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Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 189-194, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153306


Abstract Many Solidarity Economic Venture (SEV) are family farmers who seek to add value to production through artisanal processing, which can lead to food contamination. Thus, this study aimed to genotypically characterize thermotolerant coliforms (TtC) strains from food produced by local agribusinesses of SEV during January to April 2019. Samples from thirteen production units (PU) from the SEV were submitted to a microbiological analysis of thermotolerant coliforms (AFNOR 3M1/2 - 09/89), using a fast count method in Petrifilm™ dishes. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique was used to verify the following virulence genes (VGs) associated with Escherichia coli: stx, typical from enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC); bfpA typical from entheropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and elt and slt, typical from entherotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). The results showed that two samples of queijadinha (typical Brazilian candy made with eggs and coconut) and one sample of cassava cake presented characteristic colonies TtC. This way, three strains were isolated in order to perform the PCR technique. However, the genes used in the reaction were not detected in the isolated strains. Therefore, it is suggested that the isolated strains are from E. coli pathotypes with different virulence genes than the ones analyzed belong other types of TtC, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. Although the virulence of genes has not been confirmed, the presence of TtC on food indicates hygiene flaws during production and, therefore, measurements to control and prevent contamination should be taken.

Resumo Muitos Empreendimentos Econômicos Solidários (EES) são formados por agricultores familiares que buscam agregar valor à produção por meio do beneficiamento artesanal, que pode ocasionar a contaminação dos alimentos. Desta forma, este estudo objetivou caracterizar genotipicamente coliformes termotolerantes (CT) isolados em alimentos produzidos por agroindústrias de um EES no período de janeiro a abril de 2019. Então, foi realizada análise microbiológica de coliformes termotolerantes (AFNOR 3M1/2 - 09/89), utilizando um método contagem de contagem rápida em placas Petrifilm™, em amostras de alimentos de treze Unidades de Produção (UP) do EES. Foram coletadas assepticamente cinco amostras de cada UP, totalizando 65 amostras. Utilizou-se a técnica de Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase (PCR) para verificação dos seguintes genes de virulência de Escherichia coli: stx, característico de E. coli enterohemorrágica (EHEC), bfpA, característico de E. coli enteropatogênica (EPEC) e elt e stI, característicos de E. coli enterotoxigênica (ETEC). Os resultados demonstraram que duas amostras de queijadinha e uma amostra do bolo de aipim apresentaram colônias características de coliformes termotolerantes. Desta forma, foram isoladas três cepas para a realização da PCR, no entanto os genes utilizados nas reações não foram identificados nas cepas isoladas. Portanto, sugere-se que as cepas isoladas sejam de patótipos de E. coli com genes de virulência diferentes dos analisados ou de outro membro dos CT, como Enterobacter e Klebsiella. Apesar de não serem confirmados os genes de virulência analisados, a detecção dos CT nos alimentos indica falhas na higiene durante a produção, portanto medidas para controlar e prevenir a contaminação dos produtos devem ser tomadas.

Humans , Escherichia coli Infections , Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli , Virulence/genetics , Brazil , Virulence Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888501


To investigate the relationship of biofilm-forming ability of (PA) with swimming motility, twitching motility and virulence gene distribution. A total of 192 clinical isolates of PA were collected consecutively. Microtiter plate method was used to evaluate the ability to form biofilm. The swimming and twitching motilities were detected by plate method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect virulence genes. Of the 192 PA clinical isolates, 186 (96.9%) showed biofilm-forming ability. Among them, 36 isolates showed weak biofilm-forming ability, 84 exhibited moderate biofilm-forming ability and 66 showed strong biofilm-forming ability. The diameters of the swimming ring for PA with none biofilm-forming ability, weak biofilm-forming ability, moderate biofilm-forming ability, strong biofilm-forming ability were (9.12±6.76), (18.42±7.51), (19.10±4.77) and respectively. The diameters of the twitching ring for PA in above groups were (8.38±1.50), (17.21±7.42), (18.49±5.62) and respectively. The swimming motility and twitching motility of none biofilm-forming ability group were weaker than biofilm-forming ability groups (all <0.05). Among 192 PA strains, 163 were positive (84.9%), 40 were positive (20.8%), 183 were positive (95.3%), and 189 were positive (98.4%). The positive rate of PA virulence gene , and were different in strains with different biofilm-forming abilities (<0.05). The rate of in the strong biofilm-forming ability group was lower than that in the moderate biofilm-forming ability group (=9.293, <0.01) and the weak biofilm-forming ability group (=9.997, <0.01). The rate of in the strong biofilm-forming ability group was higher than that in the weak biofilm-forming ability group (=10.803, <0.01). Most clinical isolates of PA can form biofilm. Swimming and twitching motilities are related to the formation of biofilm, but not significantly related to strength of biofilm-forming ability. The virulence genes of type Ⅲ secretion system for PA may be related to the biofilm-forming ability.

