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1.
Biol. Res ; 51: 38, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulfide has been shown to improve the quality of oocytes destined for in vitro fertilization. Although hydrogen sulfide is capable of modulating ion channel activity in somatic cells, the role of hydrogen sulfide in gametes and embryos remains unknown. Our observations confirmed the hypothesis that the KATP and L-type Ca2+ ion channels play roles in porcine oocyte ageing and revealed a plausible contribution of hydrogen sulfide to the modulation of ion channel activity. RESULTS: We confirmed the benefits of the activation and suppression of the KATP and L-type Ca2+ ion channels, respectively, for the preservation of oocyte quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments identified hydrogen sulfide as promoting the desired ion channel activity, with the capacity to protect porcine oocytes against cell death. Further experiments are needed to determine the exact mechanism of hydrogen sulfide in gametes and embryos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oocytes/drug effects , Calcium Channels/physiology , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated/physiology , Hydrogen Sulfide/pharmacology , Oocytes/metabolism , Phenotype , Swine , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Adenosine Triphosphate , Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated/drug effects , Minoxidil/pharmacology
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(11): e6353, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888951

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the absorption mechanism of three curcumin constituents in rat small intestines. Self-emulsification was used to solubilize the three curcumin constituents, and the rat in situ intestinal perfusion method was used to study factors on drug absorption, including drug mass concentration, absorption site, and the different types and concentrations of absorption inhibitors. Within the scope of experimental concentrations, three curcumin constituents were absorbed in rat small intestines through the active transport mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic/pharmacology , Curcumin/analogs & derivatives , Curcumin/pharmacokinetics , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Intestinal Absorption , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Uncoupling Agents/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology , Probenecid/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/antagonists & inhibitors , 2,4-Dinitrophenol/pharmacokinetics , Curcumin/chemistry , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/analysis , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Emulsions , Perfusion Imaging/methods , Intestinal Absorption/drug effects , Intestine, Small/drug effects
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(3): 223-229, Sept. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796033

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Despite the important biological effects of jabuticaba, its actions on the cardiovascular system have not been clarified. Objectives: To determine the effects of jabuticaba hydroalcoholic extract (JHE) on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) of isolated arteries. Methods: Endothelium-denuded aortic rings of rats were mounted in isolated organ bath to record isometric tension. The relaxant effect of JHE and the influence of K+ channels and Ca2+ intra- and extracellular sources on JHE-stimulated response were assessed. Results: Arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine showed concentration-dependent relaxation (0.380 to 1.92 mg/mL). Treatment with K+ channel blockers (tetraethyl-ammonium, glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine) hindered relaxation due to JHE. In addition, phenylephrine-stimulated contraction was hindered by previous treatment with JHE. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase did not change relaxation due to JHE. In addition, JHE inhibited the contraction caused by Ca2+ influx stimulated by phenylephrine and KCl (75 mM). Conclusion: JHE induces endothelium-independent vasodilation. Activation of K+ channels and inhibition of Ca2+ influx through the membrane are involved in the JHE relaxant effect.


Resumo Fundamentos: Embora a jabuticaba apresente importantes efeitos biológicos, suas ações sobre o sistema cardiovascular ainda não foram esclarecidas. Objetivos: Determinar os efeitos do extrato de jabuticaba (EHJ) sobre o músculo liso vascular (MLV) em artérias isoladas. Métodos: Aortas (sem endotélio) de ratos foram montadas em banho de órgãos isolados para registro de tensão isométrica. Foram verificados o efeito relaxante, a influência dos canais de K+ e das fontes de Ca2+ intra- e extracelular sob a resposta estimulada pelo EHJ. Resultados: Artérias pré-contraídas com fenilefrina apresentaram relaxamento concentração-dependente (0,380 a 1,92 mg/mL). O tratamento com bloqueadores de canais de K+ (tetraetilamônio, glibenclamida, 4-aminopiridina) prejudicaram o relaxamento pelo EHJ. A contração estimulada com fenilefrina também foi prejudicada pelo tratamento prévio com EHJ. A inibição da Ca2+ATPase do reticulo sarcoplasmático não alterou o relaxamento pelo EHJ. Além disso, o EHJ inibiu a contração causada pelo influxo de Ca2+ estimulado por fenilefrina e KCl (75 mM). Conclusão: O EHJ induz vasodilatação independente do endotélio. Ativação dos canais de K+ e inibição do influxo de Ca2+ através da membrana estão envolvidas no efeito relaxante do EHJ.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(2): e4800, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766979

