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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(1): e25-e28, feb 2022. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353751

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Tay-Sachs es una enfermedad metabólica hereditaria neurodegenerativa. Existen cuatro tipos según el inicio de los síntomas clínicos: infantil, infantil de inicio tardío, juvenil y adulto. El tipo infantil tiene el peor pronóstico. Recientemente, se describieron diferentes anomalías que acompañan a los trastornos metabólicos e influyen en el pronóstico. Presentamos el caso de un lactante con enfermedad de Tay-Sachs junto con coartación aórtica y reflujo vesicoureteral bilateral (RVU) de grado V. Se realizó el seguimiento del paciente en el consultorio externo de Cardiología Pediátrica. En la ecografía abdominal, se observó ectasia pielocalicial, y se detectó reflujo vesicoureteral bilateral de grado V en la cistouretrografía miccional. No se ha informado previamente la coexistencia de estas anomalías. Este caso pone de manifiesto que no se deben subestimar las anomalías del examen neurológico en los pacientes con una cirugía cardíaca reciente, porque podría perderse la oportunidad de diagnosticar enzimopatías congénitas.


Tay-Sachs disease is a neurodegenerative inherited metabolic disease. There are four forms classified by the time of first clinical symptoms: infantile, late infantile, juvenile and adult. Infantile form has the poorest prognosis. Lately, different abnormalities which accompany metabolic disorders and affect the prognosis have been described. We present an infant with Tay-Sachs disease accompanied by coarctation of the aorta and bilateral grade V vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). The patient was followed up in the outpatient clinic of Pediatric Cardiology. The abdominal ultrasonography showed pelvicalyceal ectasia; bilateral grade V VUR in voiding cystourethrography was found. This coexistence has not been previously reported. This case emphasizes that abnormalities in the neurological examination of cardiac postsurgical patients should not be underestimated because the opportunity to diagnose inborn errors of metabolism could be missed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Aortic Coarctation/complications , Aortic Coarctation/diagnosis , Tay-Sachs Disease/diagnosis , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/complications , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/diagnosis
2.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 25(2): 297-304,
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279422

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El reflujo vesicoureteral es una causa frecuente de daño renal crónico y necesidad de tratamiento sustitutivo renal. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en pacientes con diagnóstico de reflujo vesicoureteral, que fueron atendidos en consulta de Nefrología pediátrica durante un período de cinco años, con el objetivo de identificar: las manifestaciones clínicas iniciales, los factores asociados y las alteraciones en estudios de imagen. El síntoma inicial fundamental fue la recurrencia de infecciones urinarias febriles (82,3 %). Se encontraron varios factores de riesgo asociados: el antecedente familiar de malformaciones renales (57,32 %), la diabetes materna (38,45 %), el hábito de fumar (24,67 %) y la anemia (18,20 %). Se observaron alteraciones sonográficas (60 %); predominaron el reflujo vesicoureteral grado 3 y la presencia de cicatrices renales. Las alteraciones sonográficas son frecuentes en estos pacientes, si bien su normalidad no lo descarta. La nefropatía cicatrizal se asocia al reflujo vesicoureteral, sobre todo asociado a infecciones urinarias febriles.


ABSTRACT Vesicoureteral reflux is a frequent cause of chronic kidney damage and the need for renal replacement therapy. A longitudinal descriptive study was carried out in patients who were diagnosed with vesicoureteral reflux and seen in the Pediatric Nephrology consultation for a period of five years, with the aim of identifying early clinical manifestations, associated factors and alterations in imaging studies. Recurrence of febrile urinary tract infections was the main initial symptom (82.3%). Several associated risk factors such as family history of kidney malformations (57.32%), maternal diabetes (38.45%), smoking habit (24.67%) and anemia (18.20%) were found. Sonographic alterations (60%) were observed; presence of grade III vesicoureteral reflux and renal scarring predominated. Sonographic alterations are frequent in these patients, although its normality does not rule it out. Scarring nephropathy is associated with vesicoureteral reflux, especially with febrile urinary tract infections.


