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1.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e519, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280327

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cólera es una infección intestinal aguda causada por cepas toxigénicas de Vibrio choleare. La rápida diseminación y emergencia de la multirresistencia que caracteriza a este patógeno, podría interferir en el éxito de la terapia antimicrobiana, por lo que constituye una prioridad monitorear los cambios en los patrones de susceptibilidad, como parte trascendental de la política de control de la resistencia antimicrobiana. Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento de la resistencia antimicrobiana frente a los antimicrobianos de interés empleados en el tratamiento, la presencia de factores de virulencia enzimáticos y si existe relación entre ambos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal durante julio de 2012 a diciembre de 2015. Se estudiaron 500 aislamientos pertenecientes al cepario del Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí, procedentes de brotes de enfermedades diarreicas agudas de la red nacional de laboratorios de Microbiología de Cuba. Se aplicaron métodos convencionales fenotípicos para determinar el comportamiento de la resistencia antimicrobiana, la presencia de factores enzimáticos y la relación de estos con la resistencia antimicrobiana. Resultados: Los mayores porcentajes de sensibilidad se obtuvieron frente a azitromicina (98 por ciento), doxiciclina (96 por ciento) y ciprofloxacina (93 por ciento) y de resistencia frente a ampicilina (100 por ciento) y trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol (99,4 por ciento). Se encontraron 44 aislados (8,8 por ciento) multirresistente. Todos los aislamientos poseían al menos dos enzimas extracelulares como factores de virulencia, las más frecuentes: gelatinasa (96 por ciento) y lecitinasa (95 por ciento). Conclusiones: Se evidencia una relación directa y proporcional entre la presencia de los factores de virulencia y resistencia antimicrobiana, sinergismo que surgiere mayor patogenicidad de los aislados estudiados procedentes de brotes epidémicos(AU)


Introduction: Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio choleare. The rapid dissemination and emergence of the multiresistance that characterizes this pathogen could interfere with the success of antimicrobial therapy, so it is a priority to monitor changes in susceptibility patterns, as a transcendental part of the resistance control policy antimicrobial. Objective: To determine the behavior of antimicrobial resistance against the antimicrobials of interest used in the treatment, the presence of enzymatic virulence factors and whether there is a relationship between them. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted during July 2012 to December 2015. Where 500 isolates belonging to the cepary of the National Reference Laboratory for Acute Diarrheal Diseases of the Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kourí, from outbreaks of EDA of the national network of Microbiology laboratories in Cuba. Conventional phenotypic methods were applied to determine the behavior of antimicrobial resistance, the presence of enzymatic factors and their relationship with antimicrobial resistance. Results: The highest percentages of sensitivity were obtained against azithromycin (98 percent), doxycycline (96 percent) and ciprofloxacin (93 percent) and resistance to ampicillin (100 percent) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (99.4 percent). 44 isolated (8.8 percent) multi-resistant were found. All isolates had at least two extracellular enzymes as virulence factors, the most frequent: gelatinase (96 percent) and lecithinase (95 percent). Conclusions: There is a direct and proportional relationship between the presence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, synergism that arises greater pathogenicity of the isolates studied from epidemic outbreaks(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vibrio cholerae/isolation & purification , Virulence Factors/analysis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 343-351, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248926

ABSTRACT

The emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (LA-MRSA) and the potential role of pigs in the evolution of these strains has led to increased interest in research of these microorganisms. However, this has contributed to a lack of research in the isolation and characterization of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains (MSSA). In this study, the prevalence of S. aureus in pigs in the nursery and finishing stages were analyzed. The susceptibility profiles to antibiotics, tolerance to heavy metals, and biofilm production of the isolates were evaluated using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. A total of 1,250 colonies suggestive of Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 128 pigs, of which 63.6% (n = 795) belonged to this microbial genus. Sixty-seven colonies isolated from 34 animals (26.5%) were confirmed as S. aureus (8.4%). No strains resistant to copper, zinc, or methicillin were detected; however, all strains presented a resistance profile to at least three different classes of antimicrobials and 21 produced biofilms. These data are of concern, as they indicate the need for increased surveillance in the use of antimicrobials as well as reinforce the importance of studies on MSSA strains.(AU)


A emergência de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina associadas à pecuária (LA-MRSA) e o papel potencial dos suínos na evolução dessas cepas têm levado ao aumento do interesse na pesquisa desses microrganismos. No entanto, isso tem contribuído para a falta de estudos sobre o isolamento e a caracterização de cepas de S. aureus sensíveis à meticilina (MSSA). Neste estudo, foi analisada a prevalência de S. aureus em suínos nas fases de creche e terminação. Os perfis de suscetibilidade aos antibióticos, a tolerância a metais pesados e a produção de biofilme dos isolados foram avaliados por meio de técnicas fenotípicas e genotípicas. Um total de 1.250 colônias sugestivas de Staphylococcus spp. foi isolado de 128 suínos, das quais 63,6% (n = 795) pertenciam a esse gênero microbiano. Sessenta e sete colônias isoladas de 34 animais (26,5%) foram confirmadas como S. aureus (8,4%). Nenhuma cepa resistente ao cobre, ao zinco ou à meticilina foi detectada; entretanto, todas as cepas apresentaram perfil de resistência a pelo menos três classes diferentes de antimicrobianos e 21 produziam biofilme. Esses dados são preocupantes, pois indicam a necessidade de maior vigilância no uso de antimicrobianos, bem como reforçam a importância de estudos com cepas de MSSA.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Swine , Virulence Factors/analysis , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 3-7, jan-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095737