ABSTRACT

β-Citronellol is an alcoholic monoterpene found in essential oils such Cymbopogon citratus (a plant with antihypertensive properties). β-Citronellol can act against pathogenic microorganisms that affect airways and, in virtue of the popular use of β-citronellol-enriched essential oils in aromatherapy, we assessed its pharmacologic effects on the contractility of rat trachea. Contractions of isolated tracheal rings were recorded isometrically through a force transducer connected to a data-acquisition device. β-Citronellol relaxed sustained contractions induced by acetylcholine or high extracellular potassium, but half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for K+-elicited stimuli were smaller than those for cholinergic contractions. It also inhibited contractions induced by electrical field stimulation or sodium orthovanadate with pharmacologic potency equivalent to that seen against acetylcholine-induced contractions. When contractions were evoked by selective recruitment of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium, β-citronellol preferentially inhibited contractions that involved voltage-operated (but not receptor-operated) pathways. β-Citronellol (but not verapamil) inhibited contractions induced by restoration of external Ca2+ levels after depleting internal Ca2+ stores with the concomitant presence of thapsigargin and recurrent challenge with acetylcholine. Treatment of tracheal rings with L-NAME, indomethacin or tetraethylammonium did not change the relaxing effects of β-citronellol. Inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) or transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptors with selective antagonists caused no change in the effects of β-citronellol. In conclusion, β-citronellol exerted inhibitory effects on rat tracheal rings, with predominant effects on contractions that recruit Ca2+ inflow towards the cytosol by voltage-gated pathways, whereas it appears less active against contractions elicited by receptor-operated Ca2+ channels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Trachea/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Calcium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Monoterpenes/administration & dosage , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Parasympatholytics/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Tetraethylammonium/pharmacology , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(12): 1068-1074, 12/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727656

ABSTRACT

Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Jejunum/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Myosins/metabolism , Taurine/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Atropine/pharmacology , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Cimetidine/pharmacology , Diphenhydramine/pharmacology , Enteric Nervous System/drug effects , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Jejunum/physiology , Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Phentolamine/pharmacology , Propranolol/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Taurine/antagonists & inhibitors , Tetrodotoxin/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 964-966, 11/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728807

ABSTRACT

The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the efflux of the insecticide, temephos, was assessed in the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Bioassays were conducted using mosquito populations that were either susceptible or resistant to temephos by exposure to insecticide alone or in combination with sublethal doses of the ABC transporter inhibitor, verapamil (30, 35 and 40 μM). The best result in the series was obtained with the addition of verapamil (40 μM), which led to a 2x increase in the toxicity of temephos, suggesting that ABC transporters may be partially involved in conferring resistance to the populations evaluated.


Subject(s)
Animals , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/physiology , Aedes/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Temefos/pharmacology , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/drug effects , Aedes/metabolism , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacokinetics , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Insect Vectors/metabolism , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacokinetics , Larva/drug effects , Larva/metabolism , Temefos/pharmacokinetics , Verapamil/pharmacokinetics , Verapamil/pharmacology
7.
Cell Journal [Yakhteh]. 2014; 16 (1): 11-16
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-148442

ABSTRACT

Gelatinases are a large group of proteolytic enzymes that belong to the matrix metalloproteinases [MMPs]. MMPs are a broad family of peptidases, which proteolyse the extracellular matrix and have an important role in inflammation. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker extensively used in the treatment of numerous cardiovascular diseases such as arrhythmia and hypertension. The anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects of verapamil have also been shown. In this study, the effect of verapamil on gelatinase activity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs] has been assessed in vitro. In this experimental study, PBMCs from healthy adult volunteers were isolated by ficoll-hypaque-gradient centrifugation. The cells were then cultured in complete RPMI-1640 medium and after that incubated with different concentrations of verapamil [0-200 Mirco M] in the presence or absence of phytoheamagglutinin [PHA] [10 Mirco g/ml] for 48 hours. The gelatinase A [MMP-2]/gelatinase B [MMP-9] activity in cell-conditioned media was then evaluated by gelatin zymography. Statistical comparisons between groups were made by analysis of variance [ANOVA]. Verapamil significantly decreased the MMP-2/MMP-9 activity in human PBMCs after 48 hours incubation time compared with untreated control cells. The association was dose-dependent. In this study verapamil exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on gelatinase A and gelatinase B activity in human PBMCs. It seems that the anti-inflammatory properties of verapamil may be in part due to its inhibitory effects on gelatinase activity. Regarding the beneficial effects of MMPs- inhibitors in the treatment of some cardiovascular diseases, the positive effect of verapamil on such diseases may be in part due to its anti-MMP activity. Verapamil with its inhibitory effects on gelatinases activity may be a useful MMP-inhibitor. Given the beneficial effect of MMP-inhibitors in some cancerous, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, it seems likely that verapamil could also be used to treat these diseases