Biofilms , Humans , Swimming , Virulence/genetics
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 424-436, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153346


Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is one of the food-borne entero-pathogen responsible for yersiniosis in humans. The purpose of this research was to survey the prevalence, virulence-associated genes, and antimicrobial resistance of Y. enterocolitica isolated from meat and meat product samples in Egypt. Forty-one (5.9%) out of 700- samples of chicken meat, beef, ground beef, and sausage were positive Y. enterocolitica with a high prevalence in chicken meat (12%). Five virulence genes (ail, inv, ystA, ystB, and yadA) were characterized among 41 Y. enterocolitica isolates with variable frequencies. Among the strains tested, the ystB gene was detected with a high percentage (78.1%), followed by inv gene (70.7%), ail gene (14.6%), ystA gene (12.2%), and yadA gene (2.4%). A high resistance rate was estimated to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), followed by cefazolin (95%), ampicillin (65.9%), and doxycycline (51.2%), whilst a high sensitivity rate was observed to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin (97.6% each). Interestingly, the multidrug resistance was specified in the 70.7% of strains and showing 13 resistance patterns. Based on nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16s rRNA gene, the phylogenetic tree showed the genetic relatedness amongst Y. enterocolitica isolates. These findings highlighted the emergence of virulent and multidrug-resistant pathogenic Y. entrocolitica in retailed meat and meat products in Egypt.

A Yersinia enterocolitica patogênica (Y. enterocolitica) é um dos enteropatógenos de origem alimentar responsáveis pela yersiniose no ser humano. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a prevalência, genes associados à virulência e resistência antimicrobiana de Y. enterocolitica isolada de amostras de carne e produtos à base de carne no Egito. Quarenta e um (5,9%) de 700 amostras de carne de frango, carne bovina, moída e linguiça foram Y. enterocolitica positivas, com alta prevalência em carne de frango (12%). Cinco genes de virulência (ail, inv, ystA, ystB e yadA) foram caracterizados entre 41 isolados de Y. enterocolitica com frequências variáveis. Entre as cepas testadas, o gene ystB foi detectado com uma alta porcentagem (78,1%), seguido pelo gene inv (70,7%), ail genes (14,6%), gene ystA (12,2%) e gene yadA (2,4%). Foi estimada uma alta taxa de resistência ao ácido amoxicilina-clavulânico (100%), seguida de cefazolina (95%), ampicilina (65,9%) e doxiciclina (51,2%), enquanto uma alta taxa de sensibilidade foi observada para gentamicina e ciprofloxacina (97,6% cada). Curiosamente, a resistência a múltiplas drogas foi especificada em 70,7% das cepas e mostrando 13 padrões de resistência. Com base na análise da sequência nucleotídica do gene rRNA 16s, a árvore filogenética mostrou a relação genética entre isolados de Y. enterocolitica. Esses achados destacaram o surgimento de Y. entrocolitica patogênica virulenta e multirresistente em carnes e produtos à base de carne no Egito.

Humans , Yersinia enterocolitica/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Meat/microbiology , Meat Products/microbiology , Phylogeny , Virulence/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Egypt , Genotype , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2414-2424, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887807


Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated protein gene system can limit the horizontal gene transfer, thereby effectively preventing the invasion of foreign gene elements such as bacteriophages. CRISPR arrays of different bacteria are diverse. Based on the differences in the CRISPR system, this review summarizes the application of CRISPR in food-borne pathogen evolution analysis, detection and typing, virulence and antibiotic resistance in recent years. We also address bacterial detection typing method developed based on the characteristics of CRISPR arrays and the association of CRISPR with virulence and drug resistance of food-borne pathogens. The shortcomings of CRISPR in evolution, detection and typing, virulence and resistance applications are analyzed. In addition, we suggest standardizing CRISPR typing methods, improving and expanding the CRISPR database of pathogenic bacteria, and further exploring the co-evolution relationship between phages and bacteria, to provide references for further exploration of CRISPR functions.

