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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353033

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la obesidad aumenta el riesgo a padecer de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (ECNT) y afecta el curso de enfermedades de origen infeccioso. Objetivo: examinar la literatura sobre cómo influye la obesidad en la gravedad del cuadro clínico de algunas de las enfermedades no transmisibles y transmisibles de mayor impacto en el Perú. Métodos: investigación documental. Se hace un análisis de contenidos de artículos y documentos de estudios desarrollados en diversos contextos asociados a la presencia de obesidad junto con infecciones o ECNT y en base de datos. Resultados: la condición de obesidad alcanzada por malos hábitos de consumo y baja actividad física, es la principal responsable del elevado índice de las ECNT y por consecuente de las tasas de mortalidad. Conclusiones: el exceso de peso afecta al sistema inmunológico, contribuyendo específicamente en los fenómenos exacerbados de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, determinada por el aumento de secreción de adipocitoquinas, que predispone al organismo a desarrollar y contraer ECNT y enfermedades infecciosas. (AU)


Introduction: Obesity increases the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and affects the course of diseases of infectious origin. Objective: Reviewing the literature on how obesity influences the severity of the clinical picture of some of the non-communicable and communicable diseases of greatest impact in Peru. Methods:Documentary research, from studies developed in various contexts associated with the presence of obesity along with infections or NCDs. Results: The condition of obesity reached by bad consumption habits and low physical activity is the main responsible for the high rate of NCDs, consequently, mortality. Conclusions: Excess weight affects the immune system, contributing specifically to exacerbated phenomena of a systemic inflammatory response, determined by increased secretion of adipocytokines, which predisposes the body to develop and contract NCDs and infectious diseases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Virus Diseases , Chronic Disease , Communicable Diseases , Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus , Fatty Liver , Neoplasms , Obesity
2.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3074-3090, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251927

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la cirrosis hepática de etiología viral representa un impactante problema de salud a nivel mundial, no solo por su elevada tasa de prevalencia, sino por los costos generados en la atención médica. Objetivos: determinar el comportamiento de los pacientes cirróticos, de etiología viral, en la provincia de Matanzas. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo-retrospectivo en 47 pacientes con cirrosis hepática de etiología viral, atendidos en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández, de Matanzas, de enero de 2016 a enero de 2018. Los resultados de las variables analizadas se expusieron en tablas de doble entrada. Resultados: el 68,1 % de los pacientes correspondió a cirrosis por virus C. Predominaron los mayores de 50 años, con carga viral entre 4-6,9 log10, y atendidos en régimen ambulatorio. En el 57,4 % se detectaron signos endoscópicos de hipertensión portal, que se corroboraron en el doppler hepático. La ascitis asociada a diferentes sepsis fueron las complicaciones más registradas. El 55,4 % fue clasificado como Child-Pugh A, y el 76,6 % en etapa clínica compensada. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico y seguimiento de la cirrosis hepática viral sigue siendo un verdadero reto para la comunidad médica. De ahí los esfuerzos que han de realizarse para su control desde las fases compensadas, para retardar la aparición de complicaciones (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: viral etiology liver cirrhosis is an impacting health problem around the world, not only because of its high prevalence rate but also because of the costs generated by its medical care. Objective: to determine the behavior of the patients with viral etiology liver cirrhosis in the province of Matanzas. Materials and methods: a descriptive-retrospective study was carried out in 47 patients with viral etiology liver cirrhosis treated in the service of Gastroenterology of the Hospital "Comandante Faustino Perez" of Matanzas, from January 2016 to January 2018. The results of the analyzed variables were shown in double-entry tables. Results: 68.1% of the patients presented cirrhosis caused by C virus, Patients elder 50 years old predominated, with 4-6.9 log10, treated in ambulatory regimen. Endoscopic signs of portal hypertension were found in 57.4%. It was corroborated with liver Doppler. Ascites associated to different sepsis were the most frequently registered complications. 55.4% were classified as Child-Pugh A, and 76.6% were in compensated clinical stage. Conclusions: viral liver cirrhosis diagnosis and follow-up is still a true challenge for the medical community, and hence the efforts that should be made to control it from the compensated stages to delay the appearance of complications (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Virus Diseases/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Global Health/standards , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/complications , Liver Diseases/diagnosis
5.
J. med. virol ; 92(10): 1-6, Aug. 2, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1120884