Subject(s)
Humans , Verapamil/pharmacology , Gelatinases/drug effects
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135690

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives In drug resistant, especially multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, fluoroquinolones (FQs) are used as second line drugs. However, the incidence of FQ-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is rapidly increasing which may be due to extensive use of FQs in the treatment of various other diseases. The most important known mechanism i.e., gyrA mutation in FQ resistance is not observed in a significant proportion of FQ resistant M. tuberculosis isolates suggesting that the resistance may be because of other mechanisms such as an active drug efflux pump. In this study we evaluated the role of the efflux pumps in quinolone resistance by using various inhibitors such as carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and verapamil, in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. Methods A total of 55 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates [45 ofloxacin (OFL) resistant and 10 ofloxacin sensitive] were tested by Resazurin microtitre assay (REMA) to observe the changes in ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels in presence of efflux inhibitors as compared to control (without efflux inhibitor). Results The MIC levels of OFL showed 2-8 folds reduction in presence of CCCP (16/45; 35.5%), verapamil (24/45; 53.3%) and DNP (21/45; 46.6%) while in case of isolates identified as OFL sensitive these did not show any effect on ofloxacin MICs. In 11 of 45 (24.5%) isolates change in MIC levels was observed with all the three inhibitors. Overall 30 (66.6%) isolates had reduction in OFL MIC after treatment with these inhibitors. A total of eight isolates were sequenced for gyrA gene, of which, seven (87.5%) showed known mutations. Of the eight sequenced isolates, seven (87.5%) showed 2 to 8 fold change in MIC in presence of efflux inhibitors. Interpretation & conclusions Our findings suggest the involvement of active efflux pumps of both Major Facilitator Super Family (MFS) family (inhibited by CCCP and DNP) and ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters (inhibited by verapamil) in the development of OFL resistance in M. tuberculosis isolates. Epidemiological significance of these findings needs to be determined in prospective studies with appropriate number of samples / isolates.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol/pharmacology , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/antagonists & inhibitors , Bacterial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Base Sequence , Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone/pharmacology , Computational Biology , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Ofloxacin/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity , Verapamil/pharmacology
9.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24 (4): 553-558
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-137559

ABSTRACT

Methanolic extract of Onosma grifflthii and its fractions were evaluated for possible effects on rabbits' jejunum preparations. Rabbits of either sex [weight 1.5-2.0 kg] were used in experiments. Studies were carried out on rabbits' jejunum preparations. Crude methanolic extract of Onosma griffithii [Meth.OG] was tried in concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml on rabbits' jejunum preparations. Meth.OG was also tried on KCl-induced contractions to explain its possible mode of actions in the presence and absence of atropine [0.03 microM]. Fractions of Meth.OG were tried in similar manner. Calcium chloride curves were constructed for Meth.OG treated tissues that were compared with curves constructed for verapamil in same fashion. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant was also performed. Meth.OG increased the amplitude of spontaneous activity of rabbits' jejunum preparations at concentrations of 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/ml. However, spasmolytic effects were observed at higher concentrations 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. Mean EC[50] values [mg/ml], respectively, in absence and presence of atropine were 7.5 +/- 0.25 [6.9-8.4, n=6] and 3.0 +/- 0.17 [2.3-3.5, n=6, P<0.05]. Mean EC[50] values, respectively, for effects on spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions were 7.5 +/- 0.25 [6.9-8.4, n=6] and 7.3 +/- 0.35 [6.25-8.2, n=6, p<0.05]. rc-Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed their respective EC[50] values [mg/ml] 9.7 +/- 0.25 [8.6-10.2, n=6], 4.0 +/- 0.2 [3.5-4.6, n=6] and 1.07 +/- 0.093 [0.78-1.5, n=6]. EC[50] values for calcium chloride curves in presence of 0.3 mg/ml Meth.OG were - 2.27 +/- 0.038 [- 2.4 to - 2.10, n=6] vs. control - 2.78 +/- 0.04 [-2.9 to - 2.6, n=6,P<0.05] Log [Ca[++]]M. Comparing with curves of calcium chloride constructed in presence of 0.1 juM verapamil, the EC[50] [log [Ca[++]] M] values were - 1.82 +/- 0.087 [- 2.0 to - 1.65, n=6] vs. control - 2.64 +/- 0.089 [- 2.9 to - 2.4, n=6] demonstrated a right shift [p<0.05]. Meth.OG tested positive for terpenes, saponins, sterols, flavonoids and carbohydrates. We concluded that the relaxant effect of Meth.OG is exerted through blocking of calcium channels. However,


