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1.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(4)2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353067

ABSTRACT

This study comprises a retrospective analysis of snakebites in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2007 to 2017. Data were collected from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (NDIS). 17,056 snakebites were recorded in Amazonas between 2007 and 2017. During the study period, the Rio Negro and Tefé micro-regions had the highest accumulated incidence, while small municipalities such as São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Uarini and Alvarães presenting a high incidence rate during the same period. Snakes in the genera Bothrops and Lachesis caused 69.5% and 20.3% snakebites. Snakebites occurred more frequently in the Amazonian winter, between January and April, and most of the snakebite victims (78.6%) were men. The most affected individuals were between 20 and 39 years of age (59.4%). The time elapsed between snakebites and medical assistance varied from one to six hours (51.4%). 7,705 of the snakebite cases, were classified as moderate, 7,328 as mild, and 1,299 as severe. Of the 104 deaths that occurred in the period, Bothrops genus caused the highest mortality (68.3%). The State of Amazonas recorded both high numbers of snakebites in the period 2007-2017 and the time elapsed between snakebite and medical assistance, which may affect the clinical status of patients.


Subject(s)
Snake Bites , Snakes , Viperidae , Bothrops
2.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200068, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1154772

ABSTRACT

Maintenance of snakes at Butantan Institute started in the last century, intending to produce a different antivenom serum to reduce death caused by snakebites. Through a successful campaign coordinated by Vital Brazil, farmers sent venomous snakes to Butantan Institute by the railway lines with no cost. From 1908 to 1962, the snakes were kept in an outdoor serpentarium, where venom extraction was performed every 15 days. During this period, the snake average survival was 15 days. In 1963, the snakes were transferred to an adapted building, currently called Laboratory of Herpetology (LH), to be maintained in an intensive system. Although the periodicity of venom extraction remained the same, animal average survival increased to two months. With the severe serum crisis in 1983, the Ministry of Health financed remodeling for the three public antivenom producers, and with this support, the LH could be improved. Air conditioning and exhausting systems were installed in the rooms, besides the settlement of critical hygienic-sanitary managements to increase the welfare of snakes. In the early 1990s, snake survival was ten months. Over the years to the present day, several improvements have been made in the intensive serpentarium, as the establishment of two quarantines, feeding with thawed rodents, an interval of two months between venom extraction routines, and monitoring of snake health through laboratory tests. With these new protocols, average snake survival increased significantly, being eight years for the genus Bothrops, ten years for genus Crotalus and Lachesis, and four years for the genus Micrurus. Aiming the production of venoms of good quality, respect for good management practices is essential for the maintenance of snakes in captivity. New techniques and efficient management must always be sought to improve animal welfare, the quality of the venom produced, and the safety of those working directly with the venomous snakes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snake Bites , Viperidae , Elapid Venoms/biosynthesis , Animal Welfare , Costs and Cost Analysis
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1271-1280, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134436

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The Viperidae venoms are composed of a mixture of constituents with enzymatic and non-enzymatic actions, which act on ultrastructural components of cells and tissues. Here, the number of mitochondria, mitochondrial area and the number of mitochondrial cristae from adrenal glands cortex treated with snake venoms were tested after 3, 6 and 24 hours of venom injections. The mitochondria quantitative changes showed a statistically significant decrease, in the number of mitochondria past 3, 6 and 24 h. There was an increase in the mitochondrial area after 6 h, where Crotalus vegrandis venom did not present significant differences with Crotalus pifanorum or Bothrops venezuelensis venoms. After 24 h, there was an escalation of mitochondrial area in all tested venoms. The number of mitochondrial cristae after 3 h did not present important differences with the control treatment. After 6 h, the number of mitochondrial cristae initiated to decrease under the activities of the 3 venoms action, until 24 h of observation. In the qualitative observations it was possible to witness an intense damage of the mitochondria, with loss and swelling of membranes, disappearance of cristae and the appearance of myelin figures, which started at 3 h after the Crotalus and Bothrops venoms injections. These damages probably were due to cytotoxic effects of phospholipases, metalloproteases and/or other proteolytic activities present in Viperidae snake venoms, being more evident in Crotalus venoms. As far as we know, these results define a novel finding that suggest that Viperidae snake venoms are extremely toxic to mammalian mitochondria.


