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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 189-199, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Nine Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from cooling towers and a standard strain (L. pneumophila serogroup 1, ATCC 33152, Philadelphia 1) were analyzed and compared in terms of motility, flagella structure, ability to form biofilms, enzymatic activities (hemolysin, nucleases, protease, phospholipase A, phospholipase C, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase), hemagglutination capabilities, and pathogenicity in various host cells (Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 30234, mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral monocytes). All the isolates of bacteria appeared to be motile and polar-flagellated and possessed the type-IV fimbria. Upon the evaluation of virulence factors, isolate 4 was found to be the most pathogenic strain, while 6 out of the 9 isolates (the isolates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7) were more virulent than the ATCC 33152 strain. The different bacterial strains exhibited differences in properties such as adhesion, penetration and reproduction in the hosts, and preferred host type. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the virulence of environmental L. pneumophila strains isolated in Turkey, and it provides important information relevant for understanding the epidemiology of L. pneumophila.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Mice , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Legionella pneumophila/metabolism , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Turkey/epidemiology , Legionnaires' Disease/microbiology , Legionella pneumophila/isolation & purification , Legionella pneumophila/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Environmental Microbiology , Macrophages/microbiology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 93-100, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974332

ABSTRACT

Abstract Klebsiella pneumoniae is important human and animal pathogen that causes a wide spectrum of infections. In this study, isolates from cattle nasal swabs samples were identified by 16S rRNA, and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence gene carrying levels, and multilocus sequence typing of K. pneumoniae isolates. 33 isolates of K. pneumoniae were isolated and identified in 213 nasal swabs samples, of which 12 were hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases genes were found in 93.4% of the strains. Of which, TEM was the most prevalent (93.4%), followed by CTX-M and SHV were 57.6% and 39.4%, respectively. A main mutation pattern of quinoloneresistance-determining region, Thr83-Ieu and Asp87-Asn in gyrA and Ser87-Ile in parC, was detected in 33 K. pneumoniae isolates. All the isolates harbored at least two virulence factor genes, with ureA (97.0%) and wabG (91.0%) exhibiting high carriage rates in 33 K. pneumoniae isolates. MLST revealed 7 sequence types, of which 3 STs (2541, 2581 and 2844) were newly assigned. Using eBURST, ST2844 and ST2541 were assigned to new clonal complex 2844. Our study provides evidence and biological characteristics of K. pneumoniae isolates from cattle upper respiratory tract in Southwest China.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Klebsiella Infections/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Virulence Factors/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , China , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/metabolism
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 107-112, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039271

ABSTRACT

Abstract Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates from apparently healthy free range helmeted guineafowl were characterized. Most of them had a high frequency of virulence associated genes, multi drug resistance and high pathogenicity. We demonstrated that helmeted guineafowl have potential to transmit antibiotic resistant APEC to other species including humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Virulence Factors/genetics , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Galliformes/microbiology , Escherichia coli/classification , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 224-228, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039272

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Enterobacter cloacae and E. aerogenes have been increasingly reported as important opportunistic pathogens. In this study, a high prevalence of multi-drug resistant isolates from Brazil, harboring several β-lactamase encoding genes was found. Several virulence genes were observed in E. aerogenes, contrasting with the E. cloacae isolates which presented none.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Enterobacter cloacae/isolation & purification , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Phylogeny , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Virulence , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Enterobacter cloacae/classification , Enterobacter cloacae/enzymology , Enterobacter cloacae/genetics , Enterobacter aerogenes/classification , Enterobacter aerogenes/enzymology , Enterobacter aerogenes/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 551-559, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889129