butanolic and aqueous fractions produced spasmogenic effects that require further work for isolation of pharmacologically active substances


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasympatholytics/pharmacology , Parasympathomimetics/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Rabbits , Solvents/chemistry , Verapamil/pharmacology
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 46(4): 333-340, out.-dez. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539630

ABSTRACT

Context: Exposure of hepatocytes to pathological conditions in a microenvironment of hypoxia and reoxygenation is very frequent in hepatic diseases. Several substances present perspectives for cytoprotective action on hepatocyte submitted to reoxygenation after hypoxia and simple hypoxia. Objective: We research therapeutic options for hepatocytes submitted to hypoxia and hypoxia + reoxygenation injury. Methods: Primary culture of rat hepatocytes was submitted to hypoxia (2 hours) plus reoxygenation (2 hours) and simple hypoxia (4 hours) in the presence or the absence of cytoprotectors. The hepatocyte lesion was evaluated by functional criteria through percentage of lactate dehydrogenase released and cell viability. The effects of the cytoprotectors prostaglandin E1 3 ηg/mL, superoxide dismutase 80 μg/mL, allopurinol 20 μM and verapamil 10-4 M were studied in this model of injury. Results: Reoxygenation after hypoxia induced more significant lesion in cultured hepatocytes compared to simple hypoxia, detected by analysis of functional criteria. There was a significant reduction of percentage of lactate dehydrogenase released and a significant increase of percentage of cell viability in the hypoxia + reoxygenation + cytoprotectors groups compared to hypoxia + reoxygenation groups. Prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase and verapamil also protected the group submitted to simple hypoxia, when evaluated by functional criteria. Conclusions: We conclude that reoxygenation after hypoxia significantly increased the lesion of cultured rat hepatocytes when compared to simple hypoxia. Prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase, allopurinol and verapamil acted as cytoprotectors to the rat cultured hepatocytes submitted to hypoxia + reoxygenation in vitro. The substances prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase and verapamil protected hepatocytes submitted to simple hypoxia on the basis of all the criteria studied in this experimental model.


Contexto: A exposição dos hepatócitos a condições patológicas em que ocorram microambientes de hipóxia e reoxigenação são muito frequentes em doenças hepáticas. Várias substâncias apresentam perspectivas de ação citoprotetora para hepatócitos submetidos a reoxigenação após hipóxia e hipóxia simples. Objetivo: Pesquisaram-se opções terapêuticas para o dano dos hepatócitos submetidos a hipóxia e hipóxia + reoxigenação. Métodos: Hepatócitos de rato em cultura primária foram submetidos a hipóxia (2 horas) mais reoxigenação (2 horas) e hipóxia simples (4 horas), na presença ou ausência dos citoprotetores. A lesão dos hepatócitos foi avaliada por critérios funcionais através da percentagem liberada de desidrogenase láctica e da viabilidade celular. Os efeitos dos citoprotetores prostaglandina E1 3 ηg/mL, superóxido dismutase 80 μg/mL, alopurinol 20 μM e verapamil 10-4M, foram estudados neste modelo de injúria celular. Resultados: A reoxigenação após hipóxia induziu lesão mais significativa nos hepatócitos cultivados comparado com hipóxia simples, conforme demonstrado pela análise dos critérios funcionais. Houve significativa redução da porcentagem liberada de desidrogenase láctica e aumento significativo da percentagem de viabilidade celular nos grupos hipóxia + reoxigenação + citoprotetores em comparação com o grupo hipóxia + reoxigenação. Prostaglandina E1, superóxido dismutase e verapamil também protegeram o grupo hipóxia simples, quando avaliado pelos critérios funcionais. Conclusões: Conclui-se que a reoxigenação após hipóxia aumentou significativamente a lesão dos hepatócitos de rato cultivados, em comparação com a hipóxia simples. Prostaglandina E1, superóxido dismutase, alopurinol e verapamil foram citoprotetores para os hepatócitos de rato submetidos a hipóxia + reoxigenação in vitro. As substâncias prostaglandina E1, superóxido dismutase e verapamil protegeram os hepatócitos submetidos a hipóxia simples com base em...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Cell Hypoxia/drug effects , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Allopurinol/pharmacology , Alprostadil/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Hepatocytes/enzymology , Hepatocytes/physiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
11.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Feb; 46(1): 86-92
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26312