Subject(s)
Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 610-614, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154483

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We describe a step by step technique for open distal ureteroureterostomy (UU) in infants less than 6 months presenting with duplex collecting system and upper pole ectopic ureter in the absence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Ureter/surgery , Ureter/diagnostic imaging , Ureteral Obstruction , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/surgery , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/diagnostic imaging , Ureterostomy , Kidney Pelvis
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with neurogenic bladder (NB), and to provide a reference for its early diagnosis and treatment.@*METHODS@#Clinical data were collected from 26 children with NB and urinary tract infection who were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Nephrology from January 2014 to December 2019. According to the presence or absence of VUR, the children were divided into a VUR group with 11 children and a non-VUR group with 15 children. Clinical features were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the non-VUR group, the VUR group had a significantly higher proportion of children with non-@*CONCLUSIONS@#When NB children have the clinical manifestations of non-


Subject(s)
Child , Creatinine , Humans , Infant , Radionuclide Imaging , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/etiology , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/diagnostic imaging
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(3): 314-321, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090624

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vesicoureteral reflux, the retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract, is one of the most common urologic diagnoses in the pediatric population. Once detected, therapeutic options for urinary reflux are diverse, ranging from observation with or without continuous low-dose prophylactic antibiotics to a variety of operative interventions. While a standardized algorithm is lacking, it is generally accepted that management be tailored to individual patients based on various factors including age, likelihood of spontaneous resolution, risk of subsequent urinary tract infections with renal parenchymal injury, and parental preference. Anti-reflux surgery may be necessary in children with persistent reflux, renal scarring or recurrent pyelonephritis after optimization of bladder and bowel habits. Open, laparoscopic/robot-assisted and endoscopic approaches are all successful in correcting reflux and have been shown to reduce the incidence of febrile urinary tract infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/surgery , Replantation , Urinary Tract Infections , Gold
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e16-e21, 2020-02-00. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095573

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El objetivo fue evaluar las características clínicas y la evolución del reflujo vesicoureteral (RVU) según el sexo y grado de RVU.Población y métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes con RVU vistos durante el seguimiento de rutina entre enero de 2014 y enero de 2015. Se registraron las características demográficas, la evolución, los laboratorios y las imágenes.Resultados. Se seleccionó a 220 pacientes, cuya media de edad del diagnóstico era 3,17 ± 3,08 años; en ese momento, los varones eran menores que las niñas (2,00 ± 2,59 vs. 3,81 ± 3,15, p < 0,001). La infección urinaria fue la presentación más frecuente, seguida de hidronefrosis prenatal (HNP). El 22 % de los pacientes tuvo reflujo de grado 1-2; el 51 %, de grado 3; y el 27 %, de grado 4-5. En el reflujo de grado 4-5, las ecografías y gammagrafías con ácido dimercaptosuccínico (DMSA) marcado con 99mTc presentaron más anomalías, y se realizaron más cirugías (p < 0,001). En los varones, fueron más comunes el reflujo de grado 4-5 (43,6 % vs. 18,3 %) y las anomalías ecográficas (77 % vs. 54 %) y en la DMSA (77 % vs. 59 %) (p < 0,05). En las niñas, hubo mayores tasas de infección urinaria, disfunción de las vías urinarias inferiores y resolución espontánea (p < 0,05).Conclusiones. A pesar de la menor edad al momento del diagnóstico, la resolución espontánea fue menor en los varones, y estos presentaron HNP, reflujo grave y anomalías radiológicas más frecuentemente.


Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess the clinical features and outcome parameters of children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) based on gender and VUR grade.Population and methods. Patients with VUR who were seen during routine follow-up visits at Ankara University Children's Hospital between January 2014-January 2015 were included in this retrospective study. Patient demographics, clinical course, laboratory investigations, imaging were noted.Results. Two hundred and twenty patients were recruited. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 3,17 ± 3,08 years. Boys were diagnosed at younger ages as compared to girls (2.00 ± 2,59 vs. 3,81 ± 3.15, p < 0.001). Urinary tract infection (UTI) was the most common presentation. The second presentation form was antenatal hydronephrosis (AHN) which was more common in males (25.6 %, p < 0.001). Twenty-two percent of the patients had grade 1-2, 51 % grade 3 and 27 % grade 4-5 reflux. Patients with grade 4-5 reflux had more abnormal ultrasound (US) and Tech 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA) findings and surgery was performed more frequently in this group (p < 0.001). In males, grade 4-5 reflux (43.6 % vs. 18.3 %), abnormal US (77 % vs. 54 %) and DMSA (77 % vs. 59 %) findings were more frequent (p < 0.05). In girls higher rates of UTIs, lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and spontaneous reflux resolution were seen (p < 0.05).Conclusions: Despite younger age at diagnosis, spontaneous resolution was found lower in boys and they had more frequent AHN, more severe reflux, and radiological abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/diagnosis , Signs and Symptoms , Turkey/epidemiology , Urinary Tract/abnormalities , Urinary Tract Infections/surgery , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Demographic Data , Hydronephrosis
9.
Rev. Hosp. Niños B.Aires ; 62(276): 7-14, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099872

ABSTRACT

El propósito de este artículo de revisión es compilar los factores más frecuentes asociados o vinculados al reflujo vesicouretral como: a) incidencia, b) mecanismo de transmisión genética, c) etiopatogenia del reflujo, d) su relación con la infección urinaria, e) patogénesis del daño parenquimatoso renal adquirido y congénito en niños con reflujo, f) reflujo intrarrenal y su asociación con el daño renal, g) rol de las disfunciones vesicales no-neurogénicas, h) métodos de diagnóstico y i) presentación clínica. Se analizan además, distintos aspectos del tratamiento del reflujo que siguen generando controversias; las indicaciones de la profilaxis antibiótica, el tratamiento quirúrgico clásico creando un túnel submucoso ureteral de longitud adecuada y el tratamiento endoscópico con sustancias de abultamiento. Aún persisten varios aspectos polémicos relacionados con el reflujo, en esta revisión se examinan algunos de ellos. Es el propósito de este trabajo que el lector interesado en el tema de la urología pediátrica se beneficie con la lectura de esta revisión


The intention of this review article was to compile outlining areas surrounding the effects of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and associated factors, such as: a) incidence, b) patterns of inheritance, c) etiology of VUR, d) relationship between reflux and urinary tract infection, e) diagnostic imaging studies, f) etiology of acquired and congenital kidney damage related to VUR, g) importance of intrarenal reflux in reflux nephropathy, h) role of high bladder pressures on the kidney and i) clinical presentation. In addition, we also discussed the management of VUR which is still controversial, the role of antibiotic therapy and indications of ureteric reimplantation or endoscopic correction of reflux; still debated in the pediatric urologic literature. Many unanswered questions remain, and are analyzed in this review. We hope the readers will profit from reading this review


Subject(s)
Humans , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux , Pediatrics
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(4): 523-537, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134187

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) is characterized by a retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the ureters and kidneys. It is one of the most common urinary tract anomalies and the major cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in the first years of life. If not properly diagnosed and treated can lead to recurrent UTI, renal scar and, in severe cases, to end stage renal disease. Despite recent advances in scientific and technological knowledge, evaluation and treatment of VUR is still controversial and there is still considerable heterogeneity in evaluation methods and therapeutic approaches. The aim of the present consensus is to give a practical orientation on how to evaluate and treat VUR. Methods The board of Pediatric Urology of the Brazilian Society of Urology joined a group of experts and reviewed all important issues on Vesicoureteral Reflux evaluation and treatment and elaborated a draft of the document. On November 2017 the panel met to review, discuss and write a consensus document. Results and Discussion Vesicoureteral Reflux is a common and challenging problem in children. Children presenting with Vesicoureteral Reflux require careful evaluation and treatment to avoid future urinary tract infections and kidney scars. The panel addressed recommendations on up to date choice of diagnosis evaluation and therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/therapy , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/diagnosis , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/therapy , Brazil , Ultrasonography , Consensus
11.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 424-429, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136217