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viral infection can cause severe disease and hospitalization, especially among children, the elderly, and patients with comorbidities. In Brazil, the official surveillance system of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) investigates influenza A (IAV) and B (IBV) viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (HAdV), and parainfluenza viruses (hPIV 1­3). In Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, many fatalities associated with SARI between 2013 and 2017 occurred among patients without underlying diseases and for whom the causative agent had not been identified using official protocols. This cross­sectional study analyzed the presence of coronaviruses (HCoV), bocavirus (HBoV), metapneumovirus (hMPV), and rhinovirus in patients who died of SARI despite not having comorbidities, and that were negative for IAV, IBV, RSV, HAdV, and hPIV. Nasopharyngeal aspirates/swabs from patients were used for nucleic acid extraction. The presence of HCoVs OC43, HKU1, NL63, and 229E; HBoV; hMPV; and rhinovirus was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription­polymerase chain reaction. Clinical data were also analyzed. Between 2013 and 2017, 16 225 cases of SARI were reported in RS; 9.8% of the patients died; 20% of all fatal cases were patients without comorbidities and for whom no pathogen was detected using standard protocols. Analysis of 271 of these cases identified HCoV in nine cases; HBoV, hMPV, and rhinovirus were detected in 3, 3, and 10 cases, respectively. Of note, patients infected with HCoV were adults. Results reinforce the importance of including coronaviruses in diagnostic panels used by official surveillance systems because besides their pandemic potential, endemic HCoVs are associated to severe disease in healthy adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Respiratory System , Coronavirus , Epidemiological Monitoring , Infections , Patients , Rhinovirus , Viruses , Virus Diseases , Adenoviridae , Disease , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Influenza, Human , Bocavirus
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(4): 371-382, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138561

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los niños que reciben trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos (TPH) pueden presentar infecciones respiratorias virales (IRV) durante episodios febriles. Los datos sobre su evolución clínica son escasos, así como la comparación de ellos con infecciones bacterianas (IB). Objetivo: Caracterizar la evolución clínica de pacientes con IRV, en comparación con IB en niños con TPH, cursando un episodio febril. Método: Estudio prospectivo en pacientes ≤ 18 años con cáncer y TPH ingresados por fiebre en el Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna (2016-2019). Se realizó evaluación clínica y de laboratorio: hemocultivos, RPC para patógenos respiratorios (Filmarray®), cuantificación viral y medición de citoquinas en muestra nasal (Luminex®, 38 citoquinas). Se compararon los grupos IRV, IB y los de etiología no precisada (ENP) en relación con: infección respiratoria aguda (IRA), citoquinas nasales, ingreso a UCI, necesidad de ventilación mecánica, mortalidad y suspensión de antimicrobianos. Resultados: De 56 episodios febriles, 35 fueron IRV, 12 IB y 9 de ENP. Mediana de edad fue 8,5 años, 62% masculino. Un 94% de los casos IRV presentó IRA sintomática, versus 33% en los grupos IB y ENP (p < 0,001), con IRA baja en 69% de las IRV (p < 0,001). Rinovirus (54%) y coronavirus (15%) fueron las etiologías más frecuentemente detectadas. No hubo diferencias en citoquinas nasales entre los grupos IRV e IB. Ingreso a UCI: 11% del grupo IRV, 17% de IB y 11% de ENP (p = 0,88). Requirieron ventilación mecánica sólo 2 pacientes (p = 0,37) sin fallecimiento. Tras la detección viral respiratoria por RPC, se suspendió antimicrobianos en 26% de los casos con IRV (p = 0,04). Conclusión: Las IRV son frecuentes en niños con TPH y episodios febriles. La detección viral podría optimizar y racionalizar el uso de antimicrobianos en esta población.