ABSTRACT

The recent upsurge of antimony (Sb) resistance is a major impediment to successful chemotherapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Mechanisms involved in antimony resistance have demonstrated an upregulation of drug efflux pumps; however, the biological role drug efflux pumps in clinical isolates remains to be substantiated. Thus, in this study, the functionality of drug efflux pumps was measured in promastigotes and axenic amastigotes isolated from VL patients, who were either Sb-sensitive (AG83, 2001 and MC9) or resistant (NS2, 41 and GE1) using rhodamine123 as a substrate for multidrug resistant (MDR) pumps and calcein as a substrate for multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) respectively; their specificity was confirmed using established blockers. Sb-resistant (Sb-R) isolates accumulated higher amounts of R123, as compared to Sb-sensitive (Sb-S) isolates. Verapamil, a MDR inhibitor failed to alter R123 accumulation, suggesting absence of classical MDR activity. In Sb-R isolates, both promastigotes and axenic amastigotes accumulated significantly lower amounts of calcein than Sb-S isolates and probenecid, an established pan MRP blocker, marginally increased calcein accumulation. Depletion of ATP dramatically increased calcein accumulation primarily in Sb-R isolates, indicating existence of a MRP-like pump, which was more active in Sb-R isolates. In conclusion, our data suggested that overfunctioning of a MRP-like pump contributed towards generation of Sb-R phenotype in L. donovani field isolates.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Antimony/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Fluoresceins/metabolism , Humans , Leishmania donovani/drug effects , Leishmania donovani/metabolism , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/physiopathology , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Ofloxacin/pharmacology , Probenecid/pharmacology , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Rhodamine 123/metabolism , Verapamil/pharmacology
12.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 18(3): 260-271, jul.- set. 2008. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-503493

ABSTRACT

As extra-sístoles e as taquicardias ventriculares idiopáticas são arritmias com mecanismos e significado clínico que as diferenciam das arritmias ventriculares associadas a cardiopatias estruturais. Diferentemente dessas últimas, que apresentam risco de morte súbita em populações específicas, as arritmias idiopáticas geralmente são associadas a bom prognóstico, que mais as aproximam das arritmias supraventriculares. Apresentam padrão eletrocardiográfico bastante definido e o conhecimento dessas características eletrocardiográficas pelo cardiologista clínico é uma das premissas para um correto manuseio clínico desses pacientes. A resposta às drogas antiarrítmicas costuma ser adequada e ablação por cateter pode ter papel decisivo na cura definitiva de pacientes selecionados. Este artigo procura revisar as caracteristicas clínicas, eletrocardiográficas e terapêuticas as arritmias ventriculares idiopáticas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Ventricular/history , Catheter Ablation , Verapamil/pharmacology
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Normal erythrocyte is deformable and this facilitates blood flow in the capillaries. Oxidative stress reduces the deformability of erythrocytes, and influences on blood flow in microcirculation. The objective of this study was to investigate the deformability of erythrocytes exposed to oxidative stress, the protective effects of verapamil and ascorbic acid against oxidative damages in erythrocytes, and the value of the microfluidic ektacytometer, RheoScan-D (RheoMeditech, Korea) in clinical application. METHODS: Effects of oxidative stress on erythrocytes were investigated using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP). Before exposure to tBHP, the erythrocytes were pretreated with verapamil and ascorbic acid to examine their protective effect against oxidative damages. The deformability of erythrocytes was measured by the microfluidic ektacytometer, RheoScan-D. RESULTS: When treated with tBHP, the deformability of erythrocytes was decreased (P<0.01) and methemoglobin (metHb) formation and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of erythrocytes were increased (P<0.01, P<0.05) compared to those of the untreated control cells. Compared to the tBHP treated cells, pretreatment with verapamil increased the deformability of erythrocytes (P<0.01) and decreased metHb formation (P<0.01) and MCV (P<0.05). Likewise, pretreatment with ascorbic acid increased the deformability of erythrocytes (P<0.01) and decreased metHb formation (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress reduces the deformability of erythrocytes and the deformability could be one of markers for oxidative damage. Verapamil and ascorbic acid have protective role against tBHP induced oxidative stress. The ektacytometer, RheoScan-D used in this study is convenient for clinical measurement and could be used in various fields of clinical medicine.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Erythrocyte Deformability/drug effects , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Humans , Male , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/instrumentation , Oxidative Stress , Statistics, Nonparametric , Verapamil/pharmacology , tert-Butylhydroperoxide/pharmacology
14.
J Biosci ; 2007 Jun; 32(4): 737-46
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111347

