moderate intensity on ventricular remodeling by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods: 26 male patients, 52.9 ± 7.9 years, after a first MI, were assigned to groups: trained group (TG), 18; and control group (CG), 8. The TG performed supervised aerobic exercise on treadmill twice a week, and unsupervised sessions on 2 additional days per week, for at least 3 months. Laboratory tests, anthropometric measurements, resting heart rate (HR), exercise test, and CMR were conducted at baseline and follow-up. Results: The TG showed a 10.8% reduction in fasting blood glucose (p = 0.01), and a 7.3-bpm reduction in resting HR in both sitting and supine positions (p < 0.0001). There was an increase in oxygen uptake only in the TG (35.4 ± 8.1 to 49.1 ± 9.6 mL/kg/min, p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant decrease in the TG left ventricular mass (LVmass) (128.7 ± 38.9 to 117.2 ± 27.2 g, p = 0.0032). There were no statistically significant changes in the values of left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and ejection fraction in the groups. The LVmass/EDV ratio demonstrated a statistically significant positive remodeling in the TG (p = 0.015). Conclusions: Aerobic exercise of moderate intensity improved physical capacity and other cardiovascular variables. A positive remodeling was identified in the TG, where a left ventricular diastolic dimension increase was associated with LVmass reduction.


Resumo Fundamento: Vários estudos mostraram os benefícios da prática de exercício após infarto do miocárdio (IM). No entanto, os efeitos na função e no remodelamento são controversos. Objetivos: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício aeróbio de intensidade moderada no remodelamento ventricular em pacientes após IM através de ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC). Métodos: 26 pacientes do sexo masculino (52,9 ± 7,9 anos), após um primeiro IM, foram designados para dois grupos: grupo treinado (GT), 18; e grupo controle (GC), 8. O GT realizou exercício aeróbio supervisionado em esteira duas vezes por semana, e não supervisionado em 2 dias adicionais por semana, por no mínimo 3 meses. Exames laboratoriais, medidas antropométricas, frequência cardíaca (FC) de repouso, teste de esforço e RMC foram realizados na condição basal e no seguimento. Resultados: O GT apresentou redução de 10,8% na glicemia de jejum (p = 0,01), e de 7,3 bpm na FC de repouso nas posições sentada e supina (p < 0,0001). Houve aumento no consumo de oxigênio apenas no GT (de 35,4 ± 8,1 para 49,1 ± 9,6 ml/kg/min, p < 0,0001) e diminuição estatisticamente significativa na massa ventricular esquerda (MVE) no GT (de 128,7 ± 38,9 para 117,2 ± 27,2 g, p = 0,0032). Não houve alterações estatisticamente significativas no volume diastólico final ventricular esquerdo (VDFVE) nem na fração de ejeção nos grupos. A relação MVE/VDFVE demonstrou remodelamento positivo estatisticamente significativo no GT (p = 0,015). Conclusões: Observou-se remodelamento positivo no GT, onde o aumento da dimensão diastólica ventricular esquerda associou-se com redução da MVE. O exercício aeróbio de intensidade moderada melhorou a capacidade física e outras variáveis cardiovasculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Exercise/physiology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Body Mass Index , Reproducibility of Results , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Exercise Test , Heart Rate/physiology , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(1): 62-69, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-771051

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cardiac remodeling is defined as a group of molecular, cellular and interstitial changes that manifest clinically as changes in size, mass, geometry and function of the heart after injury. The process results in poor prognosis because of its association with ventricular dysfunction and malignant arrhythmias. Here, we discuss the concepts and clinical implications of cardiac remodeling, and the pathophysiological role of different factors, including cell death, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, collagen, contractile proteins, calcium transport, geometry and neurohormonal activation. Finally, the article describes the pharmacological treatment of cardiac remodeling, which can be divided into three different stages of strategies: consolidated, promising and potential strategies.