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) represents one of the most significant risk factors for acute pyelonephritis in children. Various intravesical and extravesical techniques have been described for the surgical correction of VUR. The aim of our study was to compare the results of open intravesical and extravesical procedures for unilateral primary VUR in children. METHODS Between January 2012 and August 2018, 38 children with primary VUR who underwent open ureteral reimplantation surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The Cohen (intravesical) and the Lich-Gregoir (extravesical) approach were grouped as groups A and B, respectively. The groups were compared for age, gender, preoperative reflux grade, presence of lower urinary tract symptoms, operation time, discomfort and pain, analgesic requirements, duration of hematuria, postoperative complications, and hospital stay. All the parameters were statistically compared. RESULTS There were 38 patients in this study. Group A had 18 patients, and group B had 20 patients. The mean operative time was significantly shorter in group B than in group A. The mean hospital stay was also shorter in group B. The urethral foley stay period was 4.7±0.9 days 2±0 days (p = 0.000*), respectively, for group A and B. Macroscopic hematuria was seen in group A. The objective pain scale was worse after intravesical surgery. Analgesic requirements were higher in group A (p =0.131). CONCLUSION Intravesical and extravesical ureteroneocystostomy methods are equally successful and feasible in the treatment of primary unilateral VUR. The Cohen technique is associated with a longer and more painful hospital stay, gross hematuria, and longer operative time, compared to the Lich-Gregoir technique.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O Refluxo Vesicoureteral (RVU) representa um dos mais importantes fatores de risco para pielonefrite aguda em crianças. Diversas técnicas intra e extravesicais já foram descritas para a correção cirúrgica do RVU. O objetivo do nosso estudo é comparar os resultados de procedimentos extravesicais e intravesicais abertos para o tratamento de RVU primário unilateral em crianças. METODOLOGIA Entre janeiro de 2012 e agosto de 2018, 38 crianças com RVU primário foram submetidas a cirurgia aberta de reimplante ureteral. Esses casos foram retrospectivamente revisados. As abordagens de Cohen (intravesical) e Lich-Gregoir (extravesical) foram agrupadas nos grupos A e B, respectivamente. Os grupos foram comparados quanto à idade, sexo, grau de refluxo pré-operatório, presença de sintomas no trato urinário inferior, tempo de operação, desconforto e dor, necessidade de analgésicos, duração de hematúria, complicações pós-operatórias e tempo de internação. Todos os parâmetros foram comparados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS No total, 38 pacientes foram incluídos neste estudo. O grupo A teve 18 pacientes e o grupo B, 20. O tempo médio de operação foi significativamente menor no grupo B do que no grupo A. O tempo médio de internação também foi menor no grupo B. O tempo de uso do foley uretral foi de 4,7 ± 0,9 dias e 2±0 dias (p = 0,000*) , respectivamente, para o grupo A e B. Hematúria macroscópica foi observada no grupo A. A pontuação na escala objetiva de dor foi pior após a cirurgia intravesical. A necessidade de analgésicos foi maior no grupo A (p = 0,131). CONCLUSÃO As técnicas extravesicais e intravesical de ureteroneocistostomia são igualmente bem-sucedidas e viáveis para o tratamento de RVU primário unilateral. A técnica de Cohen está associada a um período de internação mais longo e mais doloroso, hematúria e maior tempo operatório, em comparação com a técnica de Lich-Gregoir.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Replantation , Urologic Surgical Procedures , Ureter , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported on breakthrough urinary tract infection (UTI) associated with the susceptibility of index UTI to prophylactic antibiotics in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) receiving continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP). We assessed the impact of the susceptibility of index UTI to prophylactic antibiotics in breakthrough UTIs in children with primary VUR receiving CAP. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 81 children with primary VUR who were diagnosed after febrile or symptomatic UTI and subsequently received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) as CAP between January 2010 and December 2013. We allocated children to a susceptible group or a resistant group based on the susceptibility of index UTI to TMP-SMX. We evaluated patient demographics and clinical outcomes after CAP according to the susceptibility of index UTI to TMP-SMX. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the predictive factors for breakthrough UTI. RESULTS: Of the 81 children, 42 were classified into the susceptible group and 39 into the resistant group. The proportion of breakthrough UTI was 31.0% (13/42) in the susceptible group and 53.8% (21/39) in the resistant group (P = 0.037). Progression of renal scarring was observed in 0% of children in the susceptible group and 15% in the resistant group (P = 0.053). Multivariate analysis showed that TMP-SMX resistance and initial renal scarring were significant predictors of breakthrough UTI. CONCLUSION: Susceptibility of index UTI to prophylactic antibiotics is a risk factor of breakthrough UTI and is associated with poor clinical outcomes in children with primary VUR receiving CAP.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Child , Cicatrix , Demography , Humans , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719358