ABSTRACT

Abstract Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the most common pathogens leading to mastitis in dairy herds worldwide; consequently, the pathogen causes major economic losses for affected farmers. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), genotypic capsular typing by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and virulence gene detection were performed to address the molecular epidemiology of 59 bovine (mastitis) S. agalactiae isolates from 36 dairy farms located in the largest milk-producing mesoregions in Brazil (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, and Pernambuco). We screened for the virulence genes bac, bca, bibA, cfb, hylB, fbsA, fbsB, PI-1, PI-2a, and PI-2b, which are associated with adhesion, invasion, tissue damage, and/or immune evasion. Furthermore, five capsular types were identified (Ia, Ib, II, III, and IV), and a few isolates were classified as non-typeable (NT). MLST revealed the following eight sequence types (STs): ST-61, ST-67, ST-103, ST-146, ST-226, ST-314, and ST-570, which were clustered in five clonal complexes (CC64, CC67, CC103, CC17, and CC314), and one singleton, ST-91. Among the virulence genes screened in this study, PI-2b, fbsB, cfb, and hylB appear to be the most important during mastitis development in cattle. Collectively, these results establish the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae isolated from cows in Brazilian herds. We believe that the data presented here provide a foundation for future research aimed at developing and implementing new preventative and treatment options for mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Streptococcal Infections/veterinary , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/classification , Streptococcus agalactiae/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Brazil/epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology , Virulence Factors/genetics , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype , Mastitis, Bovine/epidemiology
6.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 38(6): 442-449, nov.-dic. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in the Americas in 2012. METHODS: Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH). The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality). RESULTS: Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012) compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost), especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.


OBJETIVO:Describir el volumen y los modelos de consumo de alcohol hasta el año 2012 incluido, y calcular la carga de morbilidad atribuible al consumo de alcohol medida según el número de defunciones y los años de vida ajustados en función de la discapacidad (AVAD) perdidos en la Región de las Américas en el 2012. MÉTODOS: Los datos sobre el consumo de alcohol se obtuvieron a partir del Sistema Mundial de Información sobre el Alcohol y la Salud (GISAH, por sus siglas en inglés) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). La carga del consumo de alcohol se calculó según la mortalidad y según los AVAD perdidos con base en los datos de mortalidad obtenidos de la OMS, tomando en consideración las fracciones atribuibles al alcohol. La división en subregiones se basó en las clasificaciones de la OMS del año 2004 (según la mortalidad en niños y adultos). RESULTADOS: Se observaron variaciones regionales en el volumen total de alcohol consumido, la proporción del mercado del alcohol atribuible al consumo de alcohol no registrado, los hábitos de consumo, la prevalencia del consumo y la prevalencia de los episodios de consumo excesivo de alcohol. Los habitantes de la Región de las Américas consumieron más alcohol (8,4 litros de alcohol puro por adulto en el 2012) en comparación con el promedio mundial. La Región también experimentó una alta carga de morbilidad atribuible al consumo de alcohol (4,7% de las defunciones y 6,7% de los AVAD perdidos), especialmente en forma de lesiones atribuibles al consumo de alcohol. CONCLUSIONES: El alcohol se consume de una manera perjudicial en la Región de las Américas y ello comporta una alta carga de morbilidad, especialmente en forma de lesiones. Con objeto de disminuir el consumo perjudicial de bebidas alcohólicas y la carga de morbilidad resultante, es preciso introducir nuevas políticas en materia de consumo de alcohol que sean eficaces en función de los costos, tales como el incremento de los impuestos sobre el alcohol, el aumento de la edad mínima legal para adquirir alcohol, y la disminución de la concentración máxima legal de alcohol en sangre mientras se conduce.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Neuraminidase/chemistry , Streptococcus pneumoniae/enzymology , Virulence Factors/chemistry , Binding Sites , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Lactose/analogs & derivatives , Lactose/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Neuraminidase/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Folding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Streptococcus pneumoniae/chemistry , Virulence Factors/metabolism
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195650

ABSTRACT

As a commensal or a pathogen, Helicobacter pylori can change the balance of a complex interaction that exists among gastric epithelial cells, microbes, and their environment. Therefore, unraveling this complex relationship of these mixtures can be expected to help prevent cancer as well as troublesome unmet medical needs of H. pylori infection. Though gastric carcinogenesis is a multi-step process, precancerous lesion can be reversible in the early phase of mucosal damage before reaching the stage of no return. However, biomarkers to predict rejuvenation of precancerous atrophic gastritis have not been identified yet and gastric cancer prevention is still regarded as an impregnable fortress. However, when we take the journey from H. pylori-associated gastritis to gastric cancer, it provides us with the clue for prevention since there are two main preventive strategies: eradication and anti-inflammation. The evidence supporting the former strategy is now ongoing in Japan through a nation-wide effort to eradicate H. pylori in patients with chronic gastritis, but suboptimal apprehension to increasing H. pylori resistance to antibiotics and patient non-compliance still exists. The latter strategy has been continued in the author's research center under siTRP (short-term intervention to revert premalignant lesion) strategy. By focusing on the role of inflammation in the development of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis, this review is intended to explain the connection between inflammation and gastric cancer. Strategies on H. pylori eradication, removal of inflammation, and reverting preneoplastic lesion will also be introduced. In the end, we expect to be able to prevent gastric cancer by take a detour from the unpleasant journey, i.e. from H. pylori-associated gastritis to gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biomarkers/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Gastritis/etiology , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/etiology , Virulence Factors/metabolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160903