Abstract Background: Children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) can develop respiratory viral infections (RVI) during fever episodes. There are few data about clinical outcomes in RVI and compared to bacterial infections (BI) in this population. Aim: To determine clinical outcome of RVI, compared to BI in children with HSCT. Methods: Prospective study, patients ≤ 18 years with cancer and HSCT admitted with fever at a National Bone Marrow Transplant Center (Hospital Calvo Mackenna), Chile, (April-2016 to May-2019). Clinical assessment, laboratory tests, blood cultures, nasopharyngeal sample for multiplex-PCR (Filmarray®), viral loads by PCR and cytokine panel (Luminex®, 38 cytokines) were performed. The following outcomes were evaluated: upper/lower respiratory tract disease (RTD), admission to ICU, mechanical ventilation, mortality and antimicrobial withdrawal. Results: Of 56 febrile episodes, 35 (63%) were RVI, 12 (21%) BI and 9 (16%) with unknown etiology (UE). Median of age was 8.5 years, 62% male gender. Rhinovirus (54%) and coronavirus (15%) were the more frequent detected viruses. No significant differences in cytokine levels were observed between RVI and BI. 94% of RVI patients had symptomatic RTD, versus 33% in BI and 33% in UE group (p < 0.001), with lower-RTD in 69% of RVI group (p < 0,001). Admission to ICU was 11% in RVI, 17% in BI and 11% in UE group (p = 0.88); only 2 patients required mechanical ventilation (p = 0.37) and no mortality was reported. After an RVI was detected by PCR, antimicrobials were withdrawal in 26% of patients with RVI (p: 0.04). Conclusion: RVI are frequent etiologic agents in febrile episodes of patients with HSCT. Viral detection might help to rationalize the use of antimicrobials in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Fever/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Chile , Prospective Studies
8.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 5-10, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090555

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The cochlea and the vestibular receptors are closely related in terms of anatomy and phylogeny. Patients with moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss (MPSHL) should have their vestibular organ functions tested. Objective To evaluate the incidence of vestibular abnormalities in patients with MPSHL and to study the correlation between the etiology of hearing loss (HL) and a possible damage to the labyrinth. Methods A case-control retrospective study was performed. In the case group, 20 adults with MPSHL of known etiology were included. The control group was composed of 15 adults with normal hearing. The case group was divided into 4 subgroups based on the etiology (bacterial meningitis, virus, vascular disease, congenital). Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) were used to rate the saccular function and lower vestibular nerve. Results The study was performed in 70 ears, and it highlighted the presence of early biphasic P1-N1 complex in 29 (71.5%) out of 40 ears in the study group, and in all of the 30 ears in the control group (p = 0.001). Regarding the presence or absence of cVEMPs among the four subgroups of patients with MPSHL, the data were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The comparison between the latencies and amplitude of P1-N1 in case and control groups from other studies and in the four subgroups of cases in the present study did not detect statistically significant differences. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that patients with MPSHL have a high incidence of damage to the labyrinthine organs, and it increases the current knowledge about the etiopathogenesis of sensorineural HL, which is often of unknown nature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/diagnosis , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/etiology , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/physiopathology , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Vascular Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Vestibular Diseases/diagnosis , Vestibular Diseases/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Meningitis, Bacterial/complications , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/congenital , Labyrinth Diseases/diagnosis , Labyrinth Diseases/physiopathology , Labyrinth Diseases/epidemiology
10.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(1): e1127, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126548

