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Rev. panam. salud pública ; 38(6): 442-449, nov.-dic. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788101


OBJECTIVE:To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in the Americas in 2012. METHODS: Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH). The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality). RESULTS: Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012) compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost), especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.

OBJETIVO:Describir el volumen y los modelos de consumo de alcohol hasta el año 2012 incluido, y calcular la carga de morbilidad atribuible al consumo de alcohol medida según el número de defunciones y los años de vida ajustados en función de la discapacidad (AVAD) perdidos en la Región de las Américas en el 2012. MÉTODOS: Los datos sobre el consumo de alcohol se obtuvieron a partir del Sistema Mundial de Información sobre el Alcohol y la Salud (GISAH, por sus siglas en inglés) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). La carga del consumo de alcohol se calculó según la mortalidad y según los AVAD perdidos con base en los datos de mortalidad obtenidos de la OMS, tomando en consideración las fracciones atribuibles al alcohol. La división en subregiones se basó en las clasificaciones de la OMS del año 2004 (según la mortalidad en niños y adultos). RESULTADOS: Se observaron variaciones regionales en el volumen total de alcohol consumido, la proporción del mercado del alcohol atribuible al consumo de alcohol no registrado, los hábitos de consumo, la prevalencia del consumo y la prevalencia de los episodios de consumo excesivo de alcohol. Los habitantes de la Región de las Américas consumieron más alcohol (8,4 litros de alcohol puro por adulto en el 2012) en comparación con el promedio mundial. La Región también experimentó una alta carga de morbilidad atribuible al consumo de alcohol (4,7% de las defunciones y 6,7% de los AVAD perdidos), especialmente en forma de lesiones atribuibles al consumo de alcohol. CONCLUSIONES: El alcohol se consume de una manera perjudicial en la Región de las Américas y ello comporta una alta carga de morbilidad, especialmente en forma de lesiones. Con objeto de disminuir el consumo perjudicial de bebidas alcohólicas y la carga de morbilidad resultante, es preciso introducir nuevas políticas en materia de consumo de alcohol que sean eficaces en función de los costos, tales como el incremento de los impuestos sobre el alcohol, el aumento de la edad mínima legal para adquirir alcohol, y la disminución de la concentración máxima legal de alcohol en sangre mientras se conduce.

Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Neuraminidase/chemistry , Streptococcus pneumoniae/enzymology , Virulence Factors/chemistry , Binding Sites , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Lactose/analogs & derivatives , Lactose/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Neuraminidase/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Folding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Streptococcus pneumoniae/chemistry , Virulence Factors/metabolism
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(5): 587-592, Aug. 2007. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-458626


Ribotyping and virulence markers has been used to investigate 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains of serogroups O:1a and O:3. The strains were isolated from clinical material obtained from healthy and sick animals in the Southern region of Brazil. Ribotypes were identified by double digestion of extracted DNA with the restriction endonucleases SmaI and PstI, separation by electrophoresis and hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe. The presence of the chromosomal virulence marker genes inv, irp1, irp2, psn, ybtE, ybtP-ybtQ, and ybtX-ybtS, of the IS100 insertion sequence, and of the plasmid gene lcrF was detected by polymerase chain reaction. The strains were grouped into four distinct ribotypes, all of them comprising several strains. Ribotypes 1 and 4 presented distinct profiles, with 57.3 percent genetic similarity, ribotypes 2 and 3 presented 52.5 percent genetic similarity, and genetic similarity was 45 percent between these two groups (1/4 and 2/3). All strains possessed the inv, irp1, and irp2 genes. Additionally, strains of serogroup O:1a carried psn, ybtE, ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and IS100. As expected lcrF was only detected in strains harboring the virulence plasmid. These data demonstrate the presence of Y. pseudotuberculosis strains harboring genotypic virulence markers in the livestock from Southern Brazil and that the dissemination of these bacteria may occur between herds.

Animals , Genomic Islands/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , Ribotyping/methods , Virulence Factors/genetics , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/pathogenicity , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genetic Markers/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virulence Factors/chemistry , Virulence/genetics , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/classification , Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56726


The present study was carried out to genotypically characterize Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from bovine mastitis cases. A total of 37 strains of S. aureus were isolated during processing of 552 milk samples from 140 cows. The S. aureus strains were characterized phenotypically, and were further characterized genotypically by polymerase chain reaction using oligonucleotide primers that amplified genes encoding coagulase (coa), clumping factor (clfA), thermonuclease (nuc), enterotoxin A (entA), and the gene segments encoding the immunoglobulin G binding region and the X region of protein A gene spa. All of the isolates yielded an amplicon with a size of approximately 1,042 bp of the clfA gene. The amplification of the polymorphic spa gene segment encoding the immunoglobulin G binding region was observed in 34 isolates and X-region binding was detected in 26 isolates. Amplification of the coa gene yielded three different products in 20, 10, and 7 isolates. The amplification of the thermonuclease gene, nuc, was observed in 36 out of 37 isolates. All of the samples were negative for the entA gene. The phenotypic and genotypic findings of the present strategies might provide an understanding of the distribution of the prevalent S. aureus clones among bovine mastitis isolates, and might aid in the development of steps to control S. aureus infections in dairy herds.

Animals , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Cattle , Coagulase/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , Endonucleases/chemistry , Female , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Micrococcal Nuclease/chemistry , Milk/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Virulence Factors/chemistry