Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 452
Filter
1.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(3): 616-628, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289808

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la infección por Helicobacter pylori es la enfermedad bacteriana crónica que afecta con mayor prevalencia al ser humano. Objetivo: identificar la frecuencia de infección por Helicobacter pylori y su relación con variables consideradas factores de riesgo de esta infección. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal realizado en el Policlínico Docente Camilo Cienfuegos, del municipio Habana del Este, durante el año 2018, en un universo de 42 pacientes con 18 años y más de edad, con sospecha clínica y hallazgo endoscópico de úlcera duodenal e informe del resultado de estudio histológico para el diagnóstico de la infección. Se confeccionó una planilla de recolección de datos que incluyó variables como hacinamiento, agua de consumo, lugar de nacimiento, estancia en una institución, contacto con animales y antecedentes familiares. Se determinó relación entre variables con la prueba de chi cuadrado (c2) con significación estadística ɒ = 0,05, y se identificaron variables cuyos coeficientes fueron significativamente diferentes de 0 (p < 0,05). La fuerza de asociación se determinó mediante odds ratio. Resultados: la prevalencia fue de 59,5 %. Se encontró asociación estadística y constituyeron factores de riesgo de infección por Helicobacter pylori, el hacinamiento (c2 = 4,37; OR = 3,89), el agua de consumo (c2 = 4,92; OR = 3,43), el contacto con animales (c2 = 7,41; OR = 6,17) y los antecedentes familiares (c2 = 13,18; OR = 13). Conclusiones: el estudio permitió determinar la prevalencia de infección por Helicobacter pylori y las principales variables asociadas, coincidiendo con otros estudios revisados que tratan el tema (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: the infection by Helicobacter pylori is the chronic bacterial disease that affects the human being with greater prevalence. Objective: to identify the frequency of the infection by Helicobacter pylori and its relationship with variables considered risk factors for this infection. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study was carried out in the teaching Polyclinic Camilo Cienfuegos, municipality Habana del Este, during 2018. In a universe of 42 patients aged 18 years and over, with clinical suspicion and endoscopic diagnosis of duodenal ulcer and histological study report for the diagnosis of the infection. A data collection form was made, which included variables such as: overcrowding, consumption water, place of birth, staying in an institution, contact with animals, and family history. The relationship within variables was found using the chi-square test (c2) with statistical significance ɒ = 0.05, and there were identified variables significantly different from 0 (p < 0.05). The association strength was determined through odds ratio. Results: the prevalence was 59.5%. Statistical association was found and overcrowding (c2 = 4.37, OR = 3.89), consumption water (c2 = 4.92; OR = 3.43), contact with animals (c2 = 7.41, OR = 6.17) and family history (c2 = 13.18, OR = 13) were found risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection. Conclusions: the study allowed to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the main associated variables, coinciding with other reviewed studies dealing with the subject (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Helicobacter pylori/virology , Duodenal Ulcer/diagnosis , Signs and Symptoms , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Helicobacter pylori/pathogenicity , Virulence Factors/physiology
2.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e519, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280327

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cólera es una infección intestinal aguda causada por cepas toxigénicas de Vibrio choleare. La rápida diseminación y emergencia de la multirresistencia que caracteriza a este patógeno, podría interferir en el éxito de la terapia antimicrobiana, por lo que constituye una prioridad monitorear los cambios en los patrones de susceptibilidad, como parte trascendental de la política de control de la resistencia antimicrobiana. Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento de la resistencia antimicrobiana frente a los antimicrobianos de interés empleados en el tratamiento, la presencia de factores de virulencia enzimáticos y si existe relación entre ambos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal durante julio de 2012 a diciembre de 2015. Se estudiaron 500 aislamientos pertenecientes al cepario del Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí, procedentes de brotes de enfermedades diarreicas agudas de la red nacional de laboratorios de Microbiología de Cuba. Se aplicaron métodos convencionales fenotípicos para determinar el comportamiento de la resistencia antimicrobiana, la presencia de factores enzimáticos y la relación de estos con la resistencia antimicrobiana. Resultados: Los mayores porcentajes de sensibilidad se obtuvieron frente a azitromicina (98 por ciento), doxiciclina (96 por ciento) y ciprofloxacina (93 por ciento) y de resistencia frente a ampicilina (100 por ciento) y trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol (99,4 por ciento). Se encontraron 44 aislados (8,8 por ciento) multirresistente. Todos los aislamientos poseían al menos dos enzimas extracelulares como factores de virulencia, las más frecuentes: gelatinasa (96 por ciento) y lecitinasa (95 por ciento). Conclusiones: Se evidencia una relación directa y proporcional entre la presencia de los factores de virulencia y resistencia antimicrobiana, sinergismo que surgiere mayor patogenicidad de los aislados estudiados procedentes de brotes epidémicos(AU)


Introduction: Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio choleare. The rapid dissemination and emergence of the multiresistance that characterizes this pathogen could interfere with the success of antimicrobial therapy, so it is a priority to monitor changes in susceptibility patterns, as a transcendental part of the resistance control policy antimicrobial. Objective: To determine the behavior of antimicrobial resistance against the antimicrobials of interest used in the treatment, the presence of enzymatic virulence factors and whether there is a relationship between them. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted during July 2012 to December 2015. Where 500 isolates belonging to the cepary of the National Reference Laboratory for Acute Diarrheal Diseases of the Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kourí, from outbreaks of EDA of the national network of Microbiology laboratories in Cuba. Conventional phenotypic methods were applied to determine the behavior of antimicrobial resistance, the presence of enzymatic factors and their relationship with antimicrobial resistance. Results: The highest percentages of sensitivity were obtained against azithromycin (98 percent), doxycycline (96 percent) and ciprofloxacin (93 percent) and resistance to ampicillin (100 percent) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (99.4 percent). 44 isolated (8.8 percent) multi-resistant were found. All isolates had at least two extracellular enzymes as virulence factors, the most frequent: gelatinase (96 percent) and lecithinase (95 percent). Conclusions: There is a direct and proportional relationship between the presence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, synergism that arises greater pathogenicity of the isolates studied from epidemic outbreaks(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vibrio cholerae/isolation & purification , Virulence Factors/analysis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e930, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289453