ABSTRACT

Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) in infants is manifested by presence of hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and metabolic acidosis. At initial stages, PAH is generally suspected as congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Transient PHA has been reported in infants with urinary tract infection and urinary tract malformation. We report a case of 5-month-old infant with failure to thrive and finally diagnosed with transient PHA due to urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Failure to Thrive , Humans , Hyperkalemia , Hyponatremia , Infant , Pseudohypoaldosteronism , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785849

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) on vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), continence status, and urodynamic parameters in children with myelodysplasia who were not responsive to standard conservative therapy.METHODS: The study included 31 children (13 boys, 18 girls) with a mean age of 9.2±2.3 years (range, 5–14 years) with myelodysplasia, retrospectively. All children were fully compatible with clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) and did not respond to the maximum tolerable anticholinergic dose. All children received an intradetrusor injection of 10 U/kg (maximum, 300 U) of BoNT-A into an infection-free bladder. All patients had VUR (22 unilateral, 9 bilateral) preoperatively. The grade of reflux was mild (grades 1, 2), intermediate (grade 3), and severe (grades 4, 5) in 25, 7, and 8 ureters, respectively.RESULTS: The mean maximum bladder capacity increased from 152.9±76.9 mL to 243.7±103 mL (P<0.001), and the maximum detrusor pressure decreased from 57±29.4 cm H₂O to 29.6±13.9 cm H₂O (P<0.001). After BoNT-A treatment, 16 refluxing ureters (40%) completely resolved, 17 (42.5%) improved, 5 (12.5%) remained unchanged, and 2 (5%) became worse. Of the 31 children with urinary leakage between CICs, 22 (71%) became completely dry, 6 (19%) improved, and 3 (10%) experienced partial improvement.CONCLUSIONS: In children with myelodysplasia, we were able to increase bladder capacity, enhance continence, and prevent VUR by using intradetrusor BoNT-A injections. Although our results are promising, a larger group of long-term prospective studies are warranted to investigate this method of treatment.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins, Type A , Child , Humans , Intermittent Urethral Catheterization , Methods , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Ureter , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic , Urodynamics , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
15.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 100-104, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785577