RESUMEN: Los venenos de Viperidae tienen acciones enzimáticas y no enzimáticas, que actúan sobre la estructura celular. Aquí se probaron, a las 3, 6 y 24 horas de la inyección del veneno, el número de mitocondrias, el área mitocondrial y el número de crestas mitocondriales de la corteza de las glándulas adrenales. Los cambios cuantitativos de las mitocondrias mostraron una disminución en el número de mitocondrias a las 3, 6 y 24 h. Hubo un aumento en el área mitocondrial a las 6 h, donde el veneno de la serpiente Crotalus vegrandis no presentó diferencias significativas con los venenos de Crotalus pifanorum o Bothrops venezuelensis. Después de 24 h, hubo un aumento del área mitocondrial en todos los venenos. El número de crestas mitocondriales a las 3 h no presentó alteraciones o diferencias importantes con el tratamiento de control. Después de 6 h, el número de crestas mitocondriales comenzó a disminuir bajo la acción de los 3 venenos, hasta las 24 h de observación. En las observaciones cualitativas se observó un daño intenso de las mitocondrias, con pérdida y edema de las membranas, desaparición de las cristae y aparición de figuras mielínicas, que comenzó a las 3 h después de las inyecciones de veneno de Crotalus y Bothrops. Estos daños se debieron factiblemente a los efectos citotóxicos de componentes proteolíticos de los venenos. Creemos que estos resultados definen un nuevo y original hallazgo, que sugiere que los venenos de serpiente Viperidae son extremadamente tóxicos para las mitocondrias de mamíferos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Viper Venoms/toxicity , Viperidae/physiology , Adrenal Glands/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Adrenal Glands/ultrastructure , Crotalus , Bothrops , Mitochondria/ultrastructure
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e9001, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055477

ABSTRACT

Due to its various structures in bio-compounds, snake venom is the indisputable result of evolutionary stages of molecules with an increasingly complex structure, high specificity, and of great importance for medicine because of their potential. The present study proposed an underpinning examination of venom composition from nine species of venomous snakes using a useful and replicable methodology. The objective was the extension of the evaluation of protein fractions in the field up to 230 kDa to permit possible identification of some fractions that are insufficiently studied. The gel capillary electrophoresis method on the chip was performed using an Agilent 2100 bioassay with the 80 and 230-LabChip Protein kits. Interpretation of electrophoresis was performed using the Protein 2100 expert (Agilent) test software as follows: a) Protein 80 (peak size scale): 1.60, 3.5, 6.50, 15.00, 28.00, 46.00, 63.00, 95.00 kDa; b) Protein 230 (peak size scale): 4.50, 7.00, 15.00, 28.00, 46.00, 63.00, 95.00, 150.00, 240.00 kDa. The screening revealed the presence of compounds with a molecular weight greater than 80 kDa, in the case of Vipera aspis and Vipera xantina palestinae. For V. aspis, a 125 kDa molecular weight pro-coagulant protein was identified, known as being involved in the reduction of plasma clotting time without any direct activity in the fibrinogen coagulation process. The samples examined on the Protein 230-LabChip electrophoresis chip can be considered as a novelty with possible uses in medicine, requiring further approaches by advanced proteomics techniques to confirm the intimate structural features and biological properties of snake venoms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Viper Venoms/chemistry , Proteins/chemistry , Viperidae/classification , Viper Venoms/analysis , Proteins/isolation & purification , Proteins/analysis , Electrophoresis, Capillary , Proteome/classification , Proteome/chemistry , Proteomics/methods
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e002420, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138064