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones por virus o la reactivación de virus en estado latente son frecuentes durante el estado de inmunosupresión que sigue al trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos, y constituyen una causa importante de complicaciones, como la cistitis hemorrágica, que se caracteriza por disuria, polaquiuria, dolor abdominal y hematuria. La aparición precoz se asocia a la administración de citostáticos como la ciclofosfamida, y el comienzo tardío a la primoinfección o reactivación de virus como citomegalovirus, los adenovirus o los poliomavirus como el BK y el JC. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, la evolución y el manejo de la cistitis hemorrágica postrasplante. Casos clínicos: Se presentan dos pacientes con leucemia mieloide aguda que desarrollaron cistitis hemorrágica asociada a infección viral por virus BK y citomegalovirus después del trasplante haploidéntico con ciclofosfamida postrasplante. La cistitis hemorrágica de causa viral después del trasplante hematopoyético en estos pacientes estuvo asociada a una severa inmunosupresión, por lo que constituyó una complicación potencialmente letal. Los dos pacientes presentaron cistitis hemorrágica grado IV y fallecieron a pesar del tratamiento. Conclusiones: El trasplante haploidéntico con la administración de ciclofosfamida postrasplante incrementa la posibilidad de donantes de progenitores hematopoyéticos para los pacientes sin un hermano HLA idéntico pero el mayor nivel de inmunosupresión podría aumentar la incidencia de cistitis hemorrágica de causa viral(AU)


Introduction: Viral infections or latent-virus reactivation are frequent during the immunosuppressed cincition that follows hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, and an important cause of complications, such as hemorrhagic cystitis, characterized by dysuria, urinary frequency, abdominal pain, and hematuria. The early appearance is associated with the administration of cytostatic drugs such as cyclophosphamide, and the late onset is associated with primary infection or reactivation of viruses such as cytomegalovirus, adenoviruses, or polyomaviruses such as BK and JC. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics, evolution and management of post-transplant hemorrhagic cystitis. Clinical cases: The cases are presented of two patients with acute myeloid leukemia who developed hemorrhagic cystitis associated with viral infection by BK virus and cytomegalovirus after haploidentical transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide. Viral hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic transplantation in these patients was associated with severe immunosuppression, making it a potentially lethal complication. Both patients presented grade IV hemorrhagic cystitis and died despite treatment. Conclusions: Haploidentical transplantation with the of post-transplant cyclophosphamide administration increases the possibility for donors of hematopoietic progenitor cells to patients without an identical HLA match, but the higher level of immunosuppression could increase the incidence of viral hemorrhagic cystitis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Cystitis/mortality , Cystitis/blood , Virus Diseases/complications , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects
11.
Rev. bras. med. trab ; 18(1): 109-112, jan-mar.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116156

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A acupuntura integra o escopo das práticas integrativas e complementares em saúde, sendo de extrema importância o uso das normas de biossegurança durante essa técnica. Objetivo: Refletir sobre biossegurança em acupuntura visando diminuir riscos ocupacionais relacionados ao evento adverso de infecção, tanto para o profissional quanto para o paciente. Método: Para a elaboração desta reflexão teórica, utilizaram-se estudos da literatura selecionados de forma intencional. As reflexões sobre biossegurança em acupuntura ocorreram no período de junho a outubro de 2019. Resultados: As infecções constituem os efeitos adversos associados à acupuntura mais relatados na literatura. Nessa prática, verifica-se elevado potencial de inoculação de microrganismos. Assim, devem-se seguir os princípios de promoção em biossegurança conscientizando os profissionais sobre a importância de tais cuidados para a própria segurança e a do paciente, sem minimizar a eficácia do tratamento. Conclusões: Recomenda-se adoção das práticas universais de biossegurança durante a realização de procedimentos de acupuntura.


Background: Acupuncture is an integrative and complementary practice for which biosafety standards are essential. Objective: To elicit a reflection on biosafety in acupuncture to reduce occupational hazards associated with infection as adverse effect for both provider and patient. Methods: The present theoretical essay is grounded on references intentionally selected from June through October 2019. Results: Infection is the adverse effect most frequently reported for acupuncture practice, which involves considerable risk of microorganism inoculation. Provider awareness should be raised to comply with biosafety principles and thus ensure their and patient safety without any negative implications for the effectiveness of treatment. Conclusion: We recommended providers to adopt universal biosafety practices during acupuncture procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Acupuncture Therapy , Patient Safety , Acupuncture Therapy/adverse effects
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 69-75, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092724