Resumo A remodelação cardíaca é definida como um conjunto de mudanças moleculares, celulares e intersticiais cardíacas, que se manifestam clinicamente por alterações no tamanho, massa, geometria e função do coração, em resposta à determinada agressão. Esse processo resulta em mal prognóstico, pois está associado com a progressão da disfunção ventricular e arritmias malignas. Nessa revisão, são discutidos os conceitos e as implicações clínicas da remodelação, além do papel fisiopatológico de diferentes fatores, incluindo morte celular, metabolismo energético, estresse oxidativo, inflamação, colágeno, proteínas contráteis, transporte de cálcio, geometria e ativação neurohormonal. Finalmente, o artigo apresenta o tratamento farmacológico, que pode ser dividido em três estágios: estratégias consolidadas, promissoras e potenciais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ventricular Dysfunction/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction/physiopathology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/metabolism , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Calcium/metabolism , Collagen/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Oxidative Stress , Ventricular Dysfunction/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A biomarker that is of great interest in relation to adverse cardiovascular events is soluble ST2 (sST2), a member of the interleukin family. Considering that metabolic syndrome (MetS) is accompanied by a proinflammatory state, we aimed to assess the relationship between sST2 and left ventricular (LV) structure and function in patients with MetS. METHODS: A multicentric, cross-sectional study was conducted on180 MetS subjects with normal LV ejection fraction as determined by echocardiography. LV hypertrophy (LVH) was defined as an LV mass index greater than the gender-specific upper limit of normal as determined by echocardiography. LV diastolic dysfunction (DD) was assessed by pulse-wave and tissue Doppler imaging. sST2 was measured by using a quantitative monoclonal ELISA assay. RESULTS: LV mass index (β=0.337, P<0.001, linear regression) was independently associated with sST2 concentrations. Increased sST2 was associated with an increased likelihood of LVH [Exp (B)=2.20, P=0.048, logistic regression] and increased systolic blood pressure [Exp (B)=1.02, P=0.05, logistic regression]. Comparing mean sST2 concentrations (adjusted for age, body mass index, gender) between different LV remodeling patterns, we found the greatest sST2 level in the group with concentric hypertrophy. There were no differences in sST2 concentration between groups with and without LV DD. CONCLUSIONS: Increased sST2 concentration in patients with MetS was associated with a greater likelihood of exhibiting LVH. Our results suggest that inflammation could be one of the principal triggering mechanisms for LV remodeling in MetS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Area Under Curve , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography, Doppler , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnostic imaging , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/analysis , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Sex Factors , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(1): e4794, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951643

ABSTRACT

Cardiac remodeling involves changes in heart shape, size, structure, and function after injury to the myocardium. The proinflammatory adaptor protein myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) contributes to cardiac remodeling. To investigate whether excessive MyD88 levels initiate spontaneous cardiac remodeling at the whole-organism level, we generated a transgenic MyD88 mouse model with a cardiac-specific promoter. MyD88 mice (male, 20-30 g, n=∼80) were born at the expected Mendelian ratio and demonstrated similar morphology of the heart and cardiomyocytes with that of wild-type controls. Although heart weight was unaffected, cardiac contractility of MyD88 hearts was mildly reduced, as shown by echocardiographic examination, compared with wild-type controls. Moreover, the cardiac dysfunction phenotype was associated with elevation of ANF and BNP expression. Collectively, our data provide novel evidence of the critical role of balanced MyD88 signaling in maintaining physiological function in the adult heart.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Organ Size , Mice, Transgenic , Echocardiography , Blotting, Western , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/pathology , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Myocardium/pathology
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(5): 479-486, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-765003

ABSTRACT

AbstractBackground:Although nutritional, metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities are commonly seen in experimental studies of obesity, it is uncertain whether these effects result from the treatment or from body adiposity.Objective:To evaluate the influence of treatment and body composition on metabolic and cardiovascular aspects in rats receiving high saturated fat diet.Methods:Sixteen Wistar rats were used, distributed into two groups, the control (C) group, treated with isocaloric diet (2.93 kcal/g) and an obese (OB) group, treated with high-fat diet (3.64 kcal/g). The study period was 20 weeks. Analyses of nutritional behavior, body composition, glycemia, cholesterolemia, lipemia, systolic arterial pressure, echocardiography, and cardiac histology were performed.Results:High-fat diet associates with manifestations of obesity, accompanied by changes in glycemia, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and myocardial interstitial fibrosis. After adjusting for adiposity, the metabolic effects were normalized, whereas differences in morphometric changes between groups were maintained.Conclusion:It was concluded that adiposity body composition has a stronger association with metabolic disturbances in obese rodents, whereas the high-fat dietary intervention is found to be more related to cardiac morphological changes in experimental models of diet-induced obesity.