ABSTRACT

Criptococose é uma doença grave que afeta tanto imunocomprometidos quanto imunocompetentes, com isso analisar a virulência é fundamental para novas terapêuticas. Objetivo: Analisar a capacidade de virulência e susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos de Cryptococcus spp. isolados de líquor de pacientes de hospital do norte do Paraná. Métodos: A partir de dois isolados clínicos C. neoformans e C. gattii, realizou-se a confirmação da identificação. Para a virulência, avaliou-se o tamanho da cápsula, capacidade de sobrevivência após exposição a neutrófilos, produção de melanina e urease. No antifungigrama por difusão em disco utilizou-se: anfotericina B, cetoconazol, voriconazol, itraconazol e miconazol. Resultados: C. gattii destaca-se por maior desenvolvimento da cápsula além da melhor capacidade de sobreviver a fagocitose em relação ao C. neoformans. No antifungigrama, ambos os isolados se apresentam sensíveis às drogas estudadas. Conclusão: Esses achados contribuem para a compreensão das diferentes patogêneses entre C. gattii e C. neoformans.


Cryptococcosis is a serious disease that can affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals, thus the virulence analysis is fundamental for the development of new treatments. Objective: To analyze the virulence and susceptibility of Cryptococcus spp. isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of patients from a hospital in the north of Paraná. Methods: From two clinical isolates, C. neoformans and C. gattii were confirmed and identified. For virulence, capsule size, survival capacity after exposure to neutrophils, melanin production and urease were evaluated. In the disc-diffusion method, the following antifungals were used: amphotericin B, ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and miconazole Results: It was observed that C. gattii presents greater results for development of the capsule beside presenting the best ability to survive phagocytosis in relation to C. neoformans. In the disc-diffusion method, both isolates presented sensitivity to the studied drugs. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of the different pathogens between C. gattii and C. neoformans.


Subject(s)
Cryptococcosis/virology , Virulence Factors/analysis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Phagocytosis , Urease/urine , Yeasts/virology , Capsules/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amphotericin B/analysis , Itraconazole , Cryptococcus neoformans/virology , Agar/analysis , Cryptococcus gattii/virology , Voriconazole , Melanins/analysis , Miconazole , Neutrophils/virology
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190336, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057282

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candida parapsilosis complex species differ from each other with regard to their prevalence and virulence. METHODS: The hydrolytic enzyme activity, biofilm production, and adhesion to epithelial cells were analyzed in 87 C. parapsilosis complex strains. RESULTS: Among the studied isolates, 97.7%, 63.2%, and 82.8% exhibited very strong proteinase, esterase, and hemolysin activity, respectively. All the C. parapsilosis complex isolates produced biofilms and presented an average adherence of 96.0 yeasts/100 epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Candida parapsilosis complex isolates showed different levels of enzyme activity, biofilm production, and adhesion to epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Virulence Factors/analysis , Candida parapsilosis/pathogenicity , Cell Adhesion , Mycological Typing Techniques , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida parapsilosis/isolation & purification , Candida parapsilosis/classification , Candida parapsilosis/enzymology , Hydrolases/biosynthesis
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 122 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007467

ABSTRACT

A gama-proteobactéria Pseudomonas aeruginosa é um patógeno oportunista humano frequentemente associado a pacientes com queimadura grave e aos portadores de fibrose cística. O estabelecimento de infecção depende de uma série de fatores que contribuem para a virulência deste patógeno, dentre eles a produção de sideróforos e outros sistemas de captação de ferro. Pioverdina é o principal sideróforo sintetizado por bactérias do gênero Pseudomonas e linhagens deficientes na sua produção são incapazes de estabelecer infecção em modelos animais. A regulação da biossíntese deste sideróforo envolve a agregação entre as células, indicando a dependência de contato para completa indução da sua produção. O contato com uma superfície altera o comportamento das células e diversos fenótipos são dependentes deste sinal mecânico. PrlC é uma oligopeptidase A putativamente envolvida na degradação de peptídeo-sinais e PA14_00800, uma pequena proteína com domínio de função desconhecida, codificada por um gene imediatamente à jusante de prlC. Existem poucos trabalhos na literatura sobre PrlC e seus homólogos e nenhuma informação sobre PA14_00800. Este trabalho teve como objetivo elucidar o envolvimento de PrlC e PA14_00800 na regulação da produção de pioverdina por células em contato com uma superfície. Para estabelecer uma correlação na expressão destes genes, um estudo da organização gênica foi realizado por RT-PCR, confirmando que eles fazem parte do mesmo operon e, portanto, que a expressão destes genes é regulada pelos mesmos fatores. Ensaios classicamente modulados pelo segundo mensageiro c-di-GMP, como formação de biofilme e motilidade, não apresentaram variações nas linhagens mutantes ΔprlC, ΔPA14_00800 ou Δoperon, indicando que a deleção destes genes não altera significativamente os níveis de c-di-GMP nas células. A motilidade do tipo swarming é, no entanto, severamente afetada na linhagem ΔPA14_00800 quando o meio de cultura não contém cloreto de cálcio e glicose, indicando um defeito na sinalização celular ou requerimento energértico desta linhagem nestas condições. PA14_00800 regula a fluorescência de P. aeruginosa em meio sólido e semissólido, mas não em meio líquido. Esta fluorescência depende tanto de pioverdina quanto de PQS, umamolécula de comunicação celular fluorescente, e a possibilidade de outros fatores estarem envolvidos neste fenótipo ainda está sob investigação. Análise do transcritoma por RNASeq com a linhagem ΔPA14_00800 comparada à linhagem parental foi realizada a partir de colônias destas linhagens crescidas em M9 modificado. Genes envolvidos no sistema de secreção do tipo III e do tipo VI e na biossíntese de PQS apareceram dentre os genes diferencialmente expressos, bem como genes para o catabolismo de glicose. Este trabalho foi o primeiro a investigar o papel de PA14_00800 na fisiologia de P. aeruginosa, e os conhecimentos adquiridos aqui podem ser transpostos, com cautela, para compreensão da função dos homólogos de PA14_00800 em outras bactérias