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades infecciosas del tracto respiratorio se encuentran entre las primeras causas de entidades respiratorias en edades extremas de la vida. Objetivo: Describir las bases inmunológicas de la enfermedad y el nuevo candidato vacunal conjugado antineumocócico PCV7-TT desarrollado en Cuba. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos Medline, Pubmed, SciELO, LILACS, Cochrane Library y Web of Science, de documentos publicados entre mayo del 2018 y marzo del 2020. Se seleccionaron los 64 artículos de mayor relevancia y novedad. Resultados: Streptococcus pneumoniae es el agente etiológico de la enfermedad neumocócica; se le atribuye alrededor de un millón de defunciones anuales, principalmente en países en vías de desarrollo. Es un coco Gram-positivo, anaerobio facultativo y encapsulado que se encuentra dividido en 48 serogrupos y 97 serotipos tipificados. Presenta varios factores de virulencia que garantizan su mecanismo de patogenicidad; uno de los más importantes es el polisacárido capsular que constituye la diana de las vacunas antineumocócicas conjugadas y no conjugadas existentes. En el presente artículo se consideró la proteína de superficie C del neumococo como un posible candidato en la investigación y desarrollo de vacunas preventivas. Asimismo, las vesículas extracelulares podría ser un posible candidato para adyuvante vacunal con fines preventivos y terapéuticos. Conclusiones: El neumococo es un problema de salud a nivel global y el uso de vacunas conjugadas antineumocócicas constituye la herramienta más eficaz para su prevención. El candidato vacunal PCV7-TT desarrollado en Cuba es seguro, bien tolerado, inmunogénico y no inferior a las vacunas actualmente registradas(AU)


Introduction: Infectious diseases of the respiratory tract are among the leading causes of respiratory conditions in patients at extreme ages. Objective: Describe the immunological bases of the disease and the new conjugate pneumococcal vaccine candidate PCV7-TT developed in Cuba. Methods: A search was conducted in the databases Medline, Pubmed, SciELO, LILACS, Cochrane Library and Web of Science for documents published from May 2018 to March 2020. The 64 most relevant and novel papers were selected. Results: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative agent of pneumococcal disease, a condition causing about one million deaths a year worldwide, mainly in developing countries. It is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic encapsulated coccus divided into 48 serogroups and 97 typified serotypes. Several virulence factors ensure its pathogenicity mechanism. One of the most important of these is the capsular polysaccharide constituting the target of the existing conjugate and non-conjugate pneumococcal vaccines. The study considered pneumococcal surface protein C as a possible candidate for the research and development of preventive vaccines. On the other hand, extracellular vesicles could be a possible vaccine adjuvant candidate for preventive and therapeutic use. Conclusions: Pneumococcus is a global health problem, and the use of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines is the most effective tool for its prevention. The vaccine candidate PCV7-TT developed in Cuba is safe, well-tolerated, immunogenic and not inferior to the vaccines so far registered(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Polysaccharides , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Communicable Diseases , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Virulence Factors , Extracellular Vesicles , Membrane Proteins
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 343-351, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1248926

ABSTRACT

The emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (LA-MRSA) and the potential role of pigs in the evolution of these strains has led to increased interest in research of these microorganisms. However, this has contributed to a lack of research in the isolation and characterization of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains (MSSA). In this study, the prevalence of S. aureus in pigs in the nursery and finishing stages were analyzed. The susceptibility profiles to antibiotics, tolerance to heavy metals, and biofilm production of the isolates were evaluated using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. A total of 1,250 colonies suggestive of Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 128 pigs, of which 63.6% (n = 795) belonged to this microbial genus. Sixty-seven colonies isolated from 34 animals (26.5%) were confirmed as S. aureus (8.4%). No strains resistant to copper, zinc, or methicillin were detected; however, all strains presented a resistance profile to at least three different classes of antimicrobials and 21 produced biofilms. These data are of concern, as they indicate the need for increased surveillance in the use of antimicrobials as well as reinforce the importance of studies on MSSA strains.(AU)


A emergência de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina associadas à pecuária (LA-MRSA) e o papel potencial dos suínos na evolução dessas cepas têm levado ao aumento do interesse na pesquisa desses microrganismos. No entanto, isso tem contribuído para a falta de estudos sobre o isolamento e a caracterização de cepas de S. aureus sensíveis à meticilina (MSSA). Neste estudo, foi analisada a prevalência de S. aureus em suínos nas fases de creche e terminação. Os perfis de suscetibilidade aos antibióticos, a tolerância a metais pesados e a produção de biofilme dos isolados foram avaliados por meio de técnicas fenotípicas e genotípicas. Um total de 1.250 colônias sugestivas de Staphylococcus spp. foi isolado de 128 suínos, das quais 63,6% (n = 795) pertenciam a esse gênero microbiano. Sessenta e sete colônias isoladas de 34 animais (26,5%) foram confirmadas como S. aureus (8,4%). Nenhuma cepa resistente ao cobre, ao zinco ou à meticilina foi detectada; entretanto, todas as cepas apresentaram perfil de resistência a pelo menos três classes diferentes de antimicrobianos e 21 produziam biofilme. Esses dados são preocupantes, pois indicam a necessidade de maior vigilância no uso de antimicrobianos, bem como reforçam a importância de estudos com cepas de MSSA.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Swine , Virulence Factors/analysis , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20210024, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340097

ABSTRACT

Abstract Understanding the behavior of Candida spp. when exposed to denture disinfectants is essential to optimize their effectiveness. Changes in the virulence factors may cause increased resistance of Candida spp. to disinfectant agents. Objective To evaluate the microbial load, cellular metabolism, hydrolytic enzyme production, hyphae formation, live cell and biofilm quantification of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata after exposure to disinfectant solutions. Methodology Simple biofilms were grown on heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens, and divided into groups according to solutions/strains: distilled water (control); 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 0.25% ); 10% Ricinus communis (RC 10%); and 0.5% Chloramine T (CT 0.5%). The virulence factors were evaluated using the CFU count (microbial load), XTT method (cell metabolism), epifluorescence microscopy (biofilm removal and live or dead cells adhered), protease and phospholipase production and hyphae formation. Data were analyzed (α=0.05) by one-way ANOVA/ Tukey post hoc test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon test. Results NaOCl 0.25% was the most effective solution. CT 0.5% reduced the number of CFUs more than RC 10% and the control. RC 10% was effective only against C. glabrata. RC 10% and CT 0.5% decreased the cellular metabolism of C. albicans and C. glabrata. Enzyme production was not affected. Hyphal growth in the RC 10% and CT 0.5% groups was similar to that of the control. CT 0.5% was better than RC 10% against C. albicans and C. tropicalis when measuring the total amount of biofilm and number of living cells. For C. glabrata, CT 0.5% was equal to RC 10% in the maintenance of living cells; RC 10% was superior for biofilm removal. Conclusions The CT 0.5% achieved better results than those of Ricinus communis at 10%, favoring the creation of specific products for dentures. Adjustments in the formulations of RC 10% are necessary due to efficacy against C. glabrata. The NaOCl 0.25% is the most effective and could be suitable for use as a positive control.