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA) causadas por virus son una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en el mundo, afectando principalmente a niños y adultos mayores. Se asocian a un alto número de consultas y hospitalizaciones, a una significativa sobrecarga del sistema de salud y a un alto costo económico. La vigilancia de virus respiratorios tiene el potencial de ayudar a optimizar la respuesta sanitaria, garantizar la disponibilidad de recursos humanos, racionalizar los recursos y disminuir los costos asociados a la atención en salud. Con el objetivo de optimizar la recolección y visualización de los datos de nuestro actual sistema de vigilancia de virus respiratorios, se diseñó una plataforma basada en R y sus paquetes Shiny, que permite la creación de una interfase web interactiva y amigable para la recolección, análisis y publicación de los datos. Se ingresaron a esta plataforma los datos de la red de vigilancia metropolitana de virus respiratorios disponibles desde 2006. En esta plataforma, el investigador demora menos de un minuto en registrar los datos. El análisis y publicación es inmediato, llegando a cualquier usuario con un dispositivo conectado a Internet, quien puede elegir las variables a consultar. Con un costo muy bajo, en poco tiempo y utilizando el lenguaje de programación R, se logró crear un sistema simple e interactivo, disminuyendo el tiempo de carga y análisis de datos de forma considerable, posiblemente aumentando el impacto y la disponibilidad de esta vigilancia.


Abstract Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, affecting mainly children and the elderly. They are associated with a high economic burden, increased number of medical visits and hospitalizations. The surveillance of the circulation of respiratory viruses can reduce the health care associated costs, and to optimize the health response. A platform based on R and its package Shiny was designed, to create an interactive and friendly web interface for gathering, analysis and publication of the data. The data from the Chilean metropolitan respiratory viruses surveillance network, available since 2006, was uploaded into the platform. Using this platform, the researcher spends less than 1 minute to upload the data, and the analysis and publication is immediate, available to be seen by any user with a device connected to Internet, who can choose the variables to be displayed. With a very low cost, in a short time, and using the R programming language, it was possible to create a simple, and interactive platform, considerably decreasing the upload and analysis time, and increasing the impact and availability of this surveillance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/economics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Software/economics , Software/standards , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Health Care Costs , Models, Theoretical , Viruses , Chile/epidemiology , Internet
13.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 28(1): 1-4, Ene-Mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1121337

ABSTRACT

La pandemia de COVID-19 causada por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ha sacudido fuertemente al mundo entero desde hace algunos meses. Los organismos internacionales de salud se encuentran en una carrera a contrarreloj para identificar el tratamiento más adecuado y la vacuna contra este virus, que hasta el momento ha dejado más de 2 494 915 casos y 171 249 personas fallecidas en el mundo. Mientras la crisis sanitaria se hace cada vez más palpable, nuestro gremio se encuentra en pugna sin tregua, contra un enemigo invisible, altamente contagioso y letal. Se han hecho exhortos para fortalecer los sistemas de salud, con especial énfasis en los recursos humanos, de infraestructura y materiales. La epidemia dejará a su paso consecuencias deplorables en salud y economía, pero también será una importante oportunidad para mejorar la práctica de la Enfermería en el país. Será necesario reevaluar la capacidad instalada y la capacitación en diversas áreas del trabajo cotidiano, especialmente en la bioseguridad y biocustodia. Aprenderemos mediante una dura lección, pero tendremos que reflexionar acerca de nuestra razón de ser, de nuestro crecimiento como profesionales y reivindicar nuestro lugar en la vida pública de México.


The pandemic that we are currently experiencing, the COVID-19, has strongly shaken the entire world ¡n recent months. International health organizations are involved in a race against time to identify the most appropriate treatment and vaccine to defeat this virus, which, so far, has left more than 2 494 915 cases and 171 249 people dead. As the health crisis becomes more palpable, our unión is fighting, relentlessly, against an invisible, highly contagious and lethal enemy. Calis have been made to strengthen health systems, with special emphasis on human resources, infrastructure and materials. Perhaps this event not only leaves catastrophic health and economic results in its wake, but also a great area of opportunity to act, implementing ¡mprovements in the country in terms of the increase in nursing professionals and providing training in areas such as biosecurity. Historically, health professionals have faced the disease, and this pandemic is an excellent opportunity to reflect on our reason for being, our growth as professionals and claim our place in the public life of México.