The gamma-proteobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a human opportunistic pathogen frequently associated with patients with severe burns and those with cystic fibrosis. The establishment of infection depends on several factors that contribute to the virulence of this pathogen, among them siderophore production and other iron uptake systems. Pyoverdine is the main siderophore synthesized by the bacteria of the genus Pseudômonas and pyoverdinedeficient strains are unable to establish infection in animal models. The regulation of biosynthesis of this siderophore involves cell aggregation, indicating contact dependency for complete induction of pyoverdine production. Surface contact alters cell behavior and several phenotypes are dependent on this mechanical cue. PrlC is an oligopeptidase A putatively involved in peptide-signals degradation and PA14_00800, a small protein with a domain of unknown function, encoded by a gene immediately downstream of prlC. There are few papers in the literature on PrlC and its homologues and no information on PA14_00800. This work aimed to elucidate the role of PrlC and PA14_00800 in surface-dependent regulation of pyoverdine production. To establish a correlation in the expression of these genes, a study of the gene organization was performed by RT-PCR, confirming that they are part of an operon and therefore the expression of these genes is regulated by the same factors. Traits classically modulated by the second messenger c-di-GMP, such as biofilm formation and motility, did not show variations in the ΔprlC, ΔPA14_00800 or Δoperon, indicating that the deletion of these genes does not significantly alter the levels of c-di-GMP within the cells. Swarming motility is, however, severely affected in the strain ΔPA14_00800 when the culture medium does not contain calcium chloride and glucose, indicating a cell signaling defect or energetic requirement under these conditions. PA14_00800 regulates surface-dependent fluorescence of P. aeruginosa, in solid and semi-solid medium. This fluorescence depends on both pyoverdine and PQS, a fluorescent cell-to-cell communication molecule, and the investigation of other putative factors involved in this phenotype is still under study. Transcriptomic analysis by RNASeq with the strain ΔPA14_00800 compared to PA14 was performed from colonies ofthese strains grown in modified M9 1% agar. Genes involved in the type III and type VI secretion systems, in PQS biosynthesis and glucose catabolism were differentially expressed. This work was the first to investigate the role of PA14_00800 in the physiology of P. aeruginosa, and the knowledge obtained here can be cautiously transposed to understanding the role of PA14_00800 homologues in other bactéria


Subject(s)
Proteins/analysis , Gene Expression Regulation , Virulence Factors/analysis , Operon , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/physiology , Pseudomonas Infections/complications
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 225-231, April.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839393

ABSTRACT

Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most frequent opportunistic pathogens worldwide. DNA processing protein A (DprA) is an important factor involved in bacterial uptake and DNA integration into bacterial genome, but its role in S. pneumoniae virulence remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of the pneumococcal dprA gene on the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae. To construct a dprA-deficient pneumococcal strain, the dprA gene of the S. pneumoniae strain D39 was inactivated. The virulence of this dprA-deficient strain, designated ΔD39, was compared with that of the wild-type strain by evaluating their respective capabilities to adhere to human pulmonary epithelial cells (PEC-A549) and by analyzing their choline-binding protein expression levels. In addition, the expression profiles of genes associated with virulence and host survival assays were also conducted with the mutant and the wild-type strain. Our results indicate that the capability of ΔD39 to adhere to the PEC-A549 airway cells was significantly lower (p < 0.01) compared with D39. Additionally, the 100-KD choline-binding protein was not detected in ΔD39. The addition of competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) lead to a significantly reduction of psaA mRNA expression in the dprA-deficient mutant and an increased level of psaA transcripts in the wild-type strain (p < 0.01). The median survival time of mice intraperitoneally infected with ΔD39 was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of mice infected with D39. The results of this study suggest that DprA has a significant effect on virulence characteristics of S. pneumoniae by influencing the expression of choline-binding protein and PsaA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Pneumococcal Infections/pathology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Bacterial Adhesion , Virulence Factors/analysis , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Survival Analysis , Cell Line , Virulence Factors/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Gene Knockout Techniques , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(4): 253-257, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787570

