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1.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(2): 134-141, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1378900

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años los microorganismos han generado múltiples evoluciones, provocando enfermedades y problemas agudos de salud pública. Para poder controlar las virosis es necesario conocer su biología y epidemiología, establecer tratamiento y profilaxis adecuada para su control. Para ello, es indispensable comenzar con la formación de los profesionales de la salud, en particular, los estudiantes de medicina, es necesario potenciar el desarrollo de sus habilidades y competencias, no solo dominio del conocimiento científico, si no también pueda promoverlo, transferirlo y aplicarlo con impacto en la salud colectiva y que vaya a la par de los avances tecno-científicos. Es por ello, que surge la inquietud del fórum, discusión acerca del análisis de la enseñanza de la virología para enfrentar enfermedades emergentes en función de perfil del egresado. Se realizó encuesta a los estudiantes de los últimos diez años de la carrera de medicina de UNIANDES, sobre la biología, epidemiologia, respuesta inmunológica y diagnóstico, para mencionadas áreas de conocimiento se obtuvo, tanto en la evaluación objetiva estructurada y evaluación práctica, un nivel altamente satisfactorio. En la pirámide de Miller, se alcanzó nivel tres con conocimiento y desarrollo de habilidades, destrezas y actitudes del egresado satisfactorias. Sin embargo, los profesores de Virología están de acuerdo con innovar en la docencia integrando los contenidos transversalmente a las áreas de conocimiento: enfermedades infecciosas, clínicas, patologías, epidemiología y salud pública, lo que permitirá un aprendizaje integral para realizar abordaje adecuado de caso positivos de las virosis, además de tener capacidades para establecer vigilancia epidemiológica(AU)


In recent years, microorganisms have generated multiple evolutions, causing diseases and acute public health problems. In order to control virosis, it is necessary to know their biology and epidemiology, establish adequate treatment and prophylaxis for their control. For this, it is essential to start with the training of health professionals, in particular, medical students, it is necessary to promote the development of their skills and competencies, not only mastery of scientific knowledge, but also be able to promote it, transfer it and apply it with an impact on collective health and that goes hand in hand with techno-scientific advances. That is why the concern of the forum arises, a discussion about the analysis of the teaching of virology to face emerging diseases based on the profile of the graduate. A survey was conducted to the students of the last ten years of the UNIANDES medical career, on biology, epidemiology, immunological response and diagnosis, for mentioned areas of knowledge it was obtained, both in the objective structured evaluation and practical evaluation, a level highly satisfactory. In the Miller pyramid, level three was reached with satisfactory knowledge and development of abilities, skills and attitudes of the graduate. However, Virology professors agree with innovating in teaching by integrating the content transversally to the areas of knowledge: infectious diseases, clinics, pathologies, epidemiology and public health, which will allow comprehensive learning to carry out an adequate approach to positive cases of virosis, in addition to having the capacity to establish epidemiological surveillance(AU)


Subject(s)
Virology/education , Viruses/pathogenicity , Epidemiological Monitoring , Biology , Public Health , Epidemiology , Communicable Diseases , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education, Medical
2.
Rev. int. sci. méd. (Abidj.) ; 24(1): 85-92, 2022. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1396938

ABSTRACT

Contexte/objectif : La maladie à coronavirus (COVID-19) est une maladie émergente, dont l'agentpathogène est le virus du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère dû au coronavirus 2 (SRAS-CoV-2). L'objectif de cette étudeétait de décrire le profil virologique et clinique des patients diagnostiqués dans deux laboratoires. Matériels et méthodes : Il s'est agi d'uneétude descriptive avec collecte rétrospective de données des patients atteints de COVID-19, qui a couvert la période du 04 avril au 31 décembre 2020. Le test de khi deux et le test exact de Fisher sont les tests statistiques utilisées. Résultats : Au total, 28 872 échantillons ont été testés dans les deux laboratoires. L'étude arévélé 1965 cas positifs soit 6, 80% (63 % hommes et 37,05 % femmes). La tranche d'âge de 20 à 50 ans représentait 68,68 %. La province de la capitale a enregistré autant le plus grand nombre d'échantillons (26277 soit91,00%) que le plus grand nombre des cas positifs (91,15%). Les manifestations cliniques étaient dominées par la toux 68,42%, la fatigue générale (43,86%), les céphalées (43,86%), l'écoulement nasal (40,93%), la fi èvre (39,18%). Les comorbidités les plus fréquentes étaient l'hypertension artérielle (HTA) et le diabète. Conclusion: Cette étude a montré unepopulation jeune testée. La capitale (Ouagadougou) a enregistré le plus grand nombre de demandeurs de tests et de cas positifs. La toux était la principale manifestation clinique. Les patients avec comorbidités dont l'HTA et le diabète ont été les plus nombreux a effectué le test


Background/Purpose. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emerging disease, whose pathogen is the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus due to coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The objective of this study was to describe the virological and clinical profile of patients diagnosed in two laboratories. Methods. This was a descriptive study with retrospective data collection of patients with COVID-19, which covered the period from 04 April to 31 December 2020. Chisquare test and Fisher's exact test were used as statistical tests. Results. A total of 28,872 samples were tested in the two laboratories. The study revealed 1965 positive cases or 6, 80% (63% male and 37.05% female). The age group 20-50 years represented 68.68%. The capital province recorded both the largest number of samples (26277 or 91.00%) and the largest number of positive cases (91.15%). Clinical manifestations were dominated by cough 68.42%, general fatigue (43.86%), headache (43.86%), nasal discharge (40.93%), fever (39.18%). The most frequent comorbidities were arterial hypertension (AH) and diabetes. Conclusion. This study showed a young population tested. The capital (Ouagadougou) recorded the highest number of testers and positive cases. Cough was the main clinical manifestation. Patients with comorbidities including hypertension and diabetes were the most numerous to be tested


Subject(s)
Virology , Diagnosis , COVID-19 , Laboratories, Clinical
3.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(3): 90-104, 20210830.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337969

ABSTRACT

Hasta diciembre del 2019, seis tipos de coronavirus ya estaban identificados como generadores de enfermedad en humanos, destacándose dos brotes epidemiológicos anteriores: SARS-CoV en 2002 y MERS-CoV en 2012. El nuevo agente infeccioso que causó la pandemia de 2019 se denominó SARS-CoV-2, el que se manifiesta como un síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (CO-VID-19). Al respecto, el 30 de enero del 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) decretó la emergencia sanitaria. El propósito de esta revisión fue analizar el contexto epidemio-lógico alrededor del SARS-CoV-2, mediante una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos científicas como: PubMed Central, LILACS y Google académico. Se concluyó que el SARS-CoV-2 es altamente transmisible, con una tasa de letalidad en Ecuador del 8,59%.


Six types of coronaviruses were already identified as generators of disease in humans as of 2019, with two previous epidemiological outbreaks standing out: SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012. The new infectious agent that caused the 2019 pandemic was called SARS -CoV-2, which manifests as a severe acute respiratory syndrome (COVID-19). In this regard, on January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization decreed the health emergency. The purpose of this review was to analyze the epidemiological context around SARS-CoV-2 through a bibliographic review in scientific databases such as: PubMed Central, LILACS and Google Scholar. It was concluded that SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible, with a fatality rate in Ecuador of 8.59%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Virology , Epidemiology , COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(2): 175-179, 20210630. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353773

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 is presently the most serious public health concern and diagnosis is a principal tool for controlling and monitoring the spread of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of direct RT-PCR (dRT-PCR) for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Twenty-seven nasopharyngeal swabs from symptomatic individuals were evaluated. Standard RT-PCR was conducted, and for dRT-PCR the samples were preheated before amplification. Results: Positive agreement was 63.2% and negative agreement was 100%, being moderately in accord. Conclusion: dRT-PCR may be an alternative for screening symptomatic patients and a reliable option during an eventual shortage of viral RNA purification kits.


Objetivo: A COVID-19 é atualmente um sério problema de saúde pública e o diagnóstico é a principal ferramenta para controlar e monitorar a propagação da doença. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência da RT-PCR direta (dRT-PCR) para detecção do SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: Vinte e sete amostras de swab nasofaríngeo de indivíduos sintomáticos foram avaliados. A RT-PCR padrão foi realizada e para a dRT-PCR as amostras foram pré-aquecidas antes da amplificação. Resultados: A concordância positiva foi de 63,2% e a concordância negativa foi de 100%, sendo moderadamente concordante. Conclusão: A dRT-PCR pode ser uma alternativa para a triagem de pacientes sintomáticos e uma opção confiável durante uma eventual escassez de kits de purificação de RNA viral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Triage , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19
5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(5): 377-383, May 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288557

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic viral disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The impact of the disease among the obstetric population remains unclear, and the study of the placenta can provide valuable information. Adequate sampling of the placental tissue can help characterize the pathways of viral infections. Methods A protocol of placental sampling is proposed, aiming at guaranteeing representativity of the placenta and describing the adequate conservation of samples and their integrity for future analysis. The protocol is presented in its complete and simplified versions, allowing its implementation in different complexity settings. Results Sampling with the minimum possible interval from childbirth is the key for adequate sampling and storage. This protocol has already been implemented during the Zika virus outbreak. Conclusion A protocol for adequate sampling and storage of placental tissue is fundamental for adequate evaluation of viral infections on the placenta. During the COVID-19 pandemic, implementation of this protocol may help to elucidate critical aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Resumo Objetivo A doença do novo coronavírus (COVID-19) é uma doença viral pandêmica causada pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda 2 (SARS-CoV-2). O impacto da doença entre a população obstétrica ainda é incerto, e o estudo da placenta pode fornecer informações valiosas. Assim, a coleta adequada do tecido placentário pode ajudar a caracterizar algumas propriedades das infecções virais. Métodos Um protocolo de coleta placentária é proposto, objetivando a garantia de representatividade da placenta, descrevendo a maneira de conservação adequada das amostras, e visando garantir sua integridade para análises futuras. O protocolo é apresentado em suas versões completa e simplificada, permitindo sua implementação em diferentes configurações de infraestrutura. Resultados A amostragem com o intervalo mínimo possível do parto é essencial para coleta e armazenamento adequados. Esse protocolo já foi implementado durante a epidemia de vírus Zika. Conclusão Um protocolo para coleta e armazenamento adequados de tecido placentário é fundamental para a avaliação adequada de infecções virais na placenta. Durante a pandemia de COVID-19, a implementação deste protocolo pode ajudar a elucidar aspectos críticos da infecção por SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Placenta/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Specimen Handling/standards , COVID-19/virology , Virology/methods , Virology/standards , Virus Diseases/virology
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 495-500, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134526

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El virus SARS-CoV-2 ingresa al organismo de un individuo susceptible a través de la cavidad oral, nasal o de la mucosa conjuntival; busca ensamblarse por medio de su glicoproteína de superficie o espiga con los receptores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2 que en boca los encontramos con mayor expresión en las células escamosas que recubren el epitelio lingual y las glándulas salivales, una vez que ingresa por medio de la activación de proteasas ingresa a la célula huésped para denudar su RNA viral, a diferencia de otros virus no necesita ir hasta el núcleo de tal forma que en el citoplasma inicia su replicación y utiliza los ribosomas del huésped para formar una gran cantidad de proteínas virales tanto estructurales como accesorias que le permita formar nuevos viriones potencialmente infecciosos; los estomatólogos deben tomar en cuenta esta vía de infección y extremar las medidas para disminuir su carga viral local en la cavidad oral y las barreras físicas de protección para el operador, el paciente y la ergonomía del consultorio.


ABSTRACT: SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the body of a susceptible individual through oral, nasal or conjunctival mucosa, seeking to bind to the spike glycoprotein surface through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors. These are found in the mouth with a higher expression in oral squamous cells that cover the lingual epithelium and salivary glands. Once proteolytic activation begins, it enters the host cell to denudate its viral RNA. In contrast with other viruses, it does not require nucleus access, and therefore replicates in the cytoplasm using the host's ribosomes to produce great amounts of both structural and accessory viral proteins. Since this generates new and potentially infectious virions, dentists must consider this route of infection and take extreme measures to decrease their viral load in the oral cavity. Physical protection barriers for the operator, the patient and the health and safety of the work place are critical in these cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Salivary Glands/virology , Virology/methods , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Mouth
7.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 187-210, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Within the framework of recent historiography about the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in modernizing public health and the multifaceted concept of global health, this study addresses the impact of the WHO's "country programs" in Spain from the time it was admitted to this organization in 1951 to 1975. This research adopts a transnational historical perspective and emphasizes attention to the circulation of health knowledge, practices, and people, and focuses on the Spain-0001 and Spain-0025programs, their role in the development of virology in Spain, and the transformation of public health. Sources include historical archives (WHO, the Spanish National Health School), various WHO publications, the contemporary medical press, and a selection of the Spanish general press.


Resumen En el marco de la reciente historiografía sobre el papel de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en la modernización de la salud pública y el concepto multifacético de salud global, se estudia el papel de los llamados "programas país" de la OMS en España desde su admisión en 1951 hasta 1975. Adoptando perspectiva histórica transnacional y enfatizando el estudio de la circulación de personas, conocimientos y prácticas científico-sanitarias, nuestro análisis se centra en los programas España-0001 y España-0025, en evaluar su papel en el desarrollo de la virología en España y en la transformación de la salud pública. Nuestras fuentes vienen de archivos históricos (OMS, Escuela Nacional de Sanidad), publicaciones de la OMS, revistas médicas contemporáneas, y una selección de prensa general española.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spain , Virology , World Health Organization/history , Biomedical Research , Public Health Practice/history
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1269-1276, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826850

ABSTRACT

Human adenoviruses are widespread causative agent that induces respiratory diseases, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and other related diseases. Adenoviruses are commonly used in experimental and clinical areas. It is one of the most commonly used virus vectors in gene therapy, and it has attracted a lot of attention and has a high research potential in tumor gene therapy and virus oncolytic. Here, we summarize the biological characteristics, epidemiology and current application of adenovirus, in order to provide reference for engineering application of adenovirus.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Epidemiology , Virology , Adenoviruses, Human , Genetics , Genetic Engineering , Methods , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Oncolytic Virotherapy , Oncolytic Viruses , Genetics , Virus Replication
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1305-1313, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826846

ABSTRACT

To improve the specific recognition and presentation of virus-like particle (VLPs), and to develop immune-targeted VLPs vaccine, the gene fragment encoding OVA₂₅₇₋₂₆₄ peptide was inserted into the VP3 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) between the 171th and 172th amino acids (aa) or 173th and 174th aa by reverse PCR. The recombinant proteins were expressed by using Escherichia coli and assembled into chimeric VLP (VLP(OVA)) in vitro after purification. The VLP(OVA) was measured by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The recombinant protein and the assembled VLPs were evaluated by Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy to confirm the insertion of OVA₂₅₇₋₂₆₄ peptide into VP3 and its location. The results show that insertion of OVA₂₅₇₋₂₆₄ into the 173th and 174th aa of FMDV VP3 did not affect the assembly of VLPs. The VLP(OVA) in size was larger than VLPs, and the OVA₂₅₇₋₂₆₄ peptide was located on the surface of VLP(OVA).


Subject(s)
Animals , Escherichia coli , Genetics , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Virology , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Genetics , Recombinant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study summarizes and compares clinical and laboratory characteristics of 34 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for complications from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China from Jan. 22 to Mar. 5, 2020.@*METHODS@#A total of 34 patients were divided into two groups, including those who required noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) with additional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in 11 patients. Clinical features of COVID-19 patients were described and the parameters of clinical characteristics between the two groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#The rates of the acute cardiac and kidney complications were higher in IMV cases than those in NIV cases. Most patients had lymphocytopenia on admission, with lymphocyte levels dropping progressively on the following days, and the more severe lymphopenia developed in the IMV group. In both groups, T lymphocyte counts were below typical lower limit norms compared to B lymphocytes. On admission, both groups had higher than expected amounts of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), which over time declined more in NIV patients. The prothrombin time was increased and the levels of platelet, hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and IL-6 were higher in IMV cases compared with NIV cases during hospitalization.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Data showed that the rates of complications, dynamics of lymphocytopenia, and changes in levels of platelet, hemoglobin, BUN, D-dimer, LDH and IL-6, and prothrombin time in these ICU patients were significantly different between IMV and NIV cases.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Blood Urea Nitrogen , China , Coronavirus Infections , Therapeutics , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Heart Diseases , Virology , Hemoglobins , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6 , Blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Blood , Lymphopenia , Virology , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Therapeutics , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prothrombin Time , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826624

ABSTRACT

The recently emerged novel coronavirus pneumonia, named the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), shares several clinical characteristics with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and spread rapidly throughout China in December of 2019 (Huang et al., 2020). The pathogen 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is now named SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is highly infectious. As of Apr. 9, 2020, over 80 000 confirmed cases had been reported, with an estimated mortality rate of 4.0% (Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). Person-to-person transmission and familial clustering have been reported (Chan et al., 2020; Nishiura et al., 2020; Phan et al., 2020). However, there is no evidence of fetal intrauterine infection in pregnant women who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 in their third trimester (Chen et al., 2020). It is unclear whether breastfeeding transmits the virus from previously infected and recovered mothers to their babies. Here we report the clinical course of a pregnant woman with COVID-19. In order to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted to newborns through breastfeeding, we measured viral RNA in the patient's breastmilk samples at different time points after delivery.


Subject(s)
Adult , Betacoronavirus , Breast Feeding , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Milk, Human , Virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Virology , RNA, Viral
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826623

ABSTRACT

As of Apr. 22, 2020, the World Health Organization (2020) has reported over 2.4 million confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 169 151 deaths. Recent articles have uncovered genomic characteristics and clinical features of COVID-19 (Chan et al., 2020; Chang et al., 2020; Guan et al., 2020; Zhu et al., 2020), while our understanding of COVID-19 is still limited. As suggested by guidelines promoted by the General Office of National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China (2020) (from Versions 1 to 6), discharged standards for COVID-19 were still dependent on viral real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests of respiratory specimens, showing that recovered COVID-19 patients with twice negative RT-PCR could meet discharge criteria. Here, we examined two cases in which nucleic acid test results were inconsistent with clinical and radiological findings, leading to suboptimal care.


Subject(s)
Adult , Betacoronavirus , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sputum , Virology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826622

ABSTRACT

We present an unusual case of a patient with bilateral-lung transplantation due to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who subsequently suffered complications with acute myocardial infarction and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).


Subject(s)
Aged , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Lung Diseases , General Surgery , Virology , Lung Transplantation , Male , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Pneumonia, Viral , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , General Surgery , Virology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826621

ABSTRACT

Severe cases infected with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), named by the World Health Organization (WHO) on Feb. 11, 2020, tend to present a hypercatabolic state because of severe systemic consumption, and are susceptible to stress ulcers and even life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment constitute an irreplaceable part in the handling of severe COVID-19 cases. Endoscopes, as reusable precision instruments with complicated structures, require more techniques than other medical devices in cleaning, disinfection, sterilization, and other reprocessing procedures. From 2016 to 2019, health care-acquired infection caused by improper endoscope reprocessing has always been among the top 5 on the list of top 10 health technology hazards issued by the Emergency Care Research Institute. Considering the highly infective nature of COVID-19 and the potential aerosol contamination therefrom, it is of pivotal significance to ensure that endoscopes are strictly reprocessed between uses. In accordance with the national standard "Regulation for Cleaning and Disinfection Technique of Flexible Endoscope (WS507-2016)," we improved the workflow of endoscope reprocessing including the selection of chemicals in an effort to ensure quality control throughout the clinical management towards COVID-19 patients. Based on the experience we attained from the 12 severe COVID-19 cases in our hospital who underwent endoscopy 23 times in total, the article provides an improved version of endoscopic reprocessing guidelines for bedside endoscopic diagnosis and treatment on COVID-19 patients for reference.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Cross Infection , Disinfection , Methods , Endoscopes , Virology , Equipment Contamination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peracetic Acid , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Sterilization , Methods , Workflow
15.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 229-241, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Lung-toxin Dispelling Formula No. 1, referred to as Respiratory Detox Shot (RDS), was developed based on a classical prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the theoretical understanding of herbal properties within TCM. Therapeutic benefits of using RDS for both disease control and prevention, in the effort to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have been shown. However, the biochemically active constituents of RDS and their mechanisms of action are still unclear. The goal of the present study is to clarify the material foundation and action mechanism of RDS.@*METHODS@#To conduct an analysis of RDS, an integrative analytical platform was constructed, including target prediction, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and cluster analysis; further, the hub genes involved in the disease-related pathways were identified, and the their corresponding compounds were used for in vitro validation of molecular docking predictions. The presence of these validated compounds was also measured in samples of the RDS formula to quantify the abundance of the biochemically active constituents. In our network pharmacological study, a total of 26 bioinformatic programs and databases were used, and six networks, covering the entire Zang-fu viscera, were constructed to comprehensively analyze the intricate connections among the compounds-targets-disease pathways-meridians of RDS.@*RESULTS@#For all 1071 known chemical constituents of the nine ingredients in RDS, identified from established TCM databases, 157 passed drug-likeness screening and led to 339 predicted targets in the constituent-target network. Forty-two hub genes with core regulatory effects were extracted from the PPI network, and 134 compounds and 29 crucial disease pathways were implicated in the target-constituent-disease network. Twelve disease pathways attributed to the Lung-Large Intestine meridians, with six and five attributed to the Kidney-Urinary Bladder and Stomach-Spleen meridians, respectively. One-hundred and eighteen candidate constituents showed a high binding affinity with SARS-coronavirus-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL), as indicated by molecular docking using computational pattern recognition. The in vitro activity of 22 chemical constituents of RDS was validated using the 3CL inhibition assay. Finally, using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in data-independent analysis mode, the presence of seven out of these 22 constituents was confirmed and validated in an aqueous decoction of RDS, using reference standards in both non-targeted and targeted approaches.@*CONCLUSION@#RDS acts primarily in the Lung-Large Intestine, Kidney-Urinary Bladder and Stomach-Spleen meridians, with other Zang-fu viscera strategically covered by all nine ingredients. In the context of TCM meridian theory, the multiple components and targets of RDS contribute to RDS's dual effects of health-strengthening and pathogen-eliminating. This results in general therapeutic effects for early COVID-19 control and prevention.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Chemistry , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Interaction Maps , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Chemistry
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829012

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is an important member of the IFITM family. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its antiviral action have not been completely elucidated. Recent studies on IFITM3, particularly those focused on innate antiviral defense mechanisms, have shown that IFITM3 affects the body's adaptive immune response. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of IFITM3 proteins to immune control of influenza infection .@*Methods@#We performed proteomics, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry analysis and used bioinformatics tools to systematically compare and analyze the differences in natural killer (NK) cell numbers, their activation, and their immune function in the lungs of -/- and wild-type mice.@*Results@#-/- mice developed more severe inflammation and apoptotic responses compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, the NK cell activation was higher in the lungs of -/- mice during acute influenza infection.@*Conclusions@#Based on our results, we speculate that the NK cells are more readily activated in the absence of IFITM3, increasing mortality in -/- mice.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human , Virology , Male , Membrane Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Virology , Rodent Diseases , Virology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828995

ABSTRACT

Pseudorabies virus (PRV), a veterinary pathogen that infects domestic animals as well as wild animals such as wild boar and feral swine, was recently reported to infect human and led to endophthalmitis and encephalitis. A retrospective seroepidemiologic survey was conducted using 1,335 serum samples collected from patients with encephalitis and ELISA positive rates were 12.16%, 14.25%, and 6.52% in 2012, 2013, and 2017, respectively. The virus neutralizing antibody titers of positive samples correlated well with ELISA results. The pseudorabies virus antibody positive rate of patients with encephalitis were higher than that of healthy people in 2017. The above results suggest that some undefined human encephalitis cases may be caused by PRV infection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , China , Encephalitis , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Herpesvirus 1, Suid , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pseudorabies , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Retrospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828977

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the relationship between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and peripheral blood CD14 CD16 monocytes in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD), and to elucidate the mechanism of pathogenesis in CHD by analyzing the correlation between infection, inflammation, and CHD, to provide a basis for the prevention, evaluation, and treatment of the disease.@*Methods@#In total, 192 patients with CHD were divided into three groups: latent CHD, angina pectoris, and myocardial infarction. HCMV-IgM and -IgG antibodies were assessed using ELISA; CD14 CD16 monocytes were counted using a five-type automated hematology analyzer; mononuclear cells were assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting; and an automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols, lipoprotein, hs-CRp and Hcy.@*Results@#The positive rates of HCMV-IgM and -IgG were significantly higher in the CHD groups than in the control group. HCMV infection affects lipid metabolism to promote immune and inflammatory responses.@*Conclusion@#HCMV infection has a specific correlation with the occurrence and development of CHD. The expression of CD14 CD16 mononuclear cells in the CHD group was increased accordingly and correlated with acute HCMV infection. Thus, HCMV antibody as well as peripheral blood CD14 CD16 mononuclear cells can be used to monitor the occurrence and development of CHD.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris , Epidemiology , Virology , China , Epidemiology , Coronary Disease , Epidemiology , Virology , Cytomegalovirus , Physiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Humans , Incidence , Inflammation , Epidemiology , Leukocyte Count , Monocytes , Metabolism , Myocardial Infarction , Epidemiology , Virology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828973

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand the differences in clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory features between the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and influenza A in children. Data of 23 hospitalized children with COVID-19 (9 boys, 5.7 ± 3.8 years old) were compared with age- and sex-matched 69 hospitalized and 69 outpatient children with influenza A from a hospital in China. The participants' epidemiological history, family cluster, clinical manifestations, and blood test results were assessed. Compared with either inpatients or outpatients with influenza A, children with COVID-19 showed significantly more frequent family infections and higher ratio of low fever ( 39 °C), nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, vomiting, myalgia or arthralgia, and febrile seizures. They also showed higher counts of lymphocytes, T lymphocyte CD8, and platelets and levels of cholinesterase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid, but lower serum amyloid, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and shorter prothrombin time. The level of alanine aminotransferase in children with COVID-19 is lower than that in inpatients but higher than that in outpatients with influenza A. Pediatric COVID-19 is associated with more frequent family infection, milder symptoms, and milder immune responses relative to pediatric influenza A.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Coronavirus Infections , Blood , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human , Blood , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Blood , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology
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