Bacteria/genetics , Bacteriophages/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Virulence/genetics
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200401, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135257


BACKGROUND Candida glabrata yeast is the second cause of candidiasis worldwide. Differs from other yeasts since assimilates only glucose and trehalose (a characteristic used in rapid identification tests for this pathogen) by secreting into the medium a highly active acid trehalase encoded by the CgATH1 gene. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to characterise the function of the acid trehalase in the physiopathology of C. glabrata. METHODS Gene deletion was performed to obtain a mutant ath1Δ strain, and the ability of the ath1Δ strain to grow in trehalase, or the presence of trehalase activity in the ath1Δ yeast cells, was verified. We also tested the virulence of the ath1Δ strain in a murine model of infection. FINDINGS The ath1Δ mutant strain grows normally in the presence of glucose, but loses its ability to grow in trehalose. Due to the high acid trehalase activity present in wild-type cells, the cytoplasmic neutral trehalase activity is only detected in the ath1Δ strain. We also observed a significantly lower virulence of the ath1Δ strain in a murine model of infection with either normal or immunocompromised mice. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The acid trehalase is involved in the hydrolysis of external trehalose by C. glabrata, and the enzyme also plays a major virulence role during infectivity.

Animals , Mice , Trehalase/metabolism , Virulence/genetics , Candida glabrata/genetics , Trehalase/physiology , Trehalase/genetics , Trehalose/analysis , Virulence/physiology , Candidiasis , Gene Deletion , Candida glabrata/physiology , Candida glabrata/metabolism , Candida glabrata/pathogenicity , Genes, Fungal , Hydrolases
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200399, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136908


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with healthcare-related infections, affecting mainly patients with underlying diseases and immunosuppression. This microorganism has several virulence mechanisms that favour its pathogenesis, including the production of biofilm. This study aimed to analyze the phenotypic production of biofilms, the occurrence of quorum sensing (QS) genes, and the clonal profile of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from colonized/infected patients in a tertiary hospital in Recife-PE. METHODS: We obtained 21 isolates that were classified as infection isolates (II), and 10 colonization isolates (CI). The phenotypic analysis for biofilm production was performed quantitatively. The QS genes were detected by specific PCRs, and the clonal profile was assessed using ERIC-PCR. RESULTS: Of the 31 isolates, 58.1 % (18/31) were biofilm producers, of which 70 % (7/10) were CI and classified as weakly adherent; 52.4 % (11/21) of the II produced biofilms, and were classified as weak (38.1 %, (8/21)), moderate (9.5 %, (2/21)), and strongly adherent (4.8 %, (1/21)). All isolates harbored the QS genes analyzed. In the clonal analysis, 26 distinct genetic profiles were identified, highlighting the presence of a clone in four samples, i.e., one infection isolate, and 3 colonization isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of biofilm formation is important in P. aeruginosa in addition to the identification of colonization and infection isolates, especially from complex environments such as ICUs. Further, we define a strategy for monitoring and analyzing P. aeruginosa strains that can potentially cause infections in hospitalized patients.

Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections , Phenotype , Virulence/genetics , Biofilms , Virulence Factors , Quorum Sensing/drug effects , Genotype , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180352, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041560


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The emergence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is concernig because it reduces the antibiotic therapy options for bacterial infections. METHODS: Resistant and virulent genes from an isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae derived from a patient with sepsis in a hospital in Recife-PE, Brazil, were investigated using PCR and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: bla NDM-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr and acrB resistance genes, and cps and mrkD virulence genes were detected. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first report on bla NDM-1 in Recife-PE. This detection alerts researchers to the need to control the spread of bla NDM-1 resistance gene by this bacterium in Brazil.

Humans , Female , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Virulence/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sepsis/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190089B, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041519


Abstract INTRODUCTION The relationships between phagocytosis, and mucoid phenotype, plasmid profile and virulence, and resistance genetic characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates were evaluated. METHODS Thirty isolates were used to determine the mucoid aspect. Four were selected for analysis of phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. RESULTS Thirty percent of the samples presented the mucoid phenotype. The phagocytosis rate ranged from 21.5% to 43.43%. Phagocytosis was not correlated with the plasmid profile, but was apparently correlated with mucoid phenotype and antibiotic susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: Several virulence factors act in parallel in K. pneumoniae to impair host defense.

Humans , Phagocytosis/genetics , Virulence/genetics , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phagocytosis/physiology , Phenotype , Plasmids , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190095, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013299


Abstract INTRODUCTION Staphylococcus aureus is a major nosocomial pathogen that is associated with high virulence and the rapid development of drug resistance. METHODS We analyzed and compared the antimicrobial resistance, virulence profiles, and molecular epidemiology of 67 S. aureus strains, including 36 methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and 31 methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains recovered from a public hospital located in south-eastern Brazil. RESULTS The clones circulating in this hospital presented a great diversity, and the majority of the strains were related to clones responsible for causing worldwide epidemics: these included USA100 (New York/Japan clone), USA300, and USA600. The 31 MRSA (22 SCCmecII and 9 SCCmecIV) and 36 MSSA strains exhibited low resistance against gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. No MRSA strain showed resistance to tetracycline. Virulence gene carriage was more diverse and abundant in MSSA than in MRSA. Of the evaluated adhesion-related genes, ebpS was the most prevalent in both MSSA and MRSA strains. The genes bbp and cna showed a strong association with MSSA strains. CONCLUSIONS Our findings reinforce the idea that MSSA and MRSA strains should be carefully monitored, owing to their high pathogenic potential.

Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Methicillin Resistance , Virulence Factors/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Virulence/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, Public
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(4): 390-396, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983850


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is one of the main acute and chronic diarrhea causes both in children and adults, mainly in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to characterize EAEC strains isolated from faecal samples and to identify genes potentially contributing to virulence, biofilm production and antimicrobial resistance in children admitted to a pediatric hospital in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. METHODS: The total of 1,625 E. coli specimens were isolated from 591 children in the age group 6 years or younger who were hospitalized in Cosme and Damião Children Hospital in Porto Velho, between February 2010 and February 2012, with acute gastroenteritis. Colonies suggestive of E. coli were subjected to polymerase chain reaction testing in order to identify the virulence factors. The in vitro adhesion assays using HEp-2 adherence were tests. Biofilm detection through spectrophotometry and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were conducted in the disk diffusion method. RESULTS: The mentioned study examined 591 stool samples from children with diarrhea. Diarrheogenic E. coli was found in 27.4% (162/591) of the children. EAEC was the diarreagenic E. coli most frequently associated with diarrhea 52.4% (85/162), which was followed by enteropathogenic E. coli 43.8% (71/162), enterotoxigenic E. coli 2.4% (4/162), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli 1.2% (2/162). The aggR gene was detected in 63.5% (54/85) of EAEC isolates; moreover, statistically significant correlation was observed among typical EAEC (aggR) and aatA (P<0.0001), irp2 (P=0.0357) and shf (P=0.0328). It was recorded that 69% (59/85) of the 85 analyzed EAEC strains were biofilm producers; 73% (43/59) of the biofilm producers carried the aggR gene versus 42.3% (11/26) of non-producers (P=0.0135). In addition, there was association between the aatA gene and biofilm production; 61% (36/59) of the samples presented producer strains, versus 19.2% (5/26) of non-producers (P<0.0004). Antibiotic sensitivity test evidenced that most EAEC were ampicillin 70.6% (60/85), sulfamethoxazole 60% (51/85), tetracycline 44.7% (38/85) and cefotaxime 22.4% (19/85) resistant. CONCLUSION: As far as it is known, the present study is pioneer in Northern Brazil to investigate EAEC virulence factors and to show the antimicrobial susceptibility of EAEC strains isolated from children with diarrhea.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A Escherichia coli enteroagregativa (EAEC) é um dos principais agentes causadores de diarreia aguda e crônica em crianças e adultos, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar cepas de EAEC isoladas de amostras fecais e identificar genes que potencialmente contribuem para a virulência, produção de biofilme e resistência antimicrobiana em crianças internadas em um hospital pediátrico em Porto Velho, Rondônia. MÉTODOS: Um total de 1.625 cepas de E. coli foram isolados de 591 crianças com gastroenterite aguda na faixa etária de 6 anos que foram internadas no Hospital Infantil Cosme e Damião na cidade de Porto Velho, entre fevereiro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2012. Colônias sugestivas de E. coli foram submetidas a reação em cadeia da polimerase para identificação de fatores de virulência. O ensaio de adesão in vitro foi desenvolvido com célula HEp-2. A detecção de biofilme foi realizada através do teste de espectrofotometria e os testes de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobiana foram realizados através do método de difusão em disco. RESULTADOS: A E. coli diarreiogênica foi encontrada em 27,4% (162/591) das crianças e a EAEC foi a E. coli diarreiogênica mais frequentemente associada à diarreia com 52,4% (85/162), seguida pela E. coli enteropatogênica 43,8% (71/162), E. coli enterotoxigênica 2,4% (4/162) e E. coli enterohemorrágica 1,2% (2/162). O gene aggR foi detectado em 63,5% (54/85) dos isolados de EAEC com correlação estatisticamente significante entre esse gene com os genes aatA (P<0,0001), irp2 (P=0,0357) e shf (P=0,0328). Neste estudo 69% (59/85) das cepas de EAEC eram produtoras de biofilme, destas 73% (43/59) possuíam o gene aggR, ao passo que entre as não produtoras 42,3% (11/26) possuíam o gene (P=0,0135). Essa associação também foi observada com o gene aatA, presente em 61% (36/59) das cepas produtoras e em 19,2% (5/26) das não produtoras (P<0,0004). O teste de sensibilidade aos antibimicrobianos evidenciou que a maioria das EAEC eram resistentes a ampicilina 70,6% (60/85), ao sulfametoxazol 60% (51/85), a tetraciclina 44,7% (38/85) e a cefotaxima 22,4% (19/85). CONCLUSÃO: Este é o primeiro estudo no Norte do Brasil sobre a investigação dos fatores de virulência de EAEC mostrando a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de EAEC isoladas de crianças com diarreia.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Biofilms/growth & development , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/physiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Virulence/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Feces/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial/genetics
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(6): 487-494, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984020