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and association of virulence factors of Escherichia (E.) coli isolated from weaned piglets with diarrhea and to correlate it with fecal consistency. A total of 152 rectal swabs were collected from 25-40 day-old piglets with diarrhea, in farms of Southern Brazil. Phenotypical and molecular techniques were used for bacterial isolation, characterization and classification of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) pathotypes. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the frequency of virulence factors and virotypes, of fimbriae F4, F5, F6, F18, F41 and toxins LT, STa, STb and STx2e. Out of 456 E. coli isolates, 287 (62.9%) samples showed significant growth of E. coli. Among them, 194 (67.6%) samples showed at least one virulence factor, indicating that ETEC is an important etiological agent of diarrhea in weaned piglets. Higher frequencies were found of fimbria F4 and F18 and enterotoxins LT, STa and STb. Significant association was found to F4, LT, STa and STb; between F18 and STa and STx2e; between F5 and LT, STa and STb. The most frequent virotypes were F18-STa, F4-LT-STa-STb, F4-STa, F4-LT-STb and F18-STa-STx2e. Beta-hemolysis was observed in 47.4% of samples and there was significant association between hemolytic samples and virulence factors F4, F18, STa and STx2e. Regarding fecal consistency, there was significant association of liquid feces and F4 fimbria, STa toxin and virotypes F4-STa and F4-F5-LT-STa-STb. Since there was significant association of ETEC and liquid feces in nursery piglets, it is important to prioritize the sampling of liquid feces for the diagnosis etiologic cause of diarrhea.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência e associação de fatores de virulência de Escherichia (E.) coli isoladas de leitões desmamados com diarreia e correlacioná-la com consistência fecal. Suabes retais foram coletados em leitões com 25-40 dias de idade com sinal clínico de diarreia, em granjas do Sul do Brasil, totalizando 456 amostras. Foram utilizadas técnicas fenotípicas e moleculares para isolamento bacteriano, caracterização e classificação de patotipos de E. coli enterotoxigênica (ETEC). A análise estatística foi realizada para determinar a frequência de fatores de virulência e virotipos, de fímbrias F4, F5, F6, F18, F41 e toxinas LT, STa, STB e STx2e. Duzentas e oitenta e sete (62,9%) amostras apresentaram crescimento significativo de E. coli. Entre os quais, 194 (67,6%) amostras apresentaram pelo menos um fator de virulência, indicando que ETEC é um importante agente etiológico de diarreia em leitões desmamados. As frequências mais elevadas foram encontradas para as fímbrias F4 e F18 e enterotoxinas LT, STa e STb. Associação significativa foi encontrada para F4, LT, STa e STb; entre F18 e STa e STx2e; entre F5 e LT, STa e STb. Os virotipos mais frequentes foram F18-STa, F4-LT-STa-STb, F4-STa, F4-LT-STb e F18-STa-STx2e. Beta-hemólise foi observada em 47,4% das amostras e houve associação significativa entre amostras hemolíticas e fatores de virulência F4, F18, STa e STx2e. Quanto consistência fecal, houve associação significativa de fezes líquidas e fímbria F4, toxina STa e virotipos F4-STa e F4-F5-LT-STa-STb. A associação significativa da ETEC e fezes líquidas em leitões de creche, é importante para priorizar a amostragem de fezes com essa consistência para no diagnóstico etiológico da diarreia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diarrhea/etiology , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Virulence Factors/analysis , Swine/microbiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 210-216, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775114

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pasteurella multocida causes atrophic rhinitis in swine and fowl cholera in birds, and is a secondary agent in respiratory syndromes. Pathogenesis and virulence factors involved are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect 22 virulence-associated genes by PCR, including capsular serogroups A, B and D genes and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of P. multocida strains from poultry and swine. ompH, oma87, plpB, psl, exbD-tonB, fur, hgbA, nanB, sodA, sodC, ptfA were detected in more than 90% of the strains of both hosts. 91% and 92% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were classified in serogroup A. toxA and hsf-1 showed a significant association to serogroup D; pmHAS and pfhA to serogroup A. Gentamicin and amoxicillin were the most effective drugs with susceptibility higher than 97%; however, 76.79% of poultry strains and 85% of swine strains were resistant to sulphonamides. Furthermore, 19.64% and 36.58% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were multi-resistant. Virulence genes studied were not specific to a host and may be the result of horizontal transmission throughout evolution. High multidrug resistance demonstrates the need for responsible use of antimicrobials in animals intended for human consumption, in addition to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to P. multocida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Pasteurella Infections/veterinary , Pasteurella multocida/drug effects , Pasteurella multocida/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Virulence Factors/analysis , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Genotype , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Poultry , Pasteurella Infections/microbiology , Pasteurella multocida/isolation & purification , Serotyping , Swine , Virulence Factors/genetics
9.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(1): 21-26, mar. 2016. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843152

ABSTRACT

Sphingomyelinases (SMases) catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Sphingolipids are recognized as diverse and dynamic regulators of a multitude of cellular processes mediating cell cycle control, differentiation, stress response, cell migration, adhesion, and apoptosis. Bacterial SMases are virulence factors for several species of pathogens. Whole cell extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains H37Rv and CDC1551 were assayed using [N-methyl-14C]-sphingomyelin as substrate. Acidic Zn2+-dependent SMase activity was identified in both strains. Peak SMase activity was observed at pH 5.5. Interestingly, overall SMase activity levels from CDC1551 extracts are approximately 1/3 of those of H37Rv. The presence of exogenous SMase produced by M. tuberculosis during infection may interfere with the normal host inflammatory response thus allowing the establishment of infection and disease development. This Type C activity is different from previously identified M. tuberculosis SMases. Defining the biochemical characteristics of M. tuberculosis SMases helps to elucidate the roles that these enzymes play during infection and disease.