Subject(s)
Humans , Virus Diseases , Nursing , Coronavirus Infections , SARS Virus , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Nursing Care , Mexico
14.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0092020, 2020. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1121090

ABSTRACT

Abortion and complications in reproduction are important causes of economic loss in horse breeding. Studies of its causal agents can help to identify the primary pathogens or other factors involved and define appropriate measures to reduce its occurrence. This research aimed to investigate the primary causes of equine abortion, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality in regions of Brazil. Tissue from aborted fetuses, stillbirths, neonates and foals submitted to the Biological Institute of São Paulo, Brazil, from January 2010 to July 2013 were processed for viral and bacterial isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), histology, and immunohistochemistry. Bacterial infection was the primary detected cause of abortion, found in 16 of the 53 animals submitted for bacterial analysis followed by viruses analysis in 2 of 105 animals, and noninfectious causes (neonatal isoerythrolysis) in 2 of 105 animals. Fungi were found in a single sample of 53 tested. The most frequent bacteria recovered were Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, combined E. coli and Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Bacillus spp. The following agents were each observed in a single sample: Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Actinobacillus spp., and Rhodococcus equi. The predominant identification of fecal and other opportunistic bacteria as opposed to pathogens commonly associated with equine abortion, such as Leptospira spp. and equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), suggests the need of improving hygiene management of breeding mares to prevent bacterial infection that may cause fetal loss, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality.(AU)


Abortamento e complicações na reprodução são importantes causas de perda econômica na equideocultura. Estudos dos agentes causais podem ajudar a identificar patógenos ou outros fatores envolvidos e definir medidas apropriadas para reduzir sua ocorrência. Esta pesquisa investigou as causas primárias de aborto, natimortalidade e mortalidade perinatal em equinos de diversas regiões do Brasil. Tecidos de fetos abortados, natimortos e potros submetidos ao Instituto Biológico de São Paulo, Brasil, no período de janeiro de 2010 a julho de 2013, foram processados por meio de técnicas de isolamento viral e bacteriano, PCR, histologia e imuno-histoquímica. Infecção bacteriana foi a causa mais detectada, encontrada em 16 de 53 amostras submetidas à análise bacteriana, seguida de causa viral em 2 de 105 amostras, e causas não infecciosas (isoeritrólise neonatal) em 2 de 105 amostras. Fungo foi encontrado em uma única amostra de 53 testadas. As bactérias isoladas mais frequentemente foram Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli associada a Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. associado a Bacillus spp. Os seguintes agentes foram observados em uma única amostra cada: Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Actinobacillus spp. e Rhodococcus equi. A identificação predominante de bactérias fecais e outras bactérias oportunistas, ao invés de outros patógenos comumente associados a quadros de abortamento equino, tais como Leptospira spp. e Herpesvírus equino tipo 1, sugere a necessidade de maior atenção no manejo higiênico das éguas em reprodução, a fim de prevenir infecções bacterianas que possam causar perda fetal, natimortalidade e mortalidade perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Bacterial Infections/complications , Abortion, Veterinary/etiology , Horses , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Streptococcus/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Brazil , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Immunohistochemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cause of Death , Enterobacter aerogenes/isolation & purification , Abortion, Veterinary/mortality , Aborted Fetus , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/diagnosis
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 101 p. ilus, map.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-TESESESSP, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1146100