ABSTRACT Background: The rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among the total of S. aureus isolates decreased to 35.3% in 2017 in China. It is unclear whether the molecular characteristics of S. aureus isolates have changed as the rate decreased. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics and virulence genes profile of S. aureus isolates causing bloodstream infection and analyze the correlation between the prevalence rates of the common sequence types and MRSA. Methods: A total of 112 S. aureus strains from eight hospitals of four cities, including 32 MRSA isolates, were identified and evaluated through multilocus sequence typing, spa typing, and determination of virulence genes. Results: Twenty-five STs were identified, of which ST5 (21.4%) was the most prevalent, whereas the prevalence of ST239 correlated with the rate of MRSA among all S. aureus isolates. Forty-six spa types were identified, of which t2460 (14.3%) was the most common. clfa, hla, seb, fnbA and hlb were the prevailing virulence genes. 81.3% MRSA and 45.0% methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates harbored six or more tested virulence genes. ST5-t2460, seldom noted in bloodborne S. aureus isolates in China, was the most common clone. The prevalence of harboring six or more virulence genes in ST5-t2460 and ST188-t189 were 93.8% and 8.3%, respectively. Conclusion: ST5-t2460 was the most common clone in S. aureus causing bloodstream infection followed by ST188-t189, which had never been noted in China before. Moreover, ST5-t2460 harbored more virulence genes than ST188-t189, and the prevalence of ST239 clone decreased with the proportion of MRSA among all S. aureus isolates.

Humans , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Virulence/genetics , Bacteremia/virology , Phenotype , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Virulence Factors/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Molecular Typing , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 361-363, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041462


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The pathogenic versatility of Staphylococcus aureus is attributed to various virulence genes, including enterotoxins and hemolysins. METHODS: Here, the virulence genes in 177 nosocomial MRSA strains in Porto Alegre, Brazil were detected by PCR. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates were as follows: sea, 4.5%; pvl, 18.6%; tst, 27.7%; hla, 87.6%; and hld, 90.4%. No strain contained all tested genes. However, there was frequent coexistence of tst with pvl and hla with hld (40.7% and 26.6%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Horizontal transfer of virulence genes is very common in S. aureus, as suggested by the frequent coexistence of several virulence genes.

Humans , Virulence/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics
Salud pública Méx ; 60(1): 29-40, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903844


Abstract: Objective: To compare the genetic determinants involved in plant colonization or virulence in the reported genomes of K. variicola, K. quasipneumoniae and K. pneumoniae. Materials and methods: In silico comparisons and Jaccard analysis of genomic data were used. Fimbrial genes were detected by PCR. Biological assays were performed with plant and clinical isolates. Results: Plant colonization genes such as cellulases, catalases and hemagglutinins were mainly present in K. variicola genomes. Chromosomal β-lactamases were characteristic of this species and had been previously misclassified. K. variicola and K. pneumoniae isolates produced plant hormones. Conclusions: A mosaic distribution of different virulence- and plant-associated genes was found in K. variicola and in K. quasipneumoniae genomes. Some plant colonizing genes were found mainly in K. variicola genomes. The term plantanosis is proposed for plant-borne human infections.

Resumen: Objetivo: Comparar genes de colonización de plantas o de virulencia en los genomas reportados de K. variicola, K. quasipneumoniae y K. pneumoniae. Material y métodos: Se utilizaron análisis in silico y de Jaccard. Por PCR se detectaron genes de fimbrias. Se realizaron ensayos biológicos con aislados de plantas y clínicos. Resultados: Los genes de colonización de plantas como celulasas, catalasas y hemaglutininas se encontraron principalmente en genomas de K. variicola. Las β-lactamasas cromosómicas son características de la especie y en algunos casos estaban mal clasificadas. K. variicola y K. pneumoniae producen hormonas vegetales. Conclusiones: Se encontró una distribución en mosaico de los genes de asociación con plantas y de virulencia en K. variicola y K. quasipneumoniae. Principalmente en K. variicola se encontraron algunos genes involucrados en la colonización de plantas. Se propone el término plantanosis para las infecciones humanas de origen vegetal.