Las esfingomielinasas (SMasas) catalizan la hidrólisis de esfingomielina a ceramida y fosforilcolina. Los esfingolípidos son reconocidos como reguladores diversos y dinámicos de una multitud de procesos celulares que median en el control del ciclo celular, la diferenciación, la respuesta al estrés, la migración celular, la adhesión y la apoptosis. Las esfingomielinasas bacterianas son factores de virulencia reconocidos en varias especies de patógenos. En este trabajo se analizaron los extractos de células enteras de las cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv y CDC1551 utilizando [N-metil-14C]-esfingomielina como sustrato. Se identificó actividad de SMasa-ácida dependiente de zinc en ambas cepas. La actividad máxima se observó a pH 5.5. Curiosamente, los niveles de actividad de SMasa generados a partir de extractos de la cepa CDC1551 son aproximadamente un tercio de los de la cepa H37Rv. La presencia de una SMasa exógena producida por M. tuberculosis durante la infección puede interferir con la respuesta inflamatoria del huésped, permitiendo así el establecimiento de la infección y el desarrollo de la enfermedad. Esta actividad tipo C es distinta de las actividades previamente reportadas para M. tuberculosis. Definir las características bioquímicas de las esfingomielinasas de M. tuberculosis ayudará a dilucidar el papel que desempeñan estas enzimas durante la infección y la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase/biosynthesis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase/isolation & purification , Virulence Factors/analysis , Mexico/epidemiology
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1257-1263, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769651

ABSTRACT

Increasing interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife may result in inter-species transmission of infectious agents. To evaluate the presence of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella spp. and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates, rectal swabs from 36 different free-ranging wild mammals were taken from two distinct natural sites in Brazil: Cantareira State Park (CSP, state of São Paulo) and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro Region (SIRNR, state of Amazonas). The swabs were randomly collected and processed for bacterial isolation, identification, characterization and antimicrobial resistance. Eighteen E. coli strains from CSP and 20 from SIRNR were recovered from 14 and 22 individuals, respectively. Strains from animals captured in CSP, the site with the greatest anthropization, exhibited a higher range and percentage of virulence genes, including an eae+/bfpA+ strain. Antimicrobial resistance was verified in strains originating from both sites; however, in strains from SIRNR, aminopenicillins were almost the exclusive antimicrobial class to which strains exhibited resistance, whereas in CSP there were strains resistant to cephalosporins, sulfonamide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone, in addition to strains exhibiting multidrug resistance. Two strains of Salmonella enterica that are known to be associated with reptiles, serotypes Belem and 60:r:e,n,z15, were recovered only from Amazonian animals and showed susceptibility to all classes of antimicrobials that were tested. Although the potential impact of these pathogens on wildlife remains unknown, bacteria isolated from free-ranging wild animals may provide relevant information about environmental health and should therefore be more deeply studied.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Rectum/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Virulence Factors/analysis , Virulence Factors/genetics
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(9): 775-780, Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767736

ABSTRACT

In order to detect virulence factors in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates and investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile, rectal swabs were collected from healthy sheep of the races Santa Inês and Dorper. Of the 115 E. coli isolates obtained, 78.3% (90/115) were characterized as STEC, of which 52.2% (47/90) carried stx1 gene, 33.3% (30/90) stx2 and 14.5% (13/90) both genes. In search of virulence factors, 47.7% and 32.2% of the isolates carried the genes saa and cnf1. According to the analysis of the antimicrobial resistance profile, 83.3% (75/90) were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. In phylogenetic classification grouped 24.4% (22/90) in group D (pathogenic), 32.2% (29/90) in group B1 (commensal) and 43.3% (39/90) in group A (commensal). The presence of several virulence factors as well as the high number of multiresistant isolates found in this study support the statement that sheep are potential carriers of pathogens threatening public health...


A fim de detectar os fatores de virulência em isolados de E. coli produtoras de toxina Shiga (STEC) e investigar o perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos, swabs retais foram coletados em ovelhas saudáveis das raças Santa Inês e Dorper. Dos 115 isolados de E. coli obtidos, 78,3% (90/115) foram caracterizados como STEC, dos quais 52,2% (47/90) possuíam o gene stx1, 33,3% (30/90) stx2 e 14,5% (13/90) ambos os genes. Em busca de fatores de virulência, 47,7% e 32,2% dos isolados apresentaram genes saa e cnf1. De acordo com a análise do perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos, 83,3% (75/90) eram resistentes a pelo menos um dos antibióticos testados. Na classificação filogenética, os isolados foram agrupados 24,4% (22/90) no grupo D (patogênico), 32,2% (29/90) no grupo B1 (comensal) e 43,3% (39/90) no grupo A (comensal). A presença de vários fatores de virulência, bem como o elevado número de isolados multirresistentes encontrados neste estudo apoia a afirmação de que as ovelhas são portadoras potenciais de patógenos que ameaçam a saúde pública...