ABSTRACT

Various cationic lipophilic compounds can reverse the multidrug resistance of cancer cells. Possible interaction between these compounds, which are known as modulators, has been assessed by measuring leakage of Sulphan blue from anionic liposomes, induced both by verapamil alone and by verapamil in combination with diltiazem, quinine, thioridazine or clomipramine. An equation was derived to quantify the permeation doses and Hill coefficients of the drugs and mixtures between them by simultaneous fitting of the experimental data. The interaction was tested by two methods, the competition plot and the isobole method; both showed synergy between verapamil and each of diltiazem, quinine and thioridazine. The dose factor of potentiation for verapamil determined within membranes was 4.0 +/- 0.4 with diltiazem, 3.2 +/-0.4 with quinine and 2.4 +/- 0.3 with thioridazine. The results suggest that the effectiveness of reversing multidrug resistance may be increased with modulators such as verapamil and diltiazem that have a much greater effect in combination than what would be expected from their effects when considered separately.


Subject(s)
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Synergism , Liposomes , Membranes, Artificial , Permeability , Verapamil/pharmacology
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 May; 45(5): 419-24
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56707

ABSTRACT

The effect of chloroform soluble fraction (F-A) of twigs of Sarcostemma brevistigma on contractions induced by KCl, histamine, and acetylcholine in the isolated guinea pig ileum and taenia coli smooth muscles has been evaluated. F-A (19.5 microg/ml) significantly inhibited the contraction induced by 40 mM KCl to the extent of 87.6% in the isolated guinea pig ileum. In the isolated guinea pig ileum, F-A (64.3 and 59.2 microg/ml) significantly inhibited the contractions induced by acetylcholine and histamine to the extent of 85 and 83% respectively. In the isolated guinea pig taenia coli, F-A (65.2 microg/ml) significantly inhibited the contraction induced by 40 mM KCl to the extent of 96.0%. The inhibitory effect of F-A (40 microg/ml) on the isolated guinea pig taenia coli was reduced by Bay K 8644 (10(-6) M) to the extent of 61.6 from 73.6%. These results suggest that the F-A may exhibit smooth muscle relaxant activity by blocking the Ca2+ channels.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Animals , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Guinea Pigs , Histamine/pharmacology , Ileum/drug effects , Male , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Parasympatholytics/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-1036

ABSTRACT

Effects of Substance P on spontaneous contractions of the circular muscle of the flexure region of guinea pig colon were studied by mechanical tension recording. Substance P (3 nM-10 nM) produced tonic contraction associated with phasic activities but the contraction was found stronger at higher concentration. Verapamil (3 microM), a voltage dependent L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker completely blocked the spontaneous activities and also Substance P induced contraction. These results suggest that Substance P produce contraction by Ca(2+) influx and the Ca(2+) influx occurs by activating verapamil sensitive Ca(2+) channel.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Colon/drug effects , Female , Guinea Pigs , Isotonic Solutions , Male , Models, Animal , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Receptors, Tachykinin/drug effects , Substance P/pharmacology , Time Factors , Verapamil/pharmacology
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2006 Jun; 44(6): 481-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56049