Humans , Plants/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella/physiology , Bacterial Proteins/physiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Virulence/genetics , Computer Simulation , Disease Reservoirs , Adaptation, Biological/genetics , Genome, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gene Ontology , Genes, Bacterial , Klebsiella/enzymology , Klebsiella/genetics , Klebsiella/pathogenicity
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 173-179, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839341


Abstract Cholera continues to be a serious public health issue in developing countries. We analyzed the epidemiological data of cholera from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, an eastern coastal area of China. A total of 250 Vibrio cholerae isolates were selected for PCR analysis of virulence genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The analysis of the virulence genes showed that the positive rates for tcpA and tcpI were the highest among strains from the southwest region, which had the highest incidence rate of cholera. Low positive rates for tcpA, tcpI and ctxAB among isolates from after 2000 may be an influencing factor contributing to the contemporary decline in cholera incidence rates. Spatiotemporal serotype shifts (Ogawa, Inaba, Ogawa, Inaba and O139) generally correlated with the variations in the PFGE patterns (PIV, PIIIc, PIa, PIIIb, PIIIa, PIb, and PII). O1 strains from different years or regions also had similar PFGE patterns, while O139 strains exclusively formed one cluster and differed from all other O1 strains. These data indicate that V. cholerae isolates in Shandong Province have continually undergone spatiotemporal changes. The serotype switching between Ogawa and Inaba originated from indigenous strains, while the emergence of serogroup O139 appeared to be unrelated to endemic V. cholerae O1 strains.

Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Vibrio cholerae/classification , Vibrio cholerae/genetics , Cholera/microbiology , Cholera/epidemiology , Vibrio cholerae/isolation & purification , Virulence/genetics , Cluster Analysis , China/epidemiology , Cholera/history , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Serogroup
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 691-696, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788958


ABSTRACT This study highlights the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes and virulence determinants among clinical enterococci with high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Inner Mongolia, China. Screening for high-level aminoglycoside resistance against 117 enterococcal clinical isolates was performed using the agar-screening method. Out of the 117 enterococcal isolates, 46 were selected for further detection and determination of the distribution of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme-encoding genes and virulence determinants using polymerase chain reaction -based methods. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were identified as the species of greatest clinical importance. The aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and ant(6')-Ia genes were found to be the most common aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes among high-level gentamicin resistance and high-level streptomycin resistance isolates, respectively. Moreover, gelE was the most common virulence gene among high-level aminoglycoside resistance isolates. Compared to Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis harbored multiple virulence determinants. The results further indicated no correlation between aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene profiles and the distribution of virulence genes among the enterococcal isolates with high-level gentamicin resistance or high-level streptomycin resistance evaluated in our study.

Male , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/physiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Aminoglycosides/metabolism , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Virulence/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Enterococcus/metabolism , Genes, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(2): 127-133, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780814


Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of some virulence genes among 510 clinical Enterococcus spp. isolates and to assess the association of those genes with the species, infection site, and patient group (inpatients/outpatients). Methods Adhesins genes (aggregation substances agg and asa1 of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively), enterococcal surface protein (esp), endocarditis-specific antigen A (efaA), collagen-binding proteins (ace/acm)); invasins (hyaluronidase (hyl) and gelatinase (gelE)); cytotoxines (activation of cytolysin (cylA) in E. faecalis); and modulators of the host immunity and inflammation (enhanced expression pheromone (eep) in E. faecalis) were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results The overall prevalence was: esp – 44.3%, agg/asa1 – 38.4%, ace/acm – 64.3%, efaA – 85.9%, eep – 69.4%, gelE – 64.3%, hyl – 25.1%, and cylA – 47.1%. E. faecalis isolates had significantly higher frequency of adhesin genes (esp and agg/asa1) and gelatinase in comparison to E. faecium. Multiple virulence genes in E. faecalis were significantly more prevalent than in E. faecium isolates. Domination of E. faecium with or without only one gene compared to the isolates of E. faecalis were found. Enterococcus spp. isolates obtained from outpatients compared to inpatients isolates had significantly higher frequency of agg/asa1, eep, gelE and cylA. Some adhesins genes (esp, agg/asa1 and efaA) had higher prevalence among the non-invasive Enterococcus spp. isolates compared to those causing invasive bacteremia, while ace/acm revealed higher dissemination in isolates causing invasive infections compared to non-invasive isolates. Conclusion Most E. faecalis attaches to abiotic surfaces in hospital environment, which correlates with higher prevalence of gene encoding for virulence factors involved in biofilm formation, such as enterococcal surface protein, aggregation substance, and gelatinase. The intestinal tract is an important reservoir for opportunistic enterococcal pathogens and allows them to access infectious sites through different virulence factors, demonstrated in outpatient isolates in this study.