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis in women and asymptomatic urethritis and prostatitis in men. Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in vaginal smears and vaginal walls of patients infected with T. vaginalis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activated by various stimuli, have been shown to regulate the transcriptional activity of various cytokine genes in mast cells. In this study, we investigated whether MAPK is involved in ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 cells induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). We found that TvSP induces the activation of MAPK and NADPH oxidase in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP induced phosphorylation of MAPK and p47phox in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP also induced up-regulation of CD63, a marker for exocytosis, along the surfaces of human mast cells. Pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors strongly inhibited TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation. Finally, our results suggest that TvSP induces intracellular ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 via MAPK signaling.


Subject(s)
Cell Degranulation , Cell Line , Exocytosis , Humans , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Trichomonas vaginalis/metabolism , Virulence Factors/metabolism
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 647-650, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723130

ABSTRACT

Bacteroides fragilis colonizes dog guts both as a commensal and as an opportunistic pathogen. This study aims to evaluate virulence factors of 13 B. fragilis strains isolated from dog intestinal tracts and their ability for biofilm formation. Capsules were detected in all the evaluated strains. A total of 61.5% of all strains were biofilm producers. These attributes most likely play an important role in B. fragilis persistent colonization in the gut.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Bacteroides fragilis/physiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Bacteroides fragilis/isolation & purification , Bacteroides fragilis/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 945-952, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699825

ABSTRACT

It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS) and type III (T3) effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2) which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2) is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME). Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Secretion Systems , Bacterial Proteins , Culture Media/chemistry , Virulence Factors/metabolism , Xanthomonas campestris/growth & development , Xanthomonas campestris/metabolism
11.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Apr-June; 30(2): 141-149
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143935

ABSTRACT

Subset of faecal E. coli that can enter, colonize urinary tract and cause infection are known as uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). UPEC strains act as opportunistic intracellular pathogens taking advantage of host susceptibility using a diverse array of virulence factors. Presence of specific virulence associated genes on genomic/pathogenicity islands and involvement of horizontal gene transfer appears to account for evolution and diversity of UPEC. Recent success in large-scale genome sequencing and comparative genomics has helped in unravelling UPEC pathogenomics. Here we review recent findings regarding virulence characteristics of UPEC and mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of urinary tract infection.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/pathology , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Transfer, Horizontal , Genomic Islands , Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/pathology , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/genetics , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Virulence , Virulence Factors/genetics , Virulence Factors/metabolism
12.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2007 Jul; 25(3): 188-202
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53876