ABSTRACT

Os vírus linfotrópicos de células T humanas dos tipos um e dois (HTLV-1 e HTLV-2) são endêmicos no Brasil. A triagem para HTLV-1/2 é obrigatória em bancos de sangue no país desde 1993, e a partir de 2014 é recomendada ao menos uma vez no acompanhamento de pacientes com HIV/aids, mas não em outras populações consideradas de risco para adquirir/transmitir esta infecção, como por exemplo, gestantes e pacientes com hepatites virais dos tipos B e C. Como o número de indivíduos em risco para adquirir/transmitir os HTLV a serem testados anualmente no Brasil é alto, qualquer estratégia que reduza o custo da triagem sorológica é necessária e bem vinda. O presente estudo avaliou o desempenho e o custo-minimização do uso de pool de soros na triagem sorológica de infecção por HTLV-1/2. Oitenta e uma amostras de soro sabidamente positivas para HTLV-1/2 foram retestadas utilizando dois ensaios imunoenzimáticos na triagem (EIA Murex HTLV I+II, Diasorin, e GOLD ELISA HTLV-1/2, REM) e dois testes confirmatórios [Western blot (WB), HTLV BLOT 2.4, MP Biomedicals e imunoensaio de linha (LIA), INNO-LIA HTLV I/II Score, Fujirebio], e separadas de acordo com os valores de DO/cut-off em: fortemente reagentes (DO/cut-off >12), e moderadamente reagentes (DO/cut-off >2,0 a 12,0). Posteriormente, estas amostras foram diluídas na razão dois em bolsa de plasma negativa para marcadores de banco de sangue até a perda de reatividade, e em seguida diluídas em diferentes pools de soros positivos e negativos para HIV, HBV e HCV, com vistas a determinar, respectivamente, a maior diluição de soro sem perda de sensibilidade e garantir a especificidade da reação. Subsequentemente, amostras com volume suficiente para ensaios de validação de métodos de diagnóstico segundo os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz (P-SG-0022) foram selecionadas e testadas quanto à estratégia de pool de soros; 40 pools foram utilizados nos testes de acurácia e sete pools nos de precisão. Para o cálculo de redução de custo (custo-minimização), 2.000 amostras de soro/plasma de pacientes com hepatites virais B e C, e 625 amostras de plasma de pacientes com HIV/aids que haviam sido testadas individualmente e cujos resultados haviam sido publicados foram avaliadas em pool. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o kit Murex foi mais sensível podendo ser diluído na razão 1:5 sem perda de sensibilidade e especificidade diagnóstica, com resultados de exatidão, precisão, sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e negativo de 100% (coeficiente de correlação Kappa = 1). Em populações de risco, o uso da estratégia de pool de soros mostrou a mesma sensibilidade da análise individual, e uma redução de custo de 70,4% no grupo HBV, 60,7% no grupo HCV e 73,6% no grupo HIV/aids; estando o custo-minimização relacionado à prevalência da infecção nas populações de estudo: 1,9% (HBV), 4,0% (HCV), e 1,1% (HIV/aids). Concluindo, os resultados obtidos permitem sugerir a introdução da triagem sorológica para HTLV-1/2 utilizando pool de cinco soros e o kit Murex em inquéritos epidemiológicos, no acompanhamento de pacientes com outras infecções virais e possivelmente em gestantes no pré-natal.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases , Serum , Hepatitis , Infections
16.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 36(1): 3-15, 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1102997

ABSTRACT

El nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) identificado en Wuhan, China a principios de enero de 2020, es el agente infeccioso causante de la pandemia COVID -19, la cual ha sido declarada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) el 11 de marzo de 2020 y es una amenaza global por el número de casos y muertes así como el importan- te impacto en los sistemas de salud. La enferme- dad se transmite de persona a persona a través de las gotas de saliva al hablar, toser o estornudar o al tocar las mucosas oral, conjuntival y nasal con las manos, después de tocar superficies contami- nadas por el virus. La infección puede ser asinto- mática, la gran mayoría de los pacientes presentan una enfermedad leve o moderada, el 14 % puede presentar neumonía y enfermedad grave, un 5 % o más. El órgano principalmente afectado es el pulmón, sin embargo, es una enfermedad sistémica. La fisiopatología de la enfermedad aún no está bien comprendida, no hay untratamiento específi- co, aunque se están ensayando experimentalmente numerosos fármacos. La vacuna, según los exper- tos, tardará en desarrollarse. Los profesionales sanitarios deben estar familiarizados con los aspectos de la enfermedad, así como con el diagnóstico y las medidas de control, entre otros(AU)