Humans , Virulence/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/pathogenicity , Enterococcus faecalis/pathogenicity , Virulence Factors/genetics , Bulgaria , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Incidence , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(2): 88-94, June 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757146


En la provincia del Chaco, el agua subterránea representa una fuente alternativa, y muchas veces única, para el consumo humano; esta es utilizada en el 14 % de los hogares. A pesar de que se reconoce el riesgo de la exposición al agua contaminada, la prevalencia de los diferentes patotipos de Escherichia coli en ambientes acuáticos no ha sido bien caracterizada. E. coli enteroagregativo (ECEA) es un patógeno emergente cuya importancia en la salud pública mundial se incrementó y quedó claramente establecida en los últimos años. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue detectar la presencia de ECEA típico mediante el reconocimiento de los factores de virulencia aap, AA probe y aggR por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, en fuentes de agua subterráneas de la provincia del Chaco. Se identificó E. coli en 36 (38,7 %) de las 93 muestras estudiadas, provenientes de diferentes localidades. De esos 36 aislamientos, se identificaron 6 (16,7 %) portadores de los genes de ECEA, lo que representa una prevalencia del 6,4 % considerando las 93 fuentes de agua subterránea estudiadas. De esos 6 aislamientos, 3 eran portadores del gen aap, 2 del gen AA probe y uno de la combinación aggR/aap. El presente trabajo representa el primer aporte en el estudio de la presencia y distribución de genes de virulencia de ECEA en fuentes de agua subterránea de la región.

Groundwater is an important source of drinking water for many communities in Northern Argentina; particularly, in the province of Chaco, where about 14 % of households use this natural resource. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is an emerging pathogen whose global importance in public health has increased in recent years. Despite the significant risk of disease linked to contaminated water exposure, the prevalence of E. coli pathotypes in aquatic environments is still not so well defined. The aim of the present study was to detect the presence of typical enteroaggregative E. coli through the recognition of its virulence factors aap, AA probe and aggR by molecular techniques. A total of 93 water samples from different small communities of Chaco were analyzed. E. coli was identified in 36 (38.7 %) of the tested samples. Six strains isolated from different samples harbored the studied genes. Of these 6 isolates, 3 carried the aap gene, 2 the AA probe and the last one the combination of aap/aggR genes. The prevalence of E. coli isolates harboring enteroaggregative virulence genes in groundwater sources was 6.4 %. This work represents the first contribution to the study of the presence and distribution of virulence genes of EAEC in groundwater sources in this region of Argentina.

Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , Groundwater/microbiology , Trans-Activators/genetics , Water Pollution , Argentina , Escherichia coli Proteins/physiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Trans-Activators/physiology , Virulence/genetics , Water Supply
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(2): 95-102, June 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757147


The aim of this study was to perform a current molecular characterization of bovine pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from random samplings in Argentinean dairy farms. Rectal swabs were obtained from 395 (63.7 %) healthy and 225 (36.3 %) diarrheic calves, belonging to 45 dairy farms in Cordoba Province, Argentina. E. coli isolates were examined for virulence genes (f5, f41, f17, sta, stb, lt, eae, vt) using PCR and the prevalence of E. coli virulence profiles was spatially described in terms of spatial distribution. A total of 30.1 % isolates were found to be positive for at least one of the virulence genes. Depending on the different gene combinations present, 11 virulence profiles were found. Most of the isolates analyzed had a single gene, and no combination of fimbrial and enterotoxin gene was predominant. There was no association between the frequency and distribution of E. coli virulence genes and calf health status. Most of the virulence profiles were compatible with ETEC strains and showed a homogeneous distribution over the sampled area. A clustering pattern for E. coli virulence profiles could not be recognized. This work provides updated information on the molecular characterization of pathogenic E. coli strains from dairy herds in Cordoba, Argentina. These findings would be important to formulate prevention programs and effective therapies for diarrhea in calves caused by E. coli.