Subject(s)
Candida , Disinfectants , Acrylic Resins , Candida albicans , Biofilms , Virulence Factors
6.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 11(2): 10-24, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1281694

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analizar la relación entre Porphyromonas gingivalis y diabetes mellitus tipo 2, mediante una revisión sistemática exploratoria de la literatura científica publicada entre los años 2000 y 2019. Métodos: se utilizaron los siguientes términos MeSH: Porphyromonas gingivalis, diabetes mellitus type 2, periodontal disease, non insulin dependent diabetes. Se obtuvieron 346 resultados, de los cuales se seleccionaron 41 por título, se excluyeron 11 posterior a la lectura del abstract e introducción y 19 después de la lectura del texto completo. Finalmente, se incluyeron 11 artículos. Resultados: el lipopolisacárido de Porphyromonas gingivalis y su fimbria tipo II se relacionan con una mayor producción de citoquinas proinflamatorias como IL-6 y TNF-α, las cuales afectan las vías de señalización de la glucosa y se relacionan con insulinoresistencia. La dipeptidil peptidasa 4 de Porphyromonas gingivalis puede participar en la degradación de incretinas, lo cual afecta la producción de insulina en el huésped y promueve estados de hiperglicemia. El interactoma de Porphyromonas gingivalis puede superponerse con genes involucrados en resistencia a la insulina y diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Conclusión: según la evidencia científica publicada existen factores de virulencia y mecanismos por los cuales la Porphyromonas gingivalis influye en el desarrollo de insulinorresistencia y diabetes mellitus tipo 2.


Objective: To analyze the relationship between Porphyromonas gingivalis and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 by reviewing the scientific literature published between 2000 and 2019. Methods: The following MeSH terms were used: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Diabetes Mellitus type 2, periodontal disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes. We obtained 346 results, of which 41 were selected by title, 11 were excluded after reading the abstract and introduction and 19 after reading the full text. Finally, 11 articles were included. Results: Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide and its type II fimbria are associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α, which affect glucose signaling pathways and are related to insulin resistance. Porphyromonas gingivalis dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (PgDPP4) may participate in incretin degradation which affects host insulin production and promotes hyperglycemic states. The Porphyromonas gingivalis interactome may overlap with genes involved in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: According to published scientific evidence, there are virulence factors and mechanisms by which Porphyromonas gingivalis influences the development of insulin resistance and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Porphyromonas gingivalis/pathogenicity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Periodontal Diseases , Insulin Resistance , Virulence Factors , Hyperglycemia
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200592, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis with high prevalence in Latin America that is caused by thermodimorphic fungal species of the Paracoccidioides genus. OBJECTIVES In this study, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate the expression of genes related to the virulence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18) and P. lutzii (Pb01) strains in their mycelial (M) and yeast (Y) forms after contact with alveolar macrophages (AMJ2-C11 cell line) and fibroblasts (MRC-5 cell line). METHODS The selected genes were those coding for 43 kDa glycoprotein (gp43), enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 14-3-3 protein (30 kDa), phospholipase, and aspartyl protease. FINDINGS In the Pb18 M form, the aspartyl protease gene showed the highest expression among all genes tested, both before and after infection of host cells. In the Pb18 Y form after macrophage infection, the 14-3-3 gene showed the highest expression among all genes tested, followed by the phospholipase and gp43 genes, and their expression was 50-fold, 10-fold, and 6-fold higher, respectively, than that in the M form. After fibroblast infection with the Pb18 Y form, the 14-3-3 gene showed the highest expression, followed by the phospholipase and aspartyl protease genes, and their expression was 25-fold, 10-fold, and 10-fold higher, respectively, than that in the M form. Enolase and aspartyl protease genes were expressed upon infection of both cell lines. After macrophage infection with the Pb01 Y form, the 14-3-3 gene showed the highest expression, followed by the phospholipase and aspartyl protease genes, and their expression was 18-fold, 12.5-fold, and 6-fold higher, respectively, than that in the M form. MAIN CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, the data show that the expression of the genes analysed may be upregulated upon fungus-host interaction. Therefore, these genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of paracoccidioidomycosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Fibroblasts , Macrophages , Paracoccidioides/pathogenicity , Gene Expression , Latin America
8.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 515-525, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342281

ABSTRACT

Background: Pig production in Uganda is highly constrained by rampant piglet mortalities with diarrhea being a key feature. The present study was conducted to determine possible involvement of Escherichia coli (E. coli) as agents of diarrhea in piglets and elucidate the factors for their spread and virulence, towards development of mitigation strategies in the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study carried out from January to August 2020 on pre- and post-weaned piglets from households in Kayunga and Mityana districts of Central Uganda, selected by snowballing method to redundancy. Data about herd management and risk factors for colibacillosis were collected from selected farmers in the two districts. A total of 179 faecal samples were collected from randomly selected neonatal and pre-weaning piglets for bacteriological isolation of Escherichia coli. Virulence (enterotoxin and fimbrial) genes from the isolates were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Results: From the 179 faecal samples, a total of 158 (88.3%) E. coli isolates were obtained. Virulence gene markers were detected in 18.4% (29/158) of the isolates. Among the investigated genes encoding for enterotoxin production, STb was the most prevalent (16/158, 10.13%), followed by STa (12/158, 7.59%), while gene for LT was not detected. The gene coding for F4 adhesin was the only one detected while F18 adhesin was not detected from the isolates. On multiple logistic regression analysis, only tertiary educational level (OR=0.141; 95% CI=0.30-0.666; p=0.013) and infrequent use of antibiotics (OR=0.231, 95% CI=0.062-0.859; p=0.029) among the farmers, were the two factors significantly protective of the piglets from diarrhoea. Conclusion: This study reports a high prevalence of enterotoxin gene markers among E. coli isolates in piglets and revealed the potential role of these bacteria in the aetiology of piglet diarrhoea and mortalities in Uganda. Additionally, this study identified risk factors that can be useful in formulating treatment and control strategies of infection caused by these bacteria. Further studies are needed to identify more adhesins these E. coli isolates employ for intestinal colonization, a step that will help inform vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Virulence Factors , Diarrhea , Escherichia coli , Uganda
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06645, 2021. graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1279538