ABSTRACT

Ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of M. koenigii (MKEE) showed a dose dependent positive inotropic effect on isolated frog heart. The responses to MKEE (62.5-1000 microg) were not affected in either way by theophylline, imidazole, propranolol and sildenafil. The change in potassium and sodium concentration did not alter MKEE-induced positive inotropic effect. Lignocaine did not alter the responses to MKEE significantly. Responses to MKEE were significantly inhibited when calcium concentration was reduced to half (from 1.58 to 0.79 mM) and were significantly potentiated when calcium concentration was doubled (from 1.58 to 3.16 mM). Verapamil was found to inhibit the responses significantly. The results suggest that M. koenigii induced positive inotropic effect possibly by increasing availability of calcium from extra cellular sites.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/pharmacology , Calcium/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Ethanol/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Murraya/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Propranolol/pharmacology , Purines , Ranidae , Sulfones , Theophylline/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
18.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-439356

ABSTRACT

Neste artigo apresentamos nossa contribuição na implementação do Laboratório de Hemodinâmica do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, dotado de instrumentos de informática para armazenamento de dados e obtenção de variáveis hemodinâmicos imediatas, bem como aspectos metodológicos e os resultados dos efeitos hemodinâmicos sobre a circulação e sobre o desempenho do coração, durante cateterismo cardíaco, dos principais medicamentos usados em cardiologia. Inicialmente, comparamos de forma duplo-cego os efeitos dos contrastes para selecionar os melhores contrastes disponíveis no meio. Em seqüência, passamos a identificar os índices mais confiáveis para avaliar o desempenho do coração para serem usados como indicadores fiéis nas investigações com os medicamentos. Nos estudos que realizamos com os nitratos, demonstramos que eles melhoravam a motilidade dos segmentos isquêmicos do ventrículo esquerdo. O estudo com a amiodarona, demonstrou que o medicamento tinha propriedades semelhantes aos betabloqueadores. O estudo com os antagonistas do cálcio demonstrou que a nifedipina tinha um efeito predominantemente vasodilatador sobre a circulação sistêmica e pulmonar e o verapamil, propriedades inotrópicas negativas. Com o ensaio clínico com o uso de verapamil em paciente portadores de miocardiopatia primária dilatada, demonstramos que os 15 pacientes, acompanhados durante cinco anos, tiveram evolução favorável. Posteriormente, passamos a utilizar o verapamil por via venosa em pacientes com angina refratária aos nitratos durante cateterismo cardíaco. Todos os pacientes responderam favoravelmente ao novo tratamento. O estudo com a digoxina em pacientes com cardiopatia isquêmica demonstrou que o medicamento aumenta as resistências vasculares sistêmica e pulmonar. O trabalho com o dipiridamol demonstrou que esse medicamento aumenta a freqüência cardíaca, a contratilidade miocárdica e o débito cardíaco. O trabalho duplo-cego com o uso do pindolol e o propranolol, por via endove...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Catheterization , Nitrates/pharmacology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amiodarone , Amiodarone/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
19.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 25(1): 85-91, ene.-mar. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-485645

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Episodios breves de ejercicio previos a la oclusión prolongada de una arteria coronaria disminuyen el tamaño del infarto inducido por ésta. Objetivo: Dado que la administración intracoronaria de Ca2+ induce precondicionamiento, y el ejercicio probablemente aumenta el calcio citosólico, decidimos estudiar si el precondicionamiento por ejercicio está mediado por Ca2+. Material y método: Para ello analizamos el efecto del bloqueo de los canales de calcio del sarcolema, con verapamilo, sobre la acción precondicionante del ejercicio. Se midió tamaño del infarto en perros entrenados a correr en cinta sin finasignados aleatoriamente a los siguientes grupos. I: Isquemia inducida por oclusión coronaria durante 1 hora seguida de reperfusión por 4 hrs. E+I: Similar al grupo I, pero los perros hicieron ejercicio antes de inducir la isquemia. V+I: Similar al grupo I, pero se administró verapamilo antes de inducir la isquemia. V+E+I : Similar al grupo E+I, pero se administró verapamilo antes del ejercicio. Para estudiar el posible rol mediador del retículo sarcoplasmático (RS) en los efectos de la isquemia y de verapamilo, se midió la captación y la liberación de calcio en vesículas de RS de la pared del ventrículo izquierdo sometida a isquemia con o sin verapamilo en perros con y sin precondicionamiento con ejercicio. Los resultados, expresados como promedio +/- ES, se analizaron mediante ANOVA seguido del test de Holm para comparaciones múltiples. Resultados: Verapamilo revirtió el efecto protector del ejercicio sobre el tamaño del infarto (E+I: 6,0 +/- 9,4; N=12 vs V+E+I: 27,7+/-9,6; N=15; P<0.05), pero no modificó el efecto protector del ejercicio precondicionante sobre los trastornos de transporte de calcio en el RS inducidos por la isquemia. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren que el precondicionamiento inducido por ejercicio está mediado por la entrada de calcio a la célula...


Background: Brief episodes of exercise prior to a prolonged occlusion of a coronary artery substantially reduce infarct size. Aim: Since the intracoronary administration of Ca2+ induces preconditioning and exercise most likely increases cytosolic calcium we put forward the hypothesis that preconditioning by exercise is mediated by calcium. Methods: For this purpose we analyzed the effect of verapamil, a sarcolemmal calcium channel blocker, on preconditioning by exercise. We measured infarct size in dogs randomly assigned to one of the following groups. I: Ischemia induced by coronary occlusion during 1 hour followed by reperfusion during 4 hours. E+I: Similar to group I, but the dogs run on a treadmill prior to ischemia. V+I: Similar to group I but verapamil was administered before the coronary occlusion. V+E+I: Similar to group E+I but verapamil was administered before exercise. SR vesicles from ventricular tissue were isolated from dogs subjected to the same experimental protocols and calcium release and active calcium uptake were measured. Results were expressed as Mean +/- SE and analyzed by ANOVA followed by Holm test for multiple comparisons. Results: Verapamil reverted the protective effect of exercise on infarct size (E+I: 6,0 +/- 9,4; N=12 vs V+E+I: 27,7 +/- 9,6;N=15; P<0.05) however it did not modify the protective effect of exercise on the alterations produced by ischemia on calcium transport in the RS. Conclusions: These results suggest that the preconditioning effect of exercise is mediated by calcium entering the cell through the sarcolemma but not by exercise effects on SR calcium transport.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Ischemia/metabolism , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial , Verapamil/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Control Groups , Dogs , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Sarcolemma , Sarcolemma/metabolism
20.
Bulletin of Alexandria Faculty of Medicine. 2006; 42 (4): 1159-1166
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-105102

ABSTRACT

Cyclosporin A [CyA] therapy is often associated with nephrotoxicity partly due to abnormalities in intracellular calcium signaling. Pharmacological, biochemical, and histopathological studies were undertaken in the present study to investigate the potential protective effect of the L-type calcium channel blocker, verapamil [VER], against CyA -induced renal damage. Rats were treated for 10 days with olive oil [control], CyA [20 mg/kg, orally], VER [10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally], or CyA plus VER. The vascular reactivity of the isolated perfused kidney to endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation induced by acetylcholine [ACh] and sodium nitroprusside [SNP], respectively; was evaluated ACh [100 nmol] caused 77.23 +/- 8.11% reduction in the renal perfusion pressure and this effect was significantly reduced by CyA treatment [51.99 +/- 5.13%]. In contrast, vasodilatory responses to SNP [100 micro M] were significantly potentiated in CyA-treated compared to control rats [95.28 +/- 5.38% vs. 43.79 +/- 2.69%]. CyA increased plasma urea and creatinine, indices of renal function, and caused moderate renal tubular vacuolization. Unlike CyA. treatment with VER produced no change in the studied parameters. In rats co-treated with CyA and VER, the attenuation in ACh relaxation was maintained [54.01 +/- 7.31%] whereas the potentiation of SNP relaxation was exaggerated [13 7.31 +/- 17.68%], and microscopical abnormalities were aggravated compared with CyA -treated rats. The present results indicate that, contrary to our expectations, VER exacerbates rather than ameliorates functional and structural features of CyA nephrotoxicity in rats


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Kidney Function Tests/methods , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Calcium Channel Blockers , Verapamil/pharmacology , Nitroprusside , Rats
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