ABSTRACT

Infection with Brucella spp. continues to pose a human health risk globally despite strides in eradicating the disease from domestic animals. Brucellosis has been an emerging disease since the discovery of Brucella melitensis by Sir David Bruce in 1887. Although many countries have eradicated B. abortus from cattle, in some areas B. melitensis and B. suis have emerged as causes of this infection in cattle, leading to human infections. Currently B. melitensis remains the principal cause of human brucellosis worldwide including India. The recent isolation of distinct strains of Brucella from marine mammals as well as humans is an indicator of an emerging zoonotic disease. Brucellosis in endemic and non-endemic regions remains a diagnostic puzzle due to misleading non-specific manifestations and increasing unusual presentations. Fewer than 10% of human cases of brucellosis may be clinically recognized and treated or reported. Routine serological surveillance is not practiced even in Brucella - endemic countries and we suggest that this should be a part of laboratory testing coupled with a high index of clinical suspicion to improve the level of case detection. The screening of family members of index cases of acute brucellosis in an endemic area should be undertaken to pick up additional unrecognised cases. Rapid and reliable, sensitive and specific, easy to perform and automated detection systems for Brucella spp. are urgently needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate antibiotic therapy in time to decrease morbidity / mortality. The history of travel to endemic countries along with exposure to animals and exotic foods are usually critical to making the clinical diagnosis. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Therefore alertness of clinician and close collaboration with microbiologist are essential even in endemic areas to correctly diagnose and treat this protean human infection. Existing treatment options, largely based on experience gained > 30 years ago, are adequate but not optimal. In our experience, an initial combination therapy with a three drug-regimen followed by a two-drug regimen for at least six weeks and a combination of two drugs with a minimum of six weeks seems warranted to improve outcome in children and adult patients respectively with laboratory monitoring. A safe and effective vaccine in humans is not yet available. Prevention is dependent upon the control of the disease in animal hosts, effective heat treatment of dairy produce and hygienic precautions to prevent occupational exposure. This review compiles the experiences and diagnostic and treatment paradigms currently employed in fighting this disease.


Subject(s)
Brucella/drug effects , Brucellosis/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Virulence , Virulence Factors/metabolism
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-18296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Very few studies regarding production of virulence factors in different predominant serotypes of uropathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa are available and they have not been correlated to in vivo pathogenicity in the urinary tract. This study was carriedout with the objective to analyze the phenotypic characters of uroisolates of P. aeruginosa in vitro and to study the association of these virulence traits with their ability to cause nephropathogenicity in mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: Protease, elastase, alginate, haemolysin, pyochelin, pyoverdin and phopholipase C were measured using standard protocols in 18 uroisolates of P. aeruginosa isolated from patients suffering from complicated UTIs. An ascending model of pyelonephritis was established in Swiss Webster (LACA) female mice with these isolates. Quantitative bacterial count and histopathological evaluation of mouse renal tissue was done which were then assessed for a possible association with elaboration of virulence factors. RESULTS: All isolates of P. aeruginosa were able to colonize renal tissue of mice. However, renal counts varied amongst different isolates producing different virulence factors. Isolates producing high levels of haemolysin along with other virulence factors were able to colonize and multiply more in mouse renal tissue as compared to those producing low levels of haemolysin. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicated an association between haemolysin production and renal colonization. High level of haemolysin production in vitro could be used as surrogate information for assessing pyelonephritic potential of P. aeruginosa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism , Hemolytic Agents/metabolism , Kidney/cytology , Mice , Phenotype , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/cytology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urine/microbiology , Virulence Factors/metabolism
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-23184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli have virulence properties, that are absent in non pathogenic E. coli. The distribution of these markers can vary according to patient populations. Hence, a study was undertaken to describe the presence of virulence factors like Pfimbriae, type 1 fimbriae and haemolysin in E.coli causing urinary infections in three groups of patients. Antibiogram was also recorded to determine differences, if any, between the groups. METHODS: E. coli isolated from three groups of subjects, in counts of >10(5) CFU/ml and in pure growth were tested for mannose resistant haemagglutination (MRHA) to indicate P fimbriae and mannose sensitive haemagglutination (MSHA) to indicate type 1 fimbriae. Haemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were also recorded. RESULTS: Significantly more isolates from antenatal and postnatal women possessed P fimbriae compared to groups with urologic abnormalities (P=0.05). Haemolysin production was also significantly higher (P<0.001) in this group. Greater proportions of isolates from pregnant women were susceptible to commonly used antimicrobials. However, resistance to third generation cephalosporins was present even in these isolates from community infections. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: In patients with urological abnormality, E. coli with lower virulence can cause infections. Isolates from these patients exhibited greater drug resistance. In pregnant women and in community acquired infections, simple antimicrobial drugs like nitrofurantoin might still be useful. However, urgent and stringent policies for antimicrobial use and infection control in hospitals are required in India.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary/pharmacology , Community-Acquired Infections , Cross Infection , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Erythrocytes/microbiology , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Female , Fimbriae, Bacterial/metabolism , Hemagglutination , Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism , Humans , India , Mannose/pharmacology , Nitrofurantoin/pharmacology , Phenotype , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virulence , Virulence Factors/metabolism
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