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus spp. plays a significant role in the etiology of bovine mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus is considered the most important species due to the high prevalence and the difficulty of in vivo treatment that is related to the expression of virulence factors and biofilm formation. This study aimed to detect the phenotypic expression of the biofilm formation in 20 S. aureus isolated from bovine mastitis and to evaluate the expression and regulation of genes involved in its production. MALDI-TOF and phenogenotypic identification assays were performed to characterize the isolates. The phenotypic biofilm production and the presence of icaA and icaD and bap genes were evaluated. The Agr system was typified (agr I, agr II, agr III and agr IV) and its regulator (agr RNAIII) was detected. Furtherly, Real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed at chosen times to quantify the expression of icaA, icaD and hld genes in three selected isolates. All 20 strains were biofilm producers and most presented icaA and icaD genes. Only one isolate presented the bap gene. The agr gene type II showed a prevalence of 70%. Transcriptional analysis revealed increased expression of ica genes at eight hours of growth. These results confirm that polysaccharides production mediated by the icaADBC operon genes is an essential mechanism to the biofilm formation and contributes to the early stages of bacterial growth.(AU)


Staphylococcus spp. desempenham um papel significativo na etiologia da mastite bovina. Staphylococcus aureus é considerada a espécie mais importante devido a alta prevalência e a dificuldade de tratamento in vivo que está relacionado à expressão dos fatores de virulência e formação de biofilme. Este estudo teve como objetivo detectar a expressão fenotípica da formação de biofilme em 20 cepas de S. aureus isoladas de mastite bovina e avaliar a expressão e regulação de genes envolvidos em sua produção. MALDI-TOF e ensaios de identificação fenogenotípica foram realizados para caracterizar os isolados. A produção fenotípica de biofilme e a presença dos genes icaA, icaD e bap foram avaliadas. O sistema Agr foi tipificado (agr I, agr II, agr III e agr IV) e seu regulador (agr RNAIII) foi detectado. Além disso, a PCR em tempo real (qPCR) foi realizada nos tempos determinados para quantificar a expressão dos genes icaA, icaD e hld em três isolados selecionados. Todas as 20 linhagens foram produtoras de biofilme e a maioria apresentava os genes icaA e icaD. Apenas um isolado apresentou o gene bap. O gene agr do tipo II mostrou uma prevalência de 70%. A análise transcricional revelou aumento da expressão de genes ica às oito horas de crescimento. Estes resultados confirmam que a produção de polissacarídeos mediada pelos genes do operon icaADBC é um mecanismo essencial para a formação do biofilme e contribui para os estágios iniciais do crescimento bacteriano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Staphylococcus aureus , Biofilms , Genes , Mastitis, Bovine , Virulence Factors , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 366-374, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142336

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: During the Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, the infiltration of the leukocytes into stomach mucosa is directed by locally produced chemokines that play a decisive role in infection outcome. The CagA is the most potent virulence factor of HP, so that the infection with CagA + strains is associated with more severe complications than infection with CagA - HP. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the expression of chemokines CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 and CCL22, and their receptors by CagA + HP- and CagA - HP-derived crude extract (HP-CE)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from peptic ulcer (PU) patients. METHODS: The serum and the PBMCs were collected from 20 HP-infected PU patients, 20 HP-infected asymptomatic subjects (HIA) and 20 non-infected healthy subjects (NHS). The PBMCs were cultured in absence of stimulator or with 10 µg CagA + HP crude extract (CagA + CE), 10 µg CagA - HP crude extract (CagA - CE). Chemokines and receptors were measured by ELISA and real time-PCR respectively. RESULTS: In PU patients, the production of chemokines CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 and CCL22, and the expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3, CCR4 and CCR6 by CagA + CE-induced PBMCs were significantly higher than non-stimulated and CagA - CE stimulated cultures. The CXCL10 production by CagA + CE stimulated PBMCs from HIA subjects was significantly higher than the equal cultures from PU and NHS groups. The CCL17 and the CCL20 production by non-stimulated, CagA + CE stimulated, and CagA - CE stimulated PBMCs from PU subjects were significantly higher than the equal cultures from NHS and HIA groups. The CCL22 production by non-stimulated, CagA + CE stimulated and CagA - CE stimulated PBMCs from NHS group were significantly higher than the equal cultures from HIA and PU groups. The CagA + CE stimulated PBMCs from HIA subjects expressed lower amounts of CCR6 in comparison with CagA + CE stimulated PBMCs from NHS and PU groups. The serum levels CXCL10 and CCL20 in PU and HIA groups were significantly higher than NHS subjects. NHS and HIA groups displayed higher serum levels of CCL22 in comparison with PU patients. CONCLUSION: Results indicated that the CagA status of bacterium influence the expression of chemokines and receptors by HP-CE stimulated PBMCs from PU patients.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Durante a infecção por Helicobacter pylori (HP), a infiltração dos leucócitos na mucosa estomacal é dirigida por quimiocinas produzidas localmente que desempenham um papel decisivo no resultado da infecção. O CagA é o fator de virulência mais potente do HP, de modo que a infecção com cepas CagA + está associada a complicações mais graves do que a infecção com CagA - HP. OBJETIVO: O objetivo foi determinar a expressão das quimiocinas CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 e CCL22, e seus receptores por CagA + HP- e CagA - extrato bruto (EB) derivado de HP (HP-EB) de células mononucleares do sangue periférico (CMSP) de pacientes com úlcera péptica (UP). MÉTODOS: O soro e as CMSP foram coletados de 20 pacientes com UP infectados pelo HP, 20 indivíduos assintomáticos infectados pelo HP (AI-HP) e 20 indivíduos saudáveis não infectados pelo HP (NI-HP). As CMSP foram cultivadas na ausência de estimulador ou com extrato bruto CagA + HP de 10 μg (CagA + EB), 10 μg CagA - extrato bruto HP (CagA - EB). Quimiocinas e receptores foram medidos por ELISA e PCR em tempo real, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Em pacientes com UP a produção de quimiocinas CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 e CCL22, e a expressão dos receptores de quimiocina CXCR3, CCR4 e CCR6 por CagA + CMSP induzidos pelo EB foram significativamente maiores do que as culturas não estimuladas e CagA - EB estimulados. A produção de CXCL10 por CagA + EB estimulou as CMSP de sujeitos AI-HP em proporção significativamente maior do que as culturas iguais dos grupos UP e NI-HP. A produção de CCL17 e CCL20 por grupos não estimulados, CagA + EB estimulado, e CagA - EB estimulou CMSP de sujeitos com UP e foram significativamente superiores às culturas iguais dos grupos NI-HP e AI-HP. A produção de CCL22 por grupos não estimulados, CagA + EB estimulado e CagA - EB estimulado pelo grupo NI-HP foram significativamente maiores do que as culturas iguais dos grupos AI-HP e PU. O CagA + EB estimulou as CMSP dos sujeitos do AI-HP, expressando menores quantidades de CCR6 em comparação com as CMSP estimuladas pelo CagA + EB de grupos NI-HP e UP. Os níveis sanguíneos de CXCL10 e CCL20 nos grupos UP e AI-HP foram significativamente superiores aos dos sujeitos do NI-HP. Os grupos NI-HP e AI-HP apresentaram níveis sanguíneos mais elevados de CCL22 em comparação com pacientes com UP. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicaram que o estado CagA da bactéria influencia a expressão de quimiocinas e receptores por HP-EB estimulados CMSP de pacientes com UP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptic Ulcer , Helicobacter pylori , Bacterial Proteins , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Helicobacter Infections , Virulence Factors , Chemokine CCL17 , Chemokine CCL20 , Chemokine CCL22 , Leukocytes , Antigens, Bacterial
11.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(3): 1-16, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247638