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n. is described from the blood of the Egyptian saw-scaled viper, Echis pyramidum, captured from Saudi Arabia. Five out of ten viper specimens examined (50%) were found infected with Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n. with parasitaemia level ranged from 20-30%. The infection was restricted only to the erythrocytes. Two morphologically different forms of intraerythrocytic stages were observed; small and mature gamonts. The small ganomt with average size of 10.7 × 3.5 μm. Mature gamont was sausage-shaped with recurved poles measuring 16.3 × 4.2 μm in average size. Infected erythrocytes were hypertrophied; their nuclei were deformed and sometimes displaced from their central position in the normal uninfected cell. Merogonic stages were observed in the lung endothelial cell and the liver parenchyma cells. Mature meront was 17.8 × 13.6 µm and contained banana-shaped merozoites with average size of ~15 × 2 µm. Phylogenetic analysis based on the SSU rDNA sequence clustered Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n with previously sequenced Hepatozoon spp., most of them infected reptilian hosts without geographic consideration. The morphological and molecular comparison with closely related species proved the taxonomic uniqueness and novelty of the present form.


Resumo Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n. é descrito a partir do sangue da víbora em escamas e quilhas serrilhadas, Echis pyramidum, capturada na Arábia Saudita. Cinco de dez espécimes de víbora examinadas (50%) foram encontradas infectadas com Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n. com nível de parasitemia de 20% a 30%. A infecção foi restrita apenas aos eritrócitos. Foram observadas duas formas morfologicamente diferentes de estágios intra-eritrocíticos: gamontes de tamanho pequeno e madura. As formas menores de gamontes apresentaram média de 10,7 × 3,5 μm. Os gamontes maduros apresentaram forma de salsicha, com pequenos polos recurvados, medindo 16,3 × 4,2 μm, em média. Os eritrócitos infectados estavam aumentados de tamanho; seus núcleos encontravam-se deformados e, algumas vezes, deslocados de sua posição central, quando comparados às células normais não-infectadas. Foram observados estágios merogônicos em células endoteliais pulmonares e nas células do parênquima hepático. Os merontes maduros apresentavam 17,8 × 13,6 µm e continham merozoítos em forma de banana com tamanho médio de ~ 15 × 2 µm. A análise filogenética baseada nas sequências SSU rDNA agrupou Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n com Hepatozoon spp. detectados em répteis de várias regiões geográficas. Por meio de análises morfológicas e moleculares com espécies intimamente relacionadas, demonstrou-se a singularidade dessa nova espécie de Hepatozoon.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Apicomplexa/physiology , Apicomplexa/genetics , Viperidae/parasitology , Phylogeny , Saudi Arabia , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Apicomplexa/classification , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Viperidae/blood , Parasitemia/parasitology , Parasitemia/veterinary , Erythrocytes , Erythrocytes/pathology , Liver/parasitology , Liver/pathology , Lung/parasitology , Lung/pathology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pyuria seems to be common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), irrespective of urinary tract infection (UTI). It has been hypothesized that sterile pyuria occurs in CKD because of chronic renal parenchymal inflammation. However, there are limited data on whether CKD increases the rate of pyuria or how pyuria in CKD should be interpreted. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic pyuria (ASP) in CKD via urinary white blood cell (WBC) analysis.METHODS: Urine examination was performed for all stable hemodialysis (HD) and non-dialysis CKD patients of the outpatient clinic (total N=298). Patients with infection symptoms or recent history of antibiotic use were excluded. Urine culture and WBC analysis were performed when urinalysis revealed pyuria.RESULTS: The prevalence of ASP was 30.5% (24.1% in non-dialysis CKD and 51.4% in HD patients). Over 70% of the pyuria cases were sterile. The majority of urinary WBCs were neutrophils, even in sterile pyuria. However, the percentage of neutrophils was significantly lower in sterile pyuria. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the degree of pyuria, percentage of neutrophils, and presence of urinary nitrites remained independently associated with sterile pyuria.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ASP was higher in CKD patients and increased according to CKD stage. Most ASP in CKD was sterile. Ascertaining the number and distribution of urinary WBCs may be helpful for interpreting ASP in CKD.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Humans , Inflammation , Leukocytes , Logistic Models , Neutrophils , Nitrites , Prevalence , Pyuria , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Urinalysis , Urinary Tract Infections , Viperidae
7.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200057, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143218