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Virulence Factors/analysis , Sheep/microbiology , Phylogeny , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
12.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(2): 125-131, June 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147149

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli O157 es un patógeno emergente asociado a diarrea, colitis hemorrágica y síndrome urémico hemolítico. Los productos cárnicos constituyen una importante fuente de contaminación con este microorganismo. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron establecer la frecuencia de detección de E. coli O157 en productos cárnicos y media res en la provincia de Tucumán, caracterizar los factores de virulencia de los aislamientos obtenidos, establecer la relación clonal entre cepas regionales mediante electroforesis de campo pulsado y comparar con lo consignado en la base de datos nacional. Desde 2004 hasta 2013 se analizaron 169 muestras de carne picada, 35 embutidos y 216 esponjados de media res. Se identificaron 13 aislamientos de E. coli O157; 6 de ellos fueron O157:H7 productores de toxina Shiga y se caracterizaron como stx2c(vh-a)/eae/ehxA (n = 5) y stx2/eae/ehxA (n = 1); los 7 aislamientos de E. coli O157 no toxigénicos fueron O157:NT(n = 4),O157:NM (n = 1),O157:ND (n = 1) y O157:H16 (n = 1). Los patrones de PFGE fueron diferentes entre sí y de los registrados en la base de datos nacional. Se concluye que existe gran diversidad genética en los aislamientos de E. coli O157 circulantes en nuestra región


Escherichia coli O157 is an emergent pathogen associated with diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Meat products constitute an important transmission source of this microorganism. The aims of this study were to characterize E. coli O157 isolated from cattle and meat products collected from abattoirs and retail stores, to establish the clonal relatedness among regional isolates and to compare them with those in the national database. Between 2004 and 2013, 169 minced meat, 35 sausage and 216 carcass samples were analyzed. Thirteen E. coli O157 isolates were identified; 6 of which were O157:H7 and characterized as stx2c(vh-a)/eae/ehxA (n = 5) and stx2/eae/ehxA (n = 1). The 7 remaining isolates were non-toxigenic E. coli strains, and serotyped as O157:NT (n = 4), O157:NM (n = 1), O157:ND (n = 1) and O157:H16 (n = 1). The strains yielded different XbaI-PFGE patterns. Compared to the E. coli O157 isolates in the National Database, none of these patterns have been previously detected in strains of different origin in Argentina


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli O157/genetics , Meat Products/analysis , Databases, Bibliographic/statistics & numerical data , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field/methods , Escherichia coli O157/classification , Virulence Factors/analysis
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 237-249, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748255

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results.


Subject(s)
Cheese/microbiology , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecium/physiology , Food Safety , Food Handling/methods , Bacterial Adhesion , Brazil , Chemical Phenomena , Cholic Acids/metabolism , Cholic Acids/toxicity , Clostridium perfringens/chemistry , Clostridium perfringens/physiology , Enterococcus faecium/chemistry , Escherichia coli/chemistry , Escherichia coli/physiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/chemistry , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Inactivation, Metabolic , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virulence Factors/analysis , Virulence Factors/genetics
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1199-1209, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741269

ABSTRACT

Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1-5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carrier State/veterinary , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/veterinary , Escherichia/drug effects , Escherichia/isolation & purification , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Birds , Cluster Analysis , Carrier State/microbiology , Cloaca/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Escherichia/classification , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Virulence Factors/analysis
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 111-115, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709493

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the frequency of enterococci from food and found 95.2% of positivity, being E. faecium and E. faecalis the most frequent species. High-level streptomycin resistance was observed, as well as gelatinase and hemolysis activity, showing the potential role of environmental strains as reservoir of virulence and resistance traits.


Subject(s)
Enterococcus/classification , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Food Contamination , Food Microbiology , Brazil , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterococcus/physiology , Gelatinases/analysis , Hemolysis , Prevalence , Virulence Factors/analysis
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1223-1229, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705262

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter jejuni isolates of different origins (bovine, broiler meat, human) were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of 4 genes cdtB, cst-II, ggt, and virB11, previously linked to virulence such as adherence, invasion, colonization, molecular mimicry, and cytotoxin production. In addition, the isolates were screened for the presence of the global gene regulator csrA linked to oxidative stress responses, biofilms formation, and cell adhesion. All the C. jejuni isolates were positive for cdtB gene. The csrA gene was detected in 100% and 92% of C. jejuni isolates from human and animal origin and the virB11 gene was detected in 7.3% and 3.6% isolates from chicken and human respectively. All isolates from bovine were negative for the virB11 gene. The isolates showed a wide variation for the presence of the remaining genes. Of the C. jejuni recovered from human 83.6%, and 32.7% were positive for cst-II, and ggt respectively. Out of the isolates from chicken 40% and 5.5% isolates revealed the presence of cst-II, and ggt, respectively. Finally of the C. jejuni isolates from bovine, 97.7% and 22.7% were positive for cst-II, and ggt respectively. We conclude that the genes of this study circulate among humans and animals. These results led us to hypothesize that the isolates associated with enteritis (cdtB positives) are not selected by environmental or host-specific factors. On the other hand, the high frequencies of csrA gene in C. jejuni show that this gene is important for the survival of C. jejuni in animals and humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Campylobacter Infections/microbiology , Campylobacter Infections/veterinary , Campylobacter jejuni/genetics , Campylobacter jejuni/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial , Virulence Factors/analysis , Chickens , Campylobacter Infections/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virulence Factors/genetics
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1173-1180, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705281

ABSTRACT

This study described a group of strains obtained from a slaughter house in Mendoza, in terms of their pathogenic factors, serotype, antibiotype and molecular profile. Ninety one rectal swabs and one hundred eight plating samples taken from carcasses of healthy cattle intended for meat consumption were analyzed. Both the swab and the plate samples were processed to analyze the samples for the presence of virulence genes by PCR: stx1, stx2, eae and astA. The Stx positive strains were confirmed by citotoxicity assay in Vero cells. The isolates were subsequently investigated for their O:H serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular profile by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Twelve E.coli strains were identified by their pathogenicity. Nine were from fecal origin and three from carcasses. Three strains carried the stx1 gene, three the stx2 gene, two carried eae and four the astA gene. The detected serotypes were: O172:H-; O150:H8; O91:H21; O178:H19 and O2:H5. The strains showed a similarity around 70% by RAPD. Some of the E.coli strains belonged to serogroups known for certain life-threatening diseases in humans. Their presence in carcasses indicates the high probability of bacterial spread during slaughter and processing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Carrier State/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/genetics , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Virulence Factors/analysis , Abattoirs , Argentina , Bacterial Toxins/analysis , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Cell Survival , Chlorocebus aethiops , Carrier State/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rectum/microbiology , Serotyping , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/classification , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Vero Cells , Virulence Factors/genetics
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(5): 480-488, oct. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-691152

ABSTRACT

Coagulase-negative staphylococci have emerged as responsible for a large number of infections. However, it is often difficult to assess its pathogenic role or to discard it as a contaminant. Aim: The goal of this study was to identify clinically significant coagulase-negative staphylococci to the species level and their virulence factors. Isolates came from patients consulting at the San Roque Laboratory from 2009 to 2011. Material and Methods: Species identification was performed by De Paulis et al simplified method. Production of biofilm, hemolysins, lipases, lecithinases and DNase were determined by conventional methods; methicillin-resistance by diffusion method and mecA and Panton-Valentine genes, by multiplex PCR. Results: Out of 64 isolates, 40.6% were S. epidermidis; 20.3%, S. haemolyticus, and 15.6%, S. lugdunensis. Biofilm production was detected in 73.1% of S. epidermidis, 53.8% of S. haemolyticus and 40% of S. lugdunensis. mecA gene was identified in 69.2% of S. epidermidis, 92.3% of S. haemolyticus and none of S. lugdunensis. 83% of mecA (+) S. epidermidis isolates were biofilm producers as compared to 50% of the mecA (-). Conclusion: The frequency of S. lugdunensis, the most virulent coagulase-negative staphylococci species, was relatively high. The main virulence factor in S. epidermidis was biofilm production, being higher in those resistant to methicillin.


Staphylococcus coagulasa-negativa ha emergido como responsable de un gran número de infecciones. No obstante, con frecuencia es difícil asegurar su rol patógeno o descartarlo como contaminante. Objetivo: Estudiar a nivel de especies Staphylococcus coagulasa-negativa clínicamente significativos y sus factores de virulencia, de aislados provenientes de pacientes del Laboratorio San Roque de Asunción, Paraguay entre los años 2009 y 2011. Material y Métodos: Para la identificación de especies fue utilizado el método simplificado de De Paulis y cols. La producción de biopelícula, hemolisinas, lipasas, lecitinasas, AD-Nasa, fue determinada por métodos convencionales; la resistencia a meticilina por difusión y los genes mecA y Panton-Valentine por RPC múltiple. Resultados: De 64 aislados, 40,6% correspondió a S. epidermidis, 20,3% S. haemolyticus y 15,6% S. lugdunensis. La producción de biopelícula fue detectada en S. epidermidis en 73,1%, S. haemolyticus 53,8% y S. lugdunensis 40%. El gen mecA fue identificado en 69,2% de S. epidermidis, 92,3% de S. haemolyticus y en ninguno de S. lugdunensis. El 83% de S. epidermidis mecA (+) fue productor de biopelícula en comparación a 50% de los mecA (-). Conclusión: La frecuencia de S. lugdunensis, una de las especies más virulentas de Staphylococcus coagulasa-negativa fue relativamente alta; y el principal factor de virulencia en S. epidermidis fue la producción de biopelícula, siendo mayor en los resistentes a meticilina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Coagulase/metabolism , Staphylococcus/enzymology , Staphylococcus/pathogenicity , Virulence Factors/analysis , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methicillin Resistance/drug effects , Methicillin Resistance/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Staphylococcus/drug effects
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(6): 707-712, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-661071

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The emergence of carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been outstanding due to the wide spectrum of antimicrobial degradation of these bacteria, reducing of therapeutic options. METHODS: Sixty-one clinical strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from five public hospitals in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, were examined between 2006 and 2010, aiming of evaluating the profiles of virulence, resistance to antimicrobials, presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes, and clonal relationship among isolates. RESULTS: A high percentage of virulence factors (34.4% mucoid colonies; 70.5% pyocyanin; 93.4% gelatinase positives; and 72.1% hemolysin positive) and a high percentage of antimicrobial resistance rates (4.9% pan-resistant and 54.1% multi-drug resistant isolates) were observed. Among the 29 isolates resistant to imipenem and/or ceftazidime, 44.8% (13/29) were MBL producers by phenotypic evaluation, and of these, 46.2% (6/13) were positive for the blaSPM-1 gene. The blaIMP and blaVIM genes were not detected. The molecular typing revealed 21 molecular profiles of which seven were detected in distinct hospitals and periods. Among the six positive blaSPM-1 isolates, three presented the same clonal profile and were from the same hospital, whereas the other three presented different clonal profiles. CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed that P. aeruginosa is able to accumulate different resistance and virulence factors, making the treatment of infections difficult. The identification of blaSPM-1 genes and the dissemination of clones in different hospitals, indicate the need for stricter application of infection control measures in hospitals in Recife, Brazil, aiming at reducing costs and damages caused by P. aeruginosa infections.


INTRODUÇÃO: A emergência de mecanismos de resistência aos carbapenêmicos em Pseudomonas aeruginosa tem se destacado devido ao amplo espectro de degradação de antimicrobianos, reduzindo as opções terapêuticas. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e um isolados de P. aeruginosa procedentes de cinco hospitais públicos de Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, entre 2006 e 2010, foram analisadas, com o objetivo de avaliar o perfil de virulência, resistência aos antimicrobianos, a presença de genes metalo-β-lactamase (MBL) e a relação clonal entre os isolados. RESULTADOS: Foi observada uma elevada produção de fatores de virulência na amostra (34,4% colônias mucoides; 70,5% piocianina; 93,4% gelatinase e 72,1% hemolisina), bem como um elevado percentual de resistência (4,9% isolados panresistentes e 54,1% multirresistentes). Dentre os 29 isolados resistentes ao imipenem e/ou ceftazidima, 44,8% (13/29) apresentaram MBL por meio da pesquisa fenotípica, e destes, 46,2% (6/13) foram positivos para o gene blaSPM-1, não havendo detecção dos genes blaIMP e blaVIM. A tipagem molecular revelou 21 perfis genéticos dos quais sete foram detectados em hospitais e períodos distintos, e dos isolados blaSPM-1 positivos, três apresentaram o mesmo perfil clonal e foram procedentes do mesmo hospital, enquanto que os outros três isolados blaSPM-1 positivos apresentaram perfis clonais distintos. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados revelam que a P. aeruginosa é capaz de acumular diferentes fatores de virulência e resistência, dificultando o tratamento das infecções. A identificação de genes blaSPM-1 e disseminação de clones sugere a necessidade de aplicação mais rigorosa de medidas de controle de infecção nos hospitais de Recife, visando reduzir custos e danos provocados por este tipo de infecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Virulence Factors/analysis , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Typing , Phenotype , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , beta-Lactamases/analysis
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(5): 405-410, maio 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-626480

ABSTRACT

Embora existam linhagens de Escherichia coli não patogênicas para aves, muitas outras possuem a capacidade de causar sérios danos à saúde das mesmas, sendo capazes de ocasionar diferentes tipos de processos infecciosos. As linhagens patogênicas são denominadas Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), possuindo genes relacionados ao processo de patogênese em epissomos (plasmídios) ou no cromossomo. A presença de plasmídios, contendo genes de resistência a antibióticos em linhagens aviárias, patogênicas ou não, indicam a possibilidade de transferência gênica lateral entre diferentes tipos de linhagens facilitando também a transferência de genes de patogenicidade ou virulência. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade a antibióticos (13) de diferentes amostras (35) de E. coli isoladas de aves comerciais do Estado de Pernambuco apresentando, ou não, sinais clínicos de processos infecciosos e correlacionar esta resistência com a presença de plasmídios. Os testes utilizados demonstraram que 94,28% dos isolados foram resistentes a três ou mais antibióticos, com a lincomicina apresentando o maior percentual de resistência (100%). Na Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) observou-se multirresistência a vários antimicrobianos. A presença de plasmídios foi detecada em 80,0% (28/35) dos isolados, com 16 isolados apresentando plasmídios com peso molecular aproximado de 88 MDa. Também foi verificada a presença de linhagens apresentando plasmídios de vários tamanhos. Concluiu-se que isolados de E. coli resistentes a antimicrobianos utilizados na avicultura estão presentes no Estado de Pernambuco, tanto em frangos de corte quanto em poedeiras comerciais. A presença de plasmídios detectados na maioria dos isolados pode estar associada à resistência aos antimicrobianos e sugere a presença de possíveis genes relacionados à patogenicidade. Monitorar a resistência a antibióticos em bactérias isoladas de animais torna-se um fator determinante para eleição e êxito do tratamento, bem como a possibilidade de eliminação daquelas que possuem plasmídios para se evitar a transferência de genes relacionados à patogenicidade.


Although exist poultry non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, many others have capacity to impose serious damages to this birds, being able to cause different infectious diseases. Pathogenic strains are termed Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains. APEC strains harbor chromossomal and plasmid pathogenicity-related genes. The presence of resistance plasmids in avian E. coli strains could facilitate horizontal tranfer of virulence gene between pathogenic and non pathogenic strains. The aim of this paper was to determine the resistance level to 13 different antibacterial drugs of avian E. coli strains (35) isolated from commercial poultry of Pernambuco State, Brazil, and to correlate the detected resistance level to the presence of plasmids. The results show that 94.28% of strains were resistant to at least three different antibacterial drugs with the highest percentage to lincomycin. The Minimal Inibitory Concentration (MIC) showed that multi- resistance to various antibacterial drugs was present in these strains. Plasmids of several sizes, including plasmids of approximately 88Mda were detected in most of the studied strains. The results herein obtained suggest that the high resistance level observed could be due to the presence of plasmids, what could facilitate the transfer of pathogenicity related genes among pathogenic and non pathogenic strains; it is necessary to take a constant survey on the resistance level to antimicrobial drugs of avian E. coli strains to reach a better control of APEC strains and avoid transfer of pathogenicity related genes between strains.


Subject(s)
Animals , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Chickens/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Poultry/immunology , Virulence Factors/analysis
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