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e Objetivos: A candidíase oral tem uma ocorrência comum em pacientes imunocomprometidos. No entanto, outras infecções emergentes tornaram-se cada vez mais habituais. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência, os determinantes de virulência e a suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras que colonizam a mucosa de pacientes imunocomprometidos na região Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos: A amostra foi composta por 60 pacientes HIV positivos atendidos no Serviço de Atendimento Especializado/Hospital Dia do Hospital Universitário Prof. Alberto Antunes, vinculado à Universidade Federal de Alagoas. As amostras foram coletadas em regiões subgengivais e semeadas em CHROMagar para confirmação presuntiva de Candida spp., seguido por PCR e sequenciamento. Além disso, testamos os determinantes de virulência fosfolipase e protease e avaliamos in vitro a concentração inibitória mínima dos antifúngicos anfotericina B e fluconazol. Este projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de ética em pesquisa do Centro de Estudos Superiores de Maceió. Resultados: Aproximadamente 63% dos pacientes foram colonizados por leveduras. A espécie C. albicans foi predominante, enquanto as espécies de Candida não-albicans representaram 49% dos isolados, sendo C. dubliniensis e C. parapsilosis as mais comuns. Entretanto, C. intermedia, Bullera penniseticola e Naganishia liquefaciens também foram encontrados. Os determinantes da virulência protease e/ou fosfolipase também foram produzidos por Candida spp. e alguns isolados oportunistas incomuns como Kodamaea ohmeri, N. liquefaciens e Saitozyma podzolica. Além disso, a maioria dos isolados de Candida spp. e algumas espécies oportunistas incomuns apresentaram altos valores de concentração inibitória mínima. Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos indicam que C. albicans continua a ser a espécie predominante na cavidade oral de pacientes imunodeficientes e, juntamente com outras espécies incomuns, pode apresentar alta resistência aos antifúngicos testados.(AU)


Background and Objectives: Oral candidiasis has a common occurrence in immunocompromised patients. However, other emergent infections have become increasingly common. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, virulence determinants and the antifungal susceptibility of yeast colonizing the mucosa of immunocompromised patients in Northeastern Brazil. Methods: Samples from sixty HIV-positive patients seen at the Specialized Service / Hospital Dia - Hospital Universitário Prof. Alberto Antunes from the Federal University of Alagoas were collected from subgingival sites and seeded on CHROMagar for presumptive confirmation of Candida spp. followed by PCR and sequencing. In addition, we tested virulence determinants, phospholipase and protease and evaluated in vitro the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of antifungals amphotericin B and fluconazole. This project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Center for Higher Studies in Maceió. Results: Approximately 63% of the patients were colonized by yeasts, with C. albicans as the predominant species, while non-Candida albicans species accounted for 49% of the isolates, with C. dubliniensis and C. parapsilosis being the commonest, but C. intermedia, Bullera penniseticola and Naganishia liquefaciens were also found. The virulence determinants protease and/or phospholipase were also produced by Candida spp. and some uncommon opportunistic isolates such as Kodamaea ohmeri, N. liquefaciens and Saitozyma podzolica. Furthermore, most of Candida spp. strains and some uncommon opportunistic species showed high values of minimal inhibitory concentration. Conclusion: Results obtained indicate that C. albicans continues to be the predominant species in oral cavity of immunodeficient patients and along with other unusual species may present high resistance to the antifungals tested.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: La candidiasis oral acomete con frecuencia a pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Sin embargo, otras infecciones emergentes se han vuelto cada vez más comunes. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la prevalencia, la producción de determinantes de virulencia y la susceptibilidad a antifúngicos de levaduras que colonizan la mucosa de pacientes inmunocomprometidos en la región Nordeste de Brasil. Métodos: Se colectaron muestras de sesenta pacientes VIH positivos atendidos en el Servicio de Atención Especializado/Hospital Día del Hospital Universitario Prof. Alberto Antunes, vinculado a la Universidad Federal de Alagoas. Se colectaron las muestras en las regiones subgingivales y las sembraron en CHROMagar para la presunta confirmación de Candida spp. seguido de PCR y secuenciación. Además, analizamos los determinantes de virulencia fosfolipasa y proteasa y evaluamos in vitro la concentración mínima inhibitoria de los antifúngicos anfotericina B y fluconazol. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación del Centro de Estudios Superiores de Maceió. Resultados: Aproximadamente el 63% de los pacientes fueron colonizados por levaduras, y la C. albicans fue la especie predominante, mientras que las especies de Candida no-albicans representaron el 49% de los aislamientos, de las cuales la C. dubliniensis y la C. parapsilosis fueron las más comunes. Sin embargo, también se encontraron C. intermedia, Bullera penniseticola y Naganishia liquefaciens. Los determinantes de virulencia de proteasa y/o fosfolipasa también fueron producidos por Candida spp. y algunos aislados oportunistas inusuales como Kodamaea ohmeri, N. liquefaciens y Saitozyma podzolica. Además, la mayoría de los asilados de Candida spp. y algunas especies oportunistas inusuales mostraron valores altos de concentración mínima inhibitoria. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos indican que C. albicans continúa siendo la especie predominante en la cavidad oral de pacientes inmunodeprimidos y, junto con otras especies poco comunes, puede presentar una alta resistencia a los antifúngicos evaluados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Virulence , Yeasts/virology , Candida , Candidiasis, Oral , Virulence Factors , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Antifungal Agents , Prevalence , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
12.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(2)mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127516