El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una caracterización molecular actualizada de cepas patógenas bovinas de Escherichia coli aisladas de un muestreo aleatorio en tambos de una de las principales zonas lecheras de Argentina. Se obtuvieron hisopados rectales de 395 terneros neonatos sanos (63,7 %) y 225 diarreicos (36,3 %) pertenecientes a 45 tambos de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina. Los genes de virulencia f5, f41, f17, sta, stb, lt, eae y vt se analizaron mediante PCR y se investigó la prevalencia de los perfiles de virulencia en función de la distribución geográfica. La prevalencia de aislamientos de E. coli patogénicos con al menos un gen de virulencia fue del 30,1 %. Once perfiles de virulencia fueron identificados, dependiendo de la combinación de genes presentes. La mayor parte de las muestras presentó un solo gen de virulencia, y no predominó ninguna combinación de genes de fimbrias y toxinas. No hubo asociación entre la frecuencia y la distribución de los genes de virulencia y el estado de salud de los terneros. La mayoría de los perfiles de virulencia fueron compatibles con cepas ECET y se distribuyeron cubriendo toda el área geográfica muestreada. No se reconoció ningún patrón de agrupamiento espacial para dichos perfiles. Este trabajo provee información actualizada sobre la caracterización molecular de E. coli patógena en rodeos lecheros de Córdoba, Argentina. Estos resultados serían importantes para formular programas preventivos y terapias eficaces contra la diarrea bovina causada por E. coli.

Animals , Animals, Newborn/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle/microbiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial , Argentina/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Dairying , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Enterotoxins/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Fimbriae, Bacterial/genetics , Prevalence , Sampling Studies , Virulence/genetics
Salud pública Méx ; 57(3): 211-218, may.-jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-756613


Objetivo. Cuantificar las densidades de Vibrio parahaemolyticus en ostión americano (Crassostrea virginica) almacenado en refrigeración. Material y métodos. Se almacenaron 320 ostiones a 7 °C durante nueve días y se determinaron las densidades totales y patogénicas mediante la técnica NMP-PCR. Resultados. Se observaron densidades de V. parahaemolyticus tlh+ en los días 0,3 y 6 de almacenamiento con 1. 134,2.764 y 0.785 log10NMP/g, respectivamente, y en los días 0 y 3 la densidad patogénica trh+ con 0.477 y 0.519 log10NMP/g, respectivamente; las densidades patogénicas tdh+ (0.519 log10NMP/g), tdh+/trh+ (0.519 log10 NMP/g) y tdh+/orf8+ (-0.444 log10NMP/g) se detectaron al tercer día de almacenamiento. Conclusión. Los resultados sugieren que el crecimiento de V. parahaemolyticus y la ocurrencia de genes patogénicos a 7 °C involucran cambios en la expresión génica como una respuesta al estrés por frío. Esto contribuye a la sobrevivencia y virulencia de V. parahaemolyticus, lo cual representa un riesgo a la salud pública.

Objective. To quantify Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities in American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) under cold storage. Materials and methods. 320 oysters were stored at 7°C for nine days and total and pathogenic densities were determined by the NMP-PCR methodology. Results. V. parahaemolyticus tlh+ densities were observed on 0,3, and 6 days of storage at 1.134, 2.764 and 0.785 log10NMP/g, respectively, and pathogenic density trh+ on 0 and 3 days at 0.477 and 0.519 log10NMP/g, respectively; the pathogenic densities tdh+ (0.519 log10NMP/g), tdh+/trh+ (0.519 log10NMP/g), and tdh+orf8+ (-0.444 log10NMP/g) were detected on day 3 of storage. Conclusion.The results suggest that V. parahaemolyticus growth and pathogenic genes occurrence at 7°C involve changes in the genetic expression as a cold shock response, favoring V. parahaemolyticus survival and virulence, representing a health risk.

Animals , Refrigeration , Shellfish/microbiology , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/physiology , Crassostrea/microbiology , Food Storage/methods , Food Microbiology , Food Preservation/methods , Seasons , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolation & purification , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/growth & development , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/pathogenicity , Virulence/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Cold Temperature , Bacterial Load , Genes, Bacterial , Maximum Allowable Concentration , Mexico
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(2): 108-111, June 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147122


El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las relaciones genotípicas entre 40 Streptococcus uberis aislados de mastitis bovina mediante la técnica de electroforesis de campos pulsantes (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE]). Además, se investigó la asociación entre los patrones de PFGE y los perfiles de virulencia. Los aislamientos mostraron 17 patrones de PFGE. Se encontraron diferentes cepas dentro de los tambos y en los distintos tambos, y un bajo número de aislamientos dentro del mismo tambo compartieron un perfil idéntico de PFGE. No se encontró ninguna asociación entre los patrones de PFGE y los perfiles de virulencia. Sin embargo, la detección de cepas particulares en algunos tambos podría indicar que algunas de ellas son más virulentas que otras. Sería importante avanzar en las investigaciones para identificar nuevos genes relacionados con la virulencia que podrían contribuir a la capacidad infecciosa de estas cepas

The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection

Animals , Cattle , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Virulence/genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field/methods , Mastitis, Bovine/genetics , Streptococcus/classification , Genetic Profile