ABSTRACT

Certain environmental toxins permanently damage the thymic epithelium, accelerate immune senescence and trigger secondary immune pathologies. However, the exact underlying cellular mechanisms and pathways of permanent immune intoxication remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate gene expressional changes of apoptosis-related cellular pathways in human thymic epithelial cells following exposure to snake venom from Bitis gabonica and Dendroaspis angusticeps. Methods: Snake venoms were characterized by analytical methods including reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, then applied on human thymic epithelial cells (1889c) for 24 h at 10 μg/mL (as used in previous TaqMan Array study). Gene expressional changes restricted to apoptosis were assayed by TaqMan Array (Human Apoptosis Plate). Results: The most prominent gene expressional changes were shown by CASP5 (≈ 2.5 million-fold, confirmed by dedicated quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and CARD9 (0.016-fold) for B. gabonica, and BIRC7 (6.46-fold) and CASP1 (0.30-fold) for D. angusticeps. Conclusion: The observed apoptotic environment suggests that pyroptosis may be the dominant pathway through which B. gabonica and D. angusticeps snake venoms trigger thymic epithelial apoptosis following envenomation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snake Venoms/adverse effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Apoptosis , Viperidae/genetics , Epithelial Cells/chemistry , Pyroptosis , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
8.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190044, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091017

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Endogenous phospholipase A2 inhibitors from snake blood (sbPLIs) have been isolated from several species around the world, with the primary function of self-protection against the action of toxic phospholipases A2. In American snakes, sbPLIs were solely described in pit vipers, in which the natural protection role is justified. In this study, we described a sbPLI in Boa constrictor (popularly known as jiboia), a non-venomous snake species from America. Methods: PLA2 inhibitory activity was tested in the blood plasma of B. constrictor using C. d. terrificus venom as the enzyme source. Antibodies developed against CNF, a sbγPLI from Crotalus durissus terrificus, were used to investigate the presence of homologues in the blood plasma of B. constrictor. A CNF-like molecule with a PLA2 inhibitory activity was purified by column chromatography. The encoding gene for the inhibitor was cloned from B. constrictor liver tissue. The DNA fragment was cloned, purified and sequenced. The deduced primary sequence of interest was aligned with known sbγPLIs from the literature. Results: The blood plasma of B. constrictor displayed PLA2 inhibitory activity. A CNF-like molecule (named BcNF) was identified and purified from the blood plasma of B. constrictor. Basic properties such as molecular mass, composing amino acids, and pI were comparable, but BcNF displayed reduced specific activity in PLA2 inhibition. BcNF showed highest identity scores (ISs) with sbγPLIs from pit vipers from Latin America (90-100%), followed by gamma inhibitors from Asian viperid (80-90%). ISs below 70% were obtained for BcNF and non-venomous species from Asia. Conclusion: A functional sbγPLI (BcNF) was described in the blood plasma of B. constrictor. BcNF displayed higher primary identity with sbγPLIs from Viperidae than to sbγPLIs from non-venomous species from Asia. The physiological role played by sbγPLIs in non-venomous snake species remains to be understood. Further investigation is needed.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snakes , Viperidae , Elapid Venoms , Phospholipases A2 , Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors
9.
Gut and Liver ; : 206-214, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography predicts the presence of esophageal varices (EVs). We investigated whether an ARFI-based prediction model can assess EV bleeding (EVB) risk in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: The records of 262 patients with cirrhosis who underwent ARFI elastography and endoscopic surveillance at two institutions in 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed, and ARFI spleen diameter-to-platelet ratio scores (ASPS) were calculated. RESULTS: The median patient age (165 men, 97 women) was 56 years. The median ARFI velocity, spleen diameter, platelet count, and ASPS were 1.7 m/sec, 10.1 cm, 145×10⁹/L, and 1.16, respectively. During the median 38-month follow-up, 61 patients experienced EVB. Among all patients (179 without EVs and 83 with EVs), the cutoff value that maximized the sum of the sensitivity (73.1%) and specificity (78.4%) (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.824) for predicting EVB was 2.60. The cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in patients with ASPS ≥2.60 than in those with ASPS <2.60 (p<0.001). Among patients with EVs (n=83), 49 had high-risk EVs (HEVs), and 22 had EVB. The cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in HEV patients than in low-risk EV patients (p=0.037). At an ASPS of 4.50 (sensitivity, 66.7%; specificity, 70.6%; AUROC, 0.691), the cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in patients with a high ASPS than in those with a low ASPS (p=0.045). A higher ASPS independently predicted EVB (hazard ratio, 4.072; p=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: ASPS can assess EVB risk in patients with cirrhosis. Prophylactic management should be considered for patients with HEVs and ASPS ≥4.50.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Liver Cirrhosis , Male , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spleen , Viperidae
10.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 169-173, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760584

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Agenesis of the septum pellucidum (ASP) is a very rare disease that can be isolated or associated with other brain abnormalities. The neurological prognosis of isolated ASP remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of neonates with ASP. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 12 neonates with isolated ASP or ASP combined with other brain abnormalities who were born at Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center between January 2007 and December 2017. RESULTS: Of the 12 neonates, six were identified prenatally and six were identified postnatally. Isolated ASP was found in eight neonates; of these, four were detected antenatally. ASP associated with other brain abnormalities was found in four neonates. ASP was complete in nine neonates, including six with isolated ASP, and partial in three, including two with isolated ASP. Six of the eight neonates with isolated ASP had normal neurological development, except two who were lost to follow-up. Among the four neonates with other associated brain abnormalities, two had delayed motor development and a seizure, one had normal development, and one was lost to follow-up. In all neonates, ophthalmological examination revealed no optic nerve abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Isolated ASP seems to have a good neurological prognosis without ocular problems. This result needs to be confirmed by larger prospective studies over a longer developmental timeline.


Subject(s)
Brain , Delivery of Health Care , Hospitals, General , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lost to Follow-Up , Medical Records , Optic Nerve , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Rare Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Septum Pellucidum , Viperidae
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180140, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041547

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The popular names "surucucu" and "jararaca" have been used in literature for Lachesis muta and Bothrops atrox snakes, respectively. We present the popular names reported by patients who suffered snakebites in the Alto Juruá region. METHODS: Fifty-seven (76%) patients saw the snakes that caused the envenomations and were asked about their popular names and sizes. RESULTS: The snakes Bothrops atrox, referred to as "jararaca," were recognized as being mainly juveniles (80.7%) and "surucucu" as mainly adults (81.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The name "surucucu" is used in the Alto Juruá region for the snake B. atrox, mainly for adult specimens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Adult , Snake Bites/diagnosis , Viperidae , Snake Bites/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Population Surveillance , Bothrops , Popular Culture , Terminology as Topic
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742288

ABSTRACT

Members of genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment. Some are pathogenic and cause keratitis and fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. In this study, we isolated an Acanthamoeba CJW/W1 strain from tap water in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China. Its 18S rDNA was sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The isolated cysts belonged to morphologic group II. Comparison of 18S rDNA sequences of CJW/W1 strain and other isolates showed high similarity (99.7%) to a clinical isolate Asp, KA/E28. A phylogeny analysis confirmed this isolate belonged to the pathogenic genotype T4, the most common strain associated with Acanthamoeba-related diseases. This is the first report of an Acanthamoeba strain isolated from tap water in Wuxi, China. Acanthamoeba could be a public health threat to the contact lens wearers and, therefore, its prevalence should be monitored.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba , China , DNA, Ribosomal , Encephalitis , Genotype , Keratitis , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Public Health , Trees , Viperidae , Water
13.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 715-721, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208152

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective clinical cohort study. PURPOSE: To investigate whether the combined use of dynamic pedicle screws and polyaxial pedicle screws was effective on adjacent segment pathology (ASP). OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Various screw and rod models have been recently developed for preventing adjacent segment disease, and hybrid systems have been described along with posterior instrumentation in the fusion segment. In the literature, although the success of dynamic systems has been demonstrated in non-fusion posterior instrumentation, it remains unclear whether the addition of a screw-based dynamic system to a fusion segment would successfully prevent ASP in the long term. METHODS: The study included 101 patients who underwent surgery for degenerative spine diseases between 2007 and 2014 with lumbar stabilization that used either polyaxial pedicle screws alone or polyaxial pedicle screws plus dynamic stabilization screws (with hinged screw heads). These two patient groups were compared using retrospectively obtained postoperative new clinical findings, Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores, visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and radiological data. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with ASP who were radiologically assessed was low (p 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although the combined use of dynamic screws and the static system was radiologically found to be effective for preventing ASP in patients who underwent lumbar fusion with posterior instrumentation, it did not completely eliminate ASP or result in a significant improvement in clinical ASP.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Humans , Pathology , Pedicle Screws , Retrospective Studies , Spine , Viperidae , Visual Analog Scale
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early conversion from intravenous to oral antibiotics plays an important role in lowering the risk of catheter-associated infections, reducing the workload of nurses, decreasing direct and indirect costs, and shortening hospital stays. In August 2015, an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) was implemented to facilitate conversion from intravenous to oral administration of fluoroquinolones in our institute. This study evaluated the clinical and economic impact of the intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected by reviewing electronic medical records. All hospitalized patients aged 18 and older who met the study inclusion criteria for the conversion were included between August and November 2015. We computed the physicians’ adherence rate to the ASP recommendations. We also measured the total use of fluoroquinolones, length of hospital stay, and medication costs. RESULTS: During 4 months, 129 cases were enrolled in the study. The adherence rate was 79.8%. The average total prescription volume of intravenous fluoroquinolones, the length of hospital stay, and the total cost of the fluoroquinolones statistically significantly decreased in the intervention-adherent group. CONCLUSION: Intervention to facilitate conversion from intravenous to oral administration has reduced excess use of intravenous fluoroquinolones and length of hospital stay. With these findings, further implementations of the ASP extending to other antibiotics may be warranted.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Catheter-Related Infections , Electronic Health Records , Fluoroquinolones , Humans , Length of Stay , Prescriptions , Retrospective Studies , Viperidae
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148364

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the effects of Androctonus amoreuxi scorpion venom, Cerastes cerastes snake venom and their mixture on prostate cancer cells (PC3). An MTT assay was used to determine the anti-proliferative effect of the venoms, while quantitative real time PCR was used to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2). Furthermore, colorimetric assays were used to measure the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes. Our results show that the venoms significantly reduced PC3 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, these venoms significantly decreased Bcl-2 gene expression. Additionally, C. cerastes venom significantly reduced Bax gene expression, while A. amoreuxi venom and a mixture of A. amoreuxi & C. cerastes venoms did not alter Bax expression. Consequently, these venoms significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the oxidative stress biomarker MDA. Furthermore, these venoms also increased the activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase. Overall, the venoms have cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects on PC3 cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Catalase , Cell Survival , Gene Expression , Genes, bcl-2 , Glutathione Peroxidase , Glutathione Reductase , Hand , Humans , Malondialdehyde , Oxidative Stress , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Scorpion Venoms , Scorpions , Snake Venoms , Snakes , Superoxide Dismutase , Venoms , Viper Venoms , Viperidae
16.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 23: 33, 2017. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954809