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis pulmonar es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud en el año 2018 reportó alrededor de 10 millones de enfermos y 1,5 millones de muertes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis es un patógeno intracelular y el agente causal de la enfermedad. Estudios experimentales de virulencia han permitido determinar un conjunto de genes de virulencia, que le confieren la capacidad de resistir el ambiente hostil en el macrófago, superar la actividad de la respuesta inmune y persistir en el hospedero. El objetivo de la publicación es presentar una revisión de las investigaciones de los últimos 20 años que han demostrado los genes o factores de virulencia de M. tuberculosis que contribuyen a la evasión de la respuesta inmune. Según los resultados de las investigaciones, existen múltiples factores y genes de virulencia que participan en la evasión de la respuesta inmune innata como ESAT-6, PknG, PhoP, ManLAM, SapM, katG, tpx, nuoG, sodA/secA2, pknE y Rv3654c/Rv3655c, mientras existen elementos capaces de modular la respuesta inmune adaptativa. La comprensión de la interacción entre los genes de virulencia y la actividad del sistema inmune, son importantes para estudiar nuevos métodos de diagnóstico, el diseño de nuevas vacunas y por ende, mejorar las medidas de control, prevención y tratamiento de la tuberculosis(AU)


Pulmonary tuberculosis is a public health problem worldwide. The World Health Organization in 2018 reported about 10 million patients and 1.5 million deaths. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an intracellular pathogen, is the causative agent of the disease. Experimental virulence studies have allowed to determine a set of virulence genes that confer the ability to resist the hostile environment in the macrophage, overcome the activity of the immune response and persist in the host. The objective of the publication is to present a review of the last 20 years investigations that have shown the genes or virulence factors of M. tuberculosis that contribute to the evasion of the immune response. According to the results of the investigations, there are multiple virulence factors and genes that participate in the evasion of the innate immune response such as ESAT-6, PknG, PhoP, ManLAM, SapM, katG, tpx, nuoG, sodA/secA2, pknE and Rv3654c/Rv3655c, while there are elements capable of modulating the adaptive immune response. The understanding of the interaction between the virulence genes and the activity of the immune system, are important to study new diagnostic methods, the design of new vaccines and therefore, to improve the control, prevention and treatment measures of tuberculosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Virulence Factors , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1353-1362, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1131515

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar características de virulência, perfil de resistência antimicrobiana e padrão de similaridade genética de 71 cepas de Salmonella Minnesota isoladas na cadeia produtiva de frangos de corte, entre 2009 e 2010, em duas unidades de uma empresa (A e B). Os isolados foram sorotipificados e submetidos ao teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana pelo teste de difusão em disco. Utilizando-se PCR, foi avaliada a presença dos genes invA, lpfA, agfA e sefA e os genes de resistência aos betalactâmicos (bla TEM , bla SHV e bla CTX-M ). A relação filogenética foi determinada por RAPD-PCR. Os maiores percentuais de resistência foram para tetraciclina e sulfonamida. Foram reconhecidos oito perfis de resistência aos antimicrobianos entre as cepas isoladas na indústria A, e 11 perfis de resistência na indústria B. Do total de cepas, 100% foram positivas para o gene invA, 98,6% para o gene agfA, 49,3% para o gene lpfA e nenhuma para o gene sefA. Três cepas foram positivas para o gene bla TEM (4,2%) e 11 (15,5%) para o gene bla CTX-M . A avaliação filogenética demonstrou a presença de sete clusters com similaridade superior a 80% e três perfis distintos. Com base no dendrograma, observou-se a disseminação de um mesmo perfil em ambas as empresas.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate virulence characteristics, antimicrobial resistance profile and the pattern of genetic similarity of 71 strains of Salmonella Minnesota isolated in the production chain of broilers between 2009 and 2010, into two units of a company (A and B). Isolates were serotyped and submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion test. Using PCR, the presence of genes invA, lpfA, agfA and sefA and the genes conferring resistance to beta-lactam (blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M) were evaluated. The phylogenetic relationship was determined by the RAPD-PCR method. The highest percentages of resistance were to tetracycline and sulfonamide. Eight antimicrobial resistance profiles were recognized among strains isolated in industry A, and 11 resistance profiles in industry B. Of all strains of both industries, 100% were positive for the invA gene, 98.6% to agfA gene, 49.3% for lpfA gene, and no strain showed the sefA gene. Three strains were positive for the gene blaTEM (4.2%), 11 (15.5%) for the blaCTX-M gene. Phylogenetic evaluation showed the presence of seven clusters with similarity greater than 80% and three distinct profiles. Based on the dendrogram we observed the spread with similar profiles in both companies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Poultry , Salmonella , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Chickens , Virulence Factors , Virulence , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Disease Susceptibility
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 53-59, May 15, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a chronic pathogenic bacteria that causes gastric mucosal damage through various host-related and pathogen-related factors. Thus, a single gene research cannot fully explain its pathogenicity. PURPOSE OF STUDY: It is necessary to establish a Helicobacter pylori pathogenic gene transcription factor regulatory network (TFRN) and study its central nodes. RESULTS: The expression data of Helicobacter pylori pathogenic genes were obtained through GEO Datasets of NCBI. The genes were screened using linear model-empirical Bayesian statistics in R language Limma package combined with the conventional t-test; the results identified 1231 differentially expressed genes. The functional analysis (gene ontology-analysis) and signal pathway analysis (pathway-analysis) of differentially expressed genes were performed using the DAVID and KEGG databases, respectively. The pathogenic gene regulatory network was constructed by integrating transcriptional regulatory element database (TRED); the disease-related analysis of the pathogenic genes was conducted using the DAVID annotation tool. Five pathogenic genes (Nos2, Il5, Colla1, Tnf, and Nfkb1) and their transcription factors (Jun, Cebpa, Egrl, Ppara, and Il6) were found to suppress the host immune function and enhance the pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori by regulating the host immune system. CONCLUSIONS: This effect was largely mediated via three signaling pathways: Tnf pathway, PI3K Akt pathway, and Jak­STAT pathway. The pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori is closely related to the body's immune and inflammatory system. A better understanding of the correlation of the pathogenic factors with the host immune and inflammatory factors may help to determine the precise pathogenic mechanism of H. pylori infection.