Fundamento:Embora anormalidades nutricionais, metabólicas e cardiovasculares sejam comuns a diversos experimentos de obesidade, ainda não está esclarecido se tais efeitos são resultantes do tratamento ou da adiposidade corporal.Objetivo:Analisar a influência do tratamento e da composição corporal sobre aspectos metabólicos e cardiovasculares de ratos submetidos a dieta hiperlipídica.Métodos:Foram utilizados 16 ratos Wistar, distribuídos em dois grupos, Controle (C), tratado com dieta normocalórica (2,93 kcal/g), e Obeso (OB), que recebeu dieta hiperlipídica (3,64 kcal/g). O período de estudo foi de 20 semanas. Posteriormente, foram realizadas análises do comportamento nutricional e murinométrico, glicemia, colesterolemia, lipidemia, pressão arterial sistólica, ecocardiograma e aspectos histológicos do coração.Resultados:A dieta hiperlipídica associa-se com manifestações de obesidade, acompanhada de alterações da glicemia, hipertrofia cardiomiocitária e fibrose intersticial do miocárdio. Quando ajustados aos valores de adiposidade, os efeitos metabólicos foram normalizados, enquanto que as alterações morfométricas mantiveram-se diferentes entre os grupos C e OB.Conclusão:Conclui-se que a adiposidade está mais associada com anormalidades metabólicas em obesos. A intervenção hiperlipídica mostra-se mais relacionada com modificações morfológicas do coração em experimentos de obesidade induzida por dieta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Adipose Tissue/physiopathology , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Body Composition , Body Weight , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Echocardiography , Energy Intake , Hyperglycemia , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(1): 67-77, 01/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741133

ABSTRACT

Background: Isolated congenital atrioventricular block (CAVB) is a rare condition with multiple clinical outcomes. Ventricular remodeling can occur in approximately 10% of the patients after pacemaker (PM) implantation. Objectives: To assess the functional capacity of children and young adults with isolated CAVB and chronic pacing of the right ventricle (RV) and evaluate its correlation with predictors of ventricular remodeling. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a cohort of patients with isolated CAVB and RV pacing for over a year. The subjects underwent clinical and echocardiographic evaluation. Functional capacity was assessed using the six-minute walk test. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: A total of 61 individuals were evaluated between March 2010 and December 2013, of which 67.2% were women, aged between 7 and 41 years, who were using PMs for 13.5 ± 6.3 years. The percentage of ventricular pacing was 97.9 ± 4.1%, and the duration of the paced QRS complex was 153.7 ± 19.1 ms. Majority of the subjects (95.1%) were asymptomatic and did not use any medication. The mean distance walked was 546.9 ± 76.2 meters and was strongly correlated with the predicted distance (r = 0.907, p = 0.001) but not with risk factors for ventricular remodeling. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2014; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0) Conclusions: The functional capacity of isolated CAVB patients with chronic RV pacing was satisfactory but did not correlate with risk factors for ventricular remodeling. .


Fundamento: O bloqueio atrioventricular congênito isolado (BAVCi) é raro e tem múltiplas apresentações clínicas. O remodelamento ventricular pode ocorrer em cerca de 10% dos indivíduos após o implante de marca-passo. Objetivos: Avaliar a capacidade funcional de crianças e adultos jovens com BAVCi e estimulação crônica no ventrículo direito (VD) e pesquisar sua associação com fatores preditores de remodelamento ventricular. Métodos: Estudo transversal em coorte de indivíduos com BAVCi e estimulação no VD há mais de um ano. Os indivíduos foram submetidos a avaliação clínica e ecocardiográfica. A capacidade funcional foi avaliada pelo teste de caminhada de seis minutos. Foram empregados os testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, considerando o nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: De março de 2010 a dezembro de 2013, foram avaliados 61 indivíduos, 67,2% do sexo feminino, com 7-41 anos de idade e uso de MP há 13,5 ± 6,3 anos. O percentual de estimulação ventricular era 97,9 ± 4,1% e a duração do complexo QRS estimulado era de 153,7 ± 19,1 ms. A maioria (95,1%) era assintomática e não utilizava medicamentos. A distância média percorrida de 546,9 ± 76,2 m teve forte correlação com a distância predita (r = 0,907; p = 0,001) e não se associou com os fatores de risco de remodelamento estudados. Conclusões: A capacidade funcional de portadores de BAVTCi com estimulação crônica no VD foi satisfatória e não se correlacionou com os fatores de risco para remodelamento ventricular. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Atrioventricular Block/rehabilitation , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/methods , Exercise Test , Heart Block/congenital , Pacemaker, Artificial , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/rehabilitation , Atrioventricular Block/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Block/physiopathology , Heart Block/rehabilitation , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Walking/physiology
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(2): 124-130, 08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720810

ABSTRACT

Background: Gender can influence post-infarction cardiac remodeling. Objective: To evaluate whether gender influences left ventricular (LV) remodeling and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Female and male Wistar rats were assigned to one of three groups: sham, moderate MI (size: 20-39% of LV area), and large MI (size: ≥40% of LV area). MI was induced by coronary occlusion, and echocardiographic analysis was performed after six weeks to evaluate MI size as well as LV morphology and function. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were used to quantify ILK in the myocardium. Results: MI size was similar between genders. MI resulted in systolic dysfunction and enlargement of end-diastolic as well as end-systolic dimension of LV as a function of necrotic area size in both genders. Female rats with large MI showed a lower diastolic and systolic dilatation than the respective male rats; however, LV dysfunction was similar between genders. Gene and protein levels of ILK were increased in female rats with moderate and large infarctions, but only male rats with large infarctions showed an altered ILK mRNA level. A negative linear correlation was evident between LV dimensions and ILK expression in female rats with large MI. Conclusions: Post-MI ILK expression is altered in a gender-specific manner, and higher ILK levels found in females may be sufficient to improve LV geometry but not LV function. .


Fundamento: O gênero pode ser decisivo no remodelamento cardíaco após infarto do miocárdio. Objetivo: Avaliar diferenças de gênero associadas ao remodelamento do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) após infarto do miocárdio (IM) e associadas à modulação de quinases acopladas à integrina (integrin-linked kinases-ILK). Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos e fêmeas foram divididos em 3 grupos: grupo sham, grupo com IM de extensão moderada (tamanho: 20-39% da área do VE); grupo com IM de grande extensão (tamanho: ≥ 40% da área do VE). O IM foi produzido por oclusão coronária e as análises ecocardiográficas foram obtidas após 6 semanas para avaliar a extensão do IM, bem como a morfologia e função do VE. RT-PCR em tempo real e Western blott foram realizados para quantificar a ILK no miocárdio. Resultados: A extensão do IM foi semelhante entre os gêneros. O IM resultou em disfunção sistólica e aumento do tamanho do VE no final da diástole e da sístole em função do tamanho da área necrótica para ambos os sexos. Ratos fêmeas com IM de grande extensão apresentaram dilatação diastólica e sistólica inferior a de ratos machos, mas a disfunção do VE foi semelhante em ambos os sexos. Os níveis gênicos e proteicos de ILK aumentaram em ratos fêmeas com infartos de extensão moderada e grande, mas apenas ratos machos com infartos de grande extensão apresentaram níveis alterados de mRNA do ILK. Uma correlação linear negativa foi observada entre as dimensões do VE e a expressão de ILK em ratos fêmeas com IM de grande extensão. Conclusões: A expressão de ILK pós-IM variou de maneira gênero-especifica, e os níveis mais elevados de ILK observados em ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Sex Factors , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Blotting, Western , Diastole/physiology , Echocardiography , Myocardial Infarction , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Values , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(1): 60-68, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718099

ABSTRACT

Background: Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results: The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats. .


Fundamento: Embora o treinamento físico resistido esteja inserido nos programas de reabilitação cardiovascular, pouco se sabe sobre seu papel isolado na função cardíaca e autonômica após o infarto do miocárdio. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento físico resistido iniciado precocemente após o infarto do miocárdio na função cardíaca, no perfil hemodinâmico e na modulação autonômica de ratos. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em Grupos Controle Sedentário, Controle Treinado, Infartado Sedentário e Infartado Treinado. Cada grupo foi composto por 9 ratos. Os animais realizaram o teste de carga máxima e a ecocardiografia ao início e ao final do treinamento físico resistido (em escada adaptada, 40 a 60% do teste de carga máxima, 3 meses, 5 dias/semana). Ao final, foram realizadas avaliações hemodinâmicas, de sensibilidade barorreflexa e da modulação autonômica. Resultados: O teste de carga máxima aumentou nos Grupos Controle Treinado (+32%) e Infartado Treinado (+46%) em relação aos Grupos Controle Sedentário e Infartado Sedentário. Embora a área de infarto do miocárdio e a função sistólica não tenham sido alteradas, a relação E/A (-23%), o índice de desempenho miocárdico (-39%) e a pressão arterial sistólica (+6%) foram melhorados pelo treinamento físico resistido no Grupo Infartado Treinado. Paralelamente, o treinamento induziu os grupos a benefícios adicionais nas bandas de alta frequência do intervalo de pulso (+45%), bem como a banda de baixa frequência da pressão arterial sistólica (-46%) nos ratos do Grupo Infartado Treinado em relação aos do Infartado Sedentário. Conclusão: O treinamento físico resistido dinâmico ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Resistance Training/methods , Ventricular Function/physiology , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , Baroreflex/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics/physiology , Myocardial Infarction , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(1): 41-50, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718100

ABSTRACT

Background: The activation of the beta-adrenergic system promotes G protein stimulation that, via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), alters the structure of protein kinase A (PKA) and leads to phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation. This protein participates in the system that controls intracellular calcium in muscle cells, and it is the primary regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump activity. In obesity, the beta-adrenergic system is activated by the influence of increased leptin, therefore, resulting in higher myocardial phospholamban phosphorylation via cAMP-PKA. Objective: To investigate the involvement of proteins which regulate the degree of PLB phosphorylation due to beta-adrenergic activation in obesity. In the present study, we hypothesized that there is an imbalance between phospholamban phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, with prevalence of protein phosphorylation. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: control (n = 14), fed with normocaloric diet; and obese (n = 13), fed with a cycle of four unsaturated high-fat diets. Obesity was determined by the adiposity index, and protein expressions of phosphatase 1 (PP-1), PKA, PLB, phosphorylated phospholamban at serine16 (PPLB-Ser16) were assessed by Western blot. Results: Obesity caused glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia and did not alter the protein expression of PKA, PP-1, PLB, PPLB-Ser16. Conclusion: Obesity does not promote an imbalance between myocardial PLB phosphorylation and dephosphorylation via beta-adrenergic system. .


Fundamento: A ativação do sistema beta-adrenérgico promove a estimulação da proteína G, que, via adenosina monofosfato cíclico (AMPc), altera a estrutura da proteina quinase A (PKA) e acarreta a fosforilação da fosfolambam (PLB). Essa proteína participa do sistema envolvido no controle de cálcio intracelular, em células musculares, sendo a principal reguladora da atividade da bomba de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático. Na obesidade ocorre ativação do sistema beta-adrenérgico por influência do aumento da leptina, acarretando, consequentemente, maior fosforilação da fosfolambam miocárdica, via AMPc-PKA. Objetivo: Investigar, na obesidade, o envolvimento das proteínas que regulam o grau de fosforilação do PLB decorrente da ativação beta-adrenérgica. A hipótese do estudo é que há desequilíbrio entre a fosforilação e a desfosforilação da fosfolambam, com predomínio da fosforilação da proteína. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram randomizados e distribuídos em dois grupos: controle (n = 14), alimentado com dieta normocalórica, e obeso (n = 13), com um ciclo de quatro dietas hiperlipídicas insaturadas. A obesidade foi determinada pelo índice de adiposidade, e as expressões proteicas de fosfatase 1 (PP-1), PKA, PLB, fosfolambam fosforilado na serina 16 (pPLB-ser16) foram realizadas por Western Blot. Resultados: A obesidade acarretou intolerância à glicose, hiperinsulinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, hiperleptinemia e não alterou a expressão proteica de PKA, PP-1, PLB, pPLB-ser16. Conclusão: A obesidade não promove desequilíbrio entre a fosforilação e a desfosforilação, via beta-adrenérgica, do PLB miocárdico. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Blood Pressure/physiology , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Diet, High-Fat , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/blood , Glucose Tolerance Test , Insulin/blood , Leptin/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Phosphorylation , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Triglycerides/blood , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(2): 187-191, 03/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-704611

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: A hipertrofia cardíaca constitui um dos componentes do remodelamento cardíaco e ocorre em resposta a aumento da atividade ou da sobrecarga funcional do coração. Objetivo: Avaliar a resposta hipertrófica da associação do hormônio tireoidiano e do exercício físico no coração de ratos. Método: Foram utilizados 37 ratos da linhagem Wistar, machos, adultos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: controle, hormônio (HT), exercício (E), hormônio tireoidiano e exercício (H + E). O grupo hormônio recebeu diariamente levotiroxina sódica por gavagem, na dose de 20 μg de hormônio tireoidiano/100 g de peso corporal; o grupo exercício realizou natação cinco vezes por semana, com peso adicional correspondente a 20% do peso corporal, durante seis semanas; no grupo H + E foram aplicados simultaneamente os tratamentos dos grupos HT e E. A estatísica utilizada foi a análise de variância complementada, quando necessário, pelo teste de Tukey e o teste de correlação de Pearson. Resultados: O T4 foi mais elevado nos grupos HT e H + E. O peso total do coração foi maior nos grupos que receberam hormônio tireoidiano, e o peso ventricular esquerdo foi maior no grupo HT. O diâmetro transversal dos cardiomiócitos aumentou nos grupos HT, E e H + E. A porcentagem de colágeno foi maior nos grupos E e H + E. A análise da correlação entre as variáveis apresentou distintas respostas. Conclusão: A associação do hormônio tireoidiano com exercício físico de elevada intensidade produziu hipertrofia cardíaca e gerou um padrão hipertrófico não correlacionado diretamente ao grau de fibrose. .


Background: Cardiac hypertrophy is a component of cardiac remodeling occurring in response to an increase of the activity or functional overload of the heart. Objective: Assess hypertrophic response of the association of thyroid hormone and exercise in the rat heart. Methods: We used 37 Wistar rats, male, adults were randomly divided into four groups: control, hormone (TH), exercise (E), thyroid hormone and exercise (H + E); the group received daily hormone levothyroxine sodium by gavage at a dose of 20 μg thyroid hormone/100g body weight, the exercise group took swimming five times a week, with additional weight corresponding to 20% of body weight for six weeks; in group H + E were applied simultaneously TH treatment groups and E. The statistics used was analysis of variance, where appropriate, by Tukey test and Pearson correlation test. Results: The T4 was greater in groups TH and H + E. The total weight of the heart was greater in patients who received thyroid hormone and left ventricular weight was greater in the TH group. The transverse diameter of cardiomyocytes increased in groups TH, E and H + E. The percentage of collagen was greater in groups E and H + E Correlation analysis between variables showed distinct responses. Conclusion: The association of thyroid hormone with high-intensity exercise produced cardiac hypertrophy, and generated a standard hypertrophy not directly correlated to the degree of fibrosis. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cardiomegaly, Exercise-Induced/drug effects , Cardiomegaly, Exercise-Induced/physiology , Heart/drug effects , Heart/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Body Weight , Models, Animal , Organ Size , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Time Factors , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology
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