ABSTRACT

Background: Venoms represent a still underexplored reservoir of bioactive components that might mitigate or cure diseases in conditions in which conventional therapy is ineffective. The bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) comprise a class of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The BPPs usually consist of oligopeptides with 5 to 13 residues with a high number of proline residues and the tripeptide Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP-tripeptide) in the C-terminus region and have a conserved N-terminal pyroglutamate residue. As a whole, the action of the BPPs on prey and snakebite victims results in the decrease of the blood pressure. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize novel BPPs from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros. Methods: The crude venom of B. g. rhinoceros was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and the peptide fraction (<7 kDa) was separated by reverse phase chromatography (RP-HPLC) and analyzed by ESI-IT-TOF-MS/MS. One new BPP was identified, synthetized and assayed for ACE inhibition and, in vivo, for edema potentiation. Results: Typical BPP signatures were identified in three RP-HPLC fractions. CID fragmentation presented the usual y-ion of the terminal P-P fragment as a predominant signal at m/z 213.1. De novo peptide sequencing identified one Bothrops-like BPP and one new BPP sequence. The new BPP was synthesized and showed poor inhibition over ACE, but displayed significant bradykinin-induced edema potentiation. Conclusions: So far, few BPPs are described in Viperinae, and based on the sequenced peptides, two non-canonical sequences were detected. The possible clinical role of this new peptides remains unclear.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligopeptides , Peptides/isolation & purification , Biochemistry/classification , Bradykinin , Viperidae , Bothrops
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199931

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to evaluate the Antibiotic Stewardship Program (ASP) in Korean hospitals compared with the previous two surveys in 2006 and 2012. The information on ASPs was collected through an online-based survey sent by e-mail to 192 infectious diseases specialists in 101 Korean hospitals in September 2015. Fifty-four hospitals (53.5%, 54/101) responded to the online survey. One infectious diseases specialist was employed in 30 (55.6%) of the 54 hospitals, and they were in charge of ASPs in hospitals with the program. Fifty of the 54 hospitals (92.6%) had ASPs and the same number of hospitals was conducting a preauthorization-of-antibiotics-use program. Although most hospitals adopted preauthorization strategies for more antibiotics in 2015 than in 2012 (median 14 in 2015; 13 in 2012), a limited number of antibiotics were under control. The number of per oral and parenteral antibiotics available in hospitals in 2015 decreased compared to 2006 and 2012. The number of hospitals performing a retrospective or prospective qualitative drug use evaluation of antibiotic use increased from 2006 to 2015. Manpower in charge of antibiotic stewardship in most hospitals was still very limited and ASPs heavily depended on preauthorization-of-antibiotics-use programs in this survey. In conclusion, there leaves much to be desired in ASPs in Korea in 2015.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Communicable Diseases , Electronic Mail , Korea , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Specialization , Viperidae
18.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 582-592, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160168

ABSTRACT

Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Natural History , Pathology , Reoperation , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Spinal Fusion , Spine , Sports , Standard of Care , Total Disc Replacement , Viperidae
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89015

ABSTRACT

Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare form of soft tissue sarcoma, and frequently, metastases are found at diagnosis. In patients with metastatic or unresected ASPS, systemic treatment is extremely limited, because conventional chemotherapeutic agents have not been effective in most cases. A novel agent inhibiting angiogenesis, pazopanib, has been proven to be effective for metastatic soft tissue sarcoma in a second-line setting. However, the efficacy of pazopanib in ASPS has not yet been reported. A 22-year-old man presented with right calf ASPS and multiple lung metastases. Pazopanib as a second-line treatment showed significant tumor response. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the effectiveness of pazopanib in ASPS.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Humans , Lung , Neoplasm Metastasis , Sarcoma , Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part , Viperidae , Young Adult
20.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 185-190, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78637

ABSTRACT

Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antisocial Personality Disorder , Brain , Electrons , Female , Globus Pallidus , Glucose , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Male , Metabolism , Personality Disorders , Positron-Emission Tomography , Putamen , Substance-Related Disorders , Temperament , Viperidae
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