Subject(s)
Helicobacter pylori/genetics , Helicobacter pylori/pathogenicity , Computational Biology , Transcription Factors , Cytokines , Virulence Factors , Gastritis/immunology , Gastritis/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Immune System , Inflammation
15.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 3-7, jan-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095737

ABSTRACT

Criptococose é uma doença grave que afeta tanto imunocomprometidos quanto imunocompetentes, com isso analisar a virulência é fundamental para novas terapêuticas. Objetivo: Analisar a capacidade de virulência e susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos de Cryptococcus spp. isolados de líquor de pacientes de hospital do norte do Paraná. Métodos: A partir de dois isolados clínicos C. neoformans e C. gattii, realizou-se a confirmação da identificação. Para a virulência, avaliou-se o tamanho da cápsula, capacidade de sobrevivência após exposição a neutrófilos, produção de melanina e urease. No antifungigrama por difusão em disco utilizou-se: anfotericina B, cetoconazol, voriconazol, itraconazol e miconazol. Resultados: C. gattii destaca-se por maior desenvolvimento da cápsula além da melhor capacidade de sobreviver a fagocitose em relação ao C. neoformans. No antifungigrama, ambos os isolados se apresentam sensíveis às drogas estudadas. Conclusão: Esses achados contribuem para a compreensão das diferentes patogêneses entre C. gattii e C. neoformans.


Cryptococcosis is a serious disease that can affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals, thus the virulence analysis is fundamental for the development of new treatments. Objective: To analyze the virulence and susceptibility of Cryptococcus spp. isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of patients from a hospital in the north of Paraná. Methods: From two clinical isolates, C. neoformans and C. gattii were confirmed and identified. For virulence, capsule size, survival capacity after exposure to neutrophils, melanin production and urease were evaluated. In the disc-diffusion method, the following antifungals were used: amphotericin B, ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and miconazole Results: It was observed that C. gattii presents greater results for development of the capsule beside presenting the best ability to survive phagocytosis in relation to C. neoformans. In the disc-diffusion method, both isolates presented sensitivity to the studied drugs. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of the different pathogens between C. gattii and C. neoformans.


Subject(s)
Cryptococcosis/virology , Virulence Factors/analysis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Phagocytosis , Urease/urine , Yeasts/virology , Capsules/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amphotericin B/analysis , Itraconazole , Cryptococcus neoformans/virology , Agar/analysis , Cryptococcus gattii/virology , Voriconazole , Melanins/analysis , Miconazole , Neutrophils/virology
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(2): 117-123, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126097

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La diferencia entre los aislados patógenos y comensales de Escherichia coli se fundamenta en sus antecedentes filogenéticos. En Venezuela son escasos los estudios que describen el potencial patogénico de los grupos filogenéticos en E. coli. Objetivo: Relacionar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, distribución de los grupos filogenéticos y genes de virulencia en cepas de E. coli uropatógena (ECUP) aisladas de pacientes con infección del tracto urinario. Materiales y Métodos: Se estudiaron 17 cepas de ECUP, aisladas de pacientes adultos hospitalizados en dos instituciones de salud. La susceptibilidad frente a ocho antimicrobianos se determinó por el método de microdilución en caldo (MDC). Las β-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) y carbapenemasas fueron detectadas fenotípicamente. Los grupos filogenéticos y la detección de los genes de virulencia se determinaron por reacción de polimerasa en cadena. Resultados: Todas las cepas sintetizaban BLEE y de éstas, 41% se asoció a la producción de una carbapenemasa (KPC o MBL). El filogrupo B2 (41%) fue predominante. Los genes de virulencia más frecuentes fueron fimH y fyuA con 82% cada uno. Sólo un aislado clasificado en el filogrupo F fue positivo al conjunto de seis genes estudiados. Discusión: La diversidad de asociaciones entre genes de virulencia y perfiles de resistencia, en las cepas ECUP evolucionan continuamente. Además, su distribución en los distintos grupos filogenéticos depende en gran medida de las características clínico epidemiológicas de los grupos de estudios.


Abstract Background: The difference between the pathogenic isolates and commensals of Escherichia coli is based on their phylogenetic antecedents. In Venezuela there are few studies that describe the pathogenic potential of phylogenetic groups in E. coli. Aims: Relate antimicrobial susceptibility, distribution of phylogenetic groups and virulence genes in strains of uropathogenic E. coli (ECUP) isolated from patients with UTI. Methods: We studied 17 ECUP strains, isolated from adult patients hospitalized in two health institutions. The susceptibility to 8 antibiotics was determined by the broth microdilution (MDC) method. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenemases were phenotypically detected. The phylogenetic groups and the detection of the virulence genes were determined by PCR. Results: All strains synthesized ESBL and of these, 41% were associated with the production of a carbapenemases (KPC or MBL). The phylogroup B2 (41%) was the most predominant. The most frequent virulence genes were fimH and fyuA with 82% each. Only one strain from group F was positive to the 6 genes studied. Discussion: The diversity of associations between virulence genes and resistance profiles in the ECUP are evolving continuously, their distribution in the different phylogenetic groups depends to a large extent on the clinical epidemiological characteristics of the study groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Escherichia coli Infections , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/genetics , Phylogeny , Urinary Tract Infections , Venezuela , beta-Lactamases , Virulence Factors , Anti-Bacterial Agents
17.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(1): e476, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126703