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ureteral duplication is a relatively common congenital urinary tract abnormality that can be associated with various clinical problems such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), hydronephrosis, and ectopic ureters. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with recently diagnosed ureteral duplication and to identify any differences from those described in previous reports.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and course of pediatric patients who were diagnosed with ureteral duplication between January 2008 and June 2017.RESULTS: A total of 32 pediatric patients were diagnosed with ureteral duplication during the study period. The male to female ratio was 1:2.2. Twenty-seven patients (84.4%) were first diagnosed with ureteral duplication at less than 3 months of age, and 26 (81.3%) were first diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography. Four of the 32 patients were diagnosed with bilateral ureteral duplication, for a total of 36 occurrences of ureteral duplication. In 17 occurrences of complete ureteral duplication (47.2%), other urinary tract anomalies were also found; namely, ureterocele (7), VUR (11), and ectopic ureter (5). However, none of the patients with incomplete ureteral duplication had ureterocele or VUR.CONCLUSION: With the advent of routine prenatal ultrasound, ureteral duplication is being diagnosed earlier than was previously possible, enabling timely treatment of the various accompanying urinary tract anomalies. Multicenter studies are needed to establish guidelines for standardized evaluation and treatment of ureteral duplication.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Hydronephrosis , Male , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Ureter , Ureterocele , Urinary Tract , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
16.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 121-123, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785573

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infection is common in the pediatric population. The most common causative agents are bacteria, among which Escherichia coli is the most frequent uropathogen. Although fungal urinary tract infection is rare in the healthy pediatric population, it is relatively common among hospitalized patients. Fungus may be isolated from the urine of immunocompromised patients or that of patients with indwelling catheters. The most common cause of funguria is Candida albicans. Although more than 50% of Candida isolates belong to non-albicans Candida , the prevalence of non-albicans candiduria is increasing. Herein, we report a case of community-acquired candiduria in a 4-month-old immunocompetent male infant who had bilateral vesicoureteral reflux and was administered antibiotic prophylaxis. He was diagnosed with urinary tract infection caused by Candida lusitaniae and was managed with fluconazole.


Subject(s)
Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bacteria , Candida , Candida albicans , Catheters, Indwelling , Escherichia coli , Fluconazole , Fungi , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the long-term prognosis of vesicoureteral reflux in children.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 138 children (218 ureters with reflux) who were diagnosed with vesicoureteral reflux for the first time from November 2005 to March 2017 and received medical treatment and regular follow-up. According to the initial grade of reflux, the ureters with reflux were divided into a low-grade group (141 ureters, grade I-III) and a high-grade group (77 ureters, grade IV-V), and the two groups were compared in terms of clinical data and follow-up results.@*RESULTS@#Among the 138 children, there were 82 boys and 56 girls. Their age ranged from 31 days to 10 years at the time of confirmed diagnosis, with a median age of 8 months. The follow-up time ranged from 8 months to 7 years, with a median follow-up time of 1.4 years. At the time of confirmed diagnosis, the high-grade group had significantly higher levels of urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, urinary microalbumin and urinary immunoglobulin G than the low-grade group (P<0.05). Among the 218 ureters with reflux, 132 (60.6%) achieved a reduction in the grade of reflux (among which 74 achieved complete disappearance of reflux), 43 had no change in the grade of reflux, and 43 had an increase in the grade of reflux. Compared with the high-grade group, the low-grade group had a significantly higher complete remission rate (41.1% vs 19.5%, P=0.001) and a significantly shorter time to complete remission of reflux (P=0.002).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Most children with vesicoureteral reflux can achieve a reduction in the grade of reflux or even complete disappearance of reflux during follow-up, and the children with low-grade reflux have better prognosis than those with high-grade reflux.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1200-1206, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975662

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify how many endoscopic injection (EI) procedures, STING method, must be performed before reaching an ideal success rate when simulation training has not been received. Materials and Methods: The EI procedures performed by two pediatric urology fellows were investigated. The study excluded patients without primary VUR and those with previous EI or ureteroneocystostomy, lower urinary tract dysfunction, and/or duplicate ureters. The EIs used dextranomer hyaluronate and the STING method, as described by O'Donnell and Puri. Groups number was determined by multiple statistical trials. Statistically significance differences were achieved with one combination that had 35 EI procedures each and with 3 different combination of patients, having 12, 24, and 36 patients, respectively. Therefore, groups were established 12 patients. The first fellow performed 54 EIs, and the second performed 51. Therefore, each of the first fellow's three groups contained 18 EI procedures, and each of the second fellow's 17. Results: The study included 72 patients and 105 ureter units. When the data from both fellows were combined, each of the three groups contained 35 procedures. For the first fellow, the success rates in the first, second, and third groups were 38.3%, 66.6%, and 83.3% (p = 0.02), respectively, and for the second fellow, the success rates were 41.2%, 64.7%, and 82.3% (p = 0.045), respectively. The increased success rates for both fellows were very similar. Conclusions: An acceptable rate of success for EI may be reached after about 20 procedures and a high success rate after about 35-40 procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/therapy , Learning Curve , Hyaluronic Acid/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Dextrans/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Clinical Competence , Cystoscopy
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1207-1214, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975659

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the different urine flow patterns and active pelvic floor electromyography (EMG) during voiding in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) as well as presenting the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in these patients. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children diagnosed with VUR after toilet training from Sep 2013 to Jan 2016. 225 anatomically and neurologically normal children were included. The reflux was diagnosed with voiding cystourethrography. The study was comprised an interview by means of a symptom questionnaire, a voiding diary, uroflowmetry with EMG and kidney and bladder ultrasounds. Urine flow patterns were classified as bell shape, staccato, interrupted, tower and plateau based on the current International Children's Continence Society guidelines. Results: Of 225 children with VUR (175 girls, 50 boys), underwent uroflowmetry + EMG, 151 (67.1%) had an abnormal urine flow pattern. An active pelvic floor EMG during voiding was confirmed in 113 (50.2%) children. The flow patterns were staccato in 76 (33.7 %), interrupted in 41 (18.2%), Plateau in 26 (11.5%), tower in 12 (5.3%) and a bell shape or normal pattern in 70 (31.5%). Urinary tract infection, enuresis and constipation respectively, were more frequent symptoms in these patients. Conclusions: Bladder/bowel dysfunction is common in patients with VUR that increases the risk of breakthrough urinary tract infections in children receiving antibiotic prophylaxis and reduces the success rate for endoscopic injection therapy. Therefore investigation of voiding dysfunction with primary assessment tools can be used prior to treating VUR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Urination/physiology , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/physiopathology , Pelvic Floor/physiopathology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/physiopathology , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/complications , Retrospective Studies , Electromyography , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/diagnosis , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/etiology
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1194-1199, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975658

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Various bulking agents were utilized for endoscopic correction of VUR. A study reviewing multi-institutional data showed that the amount of injection material has increased over time with the purpose of improving success rates, which also resulted in costs. We noticed an opposite trend in our center since we started using a new bulking agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate evolution of our practice with different bulking agents. Patients and Methods: Records of VUR patients who underwent subureteric injection with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer (PPC) and dextronomere hyaluronic acide (DxHA) between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Variation of different parameters throughout the study period was evaluated along with the success rate. Success was defined as complete resolution of reflux. Results: A total of 260 patients with 384 refluxing units were included. The success rate was higher in PPC group compared to DxHA group. There was no statistically significant difference between years regarding distribution of VUR grade, body weight, patient height, and age in PPC group. Despite significant reduction in injection volume, success rate did not decrease through the years with PPC. Conclusion: Different bulking agents may require different injection volumes to achieve the same success rate in endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux. Habits gained with previous experience using other materials should be revised while using a new agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Polymers/administration & dosage , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux/therapy , Biocompatible Materials/administration & dosage , Acrylic Resins/administration & dosage , Dextrans/administration & dosage , Hyaluronic Acid/administration & dosage , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ureteroscopy
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