The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) identified in Wuhan, China in early January 2020, is the infectious agent causing the COVID -19 pandemic, declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. It has become a global threat due to the number of cases and deaths and its sig- nificant impact on health systems. The disease is transmitted from person to person by respiratory route through saliva droplets while speaking, coug- hing, or sneezing, or by touching the oral, conjunc- tival, and nasal mucosa with the hands after having touched surfaces contaminated by the virus. The infection may be asymptomatic, the vast majority of patients have mild or moderate disease, 14% may have pneumonia, and 5% or more can suffer severe disease. The main affected organs are the lungs but, it is a systemic disease. The pathophysiology of the disease is still not well understood, there is no specific treatment, although numerous drugs are being experimentally tested and the vaccine, according to experts, could take take some time to be ready. Healthcare profes- sionals should be familiar with all aspects of the disease, as well as diagnosis and control measures(AU)


Subject(s)
Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , Immune System , Signs and Symptoms , Virus Diseases , Internal Medicine
17.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 110(6): 478-483, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1271257

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous countries worldwide declared national states of emergency and implemented interventions to minimise the risk of transmission among the public. Evidence was needed to inform strategies for limiting COVID-19 transmission on public transport. On 20 March 2020, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's database of 'Global research on coronavirus disease (COVID-19)' to conduct a rapid review on interventions that reduce viral transmission on public ground transport. After screening 74 records, we identified 4 eligible studies. These studies suggest an increased risk of viral transmission with public transportation use that may be reduced with improved ventilation. International and national guidelines suggest the following strategies: keep the public informed, stay at home when sick, and minimise public transport use. Where use is unavoidable, environmental control, respiratory etiquette and hand hygiene are recommended, while a risk-based approach needs to guide the use of non-medical masks


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Public Health , SARS Virus , South Africa , Transportation , Virus Diseases
18.
NAJFNR ; 4(7): 240-284, 2020.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1266918

ABSTRACT

The immune system is involved in the protection of host against environmental agents such as pathogenic micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi, and viruses) and chemicals, thereby preserving the integrity of the body. To preserve organism defense mechanisms, adequate nutritional status should be maintained with appropriate intakes of calories, vitamins, minerals and water that should be continuously provided by a healthy diet. The emergence of new infectious diseases with new pathogenic properties constitutes a serious health issue worldwide. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) represents one of the most recent emerging infectious diseases, caused by a novel coronavirus member called (SARS-CoV-2), identified in Wuhan, Hubei, China in December 2019, and recognized as pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The nutritional status of each COVID-19-infected patient should be assessed prior undertaking treatments. Nutritional support should be the basis of management of any infected individual. However, prevention measures remain the first priority and strategy to develop throughout proper hygiene, healthy diet and staying home


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algeria , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Immune System , Nutritional Status , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Virus Diseases
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881518

ABSTRACT

@#CASE SUMMARY: A 51-year-old Filipino female without comorbidities presented with cough, rhinitis, and low-grade fever. Four days later, she developed pruritic, localized wheals on the arms, gradually involving the trunk and lower extremities. A 49-year-old Filipino female without comorbidities based in the Middle East presented with cough and fever. Four days after, she developed a generalized distribution of wheals and livedoid patches on both legs. Both patients recovered from COVID-19 with complete resolution of skin lesions. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of COVID-19 related dermatology cases collected in the Philippines.


Subject(s)
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Administration, Cutaneous , Exanthema , Skin , Virus Diseases , Toes
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879926

ABSTRACT

A large number of viruses have been found to be associated with ocular diseases, including human adenovirus, human herpesvirus (HHV), human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), and newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This group of diseases is prone to be misdiagnosed or missed diagnosis, resulting in serious tissue and visual damage. Etiological diagnosis is a powerful auxiliary mean to diagnose the ocular diseases associated with human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and varicella-zoster virus, and it provides the leading diagnosis evidence of infections with herpes simplex virus 2, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, HHV-6/7, HHV-8, HTLV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Virus isolation, immunoassay and genetic diagnosis are usually used for etiologic diagnosis. For genetic diagnosis, the PCR technique is the most important approach because of its advantages of rapid detection, convenient operation, high sensitivity and high specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , DNA, Viral/genetics , Eye Diseases/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Research/trends , Virus Diseases/virology
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