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ataxia constituye una alteración en la coordinación de los movimientos, resultado de una disfunción del cerebelo, sus conexiones, así como alteraciones en la médula espinal, nervios periféricos o una combinación de estas condiciones. Las ataxias se clasifican en hereditarias, esporádicas y en adquiridas o secundarias, en las cuales los virus neurotrópicos constituyen los principales causantes. Objetivo: Actualizar los conocimientos relacionados con las ataxias causadas por virus neurotrópicos y los mecanismos neurodegenerativos que pudieran tener relación con la ataxia. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica incluyendo artículos publicados en las principales bases de datos bibliográficas (Web of Sciences, Scopus, SciELO). Se utilizaron las palabras claves: ataxia, virus neurotrópicos, ataxias cerebelosas, ataxias infecciosas, en inglés y español. Análisis e integración de la información: Los virus más conocidos que provocan ataxias infecciosas son el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, virus del herpes simple, virus del herpes humano tipo 6, virus de la varicela zoster, virus Epstein-Barr, virus del Nilo Occidental, y enterovirus 71, aunque existen otros virus que causan esta afectación. Los mecanismos neuropatogénicos sugeridos son la invasión directa del virus y procesos inmunopatogénicos desencadenados por la infección. Estos virus pueden causar ataxia cerebelosa aguda, ataxia aguda posinfecciosa, síndrome opsoclono-mioclono-atáxico y ataxia por encefalomielitis aguda diseminada. Aunque la mayoría de los reportes de casos informan la evolución satisfactoria de los pacientes, algunos refieren complicaciones neurológicas e incluso la muerte. Conclusiones: Actualmente existe la necesidad de profundizar en el estudio de este tipo de ataxia para favorecer su diagnóstico y tratamiento(AU)


Introduction: Ataxia is an alteration in the coordination of movements caused by a dysfunction of the cerebellum and its connections, as well as alterations in the spinal cord, the peripheral nerves, or a combination of these factors. Ataxias are classified into hereditary, sporadic and acquired or secondary, in which neurotropic viruses are the main causative agents. Objective: Update knowledge about ataxias caused by neurotropic viruses and the neurodegenerative mechanisms which could bear a relationship to ataxia. Methods: A review was conducted of papers published in the main bibliographic databases (Web of Sciences, Scopus, SciELO), using the search terms ataxia, neurotropic virus, cerebellar ataxias, infectious ataxias, in English and in Spanish. Discussion: The best known viruses causing infectious ataxias are the human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, human herpesvirus 6, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Western Nile virus and enterovirus 71, though other viruses may also cause this condition. The neuropathogenic mechanisms suggested are direct invasion of the virus and immunopathogenic processes triggered by the infection. These viruses may cause acute cerebellar ataxia, acute postinfectious ataxia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome and ataxia due to acute encephalomyelitis disseminata. Though most case reports describe a satisfactory evolution of patients, some refer to neurological complications and even death. Conclusions: There is a current need to carry out further research about this type of ataxia to improve its diagnosis and treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cerebellar Ataxia/diagnosis , Cerebellar Ataxia/epidemiology , Virulence Factors
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 37-44, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092720

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los patógenos con mayor prevalencia en el mundo, asociado a una alta tasa de mortalidad y un rápido desarrollo de resistencia a los antimicrobianos. A pesar de su patogenicidad, su seguimiento epidemiológico en México es escaso. Objetivo: Analizar la epidemiología molecular local y determinar el origen clonal de cepas resistentes a meticilina (RM) aisladas de pacientes internados en el Hospital Central "Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto". Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio prospectivo de corte transversal, de julio a diciembre de 2016. La caracterización de las cepas se realizó mediante genotipificación Spa, la determinación por RPC punto final de la frecuencia de genes de virulencia específicos y su antibiograma. Resultados: A partir de estos datos, se obtuvo que la prevalencia de S. aureus RM fue de 25,7%, destacando la presencia del tipo Spa t895 en 76% de las cepas resistentes y un patrón similar de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos. Conclusión: Los resultados de este estudio indican que la prevalencia regional de SARM no se ha modificado en los últimos 10 años y proporcionan información valiosa del origen clonal y los factores de virulencia de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas en la región.


Abstract Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of most prevalent pathogens in the world associated with a high mortality rate and a rapid development of resistance to antibiotics. Despite its pathogenicity, epidemiological monitoring in Mexico is scarce. Aim: To analyze the local molecular epidemiology and determine the clonal origin of methicillin-resistant (MR) strains isolated from patients admitted to Hospital "Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto". Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out from July to December 2016. The characterization of the strains was carried out by Spa genotyping, frequency of specific virulence genes by PCR and antibiogram. Results: The prevalence of MRSA was 25.7%, highlighting the presence of the Spa type t895 in 76% of the resistant strains and a similar pattern of susceptibility to antibiotics. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the regional prevalence of MRSA has not changed in the last 10 years and provide valuable information on the clonal origin and the virulence factors of the strains of S. aureus isolated in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Virulence Factors/genetics , Genotype , Mexico/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190214, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057290

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate some virulence factors in Candida albicans isolates from patients with onychomycosis and determine the correlation between these factors and the antifungal resistance profile. METHODS: Seventy species of C. albicans were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the HWP1 gene. According to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, the susceptibility profile of four antifungal agents was investigated, and the production of aspartyl protease, phospholipase, haemolysin, and biofilm was determined. The correlation between these profiles was also investigated. RESULTS: The isolates indicated different levels of resistance and production of virulence factors. Significant correlations were observed between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole/itraconazole and biofilm production, between phospholipase production and fluconazole/itraconazole MIC, and between fluconazole MIC and hemolytic activity in C. albicans isolates. The results also showed significant correlations between phospholipase activity and biofilm production. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings will contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of C. albicans and characterize the relationship between virulence factors and antifungal resistance, which may suggest new therapeutic strategies considering the possible involvement of the virulence mechanism in the effectiveness of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Virulence Factors , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Nails/microbiology , Phospholipases/biosynthesis , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Biofilms/growth & development , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Aspartic Acid Proteases/biosynthesis , Hemolysis
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190336, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057282

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candida parapsilosis complex species differ from each other with regard to their prevalence and virulence. METHODS: The hydrolytic enzyme activity, biofilm production, and adhesion to epithelial cells were analyzed in 87 C. parapsilosis complex strains. RESULTS: Among the studied isolates, 97.7%, 63.2%, and 82.8% exhibited very strong proteinase, esterase, and hemolysin activity, respectively. All the C. parapsilosis complex isolates produced biofilms and presented an average adherence of 96.0 yeasts/100 epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Candida parapsilosis complex isolates showed different levels of enzyme activity, biofilm production, and adhesion to epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Virulence Factors/analysis , Candida parapsilosis/pathogenicity , Cell Adhesion , Mycological Typing Techniques , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida parapsilosis/isolation & purification , Candida parapsilosis/classification , Candida parapsilosis/enzymology , Hydrolases/biosynthesis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL